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Historical Atlas of Islam

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					                                ISBN: 0674013859
                                Author: Malise Ruthven, Azim Nanji
                                Publisher: Harvard University Press (May 28, 2004)
                                Pages: 208 Binding: Hardcover w/ dust jacket

           Description from the publisher: Among the great civilizations
           of the world, Islam remains an enigma to Western readers.
           Now, in a beautifully illustrated historical atlas, noted scholar of
           religion Malise Ruthven recounts the fascinating and important history of the
           Islamic world.

                                   From the birth of the prophet Muhammed to the independence of post-Soviet
                                   Muslim states in Central Asia, this accessible and informative atlas explains the
                                   historical evolution of Islamic societies. Short essays cover a wide variety of
themes, including the central roles played by sharia (divine law) and fiqh (jurisprudence); philosophy; arts and
architecture; the Muslim city; trade, commerce, and manufacturing; marriage and family life; tribal distributions;
kinship and dynastic power; ritual and devotional practices; Sufism; modernist and reformist trends; the European
domination of the Islamic world; the rise of the modern national state; oil exports and arms imports; and Muslim
populations in non-Muslim countries, including the United States.

Lucid and inviting full-color maps chronicle the changing internal and external boundaries of the Islamic world,
showing the principal trade routes through which goods, ideas, and customs spread. Ruthven traces the impact of
various Islamic dynasties in art and architecture and shows the distribution of sects and religious minorities, the
structure of Islamic cities, and the distribution of resources. Among the book's valuable contributions is the
incorporation of the often neglected geographical and environmental factors, from the Fertile Crescent to the
North African desert, that have helped shape Islamic history.

Rich in narrative and visual detail that illuminates the story of Islamic civilization, this timely atlas is an
indispensable resource to anyone interested in world history and religion.



About the Author --

Malise Ruthven is a former editor with the BBC Arabic Service and World Service in London and is the author of
Islam in the World and Islam: A Very Short Introduction. Azim Nanji is Professor and Director of the Institute of
Ismaili Studies and visiting professor at Stanford University.
 HISTORICAL
ATLAS OF THE
ISLAMIC
WORLD
 HISTORICAL
ATLAS OF THE
ISLAMIC
WORLD



 Malise Ruthven
      with
   Azim Nanji
Book Copyright © Cartographica Limited 2004

    Text Copyright © Malise Ruthven 2004




               All rights reserved.




 Historical Atlas of the Islamic World
                eBook version
              Published by Cartographica

Originally published in print format in 2004.

In this informative and beautifully illustrated atlas, noted
scholar of religion Malise Ruthven recounts the fascinating
and important history of the Islamic world.


Short and concise essays cover a wide variety of themes
including philosophy; arts and architecture; the Muslim city;
trade, commerce and manufacturing; marriage and family
life; ritual and devotional practices; the rise of the modern
national state; oil exports and arms imports; and much more.


Rich in narrative and visual detail, the Atlas is of critical
importance to both students and anyone seeking insight into
the Islamic world, history and culture.




       q   Published/Released: October 2005
       q   ISBN 13: 9780955006616
       q   ISBN 10: 0955006619
       q   Product number: 225062
       q   Page count: 208 pp.
                                                      CONTENTS

Introduction                                             6   Balkans, Cyprus, and Crete 1500–2000                     118
Foundational Beliefs and Practices                      14   Muslim Minorities in China                               122
Geophysical Map of the Muslim World                     16   The Levant 1500–2002                                     124
Muslim Languages and Ethnic Groups                      20   Prominent Travelers                                      128
Late Antiquity Before Islam                             24   Britain in Egypt and Sudan in the 19th Century           132
Muhammad’s Mission and Campaigns                        26   France in North and West Africa                          136
Expansion of Islam to 750                               28   Growth of the Hajj and Other Places of Pilgrimage        138
Expansion 751–1700                                      30   Expanding Cities                                         142
Sunnis, Shiites, and Khariji 660–c. 1000                34   Impact of Oil in the 20th Century                        146
Abbasid Caliphate under Harun al-Rashid                 36   Water Resources                                          148
Spread of Islam, Islamic Law, and Arabic Language       38   The Arms Trade                                           150
Successor States to 1100                                40   Flashpoint Southeast Asia 1950–2000                      152
The Saljuq Era                                          44   Flashpoint Iraq 1917–2003                                154
Military Recruitment 900–1800                           46   Afghanistan 1840–2002                                    156
Fatimid Empire 909–1171                                 50   Arabia and the Gulf 1839–1950                            158
Trade Routes c. 700–1500                                52   Rise of the Saudi State                                  160
Crusader Kingdoms                                       56   Flashpoint Israel–Palestine                              162
Sufi Orders 1100–1900                                   58   Flashpoint Gulf 1950–2003                                164
Ayyubids and Mamluks                                    62   Muslims in Western Europe                                166
The Mongol Invasion                                     64   Muslims in North America                                 168
Maghreb and Spain 650–1485                              66   Mosques and Places of Worship in North America           170
Subsaharan Africa—East                                  70   Islamic Arts                                             172
Subsaharan Africa—West                                  72   Major Islamic Architectural Sites                        176
Jihad States                                            74   World Distribution of Muslims 2000                       180
The Indian Ocean to 1499                                76   World Terrorism 2003                                     184
The Indian Ocean 1500–1900                              80   Muslim Cinema                                            188
Rise of the Ottomans to 1650                            84   Internet Use                                             190
The Ottoman Empire 1650–1920                            88   Democracy, Censorship, Human Rights, and Civil Society   192
Iran 1500–2000                                          92   Modern Islamic Movements                                 194
Central Asia to 1700                                    94
                                                             Chronology                                               196
India 711–1971                                          96
Russian Expansion in Transcaucasia and Central Asia    102   Glossary                                                 200
Expansion of Islam in Southeast Asia c. 1500–1800      106
British, French, Dutch, and Russian Empires            108   Further Reading                                          203

Nineteenth-Century Reform Movements                    110
                                                             Acknowledgments and Map List                             204
Modernization of Turkey                                112
The Muslim World under Colonial Domination c. 1920     116   Index                                                    205
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Introduction
                         Since September 11th 2001, barely a day pas-        nations: Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Mombasa,
                         ses without stories about Islam—the religion        Riyadh, Casablanca, Bali, Tunisia, Jakarta,
                         of about one-fifth of humanity—appearing in         Bombay (Mumbhai), Istanbul and Madrid.
                         the media. The terrorists who hijacked four         The list grows longer, the casualties mount.
                         American airliners and flew them into the           The responses of people and their govern-
                         World Trade Center in New York and the              ments are angry and perplexed. The far-reach-
                         Pentagon near Washington killed some three          ing consequences of these responses for inter-
                         thousand people. This unleashed a “War on           national peace and security should be enough
                         Terrorism” by the United States and its allies,     to convince anyone (and not just the media edi-
                         leading to the removal of two Muslim govern-        tors who mold public consciousness to fit their
                         ments, one in Afghanistan and the other in          advertisers’ priorities) that extreme manifesta-
                         Iraq. It raised the profile of Islam throughout     tions of Islam are setting the agenda for argu-
                         the world as a subject for analysis and discus-     ment and action in the twenty-first century .
                         sion. The debates, in newspaper columns and            Muslims living in the West and in the
                         broadcasting studios, in cafes, bars, and           growing areas of the Muslim world that come
                         homes, have been heated and passionate.             within the West’s electronic footprint under-
                         Questions that were previously discussed in         standably resent the negative exposure that
                         the rarified atmosphere of academic confer-         comes with the increasing concerns of out-
                         ences or graduate seminars have entered the         siders. Islam is a religion of peace: the word
                         mainstream of public consciousness. What is         “Islam,” a verbal noun meaning submission
                         the “law of jihad”? How is it that a “religion
                         of peace” subscribed to by millions of ordi-                                                                 JAZIRA RASLANDA
                                                                                                                                                                        Qarnqi JAZIRA
                                                                                                                                                                               LUQAGHA
                                                                                                  JAZIRA          J. SQUSIYYA
                         nary, decent believers, can become an ideology                           IRLANDA                         Aghrims                       JAZIRAT
                                                                                                                                                                DANMARSHA
                                                                                                                                         JAZIRAT
                         of hatred for an angry minority? Why has                                  Jazira Dans
                                                                                                                                         INQILTARA
                                                                                                                                  Gharkafurt
                                                                                                                                                                        BILAD
                         Islam after the fall of communism become so                                                   Hastinks
                                                                                                                                     Londras                          BALUNIYYA
                                                                                                  Shant Mahlu             Na
                                                                                                                        Diaba
                         freighted with passionate intensity? Or, to use                                    Jol
                                                                                                                         Sin hr
                                                                                                                            u  ARD AFRIZIYYA
                                                                                                                                 ALAMANIN       Na h r Danu
                                                                                                                   Abariz                               Qaghradun
                         the title of a best-selling essay by Bernard                     Faynash       Shant
                                                                                                                 ARD AFLANDRIS
                                                                                                                     AL AFRANJ      Na h Draw
                                                                                                                                        r
                                                                                                                                             a
                                                                                                                                                 BILAD
                                                                                                                                               BU’AMIYYA
                                                                                                        Majial
                         Lewis, the doyen of Orientalist scholars,                            Kh
                                                                                                 a
                                                                                                                  Janbara
                                                                                                                                Kradis                      K
                                                                                             al- ltj




                                                                                                                                                                                ha
                         “What went wrong?” with Islamic history,                               An              Liyun




                                                                                                                                                                                   l ij
                                                                             Shant Ya‘aqub




                                                                                                                                                                                     al-
                                                                                                   glis                                   Ankuna




                                                                                                                                                                                        Ba
                                                                                                       hin    Burdal                                          Raghusa




                                                                                                                                                                                           nad
                         with its relationship with itself, and with the                                                                               Nabal




                                                                                                                                                                                              iqa
                                                                                                                                       Bisha
                                                                                                                                                                       Manubas
                                                                             Munt Mayur              Shaghubiyya               Mashiliyya
                         modern world?                                                                Tarakuna                        J. al-Nar                                             Labiuna
                                                                                                                                         Messina                                    Kashtara
                            Such questions are no longer academic, but                               Qartajanna         J. Qurshiqa                             Barsana
                                                                                                   al-Mariyya                                   J. Siqilliyya
                         are arguably of vital concern to most of the
                                                                                                                      J. Sardaniyya
                                                                                                                                                                               Jalfuniyya
                                                                                                       Jaza’ir bani
                         peoples living on this planet. Few would deny                                 Mazjani
                                                                                                                                                   Lebda
                                                                                    Fas
                         that Islam, or some variation thereof—                                                                                    Tarabulus          Surt
                                                                                     l Da   ran                                                                                                     Barqa
                         whether distorted, perverted, corrupted, or           J aba                                     Jabal Daran

                         hijacked by extremists—has become a force to                                                                                                Mastih
                                                                                                                                        Jabal Tantana
                         be reckoned with, or at least a label attached to                                                                       Jabal Ghaghara
                                                                                   ARD                                                         Nebranta
                         a phenomenon with menacing potentialities.             KAMNURIYYA                                                              al L
                                                                                                                                                             uni
                                                                                                                                                                 a           al-Qasaba
                                                                                                                                                    Jab
                         Numerous atrocities have been attributed to            Jabal Banbuan               ARD GHANA
                                                                                 Nil a l-Sudan          Takrur                                                       Kuku
                         and claimed by Islamic extremists, both before
                                                                                                                                      Ghana
                         and since 9/11, causing mayhem and carnage
                         in many of the world’s cities and tourist desti-

6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        INTRODUCTION




                     (to God) is etymologically related to the word                                                                                                             emies, are accused of viewing Islam through
                     salaam, meaning peace. The standard greet-                                                                                                                 the misshapen lens of Orientalism, a disci-
                     ing most Muslims use when joining a gather-                                                                                                                pline corrupted by its associations with impe-
                     ing or meeting strangers is “as-salaam                                                                                                                     rialism, when specialist knowledge was
                     alaikum”—“Peace be upon you.” Westerners                                                                                                                   placed at the service of power.
                     who accuse Islam of being a violent religion                                                                                                                  This is fraught, contested territory and
                     misunderstand its nature. Attaching the label                                                                                                              writers who venture into it do so at their own
                     “Muslim” or “Islamic” to acts of terrorism is                                                                                                              peril. As with other religious traditions, every
                     grossly unfair. When a right-wing Christian                                                                                                                generalization about Islam is open to chal-
                     fanatic like Timothy McVeigh blew up a US                                                                                                                  lenge, because for every normative descrip-
                     federal building in Oklahoma city, the worst                                                                                                               tion of Islamic faith, belief, and practice,
                     atrocity committed on American soil before                                                                                                                 there exist important variants and consider-
                     9/11, no one described him as a “Christian”                                                                                                                able diversity. The problem of definition is
                     terrorist. In the view of many of Islam’s                                                                                                                  made more difficult because there is no over-
                     adherents, “Westerners” who have aban-                                                                                                                     arching ecclesiastical institution, no Islamic
                     doned their own faith, or are blinkered by                                                                                                                 papacy, with prescriptive power to decree
                     religious prejudice, do not “understand”                                                                                                                   what is and what is not Islamic. (Even
                     Islam. Certain hostile media distort Western                                                                                                               Protestant churches define their religious
                     viewpoints, prejudicing sentiments and atti-                                                                                                               positions in contradistinction to Roman
                     tudes with Islamophobia—the equivalent of                                                                                                                  Catholicism.)
                     anti-Semitism applied to Muslims instead of                                                                                                                   Being Muslim, like being a Jew, embraces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The world according
                     Jews. Some scholars, trained in Western acad-                                                                                                              ancestry as well as belief. People described as                                                                        to al-Idrisi 549–1154


                                                                                           Ar
                                                                                                da                                           Truiyya
                                                                                                        l-                                                             Tabunt
                      ARD LASLANDA                                                                                                     Buhayrat Janun
                                                                                                                  Sinubun
                                                                                                                           Ku
                  JANUB BILAD                                                                                                ma
                                                                                                                                 niy
                                                                                                                                                                N ah
                                                                                                                   s




                                                                                                                       i
                   AL-RUSIYYA                                                                                     br                  ya
                                                                                                             na
                                                                                                                                                                     rA




                                                                                                       a
                                   Nahr Dnas
                                             t                                                      .D                                                                    mi                                                                                                                                   Majuj
                                                                                        Kaw N Labada                                                                           l ? Quruqiyya                                                                                   Khagan                                   Majui
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Shahadruj                   Jabal Su        Adkash
                                                                                                                             Rushiyya                                                                                                                                  n??                                             ARD MAJUJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Basjirt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ?




                                                                      Bahr Nitas                                                                                                                            al-Dakhila
                                         Filibus                                                                                                                                                                                                          Arsan
                                                          Hiraqliyya                                                                 Askisiyya
                                            al-Qostantino
                                                                                                                                Atrabezunda
                                                                                                                                                                                Samandar  Bahr                              Jabal Mazrar
         Ard                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Buhayrat        Ghargun
    Maqaduniyya                                   Abidus                                                                                                                               al-Khazar                                               Jajun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ARD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          un




             Salanik                                                            Qashtamuni                                                                                                                                                                                 r           Kharba
 Akhrida                                               Ladikiyya                                                             Tiflis                                                        J. Karkuniyya                                                                ga                                          YAJUJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     As
                                                                                                                                                                                              Dahistan                        Buhayrat                          al                     Buhayrat
                                                                            Quniyya                                                                        Ardabil                                                            Khwarazem                     Jab       Jabal Janf       Tehama
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          l Lalan
                                                                                                Nah




                                                                                                                                                             Tabriz                                                                 Nahr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sha                                                    Jaba
                                                                                                                                                                                     Amul
                                                                                                    r al




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Nahr




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  h




                                                                                                                             al-Mawsil                                                                                                                                                             l Ashla
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          th
                                                                                                        Fra




                                                                             Rudus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Jaba
                                                                                                                                             ?? D y l




       Arkadiyya                                                             al-                                                                                                                                                                       Sha                                                       ARD AL-KIMAKIYYA
                                                                                                            i




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ???




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           m
                                                                                                             ?




                                                                    Iskandaruna                                                                                                                                      Tus                                                                                       MIN AL-ATRAK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            al




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                F arg
                                                                                                                                                  a




                                                             Jazira                                                                                                                         Qum                                                                      h
                          J. Iqritish                                     Antakiyya                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sisian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     an




                                                             Qibris                                                                                                                                                                       Bukhara                                                 Buhayrat
                                                                                                                                                        Baghdad                                                                                                                                   Jujar
          al-        Dimyat
                                                                                                    Dimashu                                                                                                Sarakhs                                                                                                     Nashran
          Iskandariyya
                                                                                                                                       Abadan                                          Yazd                          Harat                                          BILAD AL-TIBET                                                    Khirkhir
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jazira
                                                                 Qulzum                                                           al-Taghlibiyya                                                                                                                 MIN AL-ATRAK                                                               al Yakut
           Laka                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Buhayrat
                                                                                                Khaybar                                                                                                                                                                            Bazwan
                                                           Jab




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Wakhan
                                                                                                                           Yathrib
                                                              al A




                                                                                                                                                                                                    al-Multan
                                                                 la qa




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kashmir al-Kharija
               lul




                                                                     ttam
           l Ja




                                                                                                                                                                       Suhar                                               Qandahar                                       AQSA BILAD                                               Baja
                                                                                                           Makka
           a
        Jab




                             Asyut                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         AL-HIND                                                         Sinis
                                                                                Aydhab                                          Tabala                                                               Kanbaya                                                 Lulua                                                     BILAD
                                                                                                                                                                       Sur                 Daybul                                                                                       Katigura
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Jazira Aurshin                                               AL-SIN
                                               M isr




                                                                                           Ba




                                                                                                                                 ARD AL-ABADIYA                                                             Jazira                                                                                      Khanfun              Sa’ala
                                                                                               ba




                                        N il                                                                                                                                                                Sandan
                                                                                                 l- M




       NUBIA MIN                                                                                        an                       MIN AL-YAMAN                                                                                Jazira                    Jazira
                                                                                     Manquna                 da                                                                                        Jazira al-Mand      Kulom Mak                  al-Romi
       AL-SUDAN                                                                                                   b
                                                                                                                                           Adan                                           Jazira al-
                                                                                                                                                        J. Suqutra                    Qotsoba al-Gharb         Jazira Sarandib                                                        Jazira al-Qamr
                  Donqola                                                                Aqent                                                                                                                                                                                        Malot                                                    Jazira
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               al-Sila
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Jazira Sarandib

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ARD SUFALA
                                                                                                                                                                                  ARD AL-ZANJ                                                         AL-NABR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ARD AL-WAQWAQ

J ab
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         7
       a l a l- K a m r
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                         Muslims are religiously observant in different      one of his companions, Abu Bakr (r. 624–632),
                         ways. One can be culturally Muslim, as one          who was accepted as Caliph or successor by
                         can be culturally Jewish, without subscribing       agreement of the main leaders in the communi-
                         to a particular set of religious prescriptions      ty after the death of the Prophet. He, in turn,
                         or beliefs. It would not be inappropriate to        appointed Umar (r. 634–644), who on his
                         describe many nonreligious Americans and            deathbed designated Uthman (r. 644–656), after
                         Europeans as “cultural Christians” given the        consultation with leading Muslims. Uthman
                         seminal importance played by Christianity in        was succeeded by Ali (r. 656–661), again with
                         the development of Western culture. The fact        the consent of leading Muslims of the time. In
                         that the term is rarely, if ever, used is reveal-   the view of the Sunni majority the four caliphs
                         ing of Western cultural hegemony and its            constitute a “rightly guided Caliphate.”
                         pretensions to universality. The Christian             Over time the Shiites and Sunni both devel-
                         underpinning of Western culture is so taken         oped distinctive community identities. They
                         for granted that no one troubles to make it         are divided into various branches and organ-
                         apparent. At the same time the term                 ized into different movements and tendencies.
                         “Christian” has been appropriated by                While these, and other groups, differed with
                         Protestant fundamentalists who seek to              each other and often fought over their differ-
                         define themselves in contradistinction to sec-      ences, the general tenor of relations, in pre-
                         ular humanists or religious believers with          modern urban societies, allowed for a degree
                         whose outlook they disagree.                        of mutual coexistence and intellectual debate.
                            Similar problems of definition apply in the         In recent times, however, there has been a
                         Muslim world. Just as there are theological         tendency for extremist sects and radical
                         disagreements between Christian churches            groups to anathematize their religious oppo-
                         over all sorts of questions of belief and ritu-     nents, or to declare those ruling over them to
                         al, within the Islamic fold there are groups        be outside the pale of Islam. This narrow
                         which differ among themselves ritualistically       perspective may be contrasted with a growing
                         or in terms of their respective tradition of        awareness among the majority of Muslim
                         interpretation and practice.                        people of the diversity and plurality of inter-
                            Among the major groups in Islam, histor-         pretations within the Umma.
                         ically, the two most significant are the Sunni         Currently, the climate of religious intoler-
                         and Shiites.                                        ance manifested in some parts of the Muslim
                            The Shiites maintain that, shortly before        world has complex origins and may be symp-
                         his death, the Prophet Muhammad (c.                 tomatic, like the puritan extremism that
                         570–632 ) designated Ali, his first cousin and      flourished in Europe in the seventeenth cen-
                         husband of his daughter Fatima, as his succes-      tury, of the dislocating effects of economic
                         sor. They further believe that this succession      and social changes. As the maps and essays
                         continued in a line of Imams (spiritual lead-       that follow make clear, modernity came to
                         ers) descendent from Ali and Fatima, each           the Muslim world on the wings of colonial
                         specifically designated by the previous Imam.       power, rather than as a consequence of inter-
                         The larger body of the Shiites, the “Twelvers”      nally generated transformations. The “best
                         or Imamis, believe that the last of these lead-     community” decreed by God for “ordering
                         ers, who “disappeared” in 873, will reappear        the good and forbidding the evil” has lost the
                         as the Mahdi or messiah at some future time.        moral and political hegemony it held in what
                            The Sunnis, on the other hand, maintain that     was once the most civilized part of the world
                         the Prophet had made an indication favoring         outside China. When Islam was in the ascen-

8
                                                                                                    INTRODUCTION




dant, so was the climate of tolerance it         detail. The story of Muhammad’s career as
engendered. Muslim scholars and theolo-          Prophet and Statesman (if one can use a
gians polemicized against each other but         rather modern term for the leader of the
were careful not to denounce those who           movement that united the tribes of the
affirmed the shahada—the declaration of          Arabian Peninsula) was constructed from a
faith—and who prayed toward Mecca. As the        different body of oral materials. Known as
American scholar Carl Ernst observes, “In        Hadith (traditions or reports about the
any society in the world today, religious plu-   Prophet’s behavior), they acquired written
ralism is a sociological fact. If one group      form after Muhammad’s death.
claims authority over all the rest, demanding       The Koran is divided into 114 sections
their allegiance and submission, this will be    known as suras (rows), each of which is com-
experienced as the imposition of power           posed of varying numbers of verses called
through religious rhetoric.” [Carl Ernst,        ayas (signs or miracles). Apart from the first
Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in          sura, the Fatiha, or Opening, a seven-verse
the Contemporary World, London and               invocation used as a prayer in numerous ritu-
Chapel Hill, p. 206.]                            als, including daily prayers or salat, the suras
   In principle, if not always in practice, a    are arranged in approximate order of
Muslim is one who follows Islam, an Arabic       decreasing length, with the shortest at the
word meaning “submission” or, more pre-          end and the longest near the beginning. Most
cisely, “self-surrender” to the will of God as   standard editions divide the suras into pas-
revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. These          sages revealed in Mecca (which tend to be
revelations, delivered orally over the period    shorter, and hence located near the end of
of Muhammad’s active prophetic career from       the book) and those belonging to the period
about 610 until his death, are contained in      of the Prophet’s sojourn in Medina, where he
the Koran, the scripture that stands at the      emigrated with his earliest followers to
foundation of the Islamic religion and the       escape persecution in Mecca in 622, the Year
diverse cultural systems that flow from it. A    One of the Muslim era. Meccan passages,
few revisionist scholars working in Western      especially the early ones, convey vivid mes-
universities have challenged the traditional     sages about personal accountability, reward
Islamic account of the Koran’s origins, argu-    and punishment—in heaven and hell—while
ing that the text was constructed out of a       celebrating the glories and beauty of the nat-
larger body of oral materials following the      ural world as proof of God’s creative power
Arab conquest of the Fertile Crescent. The       and sovereignty. The Medinese passages,
great majority of scholars, however, Muslim      while replicating many of the same themes,
and non-Muslim, regard the Koran as the          contain positive teachings on social and legal
written record of the revelations accumulat-     issues (including rules governing sexual rela-
ed in the course of Muhammad’s career.           tions and inheritance, and punishments pre-
Unlike the Bible, there are no signs of multi-   scribed for certain categories of crime). Such
ple authorship. In contrast to the New           passages, supplemented with material from
Testament in particular, where the sayings of    the Hadith literature, came to be the key
Jesus have been incorporated into four dis-      sources for the development of a legal system
tinct narratives of his life presumed to have    known as the Sharia. Different scholars of
been written by different authors, the Koran     Muslim thought added other sources to cre-
contains many allusions to events in the         ate a methodology for the systematization
Prophet’s life, but does not spell them out in   and implementation of the Sharia.

                                                                                                               9
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                                          For believing Muslims, the Koran is the         Islam beyond Arabia occurred on the basis of
                                       direct speech of God, dictated without human       the Arab conquest of the Fertile Crescent and
                                       editing. Muhammad has been described by            lands further afield in the century or so fol-
                                       some modern Muslim scholars as a passive           lowing the Prophet’s death in 632. Faith in
                                       transmitter of the Divine Word. The Prophet        Islam and the Prophet’s divine calling—as
                                       himself is supposed to have been ummi (illiter-    well as the desire for booty—united the
                                       ate), although some scholars question this as he   Arabian tribes into a formidable fighting
                                       was an active and successful merchant. For a       machine. They defeated both the Byzantine
                                       majority of Muslims, the Koran, whose text         and Sasanian armies, opening part of the
                                       was written down and stabilized during the         Byzantine Empire and the whole of Persia to
                                       reign of the third caliph, Uthman (r. 644–656),    Muslim conquest and settlement. At first
                                       was “uncreated” and coeternal with God.            Islam remained primarily the religion of the
                                       Hence, for believing Muslims, the Koran occu-      “Arab”. Muslim commanders housed their
                                       pies the position Christ has for Christians. God   tribal battalions in separate military canton-
                                       reveals himself not through a person, but          ments outside the cities they conquered, leav-
      The illuminated double page
      from the Koran in the Bihari
script. This copy was completed
     in 1399, the year after Timur’s
conquest of Delhi. The passage,
       from the Al-Tawba (Sura of
         Repentance), refers to the
Prophet’s Bedouin allies who are
 not to be excused for failing to
        join one of his campaigns.




                                       through the language contained in a holy text.     ing their new subjects (Christian, Jewish, or
                                       Other religious traditions, including Buddhism,    Zoroastrian) to regulate their own affairs so
                                       Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Sikhism, and      long as they paid the jizya (poll-tax) in lieu of
                                       Zoroastrianism, privilege their foundational       military service. The process of Islamization
                                       texts as sacred. Muslim rulers recognized this     occurred gradually, through marriage, as the
                                       common principle by granting religious tolera-     leading families of the subject populations
                                       tion to the ahl al-kitab (Peoples of the Book).    sought to join the Muslim elites. It also
                                          In its initial phase the rapid expansion of     occurred as impoverished or uprooted sub-

10
                                                                                                                       INTRODUCTION




jects found support in the religion of their         patterns of state and religious authority that
rulers, or as people disenchanted with their         prevailed during the vast sweep of Islamic
former rulers found a congenial spiritual            history from the time of the Prophet to the
home in one that honored their traditions            present. But it is hoped that they will illumi-
while representing their teachings in a new,         nate important aspects of that history by
creative synthesis. The role of early Muslim         opening windows into significant areas of
missionaries was also crucial in this process.       the distant and recent past, thereby helping
   Muslim theology, however, did have one            to explain the legacy of conflicts—as well as
dynamic cultural dimension, which may help           opportunities—the past has bequeathed to
to explain its evolution of an “Arab” religion       the present. Geography is vital for the under-
into a universal faith. As the quintessential        standing of Islamic history and its problem-
“religion of the Book,” which represented the        atic relationship with modernity.
divine Word as manifested in a written text,            As the maps in this atlas illustrate, the cen-
Islam carried with it the prestige of learning       tral belt of Islamic territories stretching from     A world map drawn in 1571–72
and literacy into illiterate cultures. The cult of   the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus Valley was           by the al-Sharafi al-Sifaqsi family
the book, like La Rochefoucauld’s definition         perennially at the mercy of nomadic or semi-         in the town of Sfax, Tunisia.
of hypocrisy, was the homage not of vice to          nomadic invaders. In premodern times,
virtue, but of illiteracy to learning. However       before gunpowder weapons, air
revelation is perceived—whether proceeding           power, and modern systems of
directly from God or by way of an altered            communication brought
mental state comparable to the operations of         peripheral regions under
human genius—Muhammad’s epiphany came                the control of central
in the form of language. Time and again the          governments (usually
nomadic peoples on the fringes of the Muslim         under colonial aus-
empires would take over the centers of power,        pices), the cities were
and in so doing civilize themselves, becoming        vulnerable to attack
in turn the bearers of Muslim cultural pres-         by nomadic preda-
tige. After the disintegration of the great          tors. The genius of
Abbasid Empire, the dream of a universal             the Islamic system
caliphate embracing the whole of the Islamic         lay in providing the
world (and, indeed, the rest of humanity)            converted tribesmen
ceased to be a viable project. The lines of com-     with a system of law,
munication were too long for the center to be        practice and learning within
able to suppress the ambitions of local              a foundation of faith to which
dynasts. But the prestige of literacy, symbol-       they became acculturated over time.
ized by the Koran and its glorious calligraphic         In his Muqaddima, or “Proglomena” to
elaborations on the walls of mosques and             the History of the World, the Arab philoso-
other public buildings, as well as in the metic-     pher of history Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406)
ulously copied versions of the book itself, was      developed a theory of cyclic renewal and state
powerful. Even Mongol invaders, notorious            formation, which analyzed this process in the
for their cruelty, would succumb to the spiri-       context of his native North Africa. According
tual and aesthetic power of Islam in the west-       to his theory, in the arid zones where rainfall is
ern part of their dominions.                         sparse, pastoralism remains the principal
   The maps in this book do not aim to pro-          mode of agricultural production. Unlike peas-
vide a comprehensive account of the shifting         ants, pastoralists are organized along “tribal”

                                                                                                                                           11
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                         lines (patrilineal kinship groups). They are rel-   a common or corporative asabiyya. The
                         atively free from government control. Enjoying      absence of bourgeois solidarity, in which the
                         greater mobility than urban people, they can-       corporate group interests of the burghers
                         not be regularly taxed. Nor can they be             transcend the bonds of kinship, may partly
                         brought under the control of feudal lords who       be traced to the operations of Muslim law.
                         will appropriate a part of their produce in         Unlike the Roman legal tradition, the Sharia
                         return for extending protection. Indeed, in the     contains no provision for the recognition of
                         arid lands it is the tribesmen who are usually      corporate groups as fictive “persons.”
                         armed, and who, at times, can hold the city to         In its classic formulation, Ibn Khaldun’s
                         ransom, or conquer it. Ibn Khaldun’s insights       theory applied to the North African milieu
                         tell us why it is usually inappropriate to speak    he knew and understood best. But it serves as
                         of Muslim “feudalism,” except in the strictly       an explanatory model for the wider history
                         limited context of the great river valley systems   of Western Asia and North Africa, from the
                         of Egypt and Mesopotamia, where a settled           coming of Islam to the present. The theory is
                         peasantry farmed the land. In the arid regions,     based on the dialectical interraction between
                         pastoralists move their flocks seasonally across    religion and asabiyya. Ibn Khaldun’s concept
                         the land according to complex arrangements          of asabiyya, which is central to his outlook
                         with other users. Usufruct is not ownership.        on Muslim social and political history, can be
                         Property and territory are not coterminous, as      made to mesh with modern theories of eth-
                         they became in the high rainfall regions of         nicity, whether one adopts a “primordial” or
                         Europe. Here feudalism and its offshoot, capi-      “interactive” model. The key to Ibn
                         talism, took root and eventually created the        Khaldun’s theory may be found in two of his
                         bourgeois state that would dominate the coun-       propositions singled out by the anthropolo-
                         tryside, commercializing agriculture and sub-       gist and philosopher Ernest Gellner: (1)
                         jecting rural society to urban values and con-      “Leadership exists only through superiority,
                         trol. In most parts of Western Asia and North       and superiority only through group feeling
                         Africa, in contrast, the peoples at the margins     (asabiyya)” and (2) “Only tribes held togeth-
                         continued to elude state control until the com-     er by group feeling can live in the desert.”
                         ing of air power. Even now the process is far          The superior power of the tribes vis-à-vis
                         from complete in places such as Afghanistan,        the cities provided the conditions under which
                         where tribal structures have resisted the           dynastic military government and its variants,
                         authority of the central government.                royal government underpinned by mamlukism
                             Urban Moroccans had a revealing term for        or institutionalized asabiyya, became the
                         the tribal regions of their country: bled al-       norm in Islamic history prior to the European
                         siba—the land of insolence—as contrasted            colonial intervention. The absence of the legal
                         with bled al-makhzen, the civilized center,         recognition of corporative bodies in Islamic
                         which periodically falls prey to it. The supe-      law prevented the artificial solidarity of the
                         riority of the tribes, in Ibn Khaldun’s theory,     corporation, a prerequisite for urban capitalist
                         depends on asabiyya, a term which is usually        development, from transcending the “natural”
                         translates as group feeling or social solidari-     solidarities of kinship. In precolonial times the
                         ty. This asabiyya derives ultimately from the       high cultural traditions of Islam constantly
                         harsher environment of the desert or arid           interacted with these primordial solidarities
                         lands, where there is little division of labor,     or ethnicities: they did not replace them.
                         and humans depend for their survival on the            Formally the ethic of Islam is opposed to
                         bonds of kinship. City life, by contrast, lacks     local solidarities, which privilege some

12
                                                                                                      INTRODUCTION




believers above others. In theory there exists    eleventh centuries was far ahead of its
a single Muslim community—the umma—               Christian competitor eventually fell behind,
under the sovereignty of God. In practice this    to find itself under the political and cultural
ideal was often modified by recognition of        dominance of people it regarded—and which
the need to enlist asabiyya or tribal ethnicity   some of its members still do regard—as infi-
in the “path of God.” Islamic practice stress-    dels.
es communitarian values through regular              The Islamic system of precolonial times,
prayer, pilgrimage, and other devotional          embedded in the memory of contemporary
practices, and given time, generates the urban    Muslims, was brilliantly adapted to the polit-
scripturalist piety of the high cultural or       ical ecology of its era. Even if the strategy of
“great” tradition. But it does not of itself      “waging jihad in the path of God” were
forge a permanent congregational communi-         adopted for pragmatic or military reasons,
ty strong enough to transcend the counter-        Islamic faith and culture were the beneficiar-
vailing dynamic of local ethnicities. Be they     ies. The nomad conquerors and Mamluks
secular—based on differences of tribe, vil-       (soldier-slaves), imported from peripheral
lage, or even craft—or sectarian religious—       regions to keep them at bay, became Islam’s
based on divisions between different mad-         foremost champions, defenders of the faith-
habs (schools of jurisprudence), or the mysti-    community and patrons of its cultures and
cal Sufi orders which are often controlled by     systems of learning.
family lineages, or the differences between          The social memory of this system exercises
Sunnis and Shiites—such divisions militate        a powerful appeal over the imaginations of
against the solidarity of the Umma.               many young Muslims at this time. This is espe-
   Like the Baptist movement in the United        cially true when the more recent memory of
States, Islam (especially that of the Sunni       modernization through colonization can be
mainstream, comprising about 90 percent of        represented as a story of humiliation, retreat,
the world’s Muslims) is a conservative, pop-      and betrayal of Islam’s mission to bring univer-
ulist force, which resists tight doctrinal or     sal truth and justice to a world torn by division
ecclesiastical controls. While Muslim scrip-      and strife. The violence that struck America on
turalism and orthopraxy provide a common          September 11th 2001, may have been rooted in
language which crosses ethnic, racial, and        the despair of people holding a romantic, ide-
national boundaries—creating the largest          alized vision of the past and smarting under the
“international society” known to the world        humiliation of the present. While those who
in premodern times—it has never succeeded         planned the operation were almost certainly,
in supplying the ideological underpinning for     educated, sophisticated men, fully cognizant
a unified social order that can be translated     with the workings of modern societies, it does
into common national identity. In the West        not seem accidental that most of the fifteen
the institutions of medieval Christianity,        hijackers were Saudi citizens, several from the
allied to Roman legal structures, created the     province of Asir. This impoverished mountain-
preconditions for the emergence of the mod-       ous region close to the modern borders of
ern national state. In Islamdom the moral         Yemen was conquered by the Al Saud family in
basis of the state was constantly undermined      the 1920s, and still retains many of its links
by the realities of tribal asabiyya. These        with the Yemeni tribes. Like all decent people,
could be admitted de facto, but never accord-     Ibn Khaldun would have been horrified by the
ed de jure recognition. This may be one rea-      indiscriminate slaughter of 9/11: but it is
son why a civilization that by the tenth and      doubtful that he would have been surprised.

                                                                                                                13
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Foundational Beliefs and Practices
                         In the majority of Islamic traditions, all    nal bliss in the gardens of heaven. Those
                         Muslims adhere to certain fundamentals.       who have failed in their duty will be sen-
                         The most important is the profession of       tenced to the fires of hell.
                         faith, a creedal formula that states:            The Koran also articulates a frame-
                         “There is no God but God. Muhammad is         work of practices which have become
                         the Messenger of God.” Stated before          normative for Muslims over time.
                         witnesses, this formula—called the               One of them is worship, which takes
                         Shahada—is the sufficient requirement         several forms, such as salat (ritual
                         for conversion to Islam and belonging to      prayer), dhikr (contemplative prayer), or
                         the Umma.                                     dua (prayers of exhortation and praise).
                            Muslims affirm tawhid (the Unity and       Muslims performing salat prostrate
                         Uniqueness of God). They believe that         themselves in the direction of the Kaba,
                         God has communicated to humanity              the cubic temple covered in an embroi-
                         throughout its history by way of              dered cloth of black silk that stands at the
                         Messengers, who include figures like          center of the sacred shrine in Mecca.
                         Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, and that           Salat is performed daily: early morning,
                         Muhammad was the final Messenger to           noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and evening,
                         whom was revealed the Koran. In person-       or combined according to circumstance.
                         al and social life, Muslims are required to   Prayer may be performed individually, at
                         adhere to a moral and ethical mode of         home, in a public place such as a park or
                         behavior for which they are accountable       street, or in the mosque (an English word
                         before God.                                   derived from the Arabic masjid, “place of
                            As well as tawhid, articles of faith       prostration”) or other congregational
                         adhered to by Muslims include the belief      places. The call to prayer (adhan) is made
                         that angels and other supernatural            from the minaret which stands above the
                         beings act as divine emissaries; that Iblis   mosque. It includes the takbir (allahu
                         or Satan, the fallen angel, was cast out of   akbar “God is most great”), as well as
                         heaven for refusing God’s command to          shahada and the imperative: “Hurry to
                         prostrate himself before Adam; and that       salat.” In the past, before electronic
                         Muhammad is the “seal” of the                 amplification, the beautifully modulated
                         prophets, the last in a line of human         sounds of the adhan were delivered in
                         messengers sent by God to teach and           person by a muezzin from the minarets
                         warn humanity. The Koran affirms that         five times a day. The noon salat on Friday
                         the recipients of previous revelations—       is the congregational service, and is
                         the Christians and Jews—have corrupted        accompanied by a khutba (sermon) spo-
                         the scriptures sent down to them. It          ken by the Imam, or prayer leader or
                         warns of the Day of Judgement when all        other religious notable. In the early cen-
                         individuals, living or dead, will be          turies of Islam, the name of the caliph or
                         answerable to God for their conduct.          ruler was pronounced with the khutba.
                         The virtuous will be rewarded with eter-      When territories changed hands between

14
                                                                                            INTRODUCTION




different rulers (as frequently happened),       Another significant ritual practice is
the official indication of a change of gov-   the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca, which
ernment came in the form of the procla-       practicing Muslims are required to per-
mation of the new ruler’s name in the         form at least once in their lifetimes, if
country’s leading mosques.                    able to do so. Historically the Hajj has
   Another foundational practice is           been one of the principal means by which
zakat, sharing of wealth (not to be con-      different parts of the Muslim world
fused with voluntary charity or sadaqa).      remained in physical contact. In pre-
In the past, zakat was intended to foster     modern times, before mass transporta-
a sense of community by stressing the         tion by steamships and aircraft brought
obligation of the better-off to help the      the Hajj within the reach of people of
poor, and was paid to religious leaders or    modest or average means, returning pil-
to the government. At present, different      grims enjoyed the honored title of Hajji
Muslim groups observe practices specific      and a higher social status within their
to their traditions.                          communities than non-Hajjis. As well as
   Sawm is the fast in daylight hours dur-    providing spiritual fulfilment, the Hajj
ing the holy month of Ramadan, when           sometimes created business opportunities
believers abstain from eating, drinking,      by enabling pilgrims from different
smoking, and sexual activity. Abu Hamid       regions of the world to meet each other. It
al-Ghazali, the medieval mystic and the-      also facilitated movements of religious-
ologian, listed numerous benefits from        political reform. Many political move-
the discipline of fasting. These included     ments were forged out of encounters that
purity of the heart and the sharpening of     took place on the pilgrimage—from the
perceptions that comes with hunger,           Shiite rebellion that led to the foundation
mortification and self-abasement, self-       of the Fatimid caliphate in North Africa
mastery by overcoming desire, and soli-       (909) to modern Islamist movements of
darity with the hungry: the person who is     revival and reform. The end of Ramadan
sated “is liable to forget those people       is marked by the Id al-Fitr (the Feast of
who are hungry and to forget hunger           Fast Breaking), while the climax of the
itself.” Ramadan is traditionally an occa-    Hajj involves the Id al-Adha (Feast of
sion both for family reunions and reli-       Sacrifice) in which all Muslims partici-
gious reflection. In many Muslim coun-        pate by sacrificing animals. These two
tries, the fast becomes a feast at sun-       feasts are the major canonical festivals
down—an occasion for public conviviali-       observed by Muslims everywhere. There
ty that lasts well into the night. Ramadan    are, in addition, many other devotional
is the ninth month in the hijri (lunar cal-   and spiritual practices among Muslims
endar) which falls short of the solar year    that have developed over the centuries,
by 11 days: thus Ramadan, like other          based on specific interpretations of the
Muslim festivals, occurs at different sea-    practice of faith and its interaction with
sons over a 35-year cycle.                    local traditions.

                                                                                                      15
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Geophysical Map of the Muslim World
                                        Although lands of the Islamic world now           highlands of Yemen and Dhufar, which catch
                                        occupy a broad belt of territories ranging        the Indian Ocean monsoons, and the Junguli
                                        from the African shores of the Atlantic to the    region lying south of the Caspian Sea under
                                        Indonesian archipelago, the core regions of       the northern slopes of the Elburz, which
                                        Western Asia where Islam originated exer-         catches moisture-laden air flowing southward
                                        cised a decisive influence on its development.    from Russia.
                                        Compared to Western Europe and North                 Before recent times, when crops such as
                                        America, the region is perennially short on       wheat, requiring large amounts of water,
                                        rainfall. During the winter, rain and snow        appeared in the shape of food imports, and
                                                                                          underground fossil water (stored for millions
Originally built in the fourteenth                                                        of years in aquifers) became available through
 century, the mosque at Agades,                                                           modern methods of drilling, agriculture was
       in Niger, is made of mud. Its                                                      highly precarious. A field that had yielded
     structure is constantly renewed                                                      wheat for millennia would fail when the annu-
      by workers bearing new mud                                                          al rainfall was one inch instead of the usual
 who climb up the wooden posts                                                            twenty. Ancient peoples understood this well,
that protrude from the sides and                                                          and provided themselves with granaries.
                serve as scaffolding.                                                     However, agriculture did flourish in the great
                                                                                          river valleys of Egypt and Mesopotamia (now
                                                                                          Iraq). Here the annual flooding caused by the
                                                                                          tropical rains in Africa and melting snows in
                                                                                          the Anatolian and Iranian highlands pro-
                                                                                          duced regular harvests and facilitated the
                                                                                          development of the complex city-based cul-
                                                                                          tures of ancient Sumer, Assyria, and Egypt.
                                                                                          The need to manage finely calibrated systems
                                                                                          of irrigation using the nutrient-rich waters of
                                                                                          the Tigris, the Euphrates, and the Nile
                                                                                          required complex systems of recording and
                                                                                          control, making it necessary for literate
                                                                                          priestly bureaucrats to govern alongside the
                                                                                          holders of military power. Together with the
                                                                                          Yellow River in China and the Indus Valley,
                                                                                          the three great river systems of the Fertile
                                                                                          Crescent are at the origins of human civiliza-
                                        born by westerlies from the Atlantic fall in      tion. The first states, in the sense of orderly
                                        substantial quantities on the Atlas and Riffian   systems of government based on common
                                        Mountains, the Cyrenaican massif, and             legal principles, appeared in these regions
                                        Mount Lebanon, with the residue falling           more than five millennia ago.
                                        intermittently on the Green Mountain of              The limited extent of the soil water neces-
                                        Oman, the Zagros, the Elburz, and the moun-       sary for agricultural production had a decisive
                                        tains of Afghanistan. But the only rains that     impact on the evolution of human societies in
                                        occur with predictable regularity fall in the     the arid zone. Though conditions vary from

16
                                                                                   GEOPHYSICAL MAP OF THE MUSLIM WORLD




one region to another, certain features distin-   Unlike peasant cultivators, a portion of
guish the patterns of life from those of the      whose product may be extracted by priests in
temperate zones to the north or tropical zones    the form of offerings or by the ruler in taxes,
to the south. Where rainfall is scarce and        nomadic pastoralists will often avoid the con-
uncertain, animal husbandry—the raising of        fines of state power. People are organized into
camels, sheep, goats, cattle, and, where suit-    tribes or patrilineal kinship groups descended
able, horses—offers the securest livelihood for   from a common male ancestor. Military
substantial numbers of humans. The “pure          prowess is encouraged because, where food
deserts” or sand seas of shifting dunes shaped    resources are scarce, tribal or “segmentary”
by the wind, which cover nearly one-third of      groups may have to compete with each other,
the land area of Arabia and North Africa, are     or make raids on settled villages, in order to

                                                                                                    As Islam established itself along
                                                                                                    the Silk Road, mosques were
                                                                                                    built for travelers and local
                                                                                                    converts. This mosque in the
                                                                                                    Xinjiang province of China
                                                                                                    reflects the Central Asian
                                                                                                    influence in its design.




wholly unsuitable for human and animal life,      survive. Property is held communally, classi-
and have generally been avoided by herdsmen,      cally in the form of herds, rather than in the
traders, and armies. But in the broader semi-     form of crop-yielding land. Property and ter-
desert regions complex forms of nomadic and       ritory are not coterminous (as they tended to
seminomadic pastoralism have evolved. In          become in regions of higher rainfall) because
winter the flocks and herds will range far into   the land may be occupied by different users at
the wadis or semidesert areas, to feed on the     different seasons of the year. Vital resources,
grasses and plants that can spring up after the   such as springs or wells in which everyone has
lightest of showers. In the heat of summer        an interest, are often considered as belonging
they will move, where possible, to pastures in    to God, and are entrusted to the custodian-
the highlands, or cluster near pools or wells.    ship of special families regarded as holy.

                                                                                                                                    17
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Muslim Languages and Ethnic Groups
                         There are approximately one billion Muslim         Indonesia could overtake Arabic as the most
                         people—about one-fifth of humanity—living in       widely spoken Muslim language.
                         the world today. Of these the largest single-         In addition to Muslims living in their coun-
                         language ethnic group, about 15 percent, are       tries of ethnic origin, there are now millions of
                         Arabs. Not all Arabs are Muslims—there are         Muslims residing in Europe and North America.
                         substantial Arab Christian minorities in Egypt,    Given that English is the international language
                         Palestine, Syria, and Iraq, and small numbers of   of commerce, scholarship, and science, with sec-
                         Arabic-speaking Jews in Morocco—although           ond-generation European, American, and
                         the numbers of both these communities have         Canadian Muslims speaking English (as well as
                         rapidly declined in recent decades, mainly         French, German, Dutch, and other European
                         through emigration. As the language of the         tongues) the growth of English among Muslims
                         Koran, of Islamic scholarship and law, Arabic      is a significant recent development.
                         long dominated the cultures of the Muslim             The modern nation-state, based on interna-
                         world, closely followed by Persian—the lan-        tionally recognized boundaries, a common lan-
                         guage of Iran and the Mughal courts in India.      guage (in most cases), a common legal system,
                            The spread of Islam among non-Arab peo-         and representative institutions (whether these are
                         ples, however, has made Arabic a minority lan-     appointed or elected) is a recent phenomenon in
                         guage—although many non-Arab Muslims               most of the Muslim world. Often imposed by
                         read the Koran in Arabic. An ethnographic sur-     arrangements between the European powers,
                         vey published in 1983 lists more than 400 eth-     modern boundaries cut across lines of linguis-
                         nic/linguistic groups who are Muslim. The          tic/ethnic affiliation, leaving peoples such as
                         largest after the Arabs, in diminishing order,     Kurds and Pushtuns divided into different states.
                         are Bengalis, Punjabis, Javanese, Urdu speak-      Before the colonial interventions began to lock
                         ers, Anatolian Turks, Sundanese (from Eastern      them into the international system of UN mem-
                         Java), Persians, Hausas, Malays, Azeris,           ber states, Muslim states tended to be organized
                         Fulanis, Uzbeks, Pushtuns, Berbers, Sindhis,                                           .
                                                                            communally rather than territorially States were
                         Kurds, and Madurese (from the island of            not bounded by lines drawn on maps. The power
                         Madura, northeast of Java). These groups           of a government did not operate uniformly with-
                         number between nearly 100 million (Bengalis)       in a fixed and generally recognized area, as hap-
                         down to 10 million (Sindhis, Kurds, and            pened in Europe, but rather “radiated from a
                         Madurese). Of the hundreds of smaller groups       number of urban centers with a force which tend-
                         listed, the smallest—the Wayto hunter gather-      ed to grow weaker with distance and with the
                         ers in Ethiopia—number fewer than 2,000.           existence of natural or human obstacles.”
                         However, three of the languages spoken by          [Albert Hourani A History of the Arab Peoples
                         more than 10 million people—Javanese,              London, Faber, revised ed. 2002, p. 138.] Patriot-
                         Sundanese, and Madurese—are in the course          ism was focused, not as in Renaissance Italy,
                         of being overlaid by Bahasa Indonesia, the offi-   England, or Holland, on the city, city-state, or
                         cial language taught in Indonesian schools.        nation in the modern territorial sense, but on the
                         With Indonesians constituting the world’s          clan or tribe within the larger frame of the
                         largest Muslim-majority nation, Bahasa                                                  .
                                                                            umma, the worldwide Islamic community Local

20
                                                                                          MUSLIM LANGUAGES AND ETHNIC GROUPS




solidarities were reinforced by endogamous prac-       through military power was balanced by the
tices such as marriage between first cousins, a        moral force and cultural prestige of Islam.
requirement in many communities. Clan loyalties        Time and again in precolonial times the pred-
were further buttressed by religion, with tribal       ators were converted into Islam’s most trusted
leaders often justifying their rebellions or wars of   defenders. To borrow a phrase of the anthro-
conquest by appealing to the defense of true           pologist Ernest Gellner, “the wolves become
Islam against its infidel enemies.                     sheepdogs.” Just as the Prophet Muhammad
   Viewed from the perspective of modern               had tamed the Arabian tribes by his personal
Western history the systems of governance that         example, the eloquence of the Koran, and the
evolved in the arid region were divisive and           system of governance that proceeded from it,
unstable. In Europe, a region of high rainfall,        so the Sharia (divine) law and human systems
the state emerged out of constitutional struggles      of fiqh (jurisprudence) to which it gave rise
between rulers and their subjects animated by          mediated the perennial conflicts between pas-
conflicts between social classes, within ethnical-     toral predators, cultivators, and townsfolk.
ly homogeneous populations sharing common              The system, embedded in the social memory
national, political, and cultural identities           of today’s Muslim populations, was based on
(although these were sometimes contested, as in        the duty of the ruler to uphold social justice by   A Tuareg policeman in the Sahel
Ireland). In the arid zone dominant clans or trib-     governing in accordance with Islamic law. The       region south of the Sahara. From
ally based dynasties exercised power over subor-       formidable task facing contemporary Muslim          their center at Timbuktu, the
dinate groups or tried to ensure their dominance       states is to harness political and social tradi-    Tuareg controlled the trade
by importing mamluks (slave-soldiers), from dis-       tions forged in a very different context from       routes between the
tant peripheries, who had minimal social con-          modern-day conditions.                              Mediterranean and West Africa.
tacts with the indigenous populations. Peasant
cultivators and townsfolk remained vulnerable
to the predations of nomadic marauders—the
proverbial “barbarians at the gates.” The
asabiyya (loyalties or group solidarity) that
bound the clans was stronger than urban soli-
darity. Lacking the corporate ethos of their
Western counterparts, the Muslim urban classes
failed to achieve the “bourgeois” or capitalist
revolutions that gave rise to the modern state
systems of Europe and North America.
   There is, however, a different way of view-
ing the same historical landscape. Given the
predominance of pastoral nomadism in the
vast belt of territories where Islam took root,
stretching from the Kazakh steppes to the
Atlantic shores (and in similar regions in
northern India and south of the Sahara) the
inability of relatively weak agrarian states to
tax nomadic predators or control them

                                                                                                                                           21
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                                                                                             B.
                                                                                                     LUX.                   CZECH.
                                                                                                                                                           SLOV.                          UKRAINE
                                                                                                                            AUS.                                                               MOLD.
                                                                                                     SWITZ.                                      HUN.                  ROM.
                                                                                      FRANCE                                    SL.                            GYPSIES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C a s p
                                                                                                                                                                                         TATARS
                                                                                                                                                B.H.
                                                                                                                        IT              BOSNIANS
                                                                                                                                                           YUG.               BULG.                     B l a c k                 S e a                                                                           R
                                                                                                                                A                              GYPSIES POMAKS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           i
                                                                                                            Rome                                                                                                                                          GEORG.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               a
                                                                                                                                                    ALB.         RUMELIAN TURKS




                                                                                                                                LY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   n
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Istanbul
                                                                        Madrid                                                                   ALBANIAN        POMAK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AZA. ARM.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       S e a
                                        PORT.                                                                                                                                                     BOSNIANS            Ankara
                                                                                                                                                                                           POMAK                                                                            AZERI
                                                               SPAIN                                                                                        GREECE                                                                                                                                             TURKMEN
                                       Lisbon                                                        M e
                                                                                                         d i                                                                                                     TURKEY                                                  AZERI SHAHSE VAN
                                                                                                             t a
                                                                                                                    r                                                        Athens            CIRCASSIANS            YORUK
                                                                                                        Tunis                                                                                                                            ARABIC
                                                                                   Algiers                                                                                                                                                                    KURDISH




                                                                                                                        r
                                                                                                                            a
                                                                                                                                n                                                                                                    N   CH                                                                    Tehran
                                                                                                                                    e
                                                                                                                                        a
                                                                                                                                                                                                  RUMELIAN TURKS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              F   RE     SYRIA                             LUR
                                                                                                                                            n
                                          Rabat
                                  Casablanca
                                                                                                                                                    S e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LEB.                              Baghdad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             BAKHTIARI                 PERS
                                                           BERBER
                                                                                                                                                        a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     QASHQA'I
                                                                                                                                    Tripoli                                                               ISRAEL
                                                                    O                                                                                                                Alexandria                      HEBREW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 IRAQ
                                                               CC
                                                           O                                                                                                                                          Cairo                         JORDAN
                                                       R




                                                                                     ALGERIA
                                                   O




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Al Kuwayt
                                                 M




                                                                                                                                                                                         E
                                                                               A                                                                L I B YA                                                                                           ARABIC



                                                                                                                                                                                         N
                                                                                                                                                                                               EGYPT                                                              SAUDI
             WESTERN                                                                         R
                                                                                                                A

                                                                                                                                                                                         G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Riyadh
              SAHARA
                                                                                                                                                B                      I                          C                                                                                                               U.A.


                                                                                                                                                                                          L
                             F              R                  E                     N           C              H                                                                                                                                               ARABIA
                                                                                                                                                                      TEBU

                                                                                                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                                                                    TEBU                                                                          BEJA

                              MAURITANIA
                                                                                                          TUAREG                                                                                  S       ARABIC
                                                                                                                                                                                               MEIDOB    H
                                       BERBER                       MALI                                NIGER                                                                                                                                 BILIN
                             TUKULOR                                                                                                                                              TEBU
                                                                                                                                                                    MIMI                                      HAUSA
                     WOLOF                      FULANI                                                                                                                     BERI
             SENEGAL                                                     SONGHAY                                KANEMBU                             CHAD                            ARABIC        Khartoum                                       JABARTI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   EN
         Dakar         FULANI SONINKÉ                                                                                    KANEMBU
                                                                                                                BUDUMA BUDUMA
                                                                                                                                                             MABA
                                                                                                                                                                       TAMA
                                                                                                                                                                    MASALIT              FUR    BERTI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  BENI AMER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ERITREA                           YEM
                  SERER DIOLA                                  FULANI                             HAUSA                              TUNJUR
                                                        BAMBARA                                                            KURI ARABIC                                  HADDAD
                            MANDINKA                         MOSSI       SONGHAY F U L A N I
                                                                                                                   ARABIC
                                                                                                                                    BARMA
                                                                                                                                                              DAJU                             S U DA N                                               TIGRE
                                                                                                                                                                SINYAR      TUNJUR                        TAQALI                         WAYTO
                                                     MANDINKA                                                     KANURI       HADDAD
                       FULANI         BAMBARA
                          JAHANKA FULANI           DYULA SONINKÉ
                                                                  BURKINA           SONGHAY            HAUSA               KANURI
                                                                                                                    FULANI KOTOKO
                                                                                                                                                                    FONGORO           FULANI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NUBA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AFAR

                                                     SENUFO           HAUSA       BATONUN
                             GUINEA SONINKÉ                 DYULA                    KAMBERI     GBAGYI                    HAUSA                                                                                                         Addis                SOMALI
                 Conakry                                                  FULANI                                   GBAYA
                                 SOSO YALUNKA    SENUTO MOSSI MOLÉ-DAGBANI         SHANGAWA                                                                                                                                              Ababa
                                                                                                 NUPE                      FULANI
                                 TEMNE FULANI            DYULA GHANA                     RESHAWA                                                                                                                                                                ARGOBBA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          S O M A L I
                                  MENDE MANDINKA  MANDINKA                              NIGERIA                                                            CENTRAL                                                                        ETHIOPIA
                                                    IVORY YORUBA           YORUBA
                                                                                     YORUBA                                         GBAYA
                                                                                                                                                           AFRICAN




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               IA
                                       VAI                                           Lagos                                                                                                                                                    GURAGE
                                                       COAST            AKAN                                                                                                                                                                                  OROMO
                                                                                                                                N




                                  LIBERIA


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     AL
                                                                                                                                                           REPUBLIC
                                                                                                                            O




                                                                           Accra                                                                                                                                                               SADAMA
                                                                                                                        O




                                                       Abidjan                                                                                                                                                                                                                       M
                                                                                                                        ER
                                                                           TOGO                             CA M                                                                                                                                                                SO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GANDA                         OROMO               SOMALI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SOGA
                                                                                                                                                      O
                                                                                                                                                   ONG




                                                                                                                                                                                                         UGANDA
     A   T       L       A       N         T       I       C                       BENIN                                                                                                                     NYANKOLE                    KENYA
                                                                                                                                            REP. C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NORTHEAST BANTU
             O       C       E         A       N                                                            GABON                                                                                                                        Nairobi
                                                                                                                                                                CONGO                                                                        SWAHILI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NYAMWEZI
                                                                                                                                                 Kinshasa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CENTRAL TANZANIAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TANZANIA
             Languages and peoples of Islam                                                                                                                                                                                                               Dar es Salaam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SWAHILI
                         Muslim population, 50% or more                                                         Luanda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 YAO
             ENGLISH     Imperial languages still in regional use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          YAO
                                                                                                                                                ANGOLA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      YAO
                                                                                                                                                                                                              A




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                                                                             B
                                                                                                                                                                                                ZAM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      E

22
                                                                                                                                                                       MUSLIM LANGUAGES AND ETHNIC GROUPS




     K A Z A K H S TA N
                                                        A              N
                                       I
                         S                                                                                                     MONGOLIA
              S         KAZAKHS                                                                                                                                                                      Harbin
 U
                                                                       UYGUR
     UZBE
         KI
           ST                                     KIRGHIZ.                      UYGUR                                                                                                                Shenyang
                   AN




                                                        KIRGHIZ
                                                                                                                                                                                Beijing
 TURK                                                                                                                                                                             Tianjin                      N. KOREA
     ME TURKMEN
       NI                               TAJIK.
            KIRGHIZ                                  TAJIK                                                                                                                                                                 Seoul
              ST
                AN




                  TAJIK QIZILBASH          PASHAI                                                                                                                                                                  S. KOREA
                                                     KHO
      AIMAQ               Kabul
                                                      SHING
                                                              BALTIS                                                   C      H         I      N      A                                                                            Pusan

 I A N PERSIANS AFGHAN. HAZARAS                  KOHISTANIS KASHMIRIS
                                                    Lahore
                                 UN
                             SHT                                   GUJARS
                          P U BRAHUI                                                                                                        Chengdu                                                      Shanghai
                                                       N




     IRAN                                                   JAT                                                                                                                        Wuhan
                                                    TA
                                                IS




                                                                  Delhi
              BALUCH                           K                                              NE
                                            PA                                                     PA
                                                                                                      L          BH.
                             E                          MEOS
                                     SINDHIS
                                                                       URDU
                        Karachi
                                           N                                                                     Dhaka
                                                             Ahmadabad                                                                                               Guangzhou                       Taiwan
E.                                             GUJARATIS                                             Calcutta
                                                        G                                                   H                 BURMA                                                         Hong Kong
                                                                            INDIA
     AN




                                                                                                                                                                                                              P A C I F I C
                                                                       L           I             S                          (MYANMAR)
                                                                                                 ORISSANS       BANGLA-
 M




                                                      MAHARASHTRIANS                                                                                                                                                O C E A N
                                                                   DECCANI                                       DESH                                 L
O




                                                 Bombay                                                                                                                          Hainan
                                                                                                                                                       A
                                                                                                                                                          OS




                                                                                        Hyderabad
                                                                                                                                                                    VI




                                                                                                                           Rangoon                                                                       Luzón
                                                                                                                                                                     ET




                                                                                                                                              THAILAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Manila
                                                                                                                                                                         NA M




                                                                     MAPPILLA                                                           Bangkok
                                                                  Bangalore              Madras
                                                                          TAMIL
                                                                                                                                                          CAMB.
                                                                             LABBAI
                                                                                                                                                                                                   PHILIPPINES
                                                                                                                                                                    Ho Chi
                                                                                         TAMIL                                                                      Minh
                                                                                          SRI                                                                                                                       Mindanao
                                                                                          LANKA
                                                                                                                                                                                       BRUNEI               BAJAU
                                                                                                                                     ACEHNESE
                                                                                                                                          GAYO            M A L AY S I A
                                                                                                                                              BATAK
          I       N     D        I      A           N              O        C     E       A      N                                               MINANGKABAU                                                GORONTALESE
                                                                                                                                                                                                         TOMINI
                                                                                                                                                Sumatra                              Borneo             Sulawesi
                                                                                                                                                                                                            WAND
                                                                                                                                                      OGAN-BESEMAH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   BUGIS
                                                                                                                                                                                       I     N   D      O
                                                                                                                                                          Jakarta                                             N        E       S     I     A
                                            N                                                                                                                               Java
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Timor




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               23
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Late Antiquity Before Islam
                                      The Muslim community emerged in seventh-              Byzantines and the Lakhmids, who gave
                                      century Arabia in a region dominated by               allegiance to the Sasanian Empire.
                                      ancient civilizations, empires, cultures, and              A major influence on intellectual life that
                                      ethnic groups. Traces of Mesopotamian cul-            was to emerge in the Muslim world came
                                      ture still survived in the Tigris and Euphrates       from the academies and learning institutions
                                      valleys,    and    the     areas    bordering   the   that preserved influences from Persia, Greece,
                                      Mediterranean and the Gulf had long felt the          and India. In particular, the Hellenistic and
                                      impact of the adjoining powers that plied the         Persian legacies in the fields of medicine, the
                                      maritime trade in these waters. Byzantium,            sciences, and philosophy would bring about a
     This rock relief from Magshi-i   the Eastern Roman and Orthodox state based            strong tradition of intellectual inquiry in
        Rus Van depicts Ardeshir I,   in Constantinople, was the primary Christian          Muslim societies.
founder of the Sasanian dynasty,      kingdom in the region and                                  The cultures in the regions were influenced
facing a hostile Parthian warrior.    at odds with the powerful                             by     the   cosmopolitan     nature     of   this
                                                                                                                  Mediterranean world to
                                                                                                                  different degrees, preserv-
                                                                                                                  ing the heritage of classi-
                                                                                                                  cal antiquity and the
                                                                                                                  Hellenistic legacy in its
                                                                                                                  various forms, architec-
                                                                                                                  tural, philosophical, artis-
                                                                                                                  tic, urban, and agricultur-
                                                                                                                  al. Of the major religions
                                                                                                                  in the region, Christianity
                                                                                                                  in its orthodox form also
                                                                                                                  held sway in southern
                                                                                                                  Arabia while Zoroastrian-
                                                                                                                  ism predominated in Iran
                                                                                                                  and Mesopotamia. Juda-
                                                                                                                  ism had a long history in
                                      Zoroastrian Sasanian Empire based in Persia           the Near East and small Jewish communities
                                      (modern Iran). The ebb and flow of conflict           had also settled in Yemen and the oases of
                                      between the various major states influenced           Arabia, such as Medina. The inherited values,
                                      trade as well as relations with the prosperous        literature, and practices of all these traditions
                                      region of Arabia to the south. The history of         coexisted in this vast, multifaith and multieth-
                                      some of the ancient Arab kingdoms is still            nic milieu, which within a century of the death
                                      preserved in archaeological remains, such as          of the Prophet Muhammad would be overtaken
                                      those of the Nabateans at Petra (first century        by Muslim conquest. Over time it would form
                                      BC —first   century      AD ),   Palmyra (second—     part of a larger set of civilizations linked by the
                                      third century     AD),   and of the Ghassanids in     faith of Islam, while still preserving continuities
                                      later centuries, whose patrons were the               with the various heritages of antiquity.

24
                                                                                                                                                                                                            LATE ANTIQUITY BEFORE ISLAM




                                 30°                                  35°                                       40°                                   45°                              50°                                          55°                          60°
                                 Black                                                   Sea                                          Cauca
      Constantinople                                                                                                                                 su
                                                                                                                                                          s M
40°
                                                                                                                                                              t   s                        Arabia before the Muslim conquests
                                                        Ankyra                                                                                                                                              Occupied by Sasanians 607–28

                                   Anatolia                                                                                                                                                KALB             Arab tribe


            E A S T E R N                              R O M A N
                                                                                                                                                                      Ardabil                  Caspian
                                       Attaleia                                                 Edessa       Dara                                                                                Sea
                                                                        Dabiq                   Harran Nisibis
                                                                                      Aleppo                                                                                 Qazvin
                                                               Antioch




                                                                                                                             Ti
                                                                                                                                gr
                                                                                                                                                                                           Rayy




                                                                                                                                 is
35°

                                                                                     Hamah
                                 C Y PRU S                                                               Eu
                                                                                                           ph
                                                              Tripoli            Homs                         ra
                                                                                                                 t
                                                                                              Palmyra             es
                                                                                                                                           Jafula
            Mediter ranean                                                                                                                                                 Nihavand
                                                                                                                         M
                      Sea                                                       Damascus                                      es
                                                        Tyre                                                                          op
                                                                                                                                            ot   Ctesiphon                 S A S A N I A N                                      E M P I R E
                                                                        Yarmuk                                                Karbala            am
                                                  Caesarea                                                                                                                                                   Isfahan
         Alexandria                                                                                                              Kufa                     ia
                                                                 Jerusalem
                                                  Ajnadain                                                                                       Qadisiya                                                                     P e r s i a
30°
                                                       Mu’tah
                   al-Fustat
                     (Cairo)                                 Petra       GHASSAN                                                                                           Basra                                  Istahar
                                                                                                                              LAKHM                                                                               (Persepolis)
                                                                                                   KALB
                   E M P I R E
                                                                                                                                                                                      Pe

                                                                                                                                                               BAKR                                                   Siraf
                                                                                                                                                                                           rs

                                                                                             GHATAFAN
                          N




                                                                                                                                                                                                i

                                                                                                                                                                                                    a
                           ile




                                                                                                                          A                                                                             n
      Sahara                                                                                                                                                                                                  G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  u
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      l f




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Gulf
25°
      Desert                                                                                                                                r
                                                                                      JUHEINA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        f
                                                                                                        Medina
                                                                     R e




                                                                                       Bedr                                                               a                                                                                                 Om
Tropic of Ca
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 an
            ncer
                                                                                                                                                KINDA                      al-Yamama
                                                                         d



                                                                                          H




                                                                                                                                                                                                            HANIFAH
                                                                             S e




                                                                                               E




                      NO BATI A                                                                                                                                       b
                                                                                                JA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MAZUN
                                                                                 a




                                                                                                                                                      S U L AY M
                                                                                                   Z
                                             DE




                                                                                                                                                                                i
                                                  SE




                                                                                                   Mecca               Q U R AY S H
                                                   RT




20°
                                                                                                                                                                                           a
                                                       NO




                                                                                                                                                                      HAWAZIN
                                                        MA




                   MAK K U R A
                                                             DS




                                                                                                                                                                                                       li
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ha     te
                                                                                                                                                                                                              r
                                                                                                                                                                                            K
DES




                       Dongola
                                                                                                                                                                                 al                     ar
                                                                                                                                      AZD                                                           qu                              MAHRAH
                                                                                                                                                                             ub
                                                                                                                       Sa
  ERT




                                                                                                                                                                                    y
                                                                                                                                                                           R     pt
                                                                                                                        san




                                                                                                                                                                              em
      NOM




                                                                                                                                                                      t   he
                                                                                                                            ian
        ADS




15°
                          A LWA                                                                                                                                                                                                 Arabian Sea
                                                                                                                         De
                                                                                                                          Ye m




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N
                                                                                                                            pe




                                                         AX U M
                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                                                en




                                                                                                                                                en
                                                                                                                                 d




                                                                                                                                                     cies                                               0              200 km

                                                                                                                               H I M YA R                                                               0                       200 miles




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Muhammad’s Mission and Campaigns
                                                                                            (r. 644–656), the Koran is composed of 114
                                                                                            chapters, or suras. These are said to have been
                                                                                            revealed in Muhammad’s native city of Mecca,
                                                                                            where he was a respected merchant, and suras
                                                                                            also date from the period of his sojourn in
                                                                                            Medina (622–632).
                                                                                                  In Mecca, the Koran’s condemnation of the
                                                                                            sins of pride, avarice, and the neglect of social
                                                                                            duties, its warnings of divine judgement, and
                                                                                            its     attacks   on   pagan   deities     brought
                                                                                            Muhammad and his followers into conflict with
                                                                                            the leaders of his own tribe, the Quraish. His
                                                                                            fellow clansmen were boycotted, with Muslim
                                                                                            converts subjected to persecution, and a num-
                                                                                            ber took refuge in Axum (Ethiopia). However,
                                                                                            Muhammad’s fame as a prophet and trusted
                                                                                            man of God spread beyond Mecca. He was
                                                                                            invited to act as judge and arbitrator between
                                                                                            the feuding tribal factions of Yathrib, later
                                                                                            renamed Madinat al-Nabi (“the city of the
                                                                                            Prophet”), usually shortened to Medina, an
                                                                                            oasis settlement about 250 miles northeast of
                                                                                            Mecca. The hijra (migration) of the Muslims in
                                                                                            622 marks the beginning of the Muslim era.
                                                                                            The passages in the Koran dating from the
                                                                                            Medina period, when Muhammad was the
                                                                                            effective ruler, contain some of the legislative
                                                                                            material (such as rules regarding marriage and
                                                                                            inheritance) that would form the basis of what
     Although Muhammad’s image is          Islam is an Arabic noun from the verb aslama,    became Islamic law. After a series of campaigns
 considered taboo, pictures of the         to surrender oneself. In its primary sense the   against the Meccans, the Muslims emerged vic-
 heroic deeds of his uncle, Hamza,         active participle muslim means someone who       torious. In the last year of his life Muhammad
and others were circulated to show         surrenders himself or herself to God as          returned in triumph to Mecca, receiving the
           the first epic battles of the
                                           revealed through the teachings of the Prophet    submission of the tribes along the way. He
Muslims. This painting from India
                                           Muhammad (c. 570–632). Muhammad is               reformed the ancient ceremonies of the hajj
        c. 1561–76 is from a series of
                                           believed by Muslims to have communicated         (pilgrimage), discarding their animist aspects
large-format illustrations shown to
                                           God’s revelation in the Koran, a text Muslims    and reorienting them to what he believed to be
      audiences while the epic stories
                                           regard as the final revelation of God to         the original monotheism of Abraham. After
                     were read aloud.
                                           humankind. Collected under the third of          further expeditions he returned to Medina. He
                                           Muhammad’s successors, the Caliph Uthman         died there after a short illness in 632.

26
                                                                                                                                                            MUHAMMAD’S MISSION AND CAMPAIGNS




                                                                                                                                                                           Muhammad’s Missions and
                                                                                                                                                                           Campaigns to 632
                                                                                                                                                                                    Muhammad moves to Medina               60°
        30°                               35°                                    40°                               45°                            50°                                    55°

                                                                                                                                                                                    Campaigns

                                                                                                                                                                                    Conquered by Muhammad to 632

                                                                                                                                                                                    Conquered by Abu Bakr 632–34
                             A n a t o l i a
                                                                                                                                                                                    Battle site with date

                                         Marash                 Samosata
                                                                  Edessa
                                                Dabiq
                                                                    Harran
                                                           Aleppo                                      Mosul                       Qazvin

                                                                                             Ti
                                       Antioch

                                                                                               gr
                                                                                                                                                   Rayy
                                                                                                  is
35°                                                             Raqqa
                        Cyp r u s
                                                                                                                                  Hamadan
                                    Tripoli          Homs
                                                                                                          Jafula                                                         S A S A N I A N
                                               E




 Mediter ranean                                                                                                                   Nihavand
                                                                                       Eu
                                                                                        ph
                                           PIR




      Sea                                            Damascus
                                                                                            ra




                                                                                                              Ctesiphon                                                         E M P I R E
                                                                                               t
                                                                                               es




                             Caesarea
                                                                                                                         Wasit
                  Damietta      Gaza                                                                   Kufa                                                        Isfahan
                                         E M




 Alexandria                  Jerusalem                                                                          Qadisiya 636

                Heliopolis
30°
                                    E




al-Fustat                                                                                                                         Basra                                                             Kerman
  (Cairo)
                                    N




                                                                          Dumat al-Jandal
                                I




                                T                                                                                                                                      Shiraz
       B Y Z A N
                                                                                                                                            Pe
                                                                                                                                                 rs



                                                                                                                                                                          Siraf
                                                                                                                                                    ia
                                              H
        N




                                                                                                                                                            n
         i le




                                                 E
                                                   JA




                                                                                                                                                                    G
                                                                                                                                                                         u l
 25°
                                                                                                                                                                             f
                                                        Z




                                                                                                                                                                                                        G
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ul
                      Aswan                                                625                                                                                                                                   f o
                                                                           Medina                                                  al-Yamama                                                                         f   Oman
                                           R e




                                                                    624                                  A r a b i a                                                                 632                                 Muscat
   NOBATIA
                                               d
                                                   S e




                                                                                                                                                                 630
                                                       a




                                                                          Mecca
                                                                                                                                                                                      r
 20°                                                                                                                                                                          l i t e
                                                                                                                                                                           a     r
                                                                                                                                                                        h
 MAKKURA                                                                                                                                                              K        a
                                                                                                                                                                            u
                                                                                                                                                                a l      q
                                                                                                                                                 u b                t y
                                                                                                                                            R                    p
                                                                                                                                                   e m
                                                                                                                                       t   h e
                                                                                                                                                                                       633

       ALWA                                                                                                                                                                       A r a b i a n                S e a
15°
                                                                                                         Sana                                                                                                             N

                                         AXUM
                                                                                                                                 633                0                              400 km


                                                                                                                                                        0                                          400 miles




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  27
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Expansion of Islam to 750                                                                                                      10
                                                                                                                                 °                                                  0°




                                                                                                                                                                            FR NG
                                                                                                                       N




                                                                                                                                                                              K

                                                                                                                                                                              A
                                                                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                       A




                                                                                                                                                                                  N
                                      Muhammad’s death left the Muslim communi-




                                                                                                                                                                                    K
                                                                                                                   E




                                                                                                                                        AS
                                                                                                                                                                                             SH




                                                                                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                                                                                                     O




                                                                                                                                                                                       D
                                                                                                                   C




                                                                                                                                         TU
                                                                                                                                                                                         M
                                      ty without an obvious leader. One of his oldest




                                                                                                               O




                                                                                                                                                              AQ
                                                                                                                                             RI
                                                                                                                                              AS



                                                                                                                                                               UI
                                                                                                              IC
                                      companions, Abu Bakr (r. 632–634), was




                                                                                                                                                                   TA
                                                                                                           T




                                                                                                                                                                    IN
                                      acknowledged by several leaders as the first




                                                                                                                                                                        E
                                                                                                          N
                                                                                                     LA
                                      caliph, or successor. Under Abu Bakr and his




                                                                                                  T
                                                                                                 A
                                      successor Umar (634–644), the tribes, who had
                                      begun to fall away on the death of Muhammad,
                                      were reunited under the banner of Islam and




                                                                                                   Ag
                                                                                                      a
                                                                                                      di
                                                                                                      r
                                      converted into a formidable military and ideo-
                                                                                                                                                                                         Rome
                                      logical force. The Arabs broke out of the penin-




                                                                                                               B
                                                                                                                   E
                                      sula, conquering half the Byzantine provinces




                                                                                                                   R
                                                                                                                       B
                                                                                                                       E
                                      as well as defeating the armies of Sasanian




                                                                                                                           R
                                                                                                                           S
                                      Persia. Ctesiphon, the Persian capital, fell in                                                                                       Ca
                                                                                                                                                                               r
                                                                                                                                                                            Ka thage
                                      637, Jerusalem in 638. By 646, under Umar’s                                                                                             iro
                                                                                                                                                                                  ua 698




                                                                                                                                                  I F
                                                                                                                                                                                    n6
                                                                                                                                                                                       70




                                                                                                                   S
                                      successor Uthman (r. 644–656), the whole of




                                                                                                                                                      R
                                                                                                                                                     I Q
         The Dome of the Rock in      Egypt had come under Arab Muslim control.




                                                                                                                                                          I Y
                                                                                                                           a
     Jerusalem, built by the Caliph   Acquiring ships from Egypt and Syria, the           nomadic preda-




                                                                                                                                                               A
                                                                                                                                          Tr
                                                                                                                                             ipo
                                                                                                                                                 li 6
                                                                                                                                                      47
     Abd al-Malik in 691–92, is the   Arabs conducted seaborne raids, conquering          tors would have




                                                                                                                                    h
 first great building to have been    Cyprus in 649 and pillaging Rhodes in 654.          taken the plunder or
                                      Religious differences between the Byzantine         held onto land, dispersing




                                                                                                                                             a
         constructed after the Arab
        conquest. Embellished with    rulers and their subjects in Egypt and Syria        as landlords or peasants




                                                                                                                                                          r
 Koranic quotations proclaiming       ensured that the Muslims were met with indif-       among the conquered peoples.
     the unity of God, the building   ference, or even welcomed by fellow monothe-        In a farsighted decision Caliph




                                                                                                                                                                   a
     surrounds the rock from where    ists embittered by decades of alien Byzantine       Umar encouraged the tribes to settle
 Muhammad is believed to have         rule. But secular factors were also important.      with a system of stipends paid from the
       embarked on his miraculous     The Arabs were motivated by desire for plun-        common treasury, which took control of
        “night journey” to heaven.    der, as well as religious faith. In previous eras   the conquered lands. The Arabs were kept
                                                                                          apart from the population in armed camps that
                                                                                          evolved into garrison cities such as Basra and
                                                                                          Kufa in Iraq. Although the tensions over the
                                                                                          distribution of booty would erupt into open
                                                                                          civil war the overall control exercised by the
                                                                                          fledgling Islamic government remained under
                                                                                          dynastic rule. Though individual dynasties
                                                                                          would often be challenged as ruling contrary to
                                                                                          Islamic principles of equality and justice, the
                                                                                          dynastic system of governance fitted the pre-
                                                                                          vailing form of social organization, the patriar-
                                                                                          chal kinship group, and remained the norm
                                                                                          until modern times. Under the Umayyads the
                                                                                          remarkable expansion of Islam continued, with
                                                                                          the Arab raiders reaching as far as central
                                                                                          France and the Indus Valley.

28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 EXPANSION OF ISLAM TO 750




                                   10
                                     °                                       20°                              30°                                  40°                           50°                                   60°                                               70°                                    80°                                       90°



                                              S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Expansion                 to 750
                                                             L
                                                                                   A            V             S                                                                                                                                                                                              Arab advance

                                                                                                                                                                                             B U L G A R S                                                                                                   Battle site

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Expansion of Islam:
                               AV
                                         AR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Under Muhammad
                              EM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 50°
                                   PI
                                         RE                                                                                                                                                  H U N G A R I A N S                                                                                            Under Abu Bakr (632–634)
                                                                                          K
K. OF THE L




                                                                                           H A                                                                                                                                                                                                              Under Umar (634–644)
                                                                                                Z A
                                                                                                    R                                                                                                                                                                                                       Under Uthman (644–656)
                                                                                        E M
                         S




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and Ali (656–661)
                          L A




                                                                                            P I                                                                                                                                                    E S
                                                                                                R E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               P L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Under the Umayyads (661–750)
                              V S
            OM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           O
                                              BU                                                                                                                                                                                   E
                                                   LG                                                                                                                                                                          P
        BAR




                                                        AR
                                                             IA                                                                                                                                                    C
                 DS




                                                                                                                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                                                                                                                        K
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Aral                                              S yr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Da




                                                                                                                                                                                                      R
                                                                                          Black                                                                                                                              Sea                                                        ry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      751
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             a
                                                                                                    Sea                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A

                                                                                                                                                                                                 T U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Talas                                   AN
                                                                                                                                                                  Ca



                                                                      Con                                                                                                                                                                            T
        B                                                            673–7stantinop                                                                                                                                                                      R                                                                                   GH
                     Y                                                    7, 717     le                                                                                                                                                                      A                                                                      FER
                                                                                                                                                                      spi




                                                                                 –18                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             40°
                         Z




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             N
                              A
                                                                                                                                                                        an




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SO
                                    N                                                                                                     ARMENIA
                                            T I                                                                                                                                                                                    Am




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     X
                                                                                                                                                   Tiflis         Derbend                                                               uD
                                                N E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         IA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and 71
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               N
                                                                             E M                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Samark
                                                                                                                                                                             Sea




                                                                                                              Erzuru




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A
                                                                                 P I R                                       m                                                                                                                                   710
M                                                                                      E                                                       A                                                                                               Bukhara
                                                                                                                                                ZE




       e
                                                                                                                                                  RB




                 d
                                                                                                                                                         AI




                     i t                                                               Tarsu                           M                                                                                                                                                                                    664
                                                                                                                                                           JA




                                                                                            s       Edessa                                    Tabriz                  Ardabil                                                              Mery                                                     Balkh
                         e r           Rhod
                                                                                                                                                             N




                                            e
                                                                                                                         ES




                             r a         654 s
                                                                                                                                                                                                          N




                                                                              Cypr Antioch                                                                                                                 A
                                                                                                                                O




                                 n e
                                                                                                                                          Mosul 641                                                   RG                                                     r 651                                                          l 664
                                                                                                                                 PO




                                                                                  u
                                     a n                                       649 s                                                                                                         GU                                            Nishapu                                                                Kabu
                                                                                                                    Eu


                                                                                                                                    TA




                                            S e                                                                                                                                              Rayy
                                                                                                                        ph




                 LIB                                             a                              S
                                                                                               YRIA                                           Jalula                                                      KHU                                                            Herat                                                                 JAB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PUN
                                                                                                                           ra


                                                                                                                                      M




                         YA                                                       Da                                         te s
                                                                             capital mascus 63                                                                                                                         RASAN
                                                                                                                                         IA




                                                                                    from 6     5
                                                                                           58                                       Kerbela                             Nehavend
                                                                               Ram                                                                                      642
                                                                                      la          Yarmu                                 680                                                                                                                                            N                                                              1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A                                                                  an 71
                                              Alex                                                        k 636                                      Ctesiphon                                                                                           N       I
                                                      andr
                                                           ia                                    Fihl                                                                                                     S        A           S           A                                                                                            Mult                     30°
                                                         646                                  Jerusale
                                                                                                       m 638                           Kufa             Susa                                                                                                         I           A
                                                  al-Fu                                         Ajnada                                             Qadisiya 636                   Isfahan                                  E               R             S
                                                        stat 6                                          in 634                                                                                                 P
                                                     Faiyu 70                Heliop
                                                                                      oli                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DU
                                                            m                     640 s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                HIN
                                                                                                                                                                                  FA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            us
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SEISTAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TES
                                                                                                                                                                  Basra
                                                   E G                                                                                                            656                   R            Istahar 648                                                                                                       Ind              STA
                                                       Y P                                                                                                                                                             K
                                                                                                                                                                                        S




                                                                                                    Tabuk                                                                                                                  IR
                                                           T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   M                                                                                   SI N D
                                                                                                                                                                 BA




                                                                                                                                                                             Pe                                                         A
                                                                                                                                                                  HR




                                                                                                                                                                                   rs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            N
                                                                     Nil




                                                                                                                                                                                        ia
                                                                                                                                                                      AI




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              AN
                                                                                                                                                                                             n                                                                           MAKR                                                                                   cer
                                                                         e




                                                                                                                                                                        N




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ic of
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Gu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Trop
                                                                                                          H




                                                                                                                                                                                                          lf
                                                                                                           EJ




                                                                                                Badr 624                                                                                                               Suhar                                                                              Sea
                                                                                                              AZ




                                                                                                                             Medina                                                                                                    O
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Muscat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Arabian
                                                                                                                                                                             Y




                                                                                                                                                                                A                                                          M
                                                                                                                                                                                    M                                                           AN
                                                                                                                                                                                        A
                                                                                                                                                                                             M                                                                                                                                                                   20°
                                               M A K




                                                                                                                                                                                                 A
                                                                                                            Re




                                                                                                                             Mecca                           A r a b i a n
                                                                                                                             622
                                                     K U




                                                             Dong
                                                                                                              d




                                                                        ola                                                                                 P e n i n s u l a
                                                                                                                  Se
                                                      R




                                                             A
                                                                                                                    a
                                                        I




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   T
                                        N                                                                                              Najran                                                                              U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A                                                                                                             AN
                                                                 Soba                                                                                                                                              M
                                                                                                                                                                                                           R
                                                                                                                                                                                                               A                                                                                                                 OCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                      H                                                                                      IAN
                                                                               ALODIA
                                                                                                                                                                                        H
                                                                                                                                                                                             AD                                                                                          IND
                                                                                                                                                    YEMEN

                                                                                                                    KINGDOM
                                                                                                                                                              Aden                                                                                                                                          0                       300 km                       10°
                                                                                                                    OF AXUM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0                                300 miles




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   29
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Expansion 751–1700
                                      Islam expanded by conquest and conversion.         (including Zoroastrians) the right to maintain
                                      Although it was sometimes said that the faith of   their religious practices provided they paid the
 The tower of the great mosque
                                      Islam was spread by the sword, the two are not     jizya tax (tribute), a payment in lieu of military
     in Kairouan, now in Tunisia,
                                      the same. The Koran states unequivocally,          service. Initially Islam remained the religion of
     dates from the ninth century.
     Built near the site of ancient
                                      “There is no compulsion in religion” (2:256).      the Arabs, a badge of unity and mark of superi-
     Carthage, the design of three    Following the precedent established by the         ority. When conversions did occur the converts
superimposed towers is based on       Prophet, who allowed the Jews and Christians       were required to become mawali (clients) of the
the lighthouses and watchtowers       to keep their religion if they paid tribute, the   Arab tribes, the assumption being that the
            of classical antiquity.   caliphs granted all the people of the Book         Arabs retained a hegemonic role.
                                                                                            Many factors, however, encouraged conver-
                                                                                         sion after the initial conquests. For those
                                                                                         Christians who were tired of centuries of eru-
                                                                                         dite theological wranglings over the precise bal-
                                                                                         ance between Christ’s divine and human
                                                                                         natures, Islam provided the hospitality of a reli-
                                                                                         gion in which Christ had an honored place as a
                                                                                         forerunner to Muhammad. Likewise for Jews
                                                                                         Islam could appear as a reformed faith in the
                                                                                         tradition of Abraham and Moses. Zoroastrians,
                                                                                         deprived of state support for their religion after
                                                                                         the Arab conquest of the Sassanian Empire,
                                                                                         would find in Islam a religion, like theirs, of
                                                                                         individual ethical responsibility and later, in the
                                                                                         Shiite idea of a Mahdi (messiah) from the
                                                                                         House of Ali, a concept similar to the Saoshyant
                                                                                         of Zoroastrian eschatology. Messianic ideas
                                                                                         have a universal appeal, and are found in nearly
                                                                                         all religious traditions. After the Islamic con-
                                                                                         quests in India, the Awaited Imans of the Shiite
                                                                                         eschatology would sometimes be identified with
                                                                                         a forthcoming avatar of Vishnu. In the metro-
                                                                                         politan areas converts from the older traditions
                                                                                         helped to detribalize the Arabian religion by
                                                                                         asserting their rights as Muslims, by emphasiz-
                                                                                         ing the universality of its message, and by stress-
                                                                                         ing its legitimizing function in the establishment
                                                                                         of the new social order and forms of political
                                                                                         power. Further afield the simplicity of the con-
                                                                                         version process (the mere utterance before wit-
                                                                                         nesses of the formula: “There is no god but

30
                                                                                                             EXPANSION 751–1700




God. Muhammad is the Messenger of God”)             numerous guises: educated, literate mer-
would contrast favorably with the often com-        chants, wandering scholar-teachers, charis-
plex conversion procedures of the mystery reli-     matic dervishes, native princes with impres-
gions. In Subsaharan Africa local spirits could     sive retinues, sophisticated intellectuals and
be Islamized by incorporating them into the         dais (missionaries) from esoteric traditions
                                                                                                      This Koran, written using
Koranic storehouse of angels, djinns, and devils.   who specialized in tailoring their message
                                                                                                      muhaqqaq script, was produced
Ancestor cults could be accommodated by             and rituals to suit audiences of widely differ-   in Baghdad in 1308. The large
grafting local kinship groups onto Arab or Sufi     ent cultural backgrounds. Lacking a central-      format indicates that this
spiritual lineages.                                 ly directed missionary program, the religion      manuscript was a presentation
   There were also more worldly considera-          has proved itself sufficiently adaptable to       copy, used for public recitation
tions behind many conversions. Islamic mar-         spread organically.                               in the mosque.
riage rules are weighted in favor of spreading
the faith, for while a woman from one of the
ahl al-dhimma (protected communities) who
marries a Muslim is not required to change
her religion, the converse does not apply, and
the children are expected to be brought up as
Muslims, ensuring the Islamization of subse-
quent generations. This demographic advan-
tage would have carried considerable weight
in societies where it was customary for the
victors to marry the women of defeated
tribes. More generally, there exists the natu-
ral tendency of bright and ambitious individ-
uals to enter the ranks of the ruling elites. As
Islamic society developed in metropolitan
areas such as the cities of Iran and Iraq,
knowledge of the Law and the Traditions of
the Prophet, alongside secular learning in
such fields as literature, astronomy, philoso-
phy, medicine, and mathematics, became the
mark of distinction among the patrician
classes. Conversions inspired by social ambi-
tion should not be dismissed as mere oppor-
tunism: at its high point in the classical era,
the Islamic world was the most developed
and sophisticated society outside China. The
models of urbane sobriety and order it
offered would have exercised their own
appeal quite apart from conscious missionary
activity. Peoples on the fringes of the core
regions would have encountered the faith in

                                                                                                                                         31
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                                                                                                                 165°          150°         135°       120°       105°     90°          75°       60°           45°         30°             15°



                                                                       70°
                                                                       Arctic Circ                                                                                                                     Greenland
                                                                                  le

                                                    60°

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Iceland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (to Denmark)
                                      50°

                                                                                                                                       Rupert’s Land                                                                          SCOTLAND

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            IRELAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ENGLAND
                              40°                                                                                                                                    Newfoundland
                                                                                                                                   New France
                                                                                                                                                            Nova Scotia                                                               FRANCE


                                                                                                                                         British Colonies                                                                             Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 PORTUGAL
           30°                                                                                                                                                                                Azores                                  SPAIN

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Madeira
                                                                                                                                                              ATLANTIC                                                     MOROCCO
           Tropic of Cancer                                                                                             Florida
                                    PACIFIC                                                                                                                    OCEAN                               Canary Is.
                                                                                                                               Bahamas                                                                                            S          a    h
                                    OCEAN
                                                                         V




     20°
                                                                            ic




                                                                                e-                                      Cuba
                                                                                     R                                                Hispaniola
                                                                                         oy
                                                                                              al        Belize       Jamaica                                                                                                           ARMA
                                                                                                   ty                                         Puerto Rico
                                                                                                        of                                                                                              St. Louis
                                                                                                                                                                                       Cape Verde Is.
                                                                                                             Ne                                                                                               TERKUR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SONGHAI

                                                                                          Mosquito                w S                                                                                                       KALI      SEGU
     10°                                                                                     Coast
                                                                                                                      pain                                                                                Potugese
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Guinea                       Mossi
                                                                                                                                                   Trinidad                                                                MALI         states

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ASHANTI

                                                                                                              Santa Fé                                                                                                            Elmina
                                                                                                             de Bogotá

      0°
                                                                                                             Quito
                                                                                                                   Vi




                                                                                                                                                                                       Recife
                                                                                                                        ce
                                                                                                                          -R




     10°                                                                                                         Lima                                                            Bahia
                                                                                                                             oy




                                      Expansion 750–1700
                                                                                                                                  al




                                                                                                                                          La Paz
                                                                                                                                   ty
                                                                                                                                       of




                                            Muslim expansion to 900
                                                                                                                                         Peru




     20°                                    Muslim expansion to 1300
                            rn
           Tropic of Caprico
                                            Muslim expansion to 1500

                                            Muslim expansion to 1700                                                           Santiago


           30°                              Muslim land lost by 1300

                                            Muslim land lost by 1500

                                            Muslim land lost by 1700

                              40°




                                      50°




                                                     60°
                                                             165°          150°                    135°            120°                105°          90°           75°           60°             45°                 30°              15°         0



32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   EXPANSION 751–1700




     0°               15°                  30°        45°           60°                  75°      90°         105°          120°           135°             150°         165°         180°             165°
                                                                                                                                                                                                              80°


                                           ARCTIC
                                           OCEAN                                                                                                                                                                                            70°



                                       AY
                               RW                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60°
                           O
                       N
                  &
            RK




                                       EN                                                                                      S   i       b     e      r     i     a                                             Okhotsk
          DENMA




                                   D
                               E
                        W                         St Petersburg                                                                                                                                                                                                          50°
                                                                                           R U S S I A N                                   E M P I R E
                   S




                                                            Moscow
           HOLY
                                   POLAND
          ROMAN
          EMPIRE                                                                               NOGAIS                                                                                                                                                                           40°
                            HUNGARY
                                                                                                                               KIRGHIZ
                                                                                           TU




                                                                                                        UZ                                              KALMYKS
                                                                                              RKO




                                                                                                             BE
                                                                                                 MA




                                                  Constantinople                                                  KS                                                                MANCHU
                                                                                                  NS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    KOREA            JAPAN
            PAPAL                                                   E                                                                                                               CHINESE
           STATES                                              R
                                                            PI                                                                                                                      EMPIRE                                                                                      30°
                                                     EM                                  SAFAVID
                  OTTOMAN                                                                 EMPIRE                                                      TIBET
                                                                                                                       MU
                                                                                                                            GH
                                                      Cairo        A                                                               A
                                                                        ra                                                             L                                 Shan                                                                           PACIFIC
h          a           r               a                                                                                                                                 States
                                                                             b                                                             E                                                                           Formosa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        OCEAN
                                                                                 i                                                             MP
                                                                                                                                                  IRE                                                                                                                           20°
                                                                                     a




                                                                                                        Oman
                                                                          Mecca
                                                                                                                                                                                      LA




                                                                                                                                                              ARAKAN            AVA
                                                                                                                                                                                          OS

                                                                                                                                                                                                  AN
                                                    FU




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Philippine Is.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   NA




                                                                                                                                                                                             YA
                                                      NJ




     AIR          KANEM-                                                                                                       Goa
                                                                                                                                                                                                       M




                              DARFUR
                                                                                                                                                                                      HA
                                                              ET HI O




                  BORNU WADAI                                                                                          MARATHA                                                                                                     Manila
                                                                                 Yemen
                                                                                                                                                                                    AYUTT




                                                                                                                       TERRITORY
      Hausa                                                                                                                         Hindu                                                                                                                                       10°
      states                                                              AWSA
                                                                                                                                   Kingdoms                                                 CAMBODIA
                                                                  PI
                                                                    A




           OYO                                                                                                                                        SAYLAN

                                                            OROMO                                                                                                           ACEH
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Malacca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Borneo                                                        0°
                                                                         Islamic
                                                                         city states                                                                                                                                       Celebes
                                                                        Mombasa
                                                                                                                                   INDIAN                                         Sumatra                                             Spice Is.

                                   LUNDA LUBA
           CONGO                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   New Guinea
                                                                                                                                   OCEAN                                                                    MATARAM
                      Luanda                                              Comoro Is.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Timor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10°
                                                   Mozambique

                                                   ROZWI
                                                                                 Madagascar
                                                                                                        Mauritius
                                                                                                 Bourbon
                                                                                                 (Réunion)                                                                                                                                                                      20°
                                       Delagoa Bay                                       Fort Dauphin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           New Holland


            Cape Town
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                30°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          50°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             60°
0°                    15°                   30°             45°                      60°              75°                90°                   105°               120°             135°                    150°             165°            180°      165°



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      33
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Sunnis, Shiites, and Khariji 660–c. 1000
                         The major divisions of Islam, revolving           decision to seek a compromise with
                         around the question of leadership, go back        Muawiya provoked a rebellion among his
                         to the death of the Prophet but were intensi-     more militant supporters, who came to be
                         fied by the first civil war (656–661) and its     known as Kharijis (seceders). Though Ali
                         aftermath in the following generation             defeated the Kharijis in July 658, enough of
                         (680–81). The first caliph, Abu Bakr, had         them survived to continue the movement,
                         been one of the Prophet’s oldest companions       which has lasted to this day in a moderate
                         and the father of his youngest wife, Aisha.       version known as Ibadism. One of the
                         On the Prophet’s death he had been chosen         Khariji leaders, Ibn Muljam, avenged his
                         by acclamation with the powerful support of       comrades by murdering Ali in 661. Ali’s
                         Umar, an early convert and natural leader.        elder son Hasan made an accommodation
                         When Abu Bakr died Umar’s caliphate was           with the victorious Muawiya, who became
                         generally acknowledged, and it was during         the first Umayyad caliph. On Muawiya’s
                         his ten-year reign that the Muslim state          death in 680, when the succession passed to
                         began to take shape. Under Umar the ten-          Muawiya’s son, Yazid, Ali’s younger son
                         sions resulting from the conquests, over the      Hussein made an unsuccessful bid to restore
                         distribution of booty and the status of trib-     the caliphate to the Prophet Muhammad’s
                         al leaders in the new Muslim order, began to      closest descendants. The massacre of
                         surface. The tensions were kept in check          Hussein and a small group of followers at
                         under Umar’s stern and puritanical rule but       Karbala in 680 by Yazid’s soldiers provoked
                         would surface disastrously during the reign       a movement of repentance among Ali’s sup-
                         of his successor, Uthman, who was mur-            porters in Iraq. They became known as the
                         dered in Medina by disgruntled soldiers           Shiites, the “partisans” of Ali.
                         returning from Egypt and Iraq. Though
                         renowned for his commitment to the new
                         religion as an early convert, Uthman was
                         linked to the Umayyad clan in Mecca that
                         had originally opposed Muhammad’s mes-
                         sage. He was accused of favoring his fellow
                         clansmen at the expense of more pious
                         Muslims. The latter congregated around                The Mughal emperors and their descendants had
                         Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and closest surviv-          an abiding interest in the history and wisdom of
                         ing male relative, who was already regarded                their faith. This was expressed both in their
                         by some of his followers as the originally                  memoirs and in their paintings. By the mid-
                         designated successor to the Prophet, and                      1600s, the Emperor Jahangir’s artists had
                         who now assumed the role of caliph. Ali’s              developed a format in which two or more sages,
                         failure to punish Uthman’s assassins pro-              or holy men, were depicted seated in discussion.
                         voked a rebellion by two of Muhammad’s                    Mughal artists did not shrink from depicting
                         closest companions, Talha and Zubayr, sup-               fabled holy men from the past as if they were
                         ported by Aisha. Though he defeated Talha               still alive. The figures in this painting represent
                         and Zubayr, Ali failed to overcome                                 the Muslim orthodoxy, with the only
                         Uthman’s kinsman Muawiya, the governor                    nonconformist being the bare-headed dervish
                         of Syria, at the Battle of Siffin. His eventual                                  seated at the lower left.

34
SUNNIS, SHIITES, AND KHARIJI 660–c. 1000




                                     35
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Abbasid Caliphate under Harun al-Rashid
                                                                                         Byzantines kept them at bay. Upon becoming
                                                                                         caliph in 764, Harun established diplomatic
                                                                                         relations with Charlemagne (r. 742–814) and
                                                                                         the Byzantine emperor. Diplomatic and com-
                                                                                         mercial ties were also established with China.
                                                                                            Harun’s reign is often referred to as the Gold-
                                                                                         en Age, a period of significant cultural and lit-
                                                                                         erary activity during which the arts, Arabic
                                                                                         grammar, literature, and music flourished under
                                                                                         his patronage. Al-Rashid
                                                                                         figures prominently in the            20°                             10°

                                                                                         famous literary compila-
                                                                                         tion One Thousand and
                                                                                         One Nights. Among his




                                                                                                                        40
                                                                                                                        °
                                                                                         courtiers were the poet
                                                                                         Abu Nuwas (d. 815), who
                                                                                         was renowned for his                        Li
                                                                                                                                       sb
                                                                                                                                          on
                                                                                         wine and his love poetry,                                      Um
                                                                                                                                                      756 ayya       To
                                                                                                                                                          –10 ds       led
                                                                                         and the musician Ibrahim                                   Sev      31           o
                                                                                                                                                       ille
                                                                                         al-Mawsili (d. 804). Abu                           Ta
                                                                                                                                                           Cor
                                                                                                                                                          Uma dova, c
                                                                                                                                                ngi           y       ap
                                                                                                                                                     er   Gib yad Em ital of
                                                                                         ’l Hasan al-Kisai (d. 805),                      Rab                ral irate
                                                                                                                                                                tar
                                                                                                                                               at
                                                                                         who was tutor to al-                             Id
                                                                                                                                                  Tle
                                                                                                                                                      mc
                                                                                                                                       789 risids        en
                                                                                                                                           –92
                                                                                         Rashid and his sons, was                               6           Rus
                                                                                                                                      Ma
                                                                                                                                         rrak     S        776 tamids
                                                                                                                                               esh ijilmas –906
                                                                                         the leading Arabic gram-        30°                               sa

                                                                                         marian and Koran reciter
                                                                                         of his day. The classical
                                                                                         texts were translated from
                                                                                         Greek, Syriac, and other
        A romanticized nineteenth-     The reign of caliph Harun al-Rashid (r.           languages into Arabic.
      century portrait of Harun al-    764–809) marked the height of military con-       Harun was famous for his
     Rashid with an Ottoman-style      quests and territorial acquisition under the      largesse: a well-turned
 mosque in the background. The         Abbasids, with the caliphate extending from the   poem could earn the gift
     revival of the caliphate by the
                                       boundaries of India and Central Asia to Egypt     of a horse, a bag of gold,     20°

     Ottoman sultans was intended
                                       and North Africa.                                 or even a country estate.
      to grant them rights over the                                                                                                         N
                                         Harun rose through the ranks as a military      His wife Zubaida was
     Muslim subjects of European
                                       commander before assuming the caliphate from      famous for her charities,
       powers to balance the rights
                                       his murdered brother al-Hadi (r. 785–86) and      especially   for   causing
      claimed by the latter over the
        sultan’s Christian subjects.
                                       served variously as governor of Ifriqiya (mod-    numerous wells to be dug
                                       ern-day Tunisia), Egypt, Syria, Armenia, and      on the pilgrimage route
                                       Azerbaijan. His military campaigns against the    from Iraq to Medina.

36
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ABBASID CALIPHATE UNDER HARUN AL-RASHID




                          Sufism (Islamic mysticism) flourished under                                                      Barmaki family, led to a period of political
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Abbasid Empire
                   the caliph. The famous ascetic and mystic                                                               and territorial decline. Harun’s decision to                                                                                                       c. 850
                   Maruf al-Karkh (d. c.815) was among the lead-                                                           divide the empire between his two sons al-                                                                                                                        Extent of Abbasid Empire 786–809

                   ing expositors of Sufism in Baghdad. By con-                                                            Amin and al-Mamun, appointing the elder al-                                                                                                                       Other Muslim dynasties

                   trast, Harun instituted a policy of repressing the                                                      Amin (r. 809–813) as his successor, con-                                                                                                                          Islamic expansion 750–850
                   Shiites, who were thought to challenge this rule.                                                       tributed to a two-year civil war that was fol-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Byzantine Empire
                          The latter half of Harun’s reign was                                                             lowed by periods of continued instability and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Abbasid campaigns
                   marked by political instability. The granting                                                           insurrection. The reign of al-Mamun (r.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Islamic naval attacks
                   of semiautonomy to the governor of Ifriqiya,                                                            813–833), though intellectually brilliant, was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Saffarid incursions
                   Ibrahim b. al-Aghlab, in 800, followed by                                                               marked by territorial decline and the waning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Qarmation expansion
                   Harun’s destruction of the all-powerful al-                                                             of Abbasid influence.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            °                                                          °
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             37
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Spread of Islam, Islamic Law, and Arabic Language
                         The rapid spread of Islam acted as a formida-         Being the language of the Koran, Arabic
                         ble force of change in the Old World. By the        was carried to the new converts. Becoming
                         end of the reign of Umar ibn al-Khattab (d.         the lingua franca of medieval Islam, the dis-
                         644), the whole of the Arabian Peninsula was        tinctiveness of Arabic was evident in all
                         conquered, together with most of the Sasan-         spheres of high culture, from religious to
                         ian Empire, as well as the Syrian and Egyptian      legal, official, intellectual, and literary dic-
                         provinces of Byzantium. Following the tragic        tions. While in the western provinces Arabic
                         Battle of Karbala, which led to the death of        dominated the vernacular dialects, Persian
                         Imam al-Hussein (AD 680), a new phase was           remained in use eastward; witnessing a liter-
                         ushered in with the making of the Umayyad           ary revival in the tenth century   AD   with the
                         Empire (661–750), which eventually extended         unfurling of an Arabo-Persian idiom, which
                         its dominion from the Ebro River in Spain to        became prevalent across Iran as well as
                         the Oxus Valley in Central Asia. Claiming uni-      Transoxiana and northern India.
                         versal authority over far-reaching frontiers,         A theme that recurs in this formative peri-
                         the Umayyad dynasty took Damascus as its            od of Islamic thought is the relationship,
                         capital city, and remained virtually unchal-        often tense, between revelation and reason.
                         lenged in its reign until the rise of the Abbasid   Under the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun (r.
                         caliphate with its capital in Baghdad               813–833) there existed a group of theologians
                         (749–1258). While Spain continued to be             known as the Mutazila. They had absorbed
                         under Umayyad rule (756–1031), new regional         the work of Greek philosophers and adopted
                         powers confronted the Abbasid hegemony, like        a rationalist style of argumentation that
                         the Fatimids in Egypt (909–1171), and the           equated God with pure reason. For the
                         Saljuqs in Iran and Iraq (1038–1194), along         Mutazila the world created by God operated
                         with waves of Crusader invaders in the Levant.      according to rational principles humans could
                            Numerous traditions in thought flourished,       understand by exercising reason. As free
                         like the Sunni schools of legal reasoning           agents, humans were morally responsible for
                         (hanafi, maliki, shafii, hanbali) and the           their actions, and since good and evil had
                         “Twelver Shiite” lineage descending from the        intrinsic value, God’s justice was constrained
                         Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 661). The upsurge in     by universal laws. They held to the view that
                         intellectual activities was also marked by the      the Koran was created in time, inspired by
                         founding of the mutazila and ashari methods of      God in Muhammad, but not part of his
                         kalam, in addition to the maturation of philos-     essence. Their opponents, the hadith scholars,
                         ophy, the sciences, and mysticism. Many             insisted that the Koran was “uncreated” and
                         notable centers of learning were established,       coeternal with God. They believed it was not
                         along with associated productions of manu-          for man to question God’s injunctions or
                         scripts, like al-Azhar in Cairo, the Zaytuna in     explore them intellectually, and that all
                         Tunis, the Qarawiyyin in Fez, the coteries of       human action was ultimately predetermined.
                         Córdoba in Andalusia, the schools of Najaf and      The Mutazili view, buttressed by the mihna
                         Karbala in Iraq, and those of Qumm and Mash-        (an “inquisition” or test applied to ulama and
                         had in Iran.                                        public officials), held sway for a period. How-

38
                                     SPREAD OF ISLAM, ISLAMIC LAW, AND ARABIC LANGUAGE




ever, it was reversed under
his successor al-Mutawakil
(r. 847–61) as a result of
populist pressures focused
on the heroic figure of
Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855)
who resisted imprisonment
and torture to defend the
“uncreated” Koran. A kind
of   compromise        between
reason and revelation was
reached in the work of Abul
Hasan al-Ashari (d. 935).
He used rationalistic meth-
ods to defend the “uncreat-
ed” Koran and allowed for a
degree of human responsi-
bility. However, the conse-
quences of the Mutazili
defeat were far reaching.
The caliphs ceased to be the
ultimate authorities in doc-
trinal matters. Mainstream
Sunni theologians espoused
the command theory of
ethics: an act is right
because God commands it,
God does not command it
because it is right. Mutazil-
ism is a term of abuse for
many conservative Islamists,
especially in Saudi Arabia,
which follows the Hanbali
tradition in law.



      The courtyard at al-Azhar in
      Cairo, founded by the Shiite
 Fatimids in 970. Al-Azhar became
      the foremost center of Sunni
     scholarship and an important
           source of manuscripts.

                                                                                    39
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Successor States to 1100
                                                                                           autonomy in return for an annual tribute,
                                                                                           founded a dynasty that lasted until 909. The
                                                                                           puritanical Kharijis, who held to the princi-
                                                                                           ple of an elected imam or caliph, established
                                                                                           independent states based in Wargala oasis,
                                                                                           Tahert, and Sijilmassa. Of Tahert, destroyed


                                                                                                                                                  10°
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                                                                                                                                                                   me



                                                                                                                                      Tu
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                                                                                                                      Ifriqiy
     This clay model clearly shows
     the physical features that Arab
and Persian commentators noted
as typical of the Turkish soldiers                                                                                                                 M




                                                                                                                              a
                                                                                                                                      Tr                ed
                                                                                                                                        ipo
           recruited by the caliphs.                                                                                                         li              it
                                                                                                                                                                  er
                                                                                                                                                                       ra
                                                                                              A                                                                             ne
                                                                                                                                                                                 an
                                                                                                      f
                                       Even at its maximum extent the Abbasid
                                                                                                                      r
                                       Empire failed to contain the whole Islamic
                                       world. In Spain an independent dynasty had                                                 i
                                       been founded by an Umayyad survivor, Abd                                                                   c
                                       al-Rahman I (r. 756–788). A grandson of the                                                                                a
                                       Caliph Hisham, he escaped the massacre of
                                       his kinsmen and after various adventures
                                       made his way to the peninsula. Here he per-
                                       suaded feuding Arabs and Berbers to accept                 Post-Imperial Successor
                                       him as their leader, instead of the governor               Regimes late 10th Century
                                       sent by the Abbasids. In what is now Moroc-                         Abbasid Caliphate c. 900

                                       co, a descendant of Ali and Fatima, Idris bin                       Byzantine Empire

                                       Abdullah, who escaped from Arabia after                             Fatimids
                                       the failure of a Shiite revolt in 786, arrived at
                                                                                                           Hamadanids
                                       the old Roman capital of Volubilis. Here he
                                                                                                           Buyids
                                       formed a tribal coalition, which rapidly con-
                                                                                                           Samanids
                                       quered southern Morocco. His son Idris II
                                       founded Fez in 808. In Tunisia (Ifriqiya) the                       Ghurids

                                       descendants of Ibrahim ibn Aghlab, Harun
                                       al-Rashid’s governor, who had been granted

40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SUCCESSOR STATES TO 1100




          by the Fatimids in the tenth century, the                                                                 At the heart of the empire, however, polit-
          chronicler Ibn Saghir wrote:                                                                           ical and religious tensions were rife. The dis-
                “There was not a foreigner who stopped in                                                        puted succession between Harun’s sons
          the city but settled among them and built in                                                           Amin and Mamun led to a civil war that last-
          their midst, attracted by the plenty there, the                                                        ed a decade, weakening the Abbasid armies
          equitable conduct of the Imam, his just behav-                                                         and the institution of the caliphate. Though
          ior toward those under his charge, and the                                                             Mamun won the war, his attempt to impose
          security enjoyed by all in person and property.”                                                       the Mutazili doctrine of the “created” Koran


   20°                                       30°                                           40°                                         50°                            60°                                            70°                                    80°
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                                                               met with strong resistance from the populist                                                                                        Mamun’s most effective general, Tahir,
                                                               ulama (religious scholars) grouped around                                                                                           established a hereditary governorate. To off-
                                                               Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. For the latter, who saw                                                                                           set the power of the Tahirids Mamun’s suc-
                                                               the divine text as “uncreated” or eternal, the                                                                                      cessor Mutasim relied increasingly on merce-
                                                               doctrine of the created Koran derogated                                                                                             naries recruited from Turkish-speaking
                                                               from the idea of the Koran as God’s speech.                                                                                         tribes in Central Asia—a practice that has-
                                                               They looked to the Koran and the emerging                                                                                           tened the breakup of the empire and the
                                                               corpus of hadiths (traditions or reports                                                                                            establishment of de facto tribal dynasties.
                                                               about the Prophet Muhammad) as the sole                                                                                             The construction of a new capital at Samar-
                                                               sources of religious authority, with them-                                                                                          ra further isolated the caliph from his sub-
                                                               selves as qualified interpreters. They regard-                                                                                      jects. By the end of the tenth century the
                                                               ed the caliph as the executive of the will of                                                                                       Abbasid caliphs were mainly titular mon-
                                                               the community, not the source of its beliefs.                                                                                       archs,            their              legitimacy                             challenged                            by
                                                                        As the caliph’s religious authority weak-                                                                                  claimants in the line of Ali. The most radical
                                                               ened, so did his political and economic con-                                                                                        of these movements, the Qaramatians,
                                                               trol. In cultivated regions including Iraq the                                                                                      fomented peasant and nomad rebellions in
                                                               system of iqta (tax-farming) built up a class                                                                                       Iraq, Syria, and Arabia in the name of a mes-
                                                               of landlords at the expense of central gov-                                                                                         siah descended from Ali through his descen-
                                                               ernment. In Iran and the eastern provinces                                                                                          dant Ismail bin Jaafar. In the 920s the Qara-

        Ta                              10°                                       20°                                        30°                                   40°                                50°                         60°                                    70°                                   80°
             he                                     Ro                                                                               E u                                                                                                                                                                             50°
               rt                                        me                                                                              r o
                                                                                                                                             p e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      a
                                                                             BY




                                Tu
                                                                                                                                                                             Vo




                                  nis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                s             i
                                                                                                                                                                              l ga
                    Ifriqiy




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A
                                                                              Z




                                                                                                                         Blac
                                                                                      A




                                                                                          N              Con                      k Se
                                                                                                                                      a
                                                                                              T                stan
                                                                                                  IN                tinop                                                                                                     Aral
                                                                                                                             le                                                                                               Sea
                                                                             Ath                         E
                                                                                                                                                                                        Ca s




                                           M                                      ens                          EM
                                Tr                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a
                                   ipo         ed                                             Smy                                                                                                                                                                                               han
                                                                                                                                                                                           p ian




                                                                                                                         PI                                                                                              Khwarizm                                                       rg
                            a




                                      li                                                            rna                     RE                  A rm eni a                                                                                                                       Fa
                                                    it




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ya
                                                         er                                                                                                              Tiflis                                                                                                                                gar 40°



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kash
                                                                                                                                                                                                Sea




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tr




  A                                                           ra                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Sy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        r
                                                                   ne                                                                                                                                                                                 ns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  a




                                                                        an                                                                                               ies                                                       Bukhara                 ox        Sa      markand
                                                                                                                                                   t
         f                                                                   Se                                                        Local dynas                                                                                                                ia n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A




                                                                                  a                                               Alepp      Mosul                          Tabriz                                                            m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  u
                                                                                                                                        o                                                                                                             Da
                     r                                                                                                         Syria                                         Daylam                                                                        ry a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Merv                      Balkh
                                                                                                                                          Eu




                                                                                      Ale                                                                                              Tabaristan                                                                                  Kabul
                                                                                                                                           ph




                                i                                                         xan                                                                                                                            Khurasan                                                Ghazni
                                                                                                                                               ra




                                                                                                  dria                                              te
                                                                                                                                                         s         Samarra                          Rayy
                                           c                                                                             Jerus                                     Baghdad                         Qom                                   Herat
                                                                                                                                   alem                                                                                                                                       an
                                                         a                                         Cair                                                           Karbala                                                                Afghanist
                                                                                                          o                                                                                           Isfahan
                                                                                                                                                                  Iraq                                                                                                                                        an
                                                                                      Egy                                                                          Basra                                                                                                                         Mult
                                                                                              pt                                                                                  Ahwaz                                                                                                                              30°
Post-Imperial Successor                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sistan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            s




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Shiraz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       du




Regimes early 11th Century
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   In




                                                                                                                                                                                      Pe               Fa            Kirman                                                                               Indi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a
                                                                                                                                                                                           rs
                                                                                                                                                                                                ia          rs
      Byzantine Empire                                                                                                                              A r a b                                       n
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Gu
                                                                                                                                                            i a
                                                                                                                   R e




                                                                                                                                                                                     Bahrain               lf
                                                                                                                                  He




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       r
                                                                                                                                               Medina                                                                                                                                                          of Cance
                                                                                                                                    jaz




      Fatimids                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tropic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     O
                                                                                                                       d




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              n
      Qarkhanids                                                                                                                          Mecca
                                                                                                                           S e




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Arabian                                                   20°
                                                                                                                               a




      Buyids                                                                                  Nu                                                                                                                                                                                                          N
                                                                                                 bia                                                                                                                                                         Sea

      Ghaznavids
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 t
                                                                                                                                                                                                            au
                                                                                                                                                                                                        m
                                                                                                                                                                                           ra
                                                                                                                                                                                        dh
                                                                                                                                                                                     Ha
                                                                                                                                                             Y
                                                                                                                                                             em




                                                                                                                                                                  en


42
                                                                                                             SUCCESSOR STATES TO 1100




matians, who created an independent state in      Turkish tribe of Qarluqs, led by the
Bahrain, shocked the whole Muslim world by        Qaraqanid dynasty, which he did his best to
pillaging Mecca and carrying off the Black        confine to the Oxus basin in the north. Mah-
Stone. In 969 Egypt—already semi-inde-            mud crossed the Indus Valley, establishing
pendent under Ibn Tulun and his successors,       permanent rule in the Punjab, and conducted
the Ikhshids—was taken over by the Ismaili        raids into northwestern India, plundering
Fatimids, who established a new caliphate         cities and destroying numerous works of art
under a “living imam” descended from Ali          as idolatrous. This earned him a fearsome
and Ismail. In northern Syria and the Upper       reputation as a ghazi against the infidel. On
Tigris the bedouin Arab Hamdan family—            his western front, in the lands of “old Islam”
also Shiite—ruled a semi-autonomous,              he pushed the Buyids back almost to the fron-
sometimes independent, state. In Khurasan         tiers of Iraq.
and     Transoxiana   the    Samanid    family
replaced the Tahirids as defenders of the
mixed Arab-Persian high culture against
incoming nomadic tribes. Even in the central
heartlands of the empire—Iraq and western
Iran—the caliphs were virtual prisoners of
the Shiite Buyids, a warrior clan from Day-
lam, south of the Caspian.
  In Inner Asia, where the Samanids had
established a flourishing capital in Bukhara,
the adoption of Islam by Turk-
ish-speaking tribes subverted the
role of the Samanids as ghazis.
These were frontier warriors
entrusted with the defense of
Islam against nomadic incur-
sions. The practice of recruiting warrior-
slaves, known as mamluks or ghulams, from
mountainous or arid regions hastened the
disintegration of the empire. When
power declined at the center, the
mamluks went on to establish
their   own   “slave-dynasties.”
Thus the Ghaznavids who supplant-
ed their former Samanid overlords in
                                                  Mahmud of Ghazna crosses the Ganges. The
Khurasan started as slave-soldiers in the fron-   Ghaznavids, Turkish military governors, enjoyed great
tier region of Ghazna, south of Kabul. When       renown in later times as the first to extend Muslim
the Samanid regime collapsed in 999, Mah-         power into India. This image is from the Compendium of
mud of Ghazna (r. 998–1030), son of a slave-      Chronicals, composed for the vizier Rashid al-Din in the
governor, divided their territory with the        early fourteenth century.

                                                                                                                                  43
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




The Saljuq Era
                                       Despite challenges to their authority and the loss     Khurasan, laying the foundations of the Saljuq
                                       of military and effective political power, the         Empire. Defeating the Buyids in 1055 they took
                                       Abbasid caliphs retained immense prestige in the       control of Baghdad, where the caliph crowned
                                       eyes of most townspeople and many of the tribes        their leader Tughril Beg Sultan in acknowledg-
                                                        as the lawful successors to the
                                                        Prophet and heads of the Muslim                                                          20°                                                    30°
                                                                                                                                   HU
                                                                                                                                          NG
                                                                 .
                                                        community The division of the                                                       AR
                                                                                                                                                 Y
                                                        world into Dar al-Islam and Dar
                                                                                                                                 ZE
                                                                                                                            ( S E TA
                                                        al-Harb facilitated the spread of                                        RB
                                                                                                                                    IA)
                                                        Islam centripetally as well as cen-                                                                                 H E N
                                                                                                                                                                      P E C
                                                        trifugally: when tribes from the
                                                                                               40°
                                                        margins who encountered Muslim                                                              Sof
                                                                                                                                                        ia
                                                        merchants, scholars, or wandering                                         Sal
                                                                                                                                      oni            Co
                                                                                                                                           ka           nst                                Blac
                                                        Sufis, accepted Islam the caliphs                                                                    ant
                                                                                                                                                                ino                                 k
                                                                                                                                                                   ple
                                                        tended to legitimize their rule,                                                                                                    Sino
                                                                                                                                                                                                    pe
                                                        appointing their leaders as gover-
                                                        nors. Conversion civilized the
                                                                                                                                                                         SA L
                                                                                                                                                                                J UQ
                                                        nomadic and pastoral peoples by                                                                                    fro m
                                                                                                                                                                                    S OF
                                                                                                                                                                                            RUM
                                                                                                                                                                                    1095
                                                        subjecting them formally (if not
                                                        always in practice) to the Sharia                   M
                                                                                                                 ed
     Following the rapid advance of    law, reducing the cultural differences between                                  ite                                                                 Antioch
                                                                                                                               rra
                                                                                                                                          ne
the Saljuqs into Anatolia, Konya       the peoples of the desert and steppes and those                                                         an
                                                                                                                                                     Sea
(formerly Iconium) became their        of the cities and settled regions. Tribes recently     30°
           capital. This elaborately   converted often became the greatest builders and         S U                                                                                     Acre
     decorated portal from the Ince                                                                 L A
                                       patrons of Islamic high culture in art, architec-                Y N                                                                     Jerus
                                                                                                                                                                                        alem
        Minare Madrasa shows the
                                       ture, and literature. At the same time conversion
      extraordinary richness of the                                                                                                                           Cairo
                                       made it difficult for rulers to defend their heart-
          Saljuq style. The “Slender                                                                                                                    E g
                                       lands from nomadic predators, since if the                                                                           y p
 Minaret” from which the school                                                                                                                                 t
                                       nomads were no longer infidels the jihad (strug-                                                                 FA T
                                                                                                                                                              IMID
        takes its name was partially                                                                                                                   CA L
                                       gle or “holy war”) launched against them lost its                                                                    IPH
     destroyed by lightning in 1900.                                                                                                                            AT E
                                                                                                     Trop
                                                                                                         ic of                                                                              R
                                       raison d’être.                                                            Can
                                                                                                                      cer
                                                                                                                                                                                                e
                                          Two Turkish-speaking peoples, the Qarluqs
                                                                                                                                                                                                    d
                                                                                                                                                                                 Nile




                                       and the Oghuz, established states that made sig-
                                       nificant contributions to this process. In Tran-        20°

                                       soxiana the Qaraqanid dynasty accepted the                       N

                                       nominal authority of the Abbasid caliphs,
                                       becoming the patrons of a new Turkish culture
                                       derived in part from Arab and Persian models.
                                       After defeating the Ghaznavids the Oghuz peo-
                                       ple, led by the Saljuq family, became the rulers of

44
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          THE SALJUQ ERA




                                             .
                ment of his supreme authority In exchange for                                                                     Crusade in 1096. Although the Saljuqs con-
                formal recognition, the sultans agreed to uphold                                                                  quered half of Anatolia, laying the foundations
                Islamic law and defend Islam from its external                                                                    for later Ottoman-Turkish rule, their system of
                enemies. The massive defeat inflicted by the                                                                      authority was too fragmented to maintain the
                Saljuqs on the Byzantine army at Manzikert in                                                                     unity of the empire, or to defend the frontiers of
                1071 was one of the factors leading to the First                                                                  Islam against further nomadic incursions.

                                      40°                                                50°                                             60°                                  70°                                             80°                                               90°




  E G S
                                                       Sarkel
                                                                     Vo




                                                                                                                                                                  1028–38                                                                       S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            U R
                                                                      lg
                                                                          a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        G H
                                             t o C h e r n i g ov                                                                                                                                                                   U I
                                 K H A Z
                                         A R S
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 Sea                                                                                                                                         Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          gar
                                                                                                                                                                                        r                   rya                     Kash
                                                                                                                                                                                    Otra                  Da
                                                                               Ca




                                                                                                                                     .A




                                  Ca                                                                                                                                                                   yr




                                                                                                                                                                                                   S
                                                                                                                                  mu D




                                        uc
                                             a su                                                                                                     Urgench                                      kent
                                                                                   sp




      Trebizo                                        sM                                                                                                                                      Tash
                 nd
                                                                                                                                         a




                                                                                                                                             ry
                                                                                    ia




                                                       ou                                                                                         a
                                                         nta
                                                                                        n




D A NI                                                      ins                                                                                                                                d
       SHME                                                                                                                                                                                rkan
              ND                                                                                                                                                                    Sama
                                                                                            Se




  EMIR
                                                                                                                                                                                                         na
                                                                                                                                                                                            soxia
         AT E
                                                                                                                                Dandangan                           Bukhara         Tran
                                                                                              a




  from 109                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sh
          5                                   Manzikert
  108                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ku
        0                                     1071
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         du
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in
                                                                                                                                                            Merv                                             H
        Aleppo                  Mosul                                                                                                                                                      Balkh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                l
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kabu                         war
  Homs                                                                                                                           Nishapu
                                                                                                                                                        r                                                                 Pesha
                 Eu




                                                              1042
                  ph




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ot
                      ra




   Damasc
                       te
                            s
                                                                                                     Rayy                                                                                                                                       Sialk
                                                                                                                    2
                us                                                                                            1040–4

                                                                                Hamadan
                                                    Baghdad                   Kermanshah
                                                                                                                      Isfahan
                                      I r a q
                                                                                                                                                                                                                s
                                                                                                                                                                                                             du




                                                                                                                      Shiraz
                                                                                                                                                                                                           In




            A R A B
                                                                                    Pe




                    S
                                                                                         rs




                                                                                                 a
                                                                                              i




                                                                                                     n                 Siraf
                                                                                                         G
                                                                                                             ul
                 Medina                                                                                           f                                                                                                                   The Saljuq Era
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Major Saljuq campaign
                                  A                                                                                                          O                      Muscat
                                                r             a       b        i                                                                       m                                                                                          Saljuq sultanate at its
                                                                                            a                                                               a n                                                                                   maximum extent, c. 1090

                       Mecca                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Byzantine Empire, c. 1095
  S




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Sea                                            Territory lost to Byzantine
                                                                                                                                                                                    bian
      e




                                                                                                                                                                              Ara                                                                 Empire and Crusader
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  states, 1097–99
            a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Extent of the Khwarizm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Shahdom, c. 1220




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      45
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Military Recruitment 900–1800
                         The recruitment of armies from the peripher-       military rulers had no ethnic, cultural, lin-
                         al regions, mainly from the steppelands of         guistic, or historical connection with the peo-
                         inner Asia, the Caucasus, and the Balkans,         ples over whom they ruled, society tended to
                         became the most distinctive feature of the         develop outside the purview of the state, with
                         Islamic systems of governance until modern         the ulama—the religious scholars and experts
                         times. Known as mamluks—“owned ones”—              on law—merging with merchant and
                         these warriors were purchased as slaves from       landowning families to form elites of nota-
                         the highlands and steppes or captured from         bles whose prestige was dependent on reli-
                         defeated tribes. Brought in as the sultan’s pri-   gious knowledge. While allowing a form of
                         vate armies and palace bodyguards, they were       civil society to develop separately from the
                         taught the rudiments of the Islamic faith and      military state, the practice of mamlukism
                         culture and trained in the military arts.          militated against the type of communal loy-
                         Attaching the word “slave” to mamluks (as in       alties or patriotisms that would emerge in
                         “slave-warriors” or “slave-dynasties”) is          Western Europe at a later period. The pattern
                         somewhat misleading. Though mamluks and
                         ghulams (household slaves) were bought and
                                                                                                          0°                             T H E 15°
                         sold as personal property, their social position
                                                                                                                Paris              H O LY R O M A N
                         reflected that of their masters, rather than                                                                  E M P I R E Buda
                                                                              AT L A N T I C
                         their own servile status. Eventually manumit-                                  FRANCE
                                                                                OCEAN
                                                                                                                                                             Venice
                         ted they became freedmen, clients of their for-
                                                                                                                                        Milan
                         mer masters entitled to property rights, mar-
                                                                                   Santiago                                  Marseilles
                         riage, and personal security, with some of
                                                                                                                                Corsica Rome
                         them rising to become rulers.                                         Madrid                Barcelona
                                                                             PORTUGAL                                                                       Naples
                            The practice of mamlukism started with                        S PA I N             Balearic Is.        Sardinia
                                                                               Lisbon
                         the Abbasid caliphs, who recruited tribes                                                                  i   t
                                                                                                                           e   d              e
                         from Transoxiana, Armenia, and North                                                        M                              r
                                                                                                                                                       r
                                                                                                                                                         Sicily
                                                                                                                     Algiers                      Tunis a
                         Africa to offset the power of the Tahirids.                          Ceuta                                                            n
                                                                                                                 ALGIERS                    TUNIS                     e
                         They balanced these tribes with Turkish ghu-                                                                                                     a

                         lams who were purchased individually before
                         being trained and drafted into regiments
                                                                                         5            A          F       R         I        C               A
                         under individual commanders. Since they
                         were housed in separate cantonments, with
                         their own mosques and markets, their alle-                                     S            a         h        a               r       a
                         giance was to their commanders, rather than
                         to the caliphs. In the breakup of the empire            Military Recruitment c. 1500
                         after 945 the practice was adopted by the de-                  Movements of troops
                         facto rulers who inherited the political power
                                                                                   1    Janissaries, from Balkans
                         of the Abbasids. All the post-Abbasid states
                         in the East—the Buyids, Ghaznavids, Qara-                 2    Circassians, from Caucasus

                         qanids, and Saljuqs—were created by ethnic                3    Turkic nomads, from Central Asia
                         minorities, including mercenaries from the
                                                                                   4    Al-Qaitis, from Yemen
                         Caspian region, and Turkish and other
                         nomadic peoples from inner Asia. Since new                5    South Atlas, from South Atlas Mountains


46
                                                                                                                                                                                 MILITARY RECRUITMENT 900–1800




                   of recruiting erstwhile nomadic predators to                                              the Circassians in the Caucasus) the Egyptian
                   defend society against other nomads—of                                                    mamluks resisted becoming absorbed into the
                   making “wolves into sheepdogs”—is found                                                   ranks of the indigenous elites. For the most
                   throughout the Muslim heartlands, from the                                                part they remained a one-generation aristoc-
                   Maghreb to the Indus Valley.                                                              racy, without ties of blood to the rest of
                      The system of military slavery reached its                                             Egyptian society.
                   fullest development in Egypt, a densely popu-                                                Under the Ottomans military slavery
                   lated country of peasant cultivators without                                              evolved in a somewhat different direction.
                   an indigenous military class. The system was                                              From the late fourteenth century the sultans
                   institutionalized so successfully that mamluk                                             began to offset the power of their sipahi cav-
                   rule lasted for more than two and a half cen-                                             alry units levied from the estates of the nobil-
                   turies (1250–1517), and resurfaced in a mod-                                              ity or recruited as mercenaries from Arabic,
                   ifed form under the Ottomans (1517–1811).                                                 Kurdish, and Farsi-speaking nomads, an
                   By constantly replenishing their ranks from                                               infantry corps of “new troops”, Janissaries,
                   abroad (firstly from among the Kipchak                                                    levied mainly from its Christian provinces in
                   Turks from Central Asia, later from among                                                 the Balkans. The levy (known as the


                                        30°                                     45°                                                       60°                                  75°                                         90°
                                       POLAND-LITHUANIA                                Sarai-Berke
                                 MOLDAVIA
    Pest                                                  KHANATE
                                                                                   KHANATE
        HUNGARY                                           OF CRIMEA
                                                                                OF ASTRAKHAN
                                                  Crimea                                                                                      Aral                                                                               15°
                                                                                                                                              Sea
           1       WALLACHIA
                                                                           2                         Caspian                                                                              MONGOLISTAN
                       Sofia                  B l a c k       S e a
                                                                                           Tiflis      Sea                                3
                                       Constantinople                                                                                                                                                           Kucha
                                                                                   C




                                                                                       a            Shemakha                                                           Tashkent
               O                                                                           u
                                                                                               ca                                                     U Z
                   T                                                                              su    Baku                                              B E K H S
                       T                                                                             s
                            O M                       E
                                A N           E M PIR
                                                                               SA                                                                            Balkh                                 Kashgar
        Morea Athens
                                                 Adalia                          F A Tabriz
                                                                  Aleppo             V
                                                                                Mosul I                                                                              Kabul
                           Crete
                                                                                                 D




                                                 Cyprus
a   n
               S
                                                                                                                                         KHORASAN                                      KASHMIR
                       e     a
                                                                                               Baghdad        E Isfahan                                                      PUNJAB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIBET
                                                                                                               M                                                                      LO
                                                                                                                  P                                                                     DI
                                   Alexandria                                                                       IR                                                                       SU
                                                                                                                                     E
                                                                                                                                                                                              LT




                                                                                                                                                                        MULTAN                                                   30°
                                                                                                                                                                                                AN




                       EMP IRE            OF Cairo
                                                                                                                                                                                                      TE
                                                                                                                                                                                                  A
                                                                                                             Pe




                                                                                                                                                                                              Delhi          NEPAL
                                                                                                                                Bandar Abbas                                                               OF
                                                                                                               rs




                                                MA MLUK E S                                                                                                                                                     DE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     LHI
                                                                                                                    i




                                                                                                                        a                                                            RAJPUTANA
                                                 N                          A      r       a    b    i   a                  n             Hormuz
                                                                                                                                Gul                                                                      BIHAR
                                                  ile




                                                                                                                                    f
                                                             Re




                                                                                                                                                                       SIND
                                                                                                                                                                                                   BUNDEL-
                                                              d




                                                                                                                                                                                             MALWA KHAND
                                                                                                                                                 Muscat                                                                    BENGAL
                                                                                                                                                                              GUJERAT
                                                                    Se




                                                                           Mecca                                                                                             Diu
                                                                     a




                                                                                                                                                          Arabian
                                                                                                                                                                                 Damah            BERAR
                                                           Suakin                                                                                            Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ORISSA Bay of
                                                                                                                                    UT                                       AHMADNAGAR BIDAR GOLCONDA Bengal
                                                                                                                                  MA                                                        Hyderabad
                                                                                                                                RA                                                 BIJAPUR
                                                                                       YEMEN                            DH
                                                                                                              HA                                                                                                                 45°
                                                                                                4
                                                                                                                                                                                                  VIJAYANAGAR
                                                                    ABYSSINIA



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 47
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                         devshirme) was conducted in the villages
                         about every four years: the towns were usual-
                         ly exempt, as the sons of townsfolk were con-
                         sidered too well educated or insufficiently
                         hardy. Boys between 13 and 18 were selected
                         (although there are reports of children as
                         young as 8 being chosen). Since married men
                         were exempt, the Orthodox peasants often
                         married off their children very young to avoid
                         the levy. The selected boys (estimates are put
                         at around 20 percent) were given Muslim
                         identities and trained in the arts of war, with
                         the brightest selected for personal service to
                         the sultan, where they often rose to be rulers
                         of the empire. Although slave recruitment
                         ceased in the 1640s the Janissaries continued
                         to prosper, with increasing numbers of Mus-
                         lim-born boys joining their ranks. Having
                         substantial commercial interests, salaries, and
                         state-funded pensions they became a privi-
                         leged and tyrannical elite, resistant to change.
                         In 1826 Sultan Mahmud II used his newly
                         formed military force to slaughter most of
                         them at a muster in Istanbul.




                          The Janissary corps, dressed in their gold finery, parade at
                          a court reception. Originally recruited from the Christian
                                Balkans, the Janissaries became a formidable power
                                  within the state. Sultan Mahmud II abolished the
                                       Janissaries in 1826, as part of his program of
                                                                      modernization.

48
MILITARY RECRUITMENT 900–1800




                           49
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Fatimid Empire 909–1171
                                                                                                                                 10°

                         The Shiite Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids was       the Fatimid caliphate
                                                                                                                                                                 0°
                         established in Ifriqiya in the Maghreb when a          embarked on its decline.
                         group of Kutama Berbers accepted the claims of         Northern Syria was
                         Abdallah al-Mahdi to be the rightful descen-           irrevocably lost in
                         dant of Ali and Fatima and rose against the            1060. By then,




                                                                                                                   a l-
                                                                                                                       An
                         Aghlabids in 909. By 921, al-Mahdi had settled         the Fatimids




                                                                                                                           da
                                                                                                             Có
                                                                                                               rd



                                                                                                                             lus
                         in his new capital city of Mahdiyya on the             were con-




                                                                                                                 ob
                                                                                                                                            E




                                                                                                                   a
                                                                                                                                       AT
                         coastline of Ifriqiya. As successors to the Agh-       fronted                                    E   MI
                                                                                                                                  R
                                                                                                             D
                         labids, the Fatimids also inherited their fleet and    with the                  YA
                                                                                                       AY
                                                                                                    UM




                                                                                             Ag
                         the island of Siqilliyya (Sicily). By the end of al-   grow-




                                                                                                a
                                                                                               di
                                                                                                r
                                                                                                M
                         Mahdi’s reign (909–934), the Fatimid state             ing




                                                                                                    ag
                                                                                                    hr
                         extended from present-day Algeria and Tunisia




                                                                                                     eb
                         to the Libyan coast of Tripolitania. The third




                                                                                                                       F
                                                                                                                           A
                         Fatimid caliph al-Mansur (r. 946–953) built a
                                                                                                                                                         Tu Sicil




                                                                                                                                T
                                                                                                                                                            n
                         new capital city named Mansuriyya after him-                                                                                   Ka is
                                                                                                                                                           iro
                                                                                                                                                                    y




                                                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                                                                               ua
                                                                                                                                                                  n
                         self. Situated near Sabra to the south of                                                                                      M




                                                                                                                                           M
                                                                                                                                                          ah
                                                                                                                                                             diy
                                                                                                                                                                 ya
                         Qayrawan, Mansuriyya served as the Fatimid




                                                                                                                                                I
                         capital from 948 until 973.




                                                                                                                                                    D
                                                                                               S                                                            Tr
                                                                                                                                                                ipo
                             Fatimid rule was firmly established in North                                a                                                            li




                                                                                                                                                        C
                         Africa only during the reign of the fourth mem-                                     h




                                                                                                                                                            A
                         ber of the dynasty al-Muizz (r. 953–975), who




                                                                                                                                                                 L
                                                                                                                       a
                         transformed the Fatimid caliphate from a               menace                            r
                         regional power into a great empire. He suc-            of the Saljuq                          a
                         ceeded in subduing the entire Maghreb, with            Turks, who were
                         the exception of Sabra, before concerning him-         laying the foundations
                         self with the conquest of Egypt, an objective          of a new empire. In 1071,
                         attained in 969. A new Fatimid capital city was        Damascus became the capital of
                         built outside Fustat; it was initially called          the new Saljuq principality of Syria and
                         Mansuriyya, but renamed al-Qahira al-                  Palestine. By the end of al-Mustansir’s rule, of
                         Muizziyya (Cairo), “The Victorious City of al-         the former Fatimid possessions in Syria and
                         Muizz,” when the caliph took possession of his         Palestine, only Ascalon and a few coastal
                         new capital in 973. The extension of Fatimid           towns, like Acre and Tyre, still remained in
                         power in Syria became the primary foreign pol-         Fatimid hands. By 1048, the Zirids, ruling over
                         icy objective of al-Muizz’s son and successor al-      Ifriqiya on behalf of the Fatimids, placed them-
                         Aziz (r. 975–996). By the end of his reign, the        selves under Abbasid suzerainty. By 1070, when
                         Fatimid Empire had attained, at least nominal-         they lost Sicily to the Normans, Barqa had
                         ly, its greatest extent, with Fatimid suzerainty       become the western limit of the Fatimid Empire,
                         being recognized from the Atlantic and the             which soon became effectively limited to only
                         western Mediterranean to the Red Sea, the              Egypt. Ascalon, the last Fatimid foothold in
                         Hejaz, Syria, and Palestine. By 1038, the              Syria-Palestine, was lost to the Franks in 1153.
                         Fatimids had also extended their authority to          Fatimid rule ended in 1171, when Salah al-Din
                         the emirate of Aleppo.                                 (Saladin), who became the last Fatimid vizier
                             In the long reign of al-Mustansir (1036–94),       after taking over Egypt, had the khutba (ser-

50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FATIMID EMPIRE 909–1171




              mon) read in Cairo in the name of the reigning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fatimid Empire and other
              Abbasid caliph while the last Fatimid caliph, al-                                                                                                                                                                                                           Islamic States c.1000
              Adid (r. 1160–71), lay dying in his palace.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Fatimid Empire c. 1000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Abbasid caliphate at its
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     greatest extent
                            Ceramic bowl from Fustat (Cairo), tenth–eleventh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Abbasid caliphate, c. 900
                                                   century. The lusterware design has
        10°
                                    characteristically Fatimid motifs, with a hare                                                                                                                                                                                                   Major battle

                                              at the center and the sides decorated
                                                                                with stylized plants.
                                    20°



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80°
                                                                      30°
                    BY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                70°
                                                                                                                      40°
                       ZA




                                                                                                                                                                 50°                               60°
                        N
                            T
                             IN




                                                                                                            KHAZAR
                                E




                                                              B l a                                                             S                                                                 Aral                             S yr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Talas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Da
                                                                                                                                                  Ca




                                                                    c k
                                                                                  S e a                                                                                          TURKS            Sea                                       r




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ya
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40°
                                                                                                                                                       sp




                                                    Con
                                                           stant
                                                                 inople
                                                                                                                                                            ia




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Am
                                                                                                                                                                                                          u
                                                                                                                                                             n




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Da
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   r ya
                                                            EM                                                                      Tiflis             Derbend
                                                                      PI                                                                                                                                                                                    and
                                                                            RE                                                                                                                                                                   Samark
M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bukhara
                                                                                                                                                                       Se




    e                                                                                                        Erzurum
                                                                                                                                                                                                              D S
        d
                                                                                                                                                                                                        A N I
                                                                                                                                                                        a




            i t                                                   Tarsu
                e                                                           s                                                                                                                     S A M
                     r r
                                                                                                                                Tabriz                 Ardabil                                                                                         Balkh
                                                                     Ale                                                                                                                                 Merv
                                                                  Antio ppo                    Edess
                         a n
              Bar                                                                                    a
                                                                                                                 Ti




                  qa         e a                                       ch
                                                                                                                  gr




                                                                                                                       is
                                 n                                                                                          Mosul                                                                                         r
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Nishapu                                                            l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kabu
                                          S e
                                              a
                                                                                                    Eu




                                                                                                                                                                                 Rayy
                                                                                                       ph




I                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Herat                        ni
                                                                                                                                         Jalula                                                                                                       Ghaz
                                                                                                            at
                                                                                                         r




                                                              Tyre       Dama                                    es                                          Nehavend
    P                                                                         scus
                                                            Acr                                                                     BUWAYHID EMIRATES
              H                                         Asca e                                               Kerbela                                                                                                                                                                                                   30°
                                                  Alex      lo
                                                       andr n                                                                                                                                                   ZN                                     I
                                                                      Je                                                                     -                                                           OF GHA                                                                      Mult
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            an
                                                                                                                                                                                                  MAHMUD
                    A                                      ia    977 rusalem                                                            Baghdad          Isfahan
                                                          Helio                                                                                        Susa
                        T                             Cair      polis
                                E                   Faiy o 969
                                                         um
                                                     971                                                                                               Basra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            u



                                                                                                                                                                                     Istakar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ind




                                                                                Tabu
                                                                                       k
                                                                                                                                                                 Pe
                                                                                                                                                                       rs
                                                   Nil




                                                                                                                  A




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ncer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of Ca
                                                                                                                                                                            ia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tropic
                                                       e




                                                                                                                                                                                 n
                                                                                                                                         KA




                                                                                                                                             RM                                      Gu
                                                                                                                                                                                          lf
                                                                                                                                                  AT
                                                                                                                            r




                                                                                       Medina                                                          IA                                                                                             Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Arabian
                                                                                Badr                                                                        NS                                 Suhar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Muscat
                                                                                                                                    a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 20°
                                                                                                                                             b




                                                       M AK
                                                                KURA
                                                                                       Re




                                                                                                     Mecca
                                                                                                                                                   i




                                             Dong
                                                                                           d




                                                  ola
                                                                                               Se




                                                                                                                                                                 a
                                                                                                a




                                                                                                                      Najran                                                                                                                                                    AN
                                              Soba                                                                                                                                                                                                OCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              IAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          IND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            N


                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0                 300 km
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10°
                                                                                                                                                 Aden                                                                          0                            300 miles




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         51
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Trade Routes c. 700–1500
                         Muhammad is said to have traveled outside          the frequency with which such measures were
                         Arabia as a merchant. His tribe, the Quraish,      denounced as illegal, oppressive, and unjust
                         who led the Arab conquests, were among the         indicates that the general temper remained
                         foremost traders in the peninsula. Merchants       favorable to mercantile activity, even under
                         continued to be held in high esteem, often         adverse political conditions.
                         marrying into the families of ulama, who they          Initially the Arab conquest had the effect of
                         supported by endowing their educational            bringing two oceanic trade routes—through
                         institutions. Islamic rituals favor commercial     the Persian Gulf and Red Sea—within a single
                         activity. Mosques are often adjacent to mar-       market based on common law, language, and
                         kets, and though Friday is the day for congre-     currency. Under the Abbasids the most attrac-
                         gational prayer, it was not treated as a sab-      tive route for goods from East and South Asia
                         bath until recent times. Markets opened            to the Mediterranean went up the Tigris to
                         before and after the noonday prayer. Since the     Baghdad, or up the Euphrates to an easy
                         whole male population was gathered in town,        portage to Aleppo and from there to a Syrian
                         Fridays were good days for doing business.         port such as Antioch. The towns along these
                         Similarly, the pilgrimages to Mecca (umra and      routes depended on the exchange of commodi-
                         hajj), where Muslims from distant parts of         ties for their existence.
                         the world meet each other, have always been a          The Mesopotamian cities absorbed luxury
                         facilitator of trade. Pilgrims would finance       goods from India and China. These were sold
                         the long and arduous journey (which in pre-        in the markets alongside necessities such as
                         modern times could take half a lifetime) by        food grains, fuel, timber, and cooking oils.
                         trading goods or working as artisans. Mer-         Mesopotamia was also the terminus of the
                         chants would join the pilgrim caravans to sell     chief land route to China and India as well as
                         their goods in the Hejaz.                          north to the Volga basin and the well-watered
                            By bringing vast areas of territory and         lands of Eastern Europe, sources of fur, amber,
                         coastlands under a single government, the          metal goods, and hides. In the earliest period
                         Arab conquests created an enormous area of         Muslim ships from ports such as Basra or
                         free trade, facilitating the expansion of trade    Hormuz went all the way to China, returning
                         far beyond the empire’s borders. The extent of     after two or three years with cargoes such as
                         this trade has been revealed by archaeology,       silk, porcelain, jade, and other valuables. How-
                         with significant numbers of coins from             ever, as the trade became more sophisticated
                         Abbasid times discovered in Scandinavia, and       merchants no longer traded directly with
                         Chinese silks and ceramics found in burial sites   Guangzhou (Canton) and Hangzhou, but
                         in western Asia. Muslim merchants were not         acquired goods from China at ports in Java,
                         subject to tariffs within the empire. Foreign      Sumatra, or the Malabar coast.
                         merchants who entered the lands of Islam were          Muslim merchants from the Maghreb
                         subject to the same rates imposed on Muslim        were active in the gold trade, which took
                         merchants in their homelands. The new elite of     them across the Sahara Desert to the Sahel
                         the caliphal courts, with their demand for lux-    cities of Timbuktu and Gao, and beyond, to
                         ury goods, boosted trade. Though the breakup       the goldfields of western Africa. The chain
                         of the empire led to economic decline in some      of commercial centers established by Muslim
                         areas, with rival dynasties augmenting their       traders on the east African coast, including
                         budgets by imposing extra taxes and tariffs,       Lamu, Malindi, and the island of Zanzibar,

52
                                                                                                TRADE ROUTES c. 700–1500




extended as far south as Sofala in modern          The land routes linking western Asia and
Mozambique. Intrepid Muslim travelers           the Mediterranean with eastern and south-
penetrated the African interior in search of    ern Asia were just as important as the mar-
gold, slaves, ivory, rare woods, and precious   itime routes. With many cities landlocked or
stones centuries before Europeans followed      distant from rivers and oceans, even bulky
in their paths.                                 items had to be carried by animals. Careful
   When the decline of Abbasid power and        planning was needed before the caravans set
the incursions of Turkish tribesmen made        out on long journeys. Food had to be pro-
the trans-Syrian route less secure the alter-   cured for animals and humans, and nomadic
native water route, via the Red Sea and the     tribes had to be hired as guards. In remote
Nile, came into prominence. It was the more     areas networks of khans (overnight resting

                                                                                                By the 1500s, the Ottoman
                                                                                                Empire, with its capital at Con-
                                                                                                stantinople, had become one of
                                                                                                the Islamic world’s most impor-
                                                                                                tant trading centers. The sultan’s
                                                                                                court, together with his advisors,
                                                                                                took careful account of annual
                                                                                                trade.




difficult as the land route from the Gulf of    places) or khaniqas (Sufi lodges) provided
Suez to the Nile was more arduous than the      food and hospitality. Some were built like
route across Syria, except for a brief period   fortresses for defense against Bedouin
when the Mamluk sultans revived an ancient      marauders. The vast distances over rough
canal originally dug by the pharaohs. Red       terrain, combined with the breakdown in
Sea ports such as Aden, Jidda, Aydhab, and      territorial authority, made road construction
Qulzum benefited from this trade, as did        impracticable. Even by late Roman times,
Cairo and Alexandria. Trade on the Indian       wheeled traffic had all but disappeared. The
Ocean was monopolized by Muslims until          results can be seen in many of the cities of
the arrival of the Portuguese, followed by      western Asia and North Africa. Before mod-
the English and Dutch from the sixteenth        ern times few of them had boulevards broad
century onward.                                 enough for carts or carriages.

                                                                                                                                 53
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                    30°                            15°                         0°                            15°                LAPP R E I N DE E R
                                                                                                                                             30°                              45°                                60°
                                                                                                                                   H E R DE R S

                                      Iceland




                                                                                                   WA -
                                                                                               NOR ARK
                                       (Denmark)




                                                                                                     Y
                                                                                                                              EN
                                                                                                                           ED




                                                                                                  M
                                                                                                                   SW




                                                                                              DEN
 60°
                                                                                                                                                          RU S S I A
                                                                SCOTLAND

                                                                                                                                                                                                       ARS
                                                                                                                                                                                              TAT
                                                                 ENGLAND                                                         POLAND-
                                                                                                                                                                                     KA   ZAN
                                                                                                HOLY                            LITHUANIA
                                                                                               ROMAN
       A T LA N T I C           O CE AN                                                                                                                                                                 NOG
                                                                                               EMPIRE                                                                                                           AIS
                                                                                                                                                                                    N
                                                                                                                      HUNGARY                                                    HA
                                                                                                                                                                              AK S
                                                                          FRANCE                                                                                            TR AR                 Astrakhan
 45°
                                                                                                   Venice                                                                 AS TAT




                                                                                                                                                                                                               TUR
                                                                                                   Pisa                     O
                                                                                Marseille               Rome                    TT           Edirne
                                                                                                                                     OM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                KO
                                                                                                           VENICE                               Constantinople
                                                                                                                                              AN




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  M
                                                                                                     PAPAL
                                                                  SPAIN                                                                                                                                                NS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A
                                                                                                    STATES Amalfi                            Bursa     EMP
                                              PORTUGAL                                                                                                          IRE
                     Azores                                                     Denia
                      (Port.)                               Cordoba                                                                                                                  Tabriz       Ardabil
                                                                                Algiers         Tunis                                          Izmir      Konya        Lajazzo
                                                              Almeria                                          Palermo                                                                                 Nishapur
                                                                                ALGIERS                   Kairouan
                                                                                                           Mahdia                   Crete              Cyprus         Samarra                              Damghan
                                                                          Tlemcen                                                                                   Damascus
                                                            Fez                                     TUNIS                                                                               Baghdad        S A F AV I D
                                                         Meknes                                                  Tripoli
                                                               Marrakech                                   TRIPOLI                                                Jerusalem
                                                                                                                                                                                          Basra
                                                                                                                                                                                                        EMPIRE
 30°                                           MOROCCO                                                                                                Cairo




                                                                                                                                                                          A
                                                                                                                                          Siwa




                                                                                                                                                                               R
                                  Canary Is.                                  Sijilmasa




                                                                                                                                                                                    A
                                    (Spain)




                                                                                                                                                                                      B
                                                                                                          Ghat
                                                                                                                                                                                           N
 Tropic of Cancer                                                                                                                     Kubra                                         Medina O M
                                                                                C A M E                                                                                                                          Muscat
                                                                                        L                                                                                                          A
                                                                                                   N O M                                                                                               D         OMAN
                                                                                                         A D                                                                   Mecca                       S
                                                                                                             S
                                                                                                                                                              Suakin                                       GHARRA
                                                                                                                                                       FUNJ
                                                                     Timbuktu                                                                                                                                  MAHRA
                    Cape Verde Is.                                                                                                                                                        Sanaa
 15°                   (Port.)   SENEGAL                          SONGHAI                                 KANEM-
                                                                                                                                                      Soba                                         HADRAMAUT
                                                                                                                     Abeche
                                                                                                                                                                                     YEMEN
                                 Cacheu                                                                   BORNU
                                 (Portugal)                        MOSSI                                                                                                                     Aden
                                                         MALI      STATES                   HAUSA               WADAI DARFUR
                                                                                            STATES                                                                                        Zaila
                                                                                                                                                                                           ADAL
                                                                              AKAN




                                                                                          OYO                                                                       ETHIOPIA
                                                                                                 N
                                                                                               NI




                                                                                      Benin
                                                                                              BE




                                                                  Elmina                                                                                                                  Galla
                                                                 (Portugal)          Fernando Póo                                                                   DROMO
                                                                                         (Port.)
                                                                                                                                                                                               Mogadishu
 0°
                                                                                                                                                                                        Lamu

                                                                                                                                           LUBA                 Mombasa
                                                                                                                                                                 (Portugal)
                                                                                                     CONGO                 LUNDA                                                Zanzibar
                                                                                                                                                                              ISLAMIC
                                                                                                                                                                              CITY-STATES




 15°
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Madagascar



54
                                                                                                                                                                                       TRADE ROUTES c. 700–1500




            75°                                         90°                    105°                         120°                           135°                       150°                          165°

                                                                                                                                                                   Trade Routes and Empires
                                                                                                                                                                   c. 1500
                                                        SIBERIAN REINDEER HERDERS                                                                                  Empires                    Routes
                                                                                                                                                                             Portuguese                Trading routes

                                                                                                                                                                             Spanish                   Gold trade

                                                                                                                                                                             State society             Silk road
        SIBIR TATARS
                                                                                                                                                                             Other




                 EURASIAN S                                                                                                                                             AINU HUNTER-
                            TEPPE AN
                                     D DESE
                                            RT                         NOMA                                                                                             GATHERERS
                                                                              DS                                                   MONGOLS
                 KI
                      RG
  UZ                         HI                                               KALMYKS
       BE                         Z
            KS
          Tashkent
Chiwa
  Bukhara
       Samarkand                                  Kashgar
Merv Schar-i-Sabz                                                                                                                                 KOREA




                                                                                                                                                                                  N
                                                                                                                                                                             A
            Balkh                                                                                                                                                             P
   MUGHAL                                                                                                                                                              JA
Herat                                  EM                       TIB E T                                   MING
                         Lahore                                                                          CHINESE
                                             PI




                                                                                                         EMPIRE
   ISL




                                                 R




                                       Delhi
                                                   E
       AM
            IC




                 A         RAJPUTANA
                     N
                         D
                             HI
                                      ND
                                           U ST                                     BURMESE
                                                                                                                                            Taiwan
                     Kambaya                   AT E S            BENGAL            KINGDOMS                                                                                       P A C I F IC         OCE AN
                                       Thana                                                      LAOS
                                           Goa                ORISSA
                                           (Portugal)                              PEGU
                                                                                                              AN




                                                                                                    A
                                                                                                                NA
                                                                                               Y
                                                                                             HA




                                                                                                                  M




                                       VIJAYANAGARA
                                                                                                                                                  Philippine
                                                                                             TT




                                                                                                                                                   Islands
                                                                                                  CAMBODIA
                                                 Kulum Mali
                                                                                          AY U




                                                          SAYLAN
                                            Colombo        Ceylon
                                             (Portugal)
                                                                                      ACEH
                                                                                                     Malacca
                                                                                                     (Portugal)
                                                                                                    MALACCA                    Borneo

            I NDI A N                            O C E AN                                         Sumatra      M
                                                                                                                   AL
                                                                                                                        AYA                                                            New Guinea
                                                                                                                            N   IS L A M
                                             N
                                                                                                                                           IC STATES
                                                                                                                        Java
                                                                                                                                                         Timor
                                                                                                                                                         (Port.)

                                                                                                                                                                      AUSTRALIAN
                                                                                                                                                                      ABORIGINAL
                                                                                                                                                                   HUNTER-GATHERERS


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        55
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Crusader Kingdoms
                                                                        35°
                                                                                                                                                                                                               The Crusades occurred at a time of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Islamic disunity and retreat.
                                       SALJUQS                           OF                     RUM                                                                                                                    There were Christian
                                                                                                                                                             County                                                       advances in Spain—
                                                                                                                                                                                       Gargar
                                                                                                                                                                                                           GREAT
                                                                                                                                                                         Behesni
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Toledo fell in 1085—
                                                                                                                                                 Marash
                                                                                                                                                                                                           SALJUQ
                                                                                                                                                                  of
                                                                                                                                                                                       Samosata
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and in Sicily which
                                                                                                            Sis                                                                                            EMPIRE
                                                                                            Cilicia                                                                      Rancular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the Normans con-
                                                                                                                                                         Aintab
                                                                                                                                                                           Saruj
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            quered in 1091–92.
                                                                                            Adana
                                                     Tarsus                                                                                                  Turbessel
                                                                                                                                                                           Eu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Economically,       the
                                                                                                                                                 Ravendam
 BYZANTINE EMPIRE                                                                                                                                                                                                       decline of the Abbasid




                                                                                                                                                                             ph
                                                                                              Alexandretta




                                                                                                                                                                               rate
                                                                                                     1097                                                   Edessa
                                                                                                                                         ch
                                                                                                                                     t io




                                                                                                                                                                                   s
                                                                                                                                                   Asas                                                            caliphate and the Saljuq inva-
                                                                                                                           An


                                                                                     Antioch
                                                                                                                                                                                                               sions had diverted the East Asian
                                                                                                                         of




                                                                                  St. Simeon                                              Kafr    Aleppo
                                                                                                                    it y




                                                                                         1097                                             Tab
                                                                                                                                                                                                            trade away from Baghdad and
                                                                                                                  p al
                                                                                                                             n tes
                                                                                                              n ci




                                                                                                                                     Cerep
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Constantinople. Sending it through Egypt
                                                                                                                           Or o
                                                                                                            P ri




                                                                                                           Latakia 1103                                                                    and into the hands of Italian merchant shipping, it
                          Nicosia                                               Jabala 1109                                                                                                enriched the Italian cities. Harassed by Muslim
              Cyprus                   Famagusta                          Valania 1109
35°
                                                                        Maraclea 1102                                       Masyaf
                                                                                                                                                                                           pirates, Pisa and Genoa destroyed Mahdia, the polit-
                                                                                                                              Rafaniyan
                                                                         Tortosa 1102                                                                                                      ical and commercial capital of Muslim North Africa
              Limassol
                                                                                                                                                                                           in 1087. The fluctuating frontiers between the
                                                                                                                    oli




                                                                                                                                          Homs
                                                                                                                  ri p




 Mediterranean                                                          Tripoli 1109                                                                                                       Byzantine and Fatimid Empires allowed the cities of
                                                                                                                T
                                                                                                             of




                                                                 Botron 1104                                                                                                                                                            ,
                                                                                                                                                                                           Syria and Palestine considerable autonomy making it
                                                                                                          ty
                                                                                                     un




                                                                 Gibelet 1104                                              Baalbek
               Sea                                                                                                                                                                         difficult for them to unite against the invaders. The
                                                                                               Co




                                                              Beirut 1110                                                                                                                  defeat of the Byzantine army at Manzikert in 1071
                                                                                                     ni




                                                                                                                                                                                           opened the rich Anatolian pastures to migration by
                                                                                                  ta




                                                         Sidon 1110
                                                                                               Li




                                                                                                                         Damascus
                                                                                                                                                                                           bands of Oghuz Turks, not all of them under Saljuq
                                                                        Tyre 1124
                                                                                                                                                                                           control. Alarmed at the danger to Christendom
                                                    Acre 1104                      Lake                                                                                                    posed by the Turks as well as by Norman attacks on
                                             Haifa 1099                            Tiberias
                                                                  Tiberias                                                                                                                                           ,
                                                                                                                                                                                           Byzantine lands in Italy Pope Urban II launched a
                                                                                                    EMIRATE
                                        Caesarea 1101                                                 OF                                                                                   Holy War for the defense and unity of Christendom.
                                                                                                   DAMASCUS
                                                                                                                                                                                           The movement was stimulated by charismatic, pop-
                                        Arsur 1101
                                                                              Jo r d a n




                                       Jaffa 1099
                                                                Nablus                                                                                                                     ulist preachers such as Peter the Hermit and by the
                                                                                           as-Salt
                                                                                                                                                                                           growing popularity of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem as
                                 Ascalon                           Jerusalem
                                 Gaza                                   Dead
                                                                                                                                                                                           a way of earning spiritual merit or as an act of atone-
                             Darum
                                                        Hebron          Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                           ment for sins such as murder.
                                                                        Krak des
                                                                        Moabites                           Christian Crusades                                                                  In the event, the knights from the Latin West,
                                                                Segor                                                     First Crusade,                   Norwegian
   FATIMID                                                                                                                                                                                 (including England, Scandinavia, Germany Italy   ,    ,
                                                                                                                          1099–1100                        Crusade, 1107–40
  CALIPHATE                                          KINGDOM OF
          N                                           JERUSALEM
                                                                                                                          Territory held
                                                                                                                          by Crusaders to
                                                                                                                                                           Crusades of Pope                and France) supported by ragtag armies of towns-
                                                                                                                                                           Calixtus II, 1122–26
                                                        Montréal
                                                                                                                          1100                                                             folk and peasants lured by the promise of indul-
                                                                                                                          Crusaders’                       Crusade of 1128–29
                          S i n a i                                                                                       gains, 1100–44                                                   gences, were not wholly interested in saving
                                                                                                                                                  1110     Date of Crusaders’
                                                                                                                          Crusaders’
                         D e s e r t                                                                                      losses, 1144–45
                                                                                                                                                           conquest                        Christendom by helping their Orthodox brethren.
      0            50 km

                                                                                                                          Muslim territory
                                                                                                                                                           Maximum range of                (They actually sacked Constantinople in 1204,
      0                     50 miles                                                                                                                       Egyptian warfleet
                                                      Aila
                                                                                                                          Other Christian                                                  inflicting untold damage on the capital of Eastern
                                                                                                                          territory                        Prevailing wind
                                                                                                                                                                                                        .)
                                                                                                                                                                                           Christianity They wanted to carve out feudal

56
                                                                                                                                                                                                      CRUSADER KINGDOMS




domains in the well-watered lands of the                                                                                                     35°

Mediterranean littoral. The remarkable success of
the First Crusade, culminating in the capture of                     SALJUQS SULTANATE OF KONYA

Jerusalem from the Fatimids in 1099, contained the
seeds of the Byzantine Empire’s eventual demise.
The need to support the intrusive Latin states whose
                                                                                                                                                                             Sis
existence depended on Muslim disunity overrode                                                                                           M                       E N         I A
                                                                                                                                     A R
the need to maintain Byzantium’s eastern frontiers.                                                                         F
                                                                                                                      O
For the most part the Franks, as the invaders were                                                           M                             Tarsus                    Mamistra
                                                                                                D     O
known, were hated as oppressors by Muslims and                       K        I   N      G                           Corycus
                                                                                                                                                                     Alexandretta
                                                                                                                                                                                                Syrian
                                                                                                                                                                                                Gates
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trapezac
local Christians alike—not to mention the Jews,                                                                                                                                                  Gaston
                                                                                                                                                                                                Principality
who lost the protection they had enjoyed under                                                                                                                                                  of Antioch
                                                                                                                                                                                      Antioch                           Aleppo
                                                                                                                                                                St. Simeon
Muslim rule, and were massacred in Palestine as                                                                                                                                      Cursat

they had been in Europe. Far from checking the                                                                                                                                      Saone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SYRIA




                                                                                                                                                                                            Orontes
Turkish advance on Christian domains, the
                                                                                          Kyrenia                                                               Latakia
Crusaders’ attacks on Byzantium helped to destroy                                               Nicosia           Gastria                                          Jabala
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Apamea

the only polity that could have prevented it. Though           35°
                                                                          KINGDOM                            Famagusta
                                                                                                                                                                  Margat                                  Shaizar
                                                                      OF CYPRUS                                                                                 Maraclea Masyaf     Hamah
the Latin kingdoms were eventually eliminated,                                                                                                          Tortosa       Coible
                                                                                                                                                                                   Mamluk tributary from 1260
                                                                              Limassol
their existence damaged the previously good rela-                                         1270 Mamluk fleet
                                                                                                                                    Christian until 1302 Ruad
                                                                                                                                                      Chastel Blanc          Krak des Chevaliers
                                                                                          founders off Limassol                                              Coliat County        Homs
tions that had existed between the eastern churches,                                                                                                   Villejargon   of Halba
                                                                                                                                                       Tripoli




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                E
their Muslim protectors, and local Islamic commu-                                                                                          Nephin                Tripoli
                                                                                                                                                                         Gibelcar

                                                                                                                                                 Botron
nities, leaving a legacy of mistrust of the West that




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            T
                                                                                                                                                Gibelet                   Baalbek
has lasted to the present.
                                                                                                                                           Beirut



                                                                                                                                                                               ni
                                                                                                                                                                               a
                                                                                                                                                                           Lit




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A
                                                                                                                                                KINGDOM                       ANTI
                                                                                                                                                        OF                 LEBANON
Entry of the Crusaders into Damietta, Egypt, in June 1249.                                                                              Sidon
                                                                                                                                             JERUSALEM
                                                                                                                                          Damascus




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N
After losing Jerusalem, the Crusaders made several attacks                                                              Belfort   Tibnin
                                                                                     e   tt a                                   Tyre
                                                                                                                           Belinas
                                                                                  mi
on Egypt in the hope of regaining territory in the Holy                        Da                                                 Toron
                                                                                                                          Chastel Neuf
                                                                                                                        Montfort
                                                                          ro m


                                                                                                                                                                                                              A
                                                                        f                                                   Jacob’s Ford
Land. From an illuminated manuscript painted in Acre                                                    Acre             Safad (Saphet)
                                                                                       Hammon                         Tiberias
                                                                                                   Haifa     GALILEE     L. Tiberias
                                                                                        Château Pèlerin                              Nazareth
                                                                                                                                                                                                          T
shortly after 1277. This school of illuminators was probably                                                Zir’in
                                                                                                    Meggido               Jisr al-Majami
founded by Louis IX during his stay in Palestine, 1250–54.                                   Caesarea                    Belvoir
                                                                                                                       Bethsan
                                                                                                                                                                                                      L



                                                                     Mediterranean                 Caco            Jenin
                                                                                                               Nablus
                                                                                             Arsur
                                                                                                                                                   Jo r d a n




                                                                                                                                                                                      U




                                                                                                                                     SAMARIA

                                                                                   Sea                             Jaffa        al-Awja

                                                                                                                                               Jericho
                                                                                                                                                                              S




                                                                                                        Ascalon                           Jerusalem
                                                                                                                            Bethleem
                                                                                                        Gaza                                 Dead
                                                                                                    Darum                    Hebron          Sea
                                                                                                                                                                 K
                                                                                                                                                                                        The Mamluk conquest
                                                                                                                                             U                   Kerak                  of the coast
                                                                                                                                                                 (Krak des
                                                                                                                                    L                            Moabites)              1263–1291
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Muslim conquests
                                                                          N                                            M                                                                                  1263–1271
                                                                                                             A                  Montréal                                                                  Muslim conquests
                                                                                                M                                                                                                         1285–1290

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Muslim conquests, 1291

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Christian territory
                                                                                                                                                                                                          after 1291
                                                                      0               50 km
                                                                                                                             Aila                                                                         Castle
                                                                      0                           50 miles




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    57
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Sufi Orders 1100–1900
                         The Sufi orders were and remain the most         spiritual guidance of Sufi masters from
                         important organized expression of Islamic        whose baraka (blessedness or charismatic
                         spirituality. The word Sufism (from the          spiritual power) they derived benefit. Further
                         Arabic Sufi, one who wears wool), is             afield the Sufi orders were instrumental in
                         thought to derive from the coarse woolen         spreading Islam in peripheral regions such as
                         garments worn by early Muslim ascetics           the Malay archipelago, Central Asia, and
                         who sought to develop an inner spirituality.     Subsaharan Africa. Access to the normative,
                         This was sometimes expressed as the quest        textual Islam of the ulama, based on the
                         for union with God and it set them apart         Koran, hadith, fiqh (jurisprudence), and
                         from believers who were content with the         tafsir (hermeneutics), required knowledge of
                         formal observance of Islamic law and ritual.     Arabic, restricting its appeal. The Sufi
                         Early adepts, sometimes known as “drunk-         shaikhs and pirs, however, were adept at
                         en” Sufis, cultivated mental states that         spiritual improvisation and were able to con-
                         would lead them to experience annihilation       vey Islamic teachings verbally, using local
                         of the self in the divine presence. The desire   languages. The esoteric Sufi rituals, known
                         for ecstatic union with the divine, and the      as dhikrs (ceremonies held in remembrance
                         pain of separation from it, is the theme of      of God), allowed them to develop spiritual
                         much Sufi poetry. Drunken Sufism some-           techniques that meshed with practices
                         times displayed itself in extravagant displays   derived from non-Islamic traditions such as
                         aimed at demonstrating contempt for the          ritual dances or controlled yoga-style breath-
                         flesh, such as piercing the body with iron       ing practiced in India. In Africa Sufis and
                         rings or handling dangerous animals. Sober       Marabouts (from the Arabic murabit) were
                         Sufism—exemplified in the teachings of Abu       able to propagate Islam by assimilating local
                         Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111)—insisted that         deities or spirits to the numinous forces such
                         the path to spiritual fulfillment lay firmly     as djinns and angels referred to in the Koran.
                         within the boundaries of normative legal         Ancestor cults could be accommodated by
                         and ritual practice.                             adding local kinship structures onto Arab
                            Present from the beginnings of Islam, all     lineages or Sufi silsilas, chains of spiritual
                         Sufi movements would claim to have their         authority linking the shaikhs and Marabouts
                         origins in the religious experience of           to the Prophet and his Companions. In
                         Muhammad and his closest Companions              peripheral regions such as the High Atlas
                         Abn Bakr and Ali. Organized Sufism, how-         these silsilas provided a quasi-constitutional
                         ever, was consolidated in the twelfth and        framework through which segmentary tribal
                         thirteenth centuries, gaining ground rapidly     groups achieved a basic minimum of cooper-
                         in Asia in the aftermath of the Mongol           ation, with leaders of saintly families acting
                         invasions, when the institutional fabric of      as arbiters in intertribal conflicts. In all parts
                         Muslim life was severely dislocated.             of the Muslim world Sufi holy men (and
                         Internally the Sufi orders cemented the          occasionally women) became the objects of
                         sociopolitical order by providing rulers with    popular veneration. In due course such cults
                         popular sources of religious legitimacy, sup-    became the targets of reformers who regard-
                         plementing the formal authority conferred        ed the excessive devotion given to saintly
                         by the ulama. Many rulers were patrons of        mediators as a violation of the Islamic pro-
                         Sufi orders and placed themselves under the      hibition on idolatry.

58
SUFI ORDERS 1100–1900




A group of Mevlevi Sufis or
dervishes (mendicants)
perform their traditional
whirling ritual. The
“dance,” a dhikr, or
“remembrance of God,”
brings the adept closer to
the divine, balancing
spiritual ecstasy with
formal discipline. The
Mevlevi order was founded
by Jalal al-Din Rumi
(1207–73), the famous Sufi
poet and mystic.




                             59
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                            In contrast to the ulama, who tended to        in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
                         reflect the consensus of the learned, the Sufi    The term “neo-Sufism” is sometimes applied
                         tariqas developed elaborate hierarchical          to movements that strive to balance “out-
                         organizations with spiritual power concen-        ward” political activity with “inner” spiritu-
                         trated into the hands of the leader—known         al experience, with the structure of the
                         variously as the shaikh, murshid, or pir.         tariqa providing the vehicle for the transmis-
                         Murids (members or aspirants) were bound          sion and implementation of ideas. A well-
                         by the baya, oath of allegiance, to the leader    known example is the Nurculuk movement
                         or murshid who headed a hierarchy of ranks        in Turkey founded by Said Nursi (1876–
                         within the order based on ascending spiritu-      1960). A Naqshbandi-trained preacher and
                         al stages. Although the systems varied con-       writer, he sought to revitalize Islamic
                         siderably, with some tariqas being more           thought by integrating science, tradition,
                         exclusive and tightly controlled than others,     theology, and mysticism in a new version of
                         the combination of devotion to the leader         the Naqshbandi slogan of “the hand turned
                         and rankings within the organization made         to work and the heart turned to God.” In
                         it possible for the tariqas to convert them-      contrast to the Muslim Brotherhood in
                         selves into formidable fighting forces. In the    Egypt, which was also influenced by Sufi
                         Caucasus the Imam Shamil waged his cam-           ideas, the movement works with the grain of
                         paign against the Russians from 1834 to 1839      Turkey’s secular state.
                         under the spiritual authority of his murshid         In recent decades Sufi ideas and devotion-
                         and father-in-law Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-         al practices have come under attack from two
                         Ghazi-Ghumuqi, shaikh of the Khalidiyya           quarters—modernists, who regard Sufism as
                         branch of the Naqshbandiyya. In North             retrograde, and Wahhabi-inspired Islamists,
                         Africa Abd al-Qadir, a shaikh of the              who have taken over many Islamic insitutions
                         Qadiriyya, took the lead in the struggle          with financial support from Saudi Arabia
                         against the French; in Cyrenaica the              and other oil-rich countries. Though the two
                         Sanusiyya were at the forefront of resistance     agendas are somewhat different, the conse-
                         against the Italian occupiers. In other region-   quences are the same. Modernists, adapting
                         al contexts, however, the tariqas ran with the    the ideas of the European Enlightenment,
                         flow of colonial power. In Morocco during         began with demands for a “rational” reli-
                         the late nineteenth and early twentieth cen-      gion. They ended by turning against religion
                         turies the influential Tijaniya order accepted    altogether. The Islamists, reacting against the
                         lavish subsidies from the French, who used        modernists, are caught in the same “all-or-
                         the order to further their colonial interests.    nothing” attitudes.
                         In Senegal the Muridiya order founded by             Sufism occupies the middle ground
                         Amadu Bamba (c. 1850–1927) turned away            between modernism and fundamentalism,
                         from resistance to develop a work ethic           enabling religion to accommodate itself to
                         based on peanut cultivation that brought          changing social conditions. Without the medi-
                         economic stability to the country under the       ating, adaptive power of Sufism, it is unlikely
                         French-dominated regime.                          that the advocates of political Islam (or
                            The tariqas, in many cases, provided the       “Islamism”) will succeed in accommodating
                         leadership for the reform and revival move-       the variegated strands of Islam within the
                         ments that swept through the Islamic world        “restored” Islamic order that they seek.

60
                                                                                                                                                                                              SUFI ORDERS 1100–1900




                                                                                                               Order                                 Founding Saint                                                    Site Location
                                                                                                              Suhrawardiyya                          Shihab al-din Abu Hafs Umar (1145–1234)                          Baghdad

                                                                                                              Rifaiyya                               Ahmad ibn Ali al-Rifai (1106–82)                                 Umm Abida
  Sufi Orders 1145–1389
                                                                                                              Qadiriyya                              Abd al-Qadir al-Jifani (1077–1106)                               Baghdad
            Shrine of founding saint of most important Orders
                                                                                                              Shadhiliyya                            Abu Madyan Shuaib (1126–97)                                      Tiemcan
            Egyptian and North African tradition derived from Iraqi tradition
                                                                                                                                                     Abul Hasan Ali al-Shadhili (1196–1258)
            Iranian and Central Asian traditions from al-Junaid and al-Bistami                                                                       Pupil of a pupil of Abu Madyan who gave
                                                                                                                                                     his name to the Order
            Iraqi tradition from al-Junaid
                                                                                                              Badawiyya                              Ahmad al-Badawi (1199–1276)                                      Tanta
  RIFAIYA   Major Order in development of institutional Sufism. All subsequent Orders                         Kubrawiyya                             Najm al-din Kubra (1145–1221)                                    Khiva
            trace their lineage back to one or more of these Orders. Located where they
            first developed, although by 1500 they had spread widely beyond these
            regions except for Mawlawiyya, Qadiriyya, and Chishtiyya                                          Yasawiyya                              Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali of Yasi (((d. 1166)                    Turkestan

                                                                                                              Mawalawiyya                            Jalal al-din Rumi (1207–73)                                      Konya
   Alwaiya Other Orders of importance in 1500, located where they were most prominent
                                                                                                              Naqshbandiyya                          Muhammad Baha al-din al-Naqshbandi (1318–89) Bukhara
                                                                                                                                                     Abd al-Khaliq al-Ghujdawani (d. 1220) is regarded
                                                                                                                                                     as the first organizer of the Order

                                                                                                              Chishtiyya                             Muin al-din Hasan Chishti (1142–1236)                            Ajmer
      15°                            0°                           15°                     30°

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              60°
                                                                                                                       45°                                     60°                      75°                           90°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0


                                                                                                                                                                                                             0           200 km
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         20

                                                                                                                                                                                                             0                    200 miles




                                                                                                                                                                     Aral                         Laka Balkhash
                                                                                                                                                                                      YASAWIYYA                                               45°
                                                                                                                                                                     Sea
                                                                                                 Black Se a                                                                           Turkestan
                                                                                                                                  Caspian
                                                                                                                                    Sea                                Khiva
                                                                                     Bektashiyya   Khalwatiyya
                                                                                                           Shamsiyya         Safawiyya                Rukniyya KUBRAWIYYA
                                                                                               MAWLAWIYYA                                             Haidariyya          Bukhara
                                                    Medite                                  Konya                                                                     NAQSHBANDIYYA
                                                             rr                                                                                        Ightishashiyya
                                                                  an                                         Yunusiyya                         Dhahabiyya
                                      Tiemcen                           ean
                                                                              Sea                              Sayyadiyya QADIRIYYA
                                                                                                                                               Nurbakshiyya
                        Shuaibiyya        SHADHILIYYA                                                                         Baghdad
                      Hahiyya                                                                              Sadiyya               SUHRAWARDIYYA
                   Hazmiriyya                                                             Tanta                                 Umm Abida
                   Sanhajiyya                                                             Dasuqiyya                          RIFAIYYA                                                                                                         30°
                                                                                                                                                      Nimatailahiyya                              Hamadaniyya
                                                                                          BADAWIYYA
                                                                                                                                         Pe




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ashtalfiyya
                                                                                                                                            rs
                                                                                                                                             ia




                                                                                                                                                 n
                                                                                                                                                     Gu                                              Ajmer        Shaltariyya
                                                                                                Wafaiyya                                                  lf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Firdawsiya
Tropic of Cancer                                                                                                                                                                                       CHISHTIYYA
                                                                                                            Humalthira
                                                                                                                Re
                                                                                                                  dS




                                                                                                                                                  Alwaiyya                                                                           Ba y o f
                                                                                                                     ea




                                                                                                                             Alwaniyya                                                                                               Ben ga l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              15°
                                                                                                                                                                       A ra b i a n S e a



                   N




                                                                                                                                                                                    INDIAN OCEAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          61
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Ayyubids and Mamluks
                                       Having established themselves in a fragment-   Fatimid caliphs. He and his descendants, the
                                       ed part-Muslim world, the Crusader king-       Ayyubids, broadened the appeal of Sunnism
       Saladin, depicted here as the   doms eventually stimulated a united            in Egypt by allowing scholars from the differ-
 archetypically heroic Saracen by      response. The revival can be traced to the     ent legal schools to work alongside each
         Gustave Doré (1884), was      seizure of Aleppo by the Saljuq governor of    other, while popular devotion to the House of
 equally admired by the Muslims        Mosul, Zangi, in 1128. His son Nur al-Din,     Ali was permitted at the mosque of Hussein,
       and his Crusader foes for his   who ruled in Damascus from 1154 to 1174,       where the martyr’s head is buried. From Egypt
     sense of honor and humanity.      consolidated his power in Syria and Meso-      Saladin conquered Syria and upper Meso-
     His reputation in the West was    potamia, sending his Kurdish general Salah     potamia, restoring a unified state in the East
     enhanced by the popularity of     al-Din (Saladin) to take control of Egypt in   for the first time since the early Abbasids. In
        Sir Walter Scott’s novel The   1169. Two years later Saladin assumed power    1187 he crowned his achievement by taking
                   Talisman (1825).    symbolically by deposing the last of the       Jerusalem from the Franks.
                                                                                         Saladin’s Ayyubid dynasty, however, was not
                                                                                      to endure. In 1250 the last Ayyubid sultan was
                                                                                      killed by his Turkish mamluk soldiers. They
                                                                                      proclaimed their own general sultan, initiating
                                                                                      more than two and a half centuries of mamluk
                                                                                      rule. Ten years later the brilliant mamluk gen-
                                                                                      eral Baybars defeated the Mongol invaders at
                                                                                      Ayn Jalut in Syria. By 1291 his successors had
                                                                                      reunited Syria, expelled the last Crusaders, and
                                                                                      expanded the boundaries of their empire into
                                                                                      the upper Euphrates valley and Armenia. The
                                                                                      mamluks kept their Turkish names and the
                                                                                      exclusive right to ride horses and to own other
                                                                                      mamluks as slaves. For the most part they mar-
                                                                                      ried the female slaves who had been imported
                                                                                      with them. If they married local women or
                                                                                      took on Muslim-Arab names, they lost caste
                                                                                      among themselves. When the supply of
                                                                                      Kipchak Turkish slaves began to run out the
                                                                                      Kipchak mamluks (known as Bahris) were
                                                                                      replaced by Circassians (known as Burjis).
                                                                                      Though most of the sultans tried to establish
                                                                                      dynasties, their efforts were rarely successful,
                                                                                      since minors or weaklings were invariably
                                                                                      ousted by more powerful rivals. Nevertheless
                                                                                      they demonstrated their devotion to Islam by
                                                                                      patronizing scholarship and the Sufi orders,
                                                                                      and by the magnificent buildings, including
                                                                                      mosques, seminaries, and inns, which they lav-
                                                                                      ished on Cairo in the distinct and ornate style
                                                                                      that carries their name.

62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               AYYUBIDS AND MAMLUKS




      25°        Adrianople              30°                                                         35°                                            40°                                         45°                                               50°
                                  Constantinople                                                                         Black Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                  G E             Tiflis
                                        Nicaea                                                                                                                                        O
40°                                                                                                                                  Trebizond                                              R
                                                                                                                                                                                                G
                                                                                    aly
                                                                                        s                       Amasia                                                                                I A
      BYZANTINE                                                                 H                               (Amasya)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Shemakha
                                                                                                                          Sebastia
            EMPIRE                                                 SELJUQS                                                (Sivas)
                                                                    OF RUM
                                                                                        T U R K O M A N S                                             K
                    Smyrna
                                                                                                         Caesarea                                           U         ARMENIANS
                Ephesus          Myriokephalon                                                           (Kayseri)                    Melitene (Malatya)
                                                                                                                                                                R                                                                        Caspian
                                                                      Iconium                                                                                                                                A Z E R BA I JA N             Sea




                                                                                                                                                                    D
                                                                      (Konya)
                                                                                                  ARM E NIA                                                                                                   Tabriz
                                                                                                                         Maras




                                                                                                                                                                           S
                                              Adalia                                                                                                      Mayyafariqin
                                                                                                Tarsus                                   Edessa                                                                 Maragha
                                                                                                                                     1144 Zangi            D I YA R BA K I R                                                              ISMAILIS
                                                                                                                     Aleppo          takes Edessa                       Mosul                                                                     Alamut
CRETE                                                                                       Antioch                                                           Sinjar         1127 Zangi appointed
35°                                                                                                                1128 Zangi        Raqqa
                                                                                                                                                                               atabeg of Mosul
                                                                                                                   takes Aleppo                                                1171 Mosul recognizes
                                                                                                                   Hamah
                                                        CYPRUS                              Masyaf                                                                             suzerainty of Nur al-Din
                                                                     Limassol         ISMAILIS                  Homs
                                                                                        Tripoli                                                             Euphr                                                                     Hamadan




                                                                                                                                                                    at e



                                                                                                                                                                                Tig
                                                                                                               SYRIA




                                                                                                                                                                      s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Kermanshah




                                                                                                                                                                                    ris
       M e d                                                                                                   Damascus
             i t e r r a n e a n                               S e a               Hattin
                                                                                Acre                       1154 Nur al-Din                                                                Baghdad
                                                                                                           takes Damascus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            I R A N
                                                                          Jaffa        Rama                                                                                               Hilla
                                              Damietta                Ascalon
                    Alexandria                                                              Jerusalem                                                                             Kufa       IRAQ




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tig
30°                                                                                                                                                                 S                       Eup
                                                                                                                                                                                               hra




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ris
                                             Cairo                                                                                                                                                 t    es
                                      1169–1171
                                      Saladin overthrows
                                                                                                                                                            N                                                                 Basra

                                      Fatimid caliphate
                                                                                                                                             I
                                 E G Y P T
                                                                                                                                 U
                                                                                                               O




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Pe
                                                                                            D



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            rs
                                                                       E                                                                                    A R A B I A                                                                           an




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i
                                                   B
                                     N




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Gu
                                      ile




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             lf
                                                             Qus
25°




                                                                                                                                           Medina
                                                             Aswan                                                       Yenbo
                                                                                                 R
                                                                                                     e




                                                                                                                                 HEJAZ
                                                                                                           d




                                    Ibrim                                           Aydhab
                                   NUBIA
                                                                                                                                 Jedda
                                                                                                                 S




                                                                                                                                         Mecca
20°
                                                                                                                     e
                                                                                                                         a




        The Muslim Near East
        1127–1174
                                                                                                           Suakin
               Territory of Zangi, c.1145
                                                                   Alwa
               Territory of Nur al-Din, c.1174
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  N
                                                       ile
                                                   N




               Other Muslim territory, c.1174
                                             ite




                                          Wh
               Christian territory, c.1174                                                                                                                                 Sada                             0                100 km
                                                                                                                                      Dahlak
15°            Seat of caliphate (Abbasid)                                                                                            Islands                                                               0                         100 miles
                                                                                                                Massawa
               Seat of caliphate (Fatimid)                                                                                                                                       Sana

                                                                                                                                                                               YEMEN



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      63
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




The Mongol Invasion
                                      Unlike the deserts of Arabia the steppelands of         clear rules of succession. The descendants of
                                      inner Asia are comparatively well watered, with         Ghenghis Khan competed for his legacy, creating
                                      extensive grazing for horses. The horseback             several independent, sometimes mutually hostile,
           Ghenghis Khan in state     nomads who dwelt there were organized along             states. They included present-day Mongolia,
     surrounded by his attendants.    similar lines to the Arabs in patrilineal tribal for-   northern China, the realm of the Golden Horde
 However luxurious his court, as      mations. Like the Arab and Turkish nomads they          (centered in the Volga basin), the Chaghatay
shown by this lavishly decorated      were able to construct large federations for suc-       Khanate in the Oxus (Amu Darya) region,
yurt, the Great Khan remained a       cessful raids on cities and areas of cultivation,       and the Ilkhan dynasty, which invaded
      nomad to the end of his life.   creating substantial empires under formidable           Iran and destroyed Saljuq power in




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ri
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PO



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ga
                                                                  leaders: Attila, who        Anatolia.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             D
                                                                                                                                                                                                    W Legn 1
                                                                  ravaged central Europe         The Mongols were not




                                                                                                                                                                                                     ar ica
                                                                                                                                                                                                       sa
                                                                                                                                               M




                                                                                                                                                                                                          w
                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 nica
                                                                                                                                                 in
                                                                  in the fifth century        just ruthless and violent                             sk




                                                                                                                                                                                                            4
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Leg 241
                                                                                                                                                            ES
                                                                                                                                                       LITI




                                                                                                                                                                                                                1
                                                                                                                                                  CIPA
                                                                  with his Huns, is a         nomads. Their sys-                        AN
                                                                                                                                           P RIN




                                                                                                                                                                          Mo 241 NGA
                                                                                                                                    SSI




                                                                                                                                                                            1 U
                                                                                                                                                                            hi
                                                                  well-known example.         tem of communi-                    RU




                                                                                                                                                                        H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ki
                                                                  The Chinese emperors                                                                                                                                                     ev




                                                                                                                                                                                     RY
                                                                                                                                                      BYZANT
                                                                  understood the dan-                                                                                                                               O
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        de
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ssa
                                                                  gers of these large for-




                                                                                                                                                         NE EI
                                                                  mations of horse-




                                                                                                                                                            MP
                                                                                                                                                                        Co                    Bl
                                                                                                                                                                          ns                      ac




                                                                                                                                                                 IR E
                                                                                                                                                                             ta
                                                                  borne invaders, and                                                                                                nt
                                                                                                                                                                                        in
                                                                                                                                                                                          op
                                                                                                                                                                                                           kS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ea
                                                                                                                                                                                             le
                                                                  used their forces to
                                                                  break them up when-                                                                                   SAL
                                                                                                                                                                            J   UQ
                                                                                                                                                                                     TUR
                                                                  ever strong enough to                                                                                                 KS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            GE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      lis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  De
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      rbe
                                                                  do so. The Great Wall                   Al                                                                                                                     AZ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A                                      nt
                                                                                                                ex                                                                                                                  ER
                                                                                                                  an
                                                                  had been built as a                                  dr
                                                                                                                           ia
                                                                                                                                                     Da
                                                                                                                                                         m                               Al
                                                                                                                                                                                             ep
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        BA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       IJ A
                                                                                                                                                             as                                   po                                                          N
                                                                                                                                              Ain              cu                                                            Ta
                                                                  defensible barrier to                         Ca
                                                                                                                     iro                          J
                                                                                                                                              12 alut
                                                                                                                                                                    s                                                             bri
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       z
                                                                                                                                                  60                                                                    Mo
                                                                  keep them out.                                                                                                                                                 sul               Ala
                                                                                                                                             AY                                       TE
                                                                                                                                                  Y U B I D S U L T A NA                                                                                 mu
                                                                     Early in the thir-                                                                                                                                                                           t
                                                                                                         Nile




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Qa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             zvi


                                                                                                                                                                                                       E u ph r
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 n
                                                                  teenth century a                                                                                                                                  Ba
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            i
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            gh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              da
                                                                  new formation                                                                                                                                                    d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Qo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        m
                                                                                                                                R e d Se a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A
                                                                  developed                                                                                                                                             CA BBAS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             PH ID
                                                                  among the                                                                                                                                                    AT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  E

                                                                  Mongols in
                                                                                                                                                                                 A r




                                      a remote region bordering the Siberian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  P er
                                                                                                                                                                                     a b




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       sia




                                      forests under Ghenghis Khan (c. 1162–1227).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            nG




                                      A clever and ruthless leader, he took command of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ul
                                                                                                                                                                                              i a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   f




                                      a wide grouping of tribes from about 1206. By
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        N
                                      the time of his death he had dominated most of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      AN




                                      northern China and his armies had reached the
                                      shores of the Caspian. Divided between his sons,
                                      the empire continued to expand, overwhelming
                                      the rest of northern China and sweeping through
                                                                          .
                                      eastern Europe as far as Germany As with other
                                      nomadic formations, however, there were no

64
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         THE MONGOL INVASION




                                   cations and knowledge of the latest warfare                                                             families of notables actively collaborated, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Mongol Invasions 1206–59
                                   techniques were sophisticated enough to enable                                                          even encouraged attacks on their Muslim ene-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OIROTS           Original tribe
                                   them to wreak unprecedented levels of destruc-                                                          mies in order to gain favor with the conquerors.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Homeland of the Mongol
                                   tion. In the initial conquests, entire populations                                                      Members of the ulama rose to prominence and                                                                                                         tribes
                                   of cities were massacred, without regard to age                                                         power. For instance, the Sunni historian al-                                                                                                        Mongol Empire, 1206
                                   or gender. Buildings were leveled, rotting heads                                                        Juvaini accompanied the Mongol army under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mongol Empire, 1236
                                   stacked in gruesome pyramids. Mongol cruelty                                                            the warlord Hulegu to Alamut, where the last
                                   was a form of psychological warfare designed to                                                         Ismaili stronghold to survive the fall of the                                                                                                       Mongol Empire, 1259

                                    send the message that resistance was useless. As                                                       Fatimids was destroyed in 1256. After the con-                                                                                                      Area paying tribute or under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               loose Mongol control
                                        a strategy, terror was highly effective: the                                                       quest of Baghdad two years later, al-Juvaini
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mongol campaign
                 30




                                             amirs who governed in the Iranian high-                                                       became its governor. Within a few generations
                     °




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    °
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60
N




                                                 lands hastened to demonstrate                                                             the western Mongols had converted to Islam,                                                                                                         City sacked by Mongols
   ov




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14
        go




                                       40
                                         °
           ro




        Ya
                                                          their homage. The local                                                          opening a brilliant new era in the story of
              d




           ro
              sla
                      vl
                                                 50
                                                                   bureaucrats and                                                         its development.                                130
                                                                                                                                                                                               °




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a
                                                                  °




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tsk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Se
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    kk of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ho
M                         Vl                                                                                                                                                                                                            na
   os                       ad                                                                                                                                                                                                   ° e
     co                       im                                                         60°                                                                                                                                  120 L




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        O
   Ry w                         ir
      az
        an                                                                                               70°                                                                                         110°
                                                                                                                           80°                                            100°
                                                                                                                                                90°




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           °
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       50
                                             Bu
                                                                                                                                               Ye




                                               lg
                                                                                                                                                n is




G O                                               ar
    L D
                                                                                                                                                    ey




        E
                                         N
                                              H
                                                       O                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Am
                                                           R
Volga




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ur
                                                                  D                                                                                                                     BURYATS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             LS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                O
                                                                        E                                                                                                                                                                    NG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MO
                                                                                                         I rty
                                                                                                             sh




                                                                                                                                                                                    OIROTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ITS




    Ol
                                                                                                                                                                                                        RK




       dS                                                                                                                                                                                               ME                                        R
                 era
                          i                                                                                                                                                                                  KERAITS                  TAR    S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TA

                                                                                                                                                                             NS
                                                                                                                                                                          IMA
                                                                                                                                                                     NA
                                                                              A




                                                                                                                                                                                               m
                                                                                                                                                                                  Karakoru
Caspian




                                                                                N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 g
                          EM




                                             Aral                            IA                                                                                                               1235                                                                                                          yan
  Sea




                                                                         X                                                                                                       capital from                                                                                                        Liao                Seaf 40°
                                             Sea                      SO                                                                                                                        A
                                                             AN                                                                                                                           O L I                                                                                PIR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E
                             P




                                                                                                                                                                                  M O N G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           o n
                                                        TR                                                                                                                                                                                                               EM
                    IRE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              a
                                                                                                                  CHAGA                                                                                                                                            IN                                                     Jap
                                                                                    Otrar
                                                                                                                        TAI                                                                                                                                      CH
                                                                                                                  KHANA
           OF TH




                                                                                                                        TE
                                                                 Tash                                   Balasaghun
                                                                      ken      t                                                                                                                                                                                                 ing                        son
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                g
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pek ijing)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ng                                      (Be                    Kae
                                  Nish                                                                                                                                                         EM             PIRE               Dato
                                                       Bukh                                    Kokend                                                                                    NIXIA                                                                                                                            ong
                 E KHWARIZM




                                      apur                       ara Sam                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ggy
                                                                         ark            and                                                                                                                                                                                                        low        Ton
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ho




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  xia                                             ng
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ning                                             Jini              Yel ea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ng




                                                                                                        Kashgar
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1226                          Taiyu                                                          S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a




                                                                 Amu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hu




                                                                         D ary a
                                                                         Balk                                                                                                                                                                                                              u
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ang                                            cho
                                                                              h                                                                                                                                                  Pingy                                               Zai
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ng
                                                       Hera              Kabu                                                                                                                                                                         Kaife
                                                             t                l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               A                                                       30°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hsian                               N                                                        t
                                                                                    IR                            LA                                                                                                                                     I                                                              Eas na
                                                           Ghaz
                                                               ni                 HM                                DA                                                                                                       C          H                                                 chou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ch ea
                                                                                AS                                                                                                                                                                                                   Han
                            SHA




                                                                               K                                      KH                                                                                                                                                                                                  S
                                                                                                                                                T        I    B      E        T                                                                                          R E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     P I
                       H




                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chengdu                                                    E M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S U N
                                                                     u   s
                                                                 Ind                                                                                         Lhasa
                                                                              SULTA                                                                                                                                     ng
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ia




                                                                                               NATE O                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ncer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of Ca
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   J




                                                                                                      F DELHI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ng




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tropic
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cha




                                                                                                        Delhi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     n
          Arab                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Canto gzhou)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     n
                              ian                                                                                                Gan
                                                                                                                                     ges                 ASSAM                                                                                                                  (Gua
               Sea                                                                  T
                                                                          RA
                                                                        JE
                                                                      GU                                                             BENGAL
                                                                                        YADAVA                                                                                                                          Hanoi
                                                                                                                                 A                                                                                      Daluo
                                                                                                                              ISS
                                                                                                                            OR
                                                                                                                                           Bay of Bengal



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       65
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Maghreb and Spain 650–1485
                                                                                                                                         e
                                     10°                                                                            0°      Tours                                                               10°                                                                         20

                                                   ATLANTIC                                                 732          Poitiers
                                                                                                                                                          FRANKISH EMPIRE
                                                    OCEAN                                                                                                                                                                                                   AVAR
                                                                                                               Limoges
                                                                                                                                                              Lyon




                                                                                                                                                                                    KI
                                    ~                                                       Bordeaux




                                                                                                                                                                                      N
                             La Coruna                                                                                                                                                                                   Venice




                                                                                                                                                                                        G
                                                                                                                                                                              Turin                    Po




                                                                                                                                                  Rhône
                                                 Oviedo                                                    AQUITAINE                                                                           O




                                                                                                                                                                                            D
                                                            718    Santander
                                                        CANTA
                                                              BRIAN                                                                                                          Genoa                 M
                                                                    S    BASQ                               Toulouse                                                                                     O
                                                                              U                   ES               721                                                      Nice




                                                                                                                                                                                                            F
                                                                                 Eb                                                                                                          Florence
                                                                                                                                             Marseille                  Frejus                                                   Ancona




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ti
                                                                                      ro
                          Oporto




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ad
 40°                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ria
                                                      713




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     T
                                            U




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 tic




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         H
                                                                                                    Zaragoza                                                                       Corsica                                                             Se




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             E
                                                                                                    713                                                                                                                          LO                      a
                                                             Madrid                                                         Barcelona                                                                            Rome                 M
                                            M




                                                                                                                                                                                               from
                              gus                                                                                                                                                                                                         BA
                           Ta
                                                                       Toledo                                                                                                                                                                   RD




                                                                                                                                                                                                   711
                          Lisbon 711
                                                                       712                                                                                                   Sardinia                                        Naples                     S
                                                                                                    Valencia                                                                                                                                        Taranto
                                            A




                                                                                                                               Palma          s
                                              Cordoba 711                                                                                nd
                                                                                                                         s          la
                                                                                                                     c I
                                              Y




                                                                                                             Baleari
                                      712                   711




                                                                                                                                                                                       from
                                                                      Granada              Cartagena
                                   Cádiz
                                                Y




                                                                                                                                                                                         711
                                                Gibraltar                                                                                                                                                                        Sicily
                                  Tangier
                                                                                                                                                                     Bône
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 652–6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         8                                              B
                                                      A




                                                                                                                                                                                    Tunis     698
                                                                                                           Tahant
                                                            D




                                Meknès                                                                                                                                                          Kairouan
                                                        Taza                                                                                                  683                               670                          M
                                                Fes                                                                                                                          698
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          e
                                                                             C                                                                                                                                                                      d           i
                                                                                       A                                                                                                                                                                            t
                                                                                                       L           P          H              A
                                                                                                                                                                                             Gabès

                          Aghmat                                                                                                                          T            E                                         Tripoli
                                            Sijilmasa                                                                                                                                                                647
 30°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Misurata



                                                                                                       E                  R                       B                    E
                                                                                 B                                                                                                     R
                                                                                                                                         Wargla
                                                                                                                                                                                                             S
       Muslim conquests in North                                                                                                                                                        Ghadamés
       Africa and Europe                                                                               El Galsa
       634 to 732
       Conquests under Muhammad

                 By 644
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Garama
                 By 720


                 Major Muslim campaign                                                              In Saleh                                                                                                                                        Zawilah
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Murzuk
                 Further campaigns
                                                                                 S              a                                                                                              Ghat
                 Muslim raids                                                                                  h           a             r                a
                                                                                 Tropic of Ca                                                                                  D               e
                                                                                             ncer                                                                                                            s               e            r                 t
                 Muslim victory


                 Muslim defeat                                    0                             300 km

                 Trans-Saharan trade routes
           20°                                                    0                                                 300 miles




66
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MAGHREB AND SPAIN 650–1485




0°                                                                   30°                                                                                40°



     EMPIRE
                                                                                                                                                                      C a u c a s u s                    M t
                                                                                                                                                                                                             s                           Baku
                                                                                                                                                                             LAZICA
                                                                                                                                                                                                          by 66
                              BULGARIA                                                                                                                                                                         1
                                                                                                B l a c k                   S e a
                                             be
                                     D anu
      B     a      l      k    a      n       s                   Varna

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Resht
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Qu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            izi
                                                                                                                                                                         E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  l U zun

                                                        Constantinople            716
                                                              7                                                                                                 R
                                                           –7
                           Salonika                     670                                                                                             I
                                                                              A    n        a       t     o      l      i       a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Hamadan

                                    Aegean
                                                                                                                                               P                                                       Mosul
                                                                                                                                                                                          4
                                                                                                                                                                                     by 64
                                     Sea
                                                                                                                                       M Mts




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ti
                                                                  Smyrna                                Konya                          us
                                                                                                                      E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     gri
                                                                                                                                               Adana
                                                                                                                                   r




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         s
                                                                                                                                Ta u




                           Athens                                                                                                                               Aleppo

                                                                                                E                                                              Hama
                                                                          I       N
      Y            Z           A              N               T                                                        Cyprus
                                                                                                                                                                  Homs
                                                                                                                                                            Tripoli
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Euphrate s
                                          Crete Candia                                                                                        Beirut                                                                                                            Basra
                                                                                                                                                               Damascus


                                                                                                          a                                  Haifa
                                                                                    S           e
      e       r        r       a          n        e          a       n
                                                                                                                                            Jerusalem

                                                                                                                                            Gaza
                                                                                                                642
          Ajdabiya                                                                Alexandria
                                                                                        646             Tanta

                                                                                                                       al-Fustat
                                                                                                         al Giza       (Cairo)                                                         A R A B I A
                                                                                                al Faiyum                                                                                 Under Muhammad
                Awjilah                                                                                                640
                                                  644
                                                                                                                      al Minya
                                                                                                    E g y p t
                                                                                                                            N
                                                                                                                             ile




                                                                                                                                                                         R
                                                                                                                                                Luxor
                                                                                                                                                                             e




                                                                                                                            al Kharga                                                                              Medina
                                                                                                                                                                                 d
                                                                                                                                                                                      S




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ad
                                                                                                                                                                                          e




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sS
                                                                                                                                                                                              a




                                                                                                                                            Aswan                                                                                                         ub
                                                                                                                                                                    Aidnab                                                                                     ai
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ny a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         di Ra
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Jedda              Mecca     Wa
                                                                                        N
                                      Kuffra                                                                                                                                                                                                                            W




                                                                                                                                        to Dongola
                                                                                                                                        652                     NUBIANS
                                                                                                                                                                                              Suakin



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    67
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




 Islamic Spain c. 1030
                                                           Al-Andalus is the Arabic name for territories                                                                                region in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
             Christian states
                                                           in the Iberian Peninsula that came under                                                                                     They were the Almoravids (1056–1147) and
             Caliphate of Córdoba to 1031
                                                           Muslim rule and influence for nearly 800                                                                                     the Almohads (1130–1269). By the end of
 Granada     Islamic kingdoms after 1031

             Archdiocese
                                                           years. The first Muslim contact with the                                                                                     Almohad rule, various Christian rulers had
             Important Jewish community                    region came in 711. A Muslim army crossed                                                                                    united to begin the period of reconquista.
 Population                                                the Straits of Gibraltar from North Africa                                                                                   Except for the rule of the Nasrids in Granada
             Christian
                                                           and by 716 a number of cities and kingdoms                                                                                   until 1492, most of the Iberian Peninsula was
             Mostly Berber and converts                    had been defeated. The nature and extent of                                                                                  lost to Muslim authority.
             Mostly Arab                                   Muslim rule in the area was dramatically                                                                                       After the 1492 defeat of Granada, most
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Muslims and Jews fled to
                                                                                                                                                                                                      North Africa to avoid the
         N
                                                                                                                         F R A N C E                                                                  Inquisition. Some submitted
                                                                                                                                                                                                      and converted to Christianity,
                                                                                                Bilbao
                                                         Oviedo    Vizcaya                      Guipuzcoa                                                                                             while a small number were
                                                                   1 02 8–
                                                                      C a 3 5 r uled b




                              Santiago de
                                                                                                Pamplona
                              Compostela
                                                                                       NAVARRE ARAGON BARCELONA                                                                   42°
                                                                                                                                                                                                      allowed to retain their faith,
                                        San Marcos
                                                                             s t y Cas




                                           de León                                                                                                                                                    but under much more con-
                                                                                                                                         Vich
                                                                                     i l tile




                                 L         E       Ó        N                              e                           Saragossa        Barcelona
                                                                                                            S a ra g o ssa                                                                            strained circumstances. By the
                                                          Zamora
              Oporto                                                                                                                                                                                  sixteenth century, however, the
                                                          Salamanca                                            As
                                                                                                              Sahla                                                                                   process of     conversion and
                                                                                                                                                                         n   ds   40°
                                                                                                                                                                    la
                                                                                                                           a




                                                                                                            Alpuente                                           Is
                                                                                                                                                                                                      expulsion of Muslims was
                                                                                                                        ci




                                                                                                                                                          ic
                                                             Toledo                                                                                  ar
                                                                                                                     n




                              B a d a j o z                                                                      e         Valencia              e
                                                            a l - A n d a l u s                              Val                          B
                                                                                                                                              al                                                      almost complete and the pres-
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ence of Islam in the region
                    Lisbon       Badajoz
                                                                                                                 Denia
                                                                                                                                                                                  38°
                                                Merida
                                                         Córdoba
                                                                                                                             Alicante                                                                 remained only through cultural
                                                                                                           Murcia
                                      Seville                Córdoba Granada                                 Murcia                     Mediterranean Sea                                             traces.
                                      Mertola            Ecija
                                                                  Lucena                              Almería       Cartagena                                                                              The civilization engendered
                Beni                  Niebla
               Muzai n           Bahr i s       Seville Moron                        Granada
                                                                                                                                                                                                      in    Muslim    Andalusia    was
                                                                   a




                                                    Ronda
                                                                  g




                                                                                                                                                                                  36°
                                           Cádiz
                                                             la
                                                                Málaga                                                                                                                                linked to the broader develop-
                                                         M á
                   9°                                        Gibraltar                                                                                                                                ments in the Middle East and
                                                    6°                                           3°                                0°                                             3°
                                                                                                                                                                                                      North Africa, but was distinc-
                                                                                                                                                                                                      tive in several respects. The art
                                                                                  F                   A         T            I           M                     I                  D        S
     0           100 km
                                                                                                                                                                                                      and architecture associated
     0                    100 miles
                                                                                                                                                                                                      with the cities of Córdoba,
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Granada, Seville, and Toledo
                                                           affected by the collapse of the Damascus-                                                                                    remain as landmarks. The literary heritage
                                                           based Umayyad dynasty in 750. A member of                                                                                    that flowered in the later period was also dis-
                                                           the family fled to Spain, becoming a governor                                                                                tinctive in its contribution to Romance litera-
                                                           before initiating a new Umayyad dynasty,                                                                                     ture. But perhaps the most enduring legacies
                                                           which eventually declared Iberia and North                                                                                   were reflected in the philosophical, theologi-
                                                           Africa as a separate caliphate.                                                                                              cal, and legal writings of Muslims and Jews,
                                                                  Inspired by a more orthodox vision of                                                                                 which would exercise a great influence on
                                                           Muslim rule, the two movements arriving in                                                                                   subsequent Latin scholasticism in Europe.
                                                           North Africa established control over the                                                                                    Among this tradition’s most outstanding

68
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MAGHREB AND SPAIN 650–1485

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The court of the lions in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Alhambra palace in Granada.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The kingdom of Granada, the
reference points were Ibn Rushd (also                                                                                                                                                                                 last Islamic outpost in Western
known as Averroës), who died in 1198 and                                                                                                                                                                              Europe, held out for 250 years in
Ibn Arabi (d. 1240), who wrote many mysti-                                                                                                                                                                            the face of the Christian
cal works that influenced succeeding gener-                                                                                                                                                                           Reconquista. Despite the
ations. The great Jewish thinker Moses                                                                                                                                                                                external pressures, under the
Maimonides (d. 1204) also worked in this                                                                                                                                                                              Nasrid dynasty it remained a

most intellectually invigorating and cultur-                                                                                                                                                                          sophisticated and tolerant center

ally resplendent milieu.                                                                                                                                                                                              where Islamic and Western
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      cultures were blended in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      brilliant, creative synthesis.


         9°                                                     6°                                                                            3°                                                          0°                                                       3°
                                                                                                     B a y                    o f        B i s c a y                                         F R A N C E
                                                              A s t u r i a s                                                                          Guipuzcoa
                                                                                                                                           Vizcaya                                                                                 Cerdagne
               G a l i c i a
                                                                                                                                                             KINGDOM                                                                                   Roussillon
                          Santiago de                                                                                                         R.
                          Compostella
                                                                                                                                                 Eb
                                                                                                                                                    ro         OF
                                                                                                                                         Burgos
                                                                                                                                                           NAVARRE
                                      o                              L e ó n                                                                                                             A r a g ó n
                                   Miñ
                                R.
                                                                                                                                     O l d                                                                              C a t a l o ñ a
   42°                                                                                                                                                                      Mallén              Saragossa
                                                                                 Castrotorafe
                                                                                                                                                                           KINGDOM OF ARAGÓN
                                                                                                                            C a s t i l e
                                                                                                                                                                                     Belchite
                                                                                                    Castronuño                                                                                         Caspe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tarragona
                               R . D ou
                                       ro                          Penausende

                                                                                                                                                                                   Alfambra
                    KINGDOM                                                C             A            S                 T       I         L         E                                              Culla
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Pulpis            Peñiscola
                                                                                                                                                                               Villel
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Onda
                                OF                                                                                                  Consuegra                                             Libros
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Valencia                                                               ds
                       Soure                                                                                                                   Ocaña                                                                                                           l   an
   40°                                                                                                                                                                                                     Bétera                                           Is
                   PORTUGAL                                     Alconétar                                      Toledo                                                          Olocau                     Valencia                                     ic
                                                                                                                    Mora                                                                                                                          ar
                                                                                                                                                           Alcázar de                                                                         e
                                                                                                                                                           San Juan                  Torrente
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silla                    B   al
                        Belver                                          N e w                          C a s t i l e                                                                                          Sueca
                                                                                                                        Malagón
                   s




                                                                                                                                                            Alhambra                      Anna                                      The Christian
               gu




                                                      Montánchez                               a
              Ta                                                                        ia n
                                                                                 ua d
Lisbon
         R.
                    Coruche                                               R. G                                      Calatrava                                                                                                       Reconquest
                                                                                                                     la Vieja                                Montiel                             Enguera
                                                                                                                                       Almagro                           Murcia                                                     Date of reconquest
     Almada                                                Alange
         Palmela                                                                                                                                                           Socovos
                                     Evora             Hornachos                                                                                            Yeste                            Cieza                                          1080
              Setúbal                                       Usagre                                                                            Segura           Moratalla                      Ricote                                        1130
              Santiago                      Moura                                   A n d a l u s i a                                                                   Caravaca     Cehegin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1210
              de Cacem                                     Llerena                                                                                 Baeza                                                                                    1250
   38°                                                                  Setefilla                          u i vi
                                                                                                                    r
                                                                                                     alq                                                                                Aledo                                               1275
               Aljustrel             Serpa                                                       uad
                                                                        Lora                   .G                                   Martos                                                                                                   Muslim
                                                                                                            Alcaudete
                                                                                         R




                         Mértola                                                                                                                                                                                                             domination
                                                                                                   Estepa                                                      1275
              Marachique                                      Seville                                                                                                                                                                        Archdiocese
                                                                                                                                                               Muslim
                                                                                                                                                                                                          a




                                                                                        Osuna                               Benameji           Granada
         Albufeira                           Cacela                                                                                                            retaken
                                                                                                                                                                                                      e




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Military orders
                                                                            Morón
                                                                                                                                                                                                  S




                                                                                                                    G R A N A D A                                                                                                            Hospital
                                                                           Cote
                                                                                                                                                                                             n                                               Santiago
                                                                                                                                                                                         a                N                                        lif
                                                                                                                                                                                     e                                                         Che
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Caltrava
                                                                                             Alcalá de los Gazules                                        a n                                                                                Alcántra
                                                        Medina Sidonia                                                                                r r                                                                                    Avis
                                                               Vejer                                                                            i t e                                                                                        Cristo
     0                           100 km                                                                                                   M e d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Montesa
   36°                                                                                       Ceuta
     0                                         100 miles
                                                              Tangier
                                                                                 S U L T A N A T E                                                         O F           M O R O C C O


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             69
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Subsaharan Africa—East
                                          From the time of the ancient pharaohs the           prestigious of all Islamic lineages in the form of
                                          Upper Nile regions of East Africa had belonged      Quraishi pedigrees, a trend that would emerge
       The southernmost outpost of
                                          to the same cultural universe as Egypt. Ethiopia    among other religious and tribal leaders. While
    Dar al-Islam until modern times,
                                          was Christianized by Coptic missionaries from       Arabic and—in some cases—Persian brought by
Kilwa had a population of about
                                          the fourth century, and according to the earliest   mariners retained their prestige as the language
           10,000 in 1505, when the
       Portuguese took the island by
                                          Islamic sources, the Christian Negus gave           of “True Islam,” vernacular languages devel-
            storm. The first Muslim       refuge to a group of persecuted Muslims from        oped rich oral literatures that would eventually
       occupants were mariners and        Mecca even before the Hijra. The Arab con-          acquire written form. The first Swahili text
    merchants from the Persian Gulf       querors of Egypt reached Aswan in 641 and for       dates from 1652. The Swahili culture that dom-
         who settled around AD 800.       centuries continued to move southward, giving       inates the thousand-mile coastal strip from
                                                                                              Mogadishu to Kilwa is the fruit of many cen-
     PLAN OF THE GREAT MOSQUE AT KILWA                                                        turies of interaction between the ideas brought
                                                                                              by Arab-Persian merchants, traders, and set-
                                                                                              tlers, and the indigenous peoples of the eastern
                                                                                               seaboard with whom they intermarried.
                                                                                                    After Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape
                                                                                                 of Good Hope in 1498 the Portuguese sys-
                                                                                                  tematically destroyed the prosperous
                                                                                                  Swahili cities that had sprung up along
                                                                                                   the coast. In 1505 Kilwa was captured and
                                                                                                   Mombasa was sacked. By 1530 the
                                                                                                   Portuguese controlled the entire coast
                                                                                                   from their fortresses on Pemba, Zanzibar,
                                                                                                  and other islands. In the 1650s, however,
                                                                                                 the Omanis who were Ibadi Muslims
0                                      15 m                                                     expelled them from Muscat, restoring the
                                                           N




0                                       50 ft                                                   eastern part of the Indian Ocean to Muslim
                                                                                              rule. The Omanis built up the trade in cloth,
                                          the Upper Nile region its predominantly Arabic      ivory, and slaves between East Africa and
                                          character. The Funj sultanate, which main-          India. In the nineteenth century, under the sul-
                                          tained a monopoly on the gold trade that last-      tan Sayyid Said bin Sultan (1804–56), Muscat
                                          ed until about 1700, was created by herders         and Zanzibar were briefly united under a sin-
                                          moving downstream along the Blue Nile. It           gle ruler, opening the way to settlement by
                                          consolidated the Arabic influence by attracting     new waves of Muslim immigrants from South
                                          legal scholars and holy men (known locally as       Arabia. Much of Zanzibar was turned over to
                                          faqis) from Egypt, the Maghreb, and Arabia.         the commercial production of cloves and other
                                                The Arab character of East African Islam      spices, using slave-plantation methods similar
                                          was reinforced by the proximity of the coastal      to those employed in the United States. After
                                          regions to the Hejaz and Yemen. From an early       the division of the empire between the sons of
                                          period Somali cattle-breeders acquired the most     Sultan Said, Zanzibar came under increasing

70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SUBSAHARAN AFRICA—EAST




        Mediterranean                                                                                                                                                                                             pressure to abolish the slave trade by
             Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the British, who used their navy to
              Alexandria

30°                                    Cairo                                                                                                                                                                      enforce the antislave trade laws and
                      M A M LU K                                                                                                                                                                                  to pursue their own commercial
                       EMPIRE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  interests. After becoming a British
                                 N
        Libyan                       ile
        Desert
                                         R                      Qusayr                                                                                                                                            protectorate, Zanzibar played host
                                         ive




                                                                                                                                                                                              Muscat
                                                                              R
                                            r




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to a new wave of immigrants from
                                                                                  ed




Tropic of Cancer                     Aswân
                                                                                       Se




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  British India. Many of                  these
                                                                                           a




                            Faras                                                           Jedda                                   A    r a        b       i    a
                                                                                                                  Mecca
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  migrants were Muslims from minor-
                                             N ubian Desert
20°                                                                                                                                                                                                               ity communities including Momens,
                                                                                                 Suakin                                                                                       T
                 Old Dongola                     ALWA                Berber                                                                                                           A
                                                                                                                                                                                          U                       Ithnashari Khojas, and Ismailis.
                                                                                                                                                                                  M
                                                                                                                                                                              A
                                                                                                                                                                        R
                                  an




                                                                                                                     Dahlak                                         H
                                                                                                                                                                D
                                of




                                                              Soba                                                                                          A
                            rd




                                                                                                                 Dibarwa                                H       Shihr
                                              F U NJ                                                                            Y E MEN
                           Ko




       DARFUR                                                  Sennar                                            Axum               Mocha
                                                     ile R.

                                                                 Bl u e N




                                                                                                                                        Aden                                                  Socotra
                                                h i te N




                                                                                                                   Lalibela
                                                                                                Saylac
                                                                          i




                                                                          e
                                                                         l




                                                                   R.
                                                                 AGAU
                                                                            ETHIOPIA                   Berbera                                                            Ras Xaafuun
10°
                                                W                                         A DA L
                                                                   Debre Libanos   Debre Birhan
                                                                                                                                                S OM A L I
                                                                                       Bernra                                           Dakar
                                                                                                             y




                                                                                                                                        OR OM O
                                                                                                         e
                                                                                                     l l




                                                       NILOTES
                                                                                                 V a




                                                                      Lake
                                                                     Turkana
                                                                                                                                    Jasiira Mogadishu
                                                                                           f t




                                                                                                                                         Baraawe                          I       N       D       I     A   N
Equator                          Bigo                                                                                 S WA H I L I
0°
                                                                                       i




                                                                                                                   C I T Y S TAT E S
                                                                                  R




                                                 Lake
                                                Victoria                                                                                                                      O       C       E       A     N
                                                                                                                            Shanda
                                                                                                       Ungwana           Manda
                                                                                                             Gedi       Malindi
                                                                                                                      Mombasa
                                                                                                                                                                                                  N
                                                                                                                      Pemba
                         Lake
                      Tanganyika                                                                                   Zanzibar
                Kikulu
      Sanga      Kamilamba                                                                                           Mafia
                Kalongo
                                                                                                                   Kilwa Kisiwani
10°                                                                                                                                                                           0           300 km
                                                                                                                                            Comoro
                                                                                                                                            Is.                               0                       300 miles
                                                                Lake
                                                                Nyasa
                                                                                                                                                                Vohémar
                                         SHONA
                                                                                                                 W




                           Zamb ez i River
                                                                                                             L
                                                                                            K I                                                             East African Slave Trade                              The entrance to a private house in Stone
                      MWENEMU TA PA                                                                                                                         to 1500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Town, Zanzibar. The decorated portals
                                                                                                                                Tananarive                              Slave trading states
20°                                    Great                                                                                                                                                                      carved from local hardwoods or trees
              Khami                                                   Sofala
                                       Zimbabwe                                                                                                                         Approximate area
                TORWA                                                                                                                                                                                             imported from the mainland symbolized the
                                                                                                                                    Madagascar                          supplying slaves
       Mapungubwe         Manekweni                                           Chibuene                                                                                                                            social status of the house’s owner. The walls
                    Li m popo R                                                                                                                                         Slave routes
Tropic of Capricorn            iver
                                                                                                                                                                        Other kingdoms and states
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  are made from coral rag and need constant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  maintenance to prevent destruction by
                            30°                                                                              40°                                     50°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  torrential monsoon rains.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             71
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Subsaharan Africa—West
                                     The expansion of Islam in West Africa was            reunited the petty principalities of al-Andalus
                                     largely peaceful. The introduction of camels for     to ward off the threat of the Christian recon-
Detail from a fourteenth-century
                                     transportation into the Sahara sometime before       quest. There were some forcible conversions of
      Catalan map showing a king
                                     AD   600 had established a growing network of        Africans south of the Sahara, but these were
enthroned, with his royal regalia.
     The portrait may be of Mansa
                                     caravan routes between the Maghreb and the           mostly rare. The earliest converts were usually
      Musa of Mali, whose wealth     Sahil (shore), the vast belt of grassy steppelands   the royal families that had always relied on reli-
  made a great impression on his     that lies between the Sahara and the tropical        gious prestige to extract taxes or military serv-
contemporaries when he traveled      forests of Guinea. The principal export from the     ice from subordinate clans and communities. As
             to Mecca in 1324–25.    south was gold from Bambuko on the Senegal           Muslim merchants settled in Sahil cities (most
                                                                    River, which was      of which had their own Muslim quarters by the
                                                                    for centuries the     late tenth century) the royals would seek to ben-
                                                                    principal source      efit from the cultural prestige they carried by
                                                                    of gold for the       adopting Islam as the court religion.
                                                                    Maghreb,       West      For the most part local kingdoms continued
                                                                    Asia, and Europe.     to form and re-form under different tribal
                                                                    Gold—along            dynasties, with Islamic rituals and practice
                                                                    with slaves, hides,   intermingling with tribal customs. With each
                                                                    and ivory—was         new state the capital would become a center of
                                                                    exchanged       for   wealth and Islamic learning, as rulers sought
                                                                    copper,     silver,   prestige by patronizing religious scholarship.
                                                                    handcrafted arti-     The most spectacular cultural center was the
                                                                    cles, dried fruits,   Tuareg city of Timbuktu on the Niger. The
                                                                    and cloth. More       Tuaregs were a camel-borne elite who grew
                                                                    significant than      rich from the trans-Saharan trade, using slaves
                                                                    the trade, how-       to exploit the salt mines and settling serfs
                                                                    ever, was the dif-    from African tribes to cultivate the oases
                                                                    fusion of ideas.      along their routes.
                                     Islam was brought south by merchants, teachers,         The most celebrated Muslim ruler from
                                     and Sufi mystics the French had named                Subsaharan Africa was Mansa Musa (1307–32),
                                     Marabouts Arabic Murabits. The latter were           king of Mali. He made the pilgrimage to Mecca
                                     often members of saintly families who acted as       in 1324–25 in the grandest possible style, leav-
                                     hereditary arbiters among rural tribesfolk.          ing an impression that would last for genera-
                                          In the eleventh century Murabits from the       tions. Unlike the Nilotic Sudan where the
                                     Lamtuna Berber group established a center in         Arabic language took root, Islam was diffused
                                     Mauretania for the propagation of Islam, from        in local vernaculars from a relatively early
                                     where they launched a jihad against the kings of     stage. From around 1700 (and possibly earlier)
                                     Ghana, rulers of the largest and wealthiest of       scholars and teachers developed a modified ver-
                                     the West African states. The reforming zeal of       sion of Arabic script to convey Islamic teach-
                                     the Murabits (known as Almoravids in Spanish)        ings in Fulfulde and Hausa, the leading lan-
                                     carried them northward to Iberia, where they         guages of the western Sahil.

72
                                                                                                                                                                                                  SUBSAHARAN AFRICA—WEST




Ghana and Mali Empires                                                                                                    10°                                                                0°
                                                                                                                                                                      Gharnata
                                                                                                                                                                      (Granada)
        Ghana Empire, c. 1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Algiers
        Almoravid state, 1055                                                                                                      Tangier                                                                                  Tunis

        Almoravid state, 1100                                                                                                                                                     Tlemcen
                                                                                                                                                   Fez
        Mali Empire, c. 1350

        Travels of Ibn Battuta, 1352                                                                                             MOROCCO

        Trade route
                                                                                                                              Marrakesh
                                                                                                                                             Sijilmasa
        Alluvial gold                                         30°

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ghadamés



                      Canary Islands


                                                                                                                                                                               Tuat



                                                                                   S       a                h         a r a                  D e         s       e     r t
Tropic of Cance
                  r

                                                                                                                                      Taghaza

                                                            Wadan
                                                         (Ouadane)
                                                                     B   E     R       B    E               R     S
            Ribat                  Chinguetti                                                                                                                            T U A R
      20°                                                                                                                                                                        E G


                                                                                                            SANHAJA
                                                              LAMTUNA


                                                     Awdaghust                                                                                                                     Tadmekka
                                                                                                                        Walata
                                                                             SONINKÉ
                                                                                                                                               Timbuktu
              TOKOLOR                                                                                                                                                 Gao
                                        Se
                                             ne
                                                  g al                                     Kumbi Saleh                                        MOSSI                         Koukya
                                                         R.                                Ghana Empire capital                                                                                             Azelik
                        G am                 BAM
                            b ia
                                   R.           B                                                                INKE
                                                                                                                                   Jenne                                     SONGHAY
                                                                    SOSSO                                  MAL                                                                                      Sokoto
                                                              UK
                                                                O




                                                                                                   Kirina                                                                               Niamey
                                                                                                                                                                               Ni
                                                                                                                                                                                  ge
                                                                                                                                                                                    r




                                                                                                                                                                                        R.
                                                                                           Niani
                                                                BURE


      10°



                                                                                                                                                         Volt
                                                                                                                                                             a
                                                                                            Sassandra R.




                                                                                                                                   Akan goldfields
                                                                                                                                                                 R.




                                                                                                                                               Bito


                                                                                                                                                                                             N



                                                                                                                          0               300 km

                                                                                                                          0                           300 miles




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Jihad States
                                      From the seventeenth to the nineteenth century       merging with the local elites prior to the French
                                      a series of jihad movements occurred in West         conquest. The most famous of the West African
                                      Africa that led to the creation of a number of       jihad leaders was Uthman Dan Fodio
                                      Islamic states and transformed the presence of       (1754–1817) a mallam (religious scholar) from a
                                      Islam in the region. Most of these jihads            well-established family of scholars in the inde-
                                      involved rebellions by nomadic tribesmen             pendent Hausa kingdom of Gobir. After attack-
                                      against nominally Islamic rulers who held to         ing the king for mixing Islamic and
                                      traditional African concepts of divine kingship,     pagan practices, Dan Fodio fol-
                                                                                                                                     10°
                                      mixing rituals of pagan origin with symbols          lowed the classical Muhammadan
                                                                                           scenario of making the hijra
            Mudbaked mosque at
                                                                                           beyond the borders of the king-
       Djenne, Mali. Designed in
                                                                                           dom, before waging jihad
        the local vernacular style,
                                                                                           against the king and other                     Fez
             the building fabric is
                                                                                           Hausa rulers in




                                                                                                                                                                 O
     constantly renewed from the                                                                                           Marrakesh
                                                                                           the name of                                      C
     material of which it is made.                                                                                                       C
                                                                                           a purified                                  O
                                                                                                                                   R
                                                                                                                               O
                                                                                                                            M


                                                                                                                  BANNU
                                                                                                                  HASSAN
                                                                                                                      Ouadane
                                                                                                  Argvin                                                MASINA
                                                                                                                Chinguetti
                                      derived from Islam. The leadership of these                                                                         1810
                                      movements usually came from the literate class
                                      of ulama—scholars, teachers, and students—                                                                   Oualata
                                                                                                                                                                 Timbuktu
                                                                                                          WALO                       KAARTA
                                      who had studied with Sufi masters locally or           St. Louis
                                                                                                                 FU




                                                                                                         CAYOR                                            SEGU
                                                                                                                  TA




                                      had acquired their reformist ideas in Mecca and                                                                                   Gao
                                                                                            Gorée
                                                                                                          BOAL 177
                                                                                                                      TO




                                                                                                                  6                            Segu Jenne
                                                                                                                        RO




                                      Medina. Their followers were Fulani cattle-          Fort James
                                                                                           BONDU                                      Mali                       MOSSI
                                      herders moving south in search of pasture, who          1688         MANDINGO                      Bamako                 STATES
                                      resented taxes imposed on them by the Hausa                                  FUTA                           Ouagadougou
                                                                                                 Cachea
                                                                                                                  JALLON            FULA         KONG
                                      kings, joined by disgruntled peasants, runaway                                   1725                     EMPIRE
                                      slaves, and other outcasts. Ibrahim Musa                   Bunce Island                                           Kong

                                      (Karamoko Alfa d. 1751), a Fulani torodbe
                                                                                                                        SUSU                              ASANTE
                                      (scholar), waged a struggle against the local                                                    OYOLA
                                                                                                                                                               Kumasi
                                      rulers. This resulted in the creation of the state
                                                                                                                                      Little                           Accra
                                      of Futa Jallon in the uplands of Senegambia.                          N                         Cestos
                                                                                                                                                        Axim
                                                                                                                                                                     Elmina
                                      The jihad movement (which Ibrahim Musa’s
                                      descendants exploited to capture slaves for
                                      export and work in plantations) spread to Futa                                            0              200 km

                                      Toro in the Senegal River valley. Here torodbes                                           0                        200 miles
                                      formed an independent Islamic state, before

74
                                                                                                                                                                                                    JIHAD STATES




            Islam. His preaching conveyed a powerful mes-                                    expanded to include most of what is now                                             Jihad States c. 1800
            sage of social justice in the classic manner of                                  northern Nigeria and the northern Camer-
                                                                                                                                                                                         Extent of Islam, c. 1800
            Muhammad, mixing theological attacks on                                          oons. In 1817 Dan Fodio retired to a life of
                                                                                                                                                                                         Center of Islamic learning
            idolatry with denunciations of illegal taxes,                                    reading, writing, and contemplation, leaving
                                                                                                                                                                                         European trading post,
            sequestration of property, compulsory military                                   the empire to his son Muhammad Belo, who                                                    1600–1800

            service, and the enslavement of Muslims. By                                      became the Sultan of Sokoto—the most power-                                                 Arab trading post or city

            1808 the movement had overthrown most of the                                     ful Muslim emirate in what eventually became                                                States established by jihad
            Hausa kingdoms; in the next two decades it                                                                                                                                   with date
                                                                                             the British colony of Nigeria.
                                                                                                                                                                                  SAN    Major tribe


       0°                                       10°                               20°                               30°                                  40°
                                                                                                                                                                                              50°




                                                 Tunis
Tlemcen




                                                                                                                                                               E
   ALGIERS                                                             M e di te rr ane an S e a
                                   Tunis




                                                                                                                                                         R
                                                                                                                          Alexandria
                                                  Tr                                                                                                                                                                   30°
                                                       ip



                                                                                                                                                  I
                                                             oli                             ic   a
                                                                                 Cy     rena                                   Cairo        P
                                           O                                                                   Egyp t
                                                         T                                                                         M
                                                                   T                                                       E
                                                                          O             M     A        N                        Asyut
                                                                                                                                          Re
                                                                                                                                            d


   T U A R E G                                                                                                                                                          Medina
                                                                                                                                        Aswan                                               Tropic of Cancer
                                                                                                                                                    Se
                                                                                                                                                      a



                                                                                                                                                                        Mecca
                                                                                                                                                         Jedda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       20°

                          AIR                                           C H A D
                                                                                                                               Dongola
                                                                       A R A B S                                                                               Suakin

                                                                                                                                 FUNJ

                                                                                                                                                                   Massawa
                                                                                                                                                                                   Hodeida
                      HAUSA                     BO RN U                          WADAI
                      STATES                                                                          DARFUR                               Sennar              Axum                     Zabid
                                                KAN E M
                                                         Kukuwa                                                                                           Gondar        AWSA                  Aden
                                                                                      Wara              El Fasher
            S                          Ngarzagmu
                 O         Kano                                                                                                                                       Awsa
                                                                                                                                                      ETHIOPIA                          Saylae
                                                               BA




                      K
       BORGU             O INGALA                                  GI
                                                                        RM
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Berbera                     10°
MAHI                     O
                           T
                              O 1                                            I
                      OY                  804
DAHOMEY         OLD                          –17
                                                                                                                                                                                           Harer
                                                                                                                                                                                                           A LI
       Lagos          BENIN
                                   IGBO                                                                                                                                                             S OM
                     Benin
                                                                   BOBANGI                                                                                                 GALLA
                                   Old Calabar                                                                                          NILOTES
            Brass                                                                                                                                              OROMO
                          Bohney
   Porto Novo
                                                                                                       BABWA                                                                                        Mogadishu
 Quida
                                                                                                                                                                                              Baraawe
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Equator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        75
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




The Indian Ocean to 1499
                         Before the advent of Islam the Indian Ocean                 (Socotra), to northeast Africa (Adulis and
                         was part of an overlapping and interconnect-                Opone in Axum/Ethiopia), and down the
                         ed local, regional, and transcontinental net-               coast of East Africa by way of Menouthias
                         work of trade routes stretching between                     near Pemba as far as Rhapta (whose site is yet
                         China, Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the                 to be discovered, but may be Bagamoyo on the
                         Mediterranean.                                              coast of modern Tanzania). The other route
                            The Periplus (Circuit) of the Erythrean
                         Sea, a Greek-language merchant-mariner’s                                                                                                                                              40°




                                                                                         20




                                                                                                                                                30
                                                                                                                Al




                                                                                         °




                                                                                                                                                 °
                                                                                                                  ex                                                                  Al                                                             Tif
                                                                                                                      an                                                                 ep
                         guide of the first century, describes two mar-                                                  dr
                                                                                                                             ia                                             An              po                                                          lis
                                                                                                                                                                                tio
                                                                                                                                                                                    ch
                         itime trade routes commencing from ports on                                             Ca                                                                                                                          Ta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     bri
                                                                                                                       iro                                                                                            Mo                                   z
                                                                                                                                     Qu                                                                                          sul
                         the Red Sea (i.e., Myus Hormus, Leuke                                                                                              Jer




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tigris
                                                                                                                                           lzu                  u
                                                                                                                                                 m                   sal
                                                                                                                                                                           em
                         Kome, and Berenike). These connected mer-




                                                                                                                                                                                              E u ph r
                                                                                                                                                 Ay
                                                                                                                                                      la                                                       Ba
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            gh
                         chants of the classical Greco-Roman world




                                                                                                                                                                                                   ates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              da
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    d

                         engaged in the trade of items such as textiles,                                    N
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Bas
                                                                                                                                                 He                                                             ra
                         copper, spices, and slaves to their partners on                                                                                   ja
                                                                                                                                          Ya
                                                                                                                                                                z
                                                                                                                                               nb
                         the western Indian Ocean littoral. One route                                            Ay
                                                                                                                       dh
                                                                                                                                                 u                                                                                                    Shir
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               az
                                                                                                                           ab              Jed             Me
                                                                                                                                                                    din




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 P e rs
                         went down through the Red Sea to southern                                                                             d  a                    a
                                                                                                                                                      Me                                                  Bah
                                                                                                                                                                                                               rain




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ia n
                                                                                                                                                            cca




                                                                                                                                  R e d
                         Arabia by Muza (Mocha) and Dioscurides




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 f




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             l
                                                                                                                                                                     A




                                                                                                                                    Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Suha
                                         Dhow is a generic term for a variety of                                                                                                R                                                                O             r
                                                                                                                                                                                      A                                                                m
                                                                                                                                                                                              B                                                                an
                                         lateen-rigged craft that plied the Indian                                                                                                                           I A
                                                   Ocean. Designed for seasonal                                                                             San
                                                                                                                                                                ’a
                                        monsoons, the dhows stayed close to the                                                                       Mo
                                                                                                            Ax                                           ch     a                          Shih
                                           coast, planning their runs to coincide                                    um                                                                                  r
                                                                                                                                                       Ad
                                                                                                                                  Zay                           en
                                                                                         A                                                la
                                                       with the monsoon cycles.
                                                                                              f r
                                                                                                                                                   Ber
                                                                                                  i c                                                  ber
                                                                                                                                                           a                                                                       Soco
                                                                                                      a                                                                                                                           Islan tra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       d




                                                                                                                             Mo
                                                                                        Mo                                        gad
                                                                                                                                           ishu
                                                                                             mb
                                                                                                asa
                                                                                        Zan
                                                                                             ziba     Pem
                                                                                                  r      ba is
                                                                                                                     land


                                                                                         Kilw
                                                                                               a




                                                                                                                            Madagascar




76
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  THE INDIAN OCEAN TO 1499




                        veered toward India’s northwestern shores by                                                    powered navigation, the northeast monsoon
                        Barygaza (Broach) and then south to Muziris                                                     allowed the large lateen-rigged sails of the
                        Cranganore and Komar (Cape Comorin).                                                            Arabian, Persian, and Indian dhows to sail
                            The movements of people and goods were                                                      such routes as Aden to Cochin with the sails
                        regulated by the Indian Ocean’s predictable                                                     trimmed to keep the ship pointing as closely as
                        monsoon cycle. The benign northeast or win-                                                     possible into the direction of the wind. They
                        ter monsoon lasts approximately half the year                                                   traded up the Malabar coast of India on the
                        (from November to March). Before the days of                                                    opposite tack before returning with their sails

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         °                                   °                                   °
                50°                     60°                                    70°                 80°                    90°                  100°                             110°                                120                                 130                           40° 140
  Caspain Sea




                                   A
                                  Se ral                                                                                                                     rum
                                    a                                                                                                                 Karako
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Trade routes to 1500
                                  Urg                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Trade routes
                                       ench

                                                                                    a                                                                                                                                                                   Under Islamic control
                                                                              ary
                                Buch                           S yr D                                                                                                                                                g
                                      ara             Sama
                                                           rkand                                                                                                                                              Beijin




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            low




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        gH
                                                                                         Kashgar                                                                                                                                         Yel ea
                                        A




                                            m




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      an
                                                uD                                                                                                                                                                                          S




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Hu
                                                     ary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         30°
                                                           a
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ng
                P E                   Hera                                                                                                                                                            Kaife
                    R S                       t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ou
                        I A                                                                                                                                                             Luoy
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ang                                           nzh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ha

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A
                                                                                                                                                                                                I         N
Hor
   muz                                                                                                                                                    C               H                                                                                                               er
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Canc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ic of
                                                      u    s
                                                                                                                                                                                  ng                                                                                      Trop
                                                  Ind           Multan                                                          Lhasa                                          Jia
                                                                                                                                                                      ng




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      zhou
                                                                                                                                                                   Cha




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Quanchou)
Mu                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 an
   sca           t
                                                                                         Delhi                                                                                                                                (Chu                                                       20°
                                           Daybul
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       n
                                                          Ahmedabad                                                                                                                                              Cantou)
                                                                                                            Gan
                                                                                                                ges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ngzho
  Mus
                                                           Cambay
 Is. ira
                                                            Broach                                                                                                                                        (Gua
                                                      Diu
                                                             Surat                                                                Chittagong                                   Hanoi
                      A r a                                        Daman
                            b
                         S e ai a n                                                                                                                                   Annam
                                                                              I N D I                                                                                                                                                uth
                                                                                      A                                                   Burma
                                                                                                                                                                         M                  e                                     So
                                                                                                                                                                                            kon




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     hin
                                                                                                                                                                                               g




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ea
                                                                                                                                                                                            Champa                                   S                                                         10°
                                                                Mala




                                                                                                         B a y   o f   B e n g a l
                                                                    bar C




                                                                                                                                                                                Khmer                                                                                            Min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        dana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Sulu
                                                                       oast




                                                                              Calicut                                                                                                                                                                               Sea

                                                                               Quillon                                                                                Gulf
                                                                                                                                                                       of                                                                                                     bes
                                                                               Cape                                                                                   Siam                                                                                                Cele a
                                                                              Comorin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Se

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0°
                                                               Maldive
                                                               Islands

                                                                                                                                                                                    Malacca                                                  eo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Born
                                                                                                                                                              S
                                                                                                                                                                  u
                                                                                                                                                                      m
                                                                                                                                                                           a
                                                                                                                                                                                t
                                                       I N D I A N                                                                                                                  r
                                                                                                                                                                                        a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 s Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Java Sea              Flore
                                                               O C E A N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               10°
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Java




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               77
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                                       full and their yard arms swinging free before   trade routes were caught up in increasing
                                       the wind. The southwest monsoon, which          rivalry between the Byzantine and Sasanian
                                       brings rain to western India and generates      (Persian) Empires. The Byzantines supported
                                       more turbulent weather, was best avoided.       Ethiopian raids on South Arabia from ports
                                         By the seventh century, the trading worlds    on the Red Sea, while the Persians secured
                                       described in The Periplus had long disap-       their control over the Persian Gulf (Bahrain)
                                       peared. Western Indian Ocean ports and          and southern Arabia at Aden, Suhar, and

        Saljuq ruler on his throne.
     Their position at the western
end of the Silk Road enabled the
     Saljuq sultans to indulge their
     taste for luxuries, such as the
  finest Chinese silks and jewels,
                from Central Asia.
         Manuscript, 13th century.




78
                                                                                                     THE INDIAN OCEAN TO 1499




Daba. In between the two empires were the           Political and economic control over Indian
Quraish, who would become the first               Ocean trade routes by Muslim dynasties based
Muslims engaged in land-based trade at their      in the Middle East was complemented by the
sanctuary at Mecca.                               growth of Muslim communities, mercantile
  The early trajectory of Muslim conquest         centers, and independent states around the lit-
and expansion was away from the Indian            toral, many of which have complex and multi-
Ocean and toward the Mediterranean. But           stranded histories that have yet to be studied.
successive Muslim dynasties made efforts to       The eastern African coast, and its Swahili-
gain political and economic control over the      speaking peoples, had multiple connections to
Indian Ocean. The Umayyad conquest and            the Arabian Peninsula, the Persian Gulf, and
occupation of Daybul in Sind in 712 was a         India. Muslim settlements (mosques and bur-
first step in this direction. Subsequently, the   ial sites) at Shanga date to the latter half of
Abbasids’ founding of their capital Baghdad       the eighth century and there is evidence to
in 762 near the Tigris, with its access via       support the presence of local Muslim dynas-
Basra to the Persian Gulf, provided further       ties and their control of island settlements on
impetus to Muslim maritime trade and settle-      Pemba, Zanzibar, Mafia, and Kilwa between
ment from the shores of East Africa to south-     c. 1000 and 1150. Many of these communities
ern China. Mariners’ reports collected in the     were thriving when Ibn Battuta visited the
Akhbar al-Sin Wal-Hind (c. 850) provide a         region by way of Mogadishu in 1331.
glimpse into what a typical round-trip mer-         Ibn Battuta is also a source of information
cantile sea voyage from Siraf (south of           for the presence of Muslims along China’s
Shiraz) to Canton would have been like in         southern coastline up to Quanzhou (Zaitun),
Abbasid times. Contemporary maritime              which he reached in 1347. At Quanzhou, buri-
activity in the southwestern Indian Ocean,        als and a mosque (c. 1009) mark the presence
from Arabia to East Africa (Bilad al-Zanj), is    of a Muslim community at the trading port.
attested to in the Muruj al-Dhahab of al-         The histories of Muslim communities in
Masudi (d. 928).                                  Southeast    Asia   are   also   informed    by
  In 969, the Fatimids conquered Egpyt and        transoceanic trade. By the fifteenth century, it
founded Cairo, posing a serious political and     was the entrepot of Malacca on the Malay
commercial challenge to the Abbasids. The         coast that emerged as a major maritime cen-
Fatimids succeeded in diverting trade in the      ter in the larger Muslim Indian Ocean trading
western Indian Ocean from Baghdad and the         network, eclipsing centers on Java and
Persian Gulf to Fustat and the Red Sea. The       Sumatra. Malacca had a sizeable Muslim
commercial importance of Egypt and the Red        population that had strong connections to
Sea trade route to the western Indian Ocean       western Indian merchants and ports such as
was maintained by the Fatimids’ successors,       Cambay (Gujarat). Ironically, Ibn Majid, the
the Ayyubids and Mamluks. Documents from          mariner credited with piloting Vasco da Gama
the Cairo Geniza collection offer evidence of     through the Indian Ocean in 1498, provides an
the complex network of Fustat-based traders,      unfavorable description of Malacca. The port
stretching between North Africa and India via     fell to the Portuguese in 1511, marking the
the western Indian Ocean, operating between       firm establishment of the first European mar-
the eleventh and thirteenth centuries.            itime power in the Indian Ocean.

                                                                                                                           79
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




The Indian Ocean 1500–1900
 The forts guarding the entrance                                                                                                                                          Vasco da Gama’s voyage around the Cape of




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Red Sea
     to the harbor of Muscat were                                                                                                                                         Good Hope in 1498 was an epoch-making      20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        °
              originally built by the                                                                                                                                     event, putting an end to the Muslim mono-
        Portuguese in the sixteenth                                                                                                                                       poly of trade in the Indian Ocean and open-
      century on the site of earlier                                                                                                                                      ing the way for the British and Dutch
       strongholds. After surviving                                                                                                                                       Empires in South Asia and the East Indies.
              Ottoman attacks, the                                                                                                                                        The era of European imperialism began with
               Portuguese garrisons                                                                                                                                       merchant adventurers who established trad-
surrendered to the Omani Imam                                                                                                                                             ing posts in the southern seas, which became
           Sultan bin Saif in 1650.                                                                                                                                       the bases for further expansion. The
                                                                                                                                                                          Portuguese were the pioneers, taking Kilwa
                                                                                                                                                                          and sacking Mombasa in 1505 before
                                                                                                                                                                          establishing bases in Zanzibar and Pemba.
                                                                                                                                                                          In 1509 they defeated a combined
                                                                                                                                                                          Egyptian-Indian fleet to take Goa on the
                                                                                                                                                                          Malabar coast. In 1515 they conquered
                                                                                             40
                                                                                                  °
                                                                                                                                                                          Malacca and in the same year Hormuz
                                                                                                                                                                          on the Persian Gulf. Portuguese hegemony
                                                                                             O
                                                                                               TT




                                                                                                                                                                          was soon replaced by that of the Dutch,
                                                                                                      OM




                                                                                                                                                                          whom the Portuguese had tried to exclude
                                                                                                        AN EM




                                                                   30
                                                                     °                                                                                                    from the lucrative pepper and spice trade.
                                                                                                              PIR




                                                                                                                                            SA
                                                                                                                                                 FA
                                                                    Red Sea




                                                                                                             E




                                                                                                                                                   VI
                                                20                                                                                               (PE D EM
     Indian Ocean
                                                                                                                     Per




                       c. 1580                      °                                                                                               RS     P
                                                                                                                                                       IA) IRE
                                                                                          A r




                                                                                                          Bah
                                                                                                                       sia




                                                                                                         151 rain I
           Portuguese possession                                                                            5                               Ban                                                                                                           HU
                                                                                                        Tro –1622                                                                                                                                    MANC
                                                                                                                           n




                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                da
                                                                                              a b




           with date of acquisition                                                                                                           Hor r Abba
                                                                                                                               G




                                                                   Ma                                      pic
                                                                                                                                   u




                                                                                                               of C                    lf         m      s 150
                                                                        ssa                                         anc                       1515– uz         7–16
                                                                                                                                                                    22
                                                                                                  i a




           Portuguese factory                                                  wa                                      er                           1622
                                                                                  152                                                                                                  Delhi
                                                                                     0–2
           Portuguese town                                                              2                                                                                                  Agra
                                                                                                                                                  Mas
                                                                                                                                                      k
                                                                                                                                                  1550– at
           Portuguese trade routes                                                                                                                     1650                           MOGUL
                                        A                                             Ade                                                                                          Cambay1539
                                                                                            n1                                                                         Diu                                  Hooghly
                                            f                                                  524–                                                Arab                1535        Surat 1540–1            1537–1640
                                                r                                                  38                                                   ia                                      615                              BU RM A
                                                                                     Gu                                                             Sea n          1530 Bom        Daman 15

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A
                                                        i                               lf o f A d e n                                                                       bay             58

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                N
                                                            c                                                                                                             Chaul      EMPIRE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 N
                                                                a                                                                                                           1509                                       Bay of                         –1613
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Syriam 1520
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         A
                                                                                                                      Soc
                                                                                                                    1516 otra I.                                                                                       Bengal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         M
                                                                                                                        –11                                                                           Masulipatam                                 SI A M
                                                                                                                                                                    1505 A                                                                                           a
                                                                                                                                                                            njediva                   1570–1605                                         Ayutthay
                                                                                                                                                                 1560–16
                                                                                                                                                                         37 Bhatka
                                                                                                                                                                1510–16             i
                                                                                                                                                                        16 Cannanor Mangalore                                                              Singapor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             e
                                                                               Mo                                                                                                     e Cal
                                                                    Bar            g                                                                                                        icut 1510–1616                                                     1526
                                                                               aw adishu                                                                                  1502 Cochin
                                                                                 a                                                                                                                 Jaffna 1560
                                                      M                                                                                                                          Quilon                                                               Malacca
                                                   Mo alind                                                                                                                      1512 Colombo         Batticaloa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1511–1641
                                                       mb i 152                                                                                                                                       1519–1638
                                                   Pem sa 150 0
                                                           a                                                                                                                             1518
                                                                  5–2                                                                                                                       Galle Sri Lanka                                     Pasei
                                                 Zan ba I.
                                                             1        8                                                                                         Maldiv
                                                                                                                                                                                        1518–1640 1518                   1514–1641 Atjeh          1520–24
                                                Kilw zibar I 520
                                                                                                                                                                        e Is.
                                                     aK      .15                                                                                                                                                                       Pidie
                                                    1505 isiw 03                                                                                                                                                                         1509
                                                              ani                                                          I N                                                                                                               Baros     Su
                                                            to M                                                               D I                                                                                                             1519       m
                                                                oçam                                                               A N                                                                                    N                                 a
                                                                              biqu                                                                              O C E                                                                                           tr
                                                                                  e 150                                                                               A N                                                                                            a
                                                                                        7
                                                                                                                                                                                       0          500 km
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Bantam
                                                                                                                                                 Equato                                0               500 miles                                                1512–96
                                                                                                                                                       r


80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 THE INDIAN OCEAN 1500–1900




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    AN U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      )
                          OTTOMAN EMPIR




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (J AN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AP
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ki                 aS
                                                                     SA                                                                                                                                                                                  asa                 neg
                                                                              FA                                                                                                                                        E                           Nag hima)             Ta 2
                                                                                 VI                                                                                                             P                    IR                                 s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (De –1859              154
                                                                               (PE D EM                                                                                                  U EM                                                             1
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                                                                                                                                                                                   MANCH
                                            Per




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sal
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                          pic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          San
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                                   of C                       lf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sa)
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                                                                                                                             Delhi                                                                                                                     164 wan (
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tai 62
                i a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              –
                                                                                                                               Agra                                                                                                 dore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         s Is.           1624
                                                                                                                               1602                                                                                            Pesca 1622–24 dia                                                              N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         eelan                                                           EA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ft. Z 1624–62
                                                                                                                          Ahmedabad
                                                                                                                                      1612                                                                              Maca 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              o                                                                  OC
                                                                                                                                            1640 Hooghly                                                                  1 55                                                      FI       C
                                                                                                      Diu                                                                                                                                                                     CI
                                                                                      1530–1          15                  Surat 1618–83       Serampore
                                                                                             664 Port 35                  Daman 15                  1616              BU   RM A                                                                                         PA
 Gu
      lf o f A d e n                                                                     1661 En . Bombay                           58                                                                                                                                             1 Lambok I.
                                                                              Arab              glish                                         Pipli                                                   A                                               Ph                             1674–92 (Dutch protectorate)
                                                                                   ia                    Chaul            MOGUL                                                                          N
                                                                               Sea n                1509–17                                    1637                                                                                                       ili
                                                                                                                                                                                            –49
                                                                                                                                                         Bay of                                                                                                                       Sumbawa I.
                                                                                                            37           EMPIRE                                                                                                    h
                                                                                                                                                                                Syriam 1635                                 Sout a                            pp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1669–75 (Dutch protectorate)




                                                                                                                                                                                                               N
                                                                                                                                                         Bengal                                                                                                  in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Chin




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A
                                                                                                                                           Masulipatam 1605–1781 Neth.                     AM                                                                       e
                                                                                                                                                                                        SI                                      Sea                                    Is          2 Kupang




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M
                                                                                      1637 N                                                                                                            a
                                                                                                              1510 Goa                                                                       Ayutthay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                                             eth., 16
                                                                                                      38 En                            Armagon 1620 1611 English                                                                                                                     1640 Port.
                                                                                               1565–17 glish Bhatkal          Madras Pulicat 1609                                            1607                                           an I.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nao
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    inda 42          1653 Neth.
                                                                                                          81 Manga             1639 Sadras 1658                                                                                     Pala
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         w                       M /16
                                                                                                                      lo
                                                                                                          1663 Canna re                                                                                                                                           1596
                                                                                                                       nore           Tranquebar 1616
                                                                                                               1663 Cochin            Negapatam 1658                                                                                                              rch.
                                                                                                                                       Jaffna 1658                                                                                                           lu A –63
                                                                                                                 1661 Quilon                                                                                                                              Su /46
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1638 ado                     ilalo era
                                                                                                                Tutticorin               Trincomali 1639
                                                                                                                                                                                                           02                                                                       Dja almah21
                                                                                                                                      Negombo 1640                                              Pattani 16                                                    Men1657                  H –16                   Ne nea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     w
                                                                                                                1658       Colombo
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1642                                                                             1522                       i




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ds
                                                                                                                          1656 Galle Sri Lanka                                         ei dra edah
                                                                                                                                                                                               K                                                                     77                                       Gu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1657/
                                                                                                                                                           1601 English Atjeh      Pas mu                                                                                                   an
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Perak 1655
                                                                                                 Maldiv                                                                               Sa                                                                                                  l
                                                                                                            e Is.                  1640 1644–1795/1815      1649 Neth.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Is
                                                                                                                                                                           Pidie 1520–1640                                            09–50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ca
                                                                                                                                                                                                               1641                                                                                I.               Is.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Malacca 1641 26 Sambas 16r n e o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                luc             am            Aru 3
                                                                                                                                                                                            Tiku              re
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Jahogapore15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            M o I.        Cer 8/52              162
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sin tan I.             Bo a                             s Buru 8                   16 0
                                                                                                                                                                                             1641                                   an                         be              /5
                                                                                                                                                                 1519–1668 Port. Baro
                                                                                                                                                                                      s                                                                 Cele             1622 Is.
                                                  I N                                                                                                                                                       Bin              Sukad7–35 Neth.                                                                 ar I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                      D                                                                                                                 1668 Neth.                          1628–175 a I.       160                                                                      imb
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Su


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            h           ar                   n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 Englis Makassrt.
                                                                              I A                                                                                                                                                                                                               .
                                                                                                                                                             N                                   m                                                                    Buto /67 etar I               Tan2
                                                                                       N O                                                                             1641 PriamanPadang          a t 1615 biB1668 illiton I. 161
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  angk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1667 Po                 1613        W 675
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1              167
                                                                                                       C E A N                                                                         1659           r aDjam         B                  1545– 70 English
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1520
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     g 1668                1601– –15 Neth.
                                                                                                                                                                           1663 Painan                     P alemban J a v a S e a           1607 7 Neth. ntuka                     mor
                                                                                                                                                                                     Indrapura             1616                               1648/6 rt Lara 1667
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ti
                                                                                                                            0         500 km                                         1659 to Neth.                                               Fo                         2
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Batavia
                                                                                                                                                                                   1630–64 English
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ja va           1 umbawa Is
                                                                                                                                                                                                             1610
                                                                    AN U




                                                                              Equato                                                                                                                                                        dS
                                                                                                                            0               500 miles                                                                               ok an
                                                                      G
                                                                      )




                                                                                     r                                                                                                                                        Lamb
                                                              (J AN




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Indian Ocean                       c. 1650
                                                                AP
                                                                  P
                                                               ZI




                                                                                         a                                                                                                                                                                                      Dutch possessions
                                                                                    aS
                                                                                      him                                                           The Dutch defeated the Portuguese at
                                                                                 neg                                                                                                                                                                                            Portuguese possessions
                                                                              Ta 2
                                             Easna
                                                  t                            154                                                                  Amboyna in 1605, taking Banda in 1621,
                                                i
                      E                      Ch ea                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Spanish possessions
    P       IR                                 S                                                                                                    Ceylon (Sarandib, now Sri Lanka) in 1640,
 EM                 gpo
                Nin –45                                                                                                                             and Malacca in 1641. Batavia (now Jakarta),                                                                                 British possessions
                 1533
                  A)                                                                                                                                which would become the capital of the                                                                                       Danish possessions
          IN
(CH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Factory
          gcho
               w                                                                                                                                    Dutch East Indies, was founded in 1619.
   Chan47–49
       15
         Can  ton                                                                                                    N                                 Although the process was a gradual one,
                  n I.  an)                                                                                     EA
            t Joh ow Sh
  acao S Shangch                                                                                           OC                                       the Portuguese intervention introduced
M
   1555 (                                                                                       FIC
             1555                                                                          CI
                                                                                    PA                                                              changes in the patterns of trade and in the
                                                  Ph                                                                                                political economies of the Muslim states in
               h
          Sout a                                          ili
          Chin
                                                                pp
                                                                     in
                                                                                                                                                    the region. By the end of the seventeenth cen-
            Se a                                                          e
                                                                               Is
                                                                                    .                                                               tury England and Holland, two small coun-
                                                                                                                                                    tries perched on the western periphery of
                                                                                               e Is.
                                                                                           Spic 1621               1621                             Eurasia, had become (with France) the domi-
                                                                                            1512
                                                                                                –             522–
                                                                                                         te 1
                                                                      ado                         T erna
                                                                   Men1540                                                                          nant forces in world trade. Cargoes of raw
                                                                          1564              an I.                                                   commodities—timber, grain, fish, and salt—
                                                                                        Batj 1558                 .
                                                                                                              na I
                    orneo                                                                                 boi
                B                                                  es
                                                                                                      Am 1–99
                                                                                                      15 1                                          replaced the traditional trade in luxury
                                                          C   eleb
                                                                                                                                                    goods. The shift in cargoes heralded even
                                               ssar
                                          Maka 667                                                                                                  more far-reaching changes, whereby the
                                          1545–
                                                1                                                       520
         Sea                                              a                                         or 1
 Java                                                ntuk                                    Tim
                                                 Lara 1557                                                                                          world would be divided between colonies
                                            Fort
       Ja va
                                                                                                                                                    producing raw materials and industrial and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




           As the British began to
     establish themselves in India,
         they imported their own
     architectural styles, as shown
       in a watercolor of a house
          built at Chapra in 1796.

                                      commercial centers producing high-value          (these had included the Venetians and                                       30
                                                                                                                                                                     °
                                      goods and services. Viewed from the perspec-     Genoese who plied the waters of the eastern
                                      tive of the twenty-first century, Vasco da       Mediterranean as well as the Muslim                               Eg
                                                                                                                                                            yp
                                      Gama’s voyage represents the beginnings of a     traders who carried goods by land). The                                 t

                                      process that culminates in “globalization.”      gunpowder revolution—like the revolu-                     20
                                                                                                                                                    °
                                         Two technological factors drove these         tion in sailing techniques—was grad-
                                      changes: better sails and gunpowder. Their       ual, but reached equally far in its                     An
                                                                                                                                          Eg glo-
                                                                                                                                              yp
                                      position on the eastern shore of the Atlantic    consequences. With the develop-                   Su tian
                                                                                                                                            da
                                                                                                                                                n
                                      had encouraged the Portuguese to develop         ment of cannon, stone fortresses
                                      powerful naval vessels capable of riding the     ceased to be impregnable, lend-
                                      Atlantic storms and sailing closer to the        ing the military advantage to                           ET
                                                                                                                                                  HI
                                                                                                                                                      OP
                                      wind than the lateen-rigged Arab dhows.          well-organized central powers                                     IA

                                      The Portuguese ships were larger and stur-       that could afford to make the
                                      dier than their Arab and Persian counter-        costly investment in artillery                   Bri
                                                                                                                                            tis
                                                                                                                                                hE
                                      parts, and thus able to hold more cargo and      and firearms. As military                         Af
                                                                                                                                            ric
                                                                                                                                                     ast
                                                                                                                                                a
                                      engage in longer runs. The new route around      technology advanced, a shift
                                                                                                                         Ge
                                                                                                                            rm
                                      southern Africa to the Indies bypassed the       took place in the balance of       Af
                                                                                                                               an
                                                                                                                                   Ea
                                                                                                                             ric      st
                                      West Asian trade routes, bringing goods          power between the tradi-                  a
                                                                                                                                                Za
                                                                                                                                                      nzi
                                                                                                                                                          bar
                                      from South Asia and the Indies—spices,           tional warrior classes, for
                                      cloths, and other valuable commodities—          whom military prowess was vested
                                      directly to Lisbon, enriching the merchants      in notions of tribal solidarity, honor,
                                      there but cutting out the intermediate benefi-   prestige, and courage (classic virtues of the
                                      ciaries of the trade between Europe and Asia     nomadic conquerors), and economic powers

82
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         THE INDIAN OCEAN 1500–1900




                                     with sophisticated administrative centers
                                     capable of keeping up with the latest military                                                                                                                                               Indian Ocean              1800 – 1900

                                     technology. Under European pressure the frag-                                                                                                                                                European, U.S., and                                                    Spheres of influence,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Japanese territories in Asia                                           c. 1907
                                     mented Muslim states that followed in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Russian Empire,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              British                                                                 British                                                             1855
                                     wake of Arab caliphate and the Mongol inva-                                                                                                                                                              Allied to British                                                                                                                           To Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      French                                                              by 1900
                                     sions were consolidated into larger units dom-                                                                                                                                                           administration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              French                                                                                                                                      Occupied by
                                     inated by the three great “gunpowder                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Russian                                                             Russia, 1900
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Dutch
                                     empires”: Ottoman Eurasia, Shiite Iran, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      German
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Portuguese                                                                                                                                    Treaty Port in China,
                                     Mughal India.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Japanese                                                              with date of opening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              German
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Major railway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              United States

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        15
                                                                                                                       60




                                                                                                                       St.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0°
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                                                                                                                                                                                              0                       500 miles


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                83
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




Rise of the Ottomans to 1650




                                                                                                                                                                                                           b
                                                                                         50°                         0°                                                               10°




                                      The Ottoman Empire became the most far-                                                                                   HOLY ROMAN
                                                                                                                                Paris
                                      reaching of all the Islamic states. It began its                                                                            EMPIRE

                                      remarkable expansion as a frontier state con-
                                      ducting raids on Byzantine territories from                               FRA                                      SWISS
                                                                                                                              NCE                       CONFED.
                                      Bithynia near the Sea of Marmara early in the
                                                                                                                                                  S
                                      thirteenth century. In 1242–43 the Mongols




                                                                                                                                                  A
                                                                                                                                                                  Milan                       Venice




                                                                                                                                                      VO
                                                                                                                                                                                                   VE
                                      defeated the Saljuqs, making them vassals,                                                                                                                  RE NE




                                                                                                                                                        Y
      The great period of Ottoman                                                                                                                                                                    PU TIA
                                                                                                                                                                Genoa                                  BL N
     expansion occurred during the    and pushing increasing numbers of Turkish                                                                                                                          IC




                                                                                                                                                                             A
                                                                                                                                                                 REP. OF GENO
           reign of Suleiman I “the   nomads into the peninsula in search of pas-                                                                                                                   P AP A L

       Magnificent.” The painting     turage and booty. The breakup of Saljuq             SPA
                                                                                                IN                                                    Corsica                                S T AT E S
 below depicts an Ottoman fleet       power led to the creation of several petty                                                                                                             Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                               N A P L ES
      attacking the French town of    states under loose Mongol overlordship. After      40°
                                                                                                                         ds                               S A R D I N IA
                                      taking Bursa, which they made their capital in                                 slan
                   Toulon in 1545.                                                                            ic I
                                                                                                       e ar
                                                                                                Ba l                                                                                        T yrrehenian
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sea




                                                                                                                               Barbary Coast                                                               SICILY
                                                                                                                          Algiers
                                                                                                                                        Bona                    Tunis
                                                                                                                              ALGERIA
                                                                                                                                 1518                                                                 MALTA
                                                                                                                                                           TUNIS
                                                                                                                                                             1574

                                                                                                                                                                                            Jerba
                                                                                                                                                                                            1560

                                                                                                                                                                                             Tripoli
                                                                                                                                                                                                TR
                                                                                                                                                                                                      IPO
                                                                                                                                          Wargla                                                    1551       LI
                                                                                                                                          1566
                                                                                         30°




                                                                                                                           S
                                                                                                                                             a                                   h                         a


                                      1326, the Ottomans became players in the
                                      factional strife that beset the Byzantine
                                                                                                 Expansion of the Ottoman Empire 1328–1672
                                      Empire in its latter days. It was as auxiliaries                                                                                           Ottoman territory, 1520
                                                                                                                       Ottoman territory, 1328
                                                                                                                                                                                 (Selim I)
                                      to one of the contending parties that they
                                                                                                                       Ottoman territory, 1355                                   Ottoman vassal from 1541
                                      first crossed the straits and occupied
                                                                                                                                                                                 Ottoman territory, 1566
                                                                                                                       Ottoman vassal from 1394
                                      Byzantine territory in Europe. They occupied       20°                                                                                     (Suleiman I)
                                                                                                                       Ottoman territory, 1402
                                      Greece, Macedonia, and Bulgaria, and finally                                     (prior to Mongol attack)
                                                                                                                                                                                 Ottoman territory, 1660

                                      established their control over the western                                       Ottoman territory, 1481                                   Ottoman territory, 1630–72
                                                                                                                       (Muhammed II)
                                      Balkans by defeating the Serbs at the Battle of                                  Ottoman vassal from 1475                                  Ottoman vassal from 1664
                                      Kosovo in 1389. Successive campaigns involv-
                                      ing coalitions of Latin and Orthodox powers

84
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RISE OF THE OTTOMANS TO 1650




                                                                                                                                                                    R
                                                                                    30°                                                                       40°                                                                                  50°
                                                                                                                                      Do n ets
                20°

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           HUNGARY                 1664                                                                                                                                                                                                            AN
                1541                                                                                                                  Kaffa




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                                                   1396                 Do                                                                                                           nd                                                            RA
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                                                                           0                200 km
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          YEM
                                                                           0                         200 miles




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      85
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




                         (including Naples, Venice, Hungary,               but also to practices and structures derived
                         Transylvania, Serbia, and Genoa) failed to        from the Roman–Byzantine Empire it
                         stem the Ottoman advances into Europe. In         replaced. Straddling the Christian Balkans
                         1453 Constantinople fell to the forces of         and the western reaches of Dar al-Islam, it
                         Mehmet the Conqueror, fueling Ottoman             was a bridge between rival civilizations. Being
                         imperial ambitions and providing the basis        close to Constantinople, which had long been
                         for further expansion. In 1521 the Ottomans       the goal of Muslim conquest, the state ruled
                         captured Belgrade from the Hungarians. By         by the Osmanli family (from which the
                         1529 they had reached the gates of Vienna,        English spelling Ottoman derives) attracted
                         the Habsburg capital. By the time of the          many of the ghazis (holy warriors) seeking
                         death of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566         glory in the jihad against Christendom. In
                         they controlled a swath of European territory     Anatolia these Turkish incomers and pas-
                         from the Crimea to southern Greece.               toralists tended to be prejudiced against the
                            Ottoman victories were even more spec-         Christian villagers, some of whom may have
                         tacular in the lands of Islam. After defeating    converted to avoid persecution. Among the
                         the Safavids at Chaldiran in 1514, the            incomers, however, there were also dervishes
                         Ottomans annexed eastern Anatolia and             and members of Sufi brotherhoods from
                         northern Mesopotamia, enabling them to            Inner Asia, such as Hajji Bektash (d. 1297).
                         control the central Asian trade routes linking    He preached versions of Islam that tended to
                         Tabriz and Bursa. In 1516 and 1517 they took      merge Islamic beliefs, both Sunni and Shiite,
                         over the Mamluk Empire in Syria and Egypt,        with Christian beliefs and religious practices,
                         giving them control of the holy places of the     facilitating the conversion of Greek and
                         Hejaz. Building on the Greek seamanship           Armenian-speaking peoples. The Ottoman
                         acquired from their Byzantine predecessors,       rulers assisted this process by excluding bish-
                         they contested the power of Venice in the         ops and metropolitans from their sees, leav-
                         eastern Mediterranean and challenged the          ing the Christians without leaders, and by
                         dominance of Habsburg Spain in the western        replacing the Orthodox infrastructure of hos-
                         Mediterranean, taking Algiers (1529), Tunis       pitals, schools, orphanages, and monasteries
                         (1534–35), Jerba (1560), and the strategic        with Islamic institutions staffed by Persian
                         island of Malta, the last Crusader strong-        and Arab scholars. By the fifteenth century
                         hold, in 1565, as well as Cyprus in 1570. This    more than 90 percent of the Anatolian popu-
                         string of naval victories finally provoked a      lation had become Muslim, though substan-
                         successful counterattack. In 1571, the defeat     tial minorities of Christians and Jews
                         of the Ottoman navy at the Battle of Lepanto      remained in the cities. While the peasants
                         by a Venetian–Habsburg coalition was cele-        were mostly converted, the nobility and civil
                         brated all over Europe as a triumph for           servants of the old imperial system were inte-
                         Christendom. Although the Ottomans refur-         grated into the Ottoman armies and adminis-
                         bished their fleets and retook Tunis in 1574, a   tration, giving the state a distinctly Byzantine
                         balance of power was achieved in the              character. Though a measure of religious
                         Mediterranean, confirming the frontiers that      autonomy was permitted through the millet
                         remained between the Muslim lands to the          system of self-governing minorities the
                         south and Christian lands to the north.           Ottoman state was highly centralized. In
                            Paradoxically the early Ottoman state was      other Muslim lands (including some of the
                         both militantly Islamic and strongly influ-       Arab provinces that came under the looser
                         enced by Greek culture, heir to the Saljuqs       forms of Ottoman dominion) the practice of

86
                                                       RISE OF THE OTTOMANS TO 1650




Islam in law and society was virtually
self-regulating. The rulers appointed the
qadis (judges) but in most other respects
allowed the religious institutions such as
the mosques and madrasas where the
ulama were trained, the networks of
Sufi lodges, and the guilds of artisans
that were often connected to them, to
flourish independently. By contrast with
other Islamic regimes, the Ottomans
dominated, controlled, and shaped the
societies they governed. Though theo-
retically subject to the Sharia, the sul-
tans supplemented the divine law with
firmans (decrees) regulating the status
and duties (including dress codes) of all
their subjects. They brought the ulama,
the Sufi lodges, and the guilds of arti-
sans under state control by dictating
appointments, grading, and licenses.
Society was divided into two classes: the
rulers and the ruled, the principal dis-
tinction being the right of the askeri
(rulers) to exploit the wealth of the sub-
jects through imposts and taxes. In the-
ory all the land was the personal prop-
erty of the sultan. The ruling elites were
not confined to the ranks of pashas,
beys, and ayan (Muslim notables) who
dominated the empire in the provinces:
they included patrician Greek families,
ecclesiastical authorities, and prominent
Jewish and Armenian bankers, as well
as princely families from the Balkans.




This portrait was intended to show Suleiman to his
royal peers in Europe. The Ottoman sultans did
not display their images to their own subjects until
late in the nineteenth century.

                                                                                 87
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD




The Ottoman Empire 1650–1920                                                                           0°                                                     10°

                                                                                                                                                 G ERMANY
                                                                                            50°
                                       At its peak in the sixteenth century the
                                       Ottoman system was highly efficient. But it                                     Paris
                                       also contained crucial weaknesses, notably the
                                                                                                                                                                                                Vienna
                                       system of succession. In nomadic societies the
                                                                                                  F R A N                                        SWISS                      AUSTRIA-
                                       absence of a fixed mode of succession has a                        C E                                   CONFED.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HU
                                       sound Darwinian rationale: after a struggle
                                                                                                                                                    Milan           Venice
                                       with his peers, a chief will emerge who is fittest                                                                    Po

                                       to lead his tribe. Transferred to the center of an                                                                                       A
                                                                                                                                                                                    dr
                                                                                                                                                                                         ia
                                                                                                                                                   Genoa                                      tic
                                       imperial system, the result will be civil war.




                                                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Se




                                                                                                                                                                     T




                                                                                                                                                                                                         a
                                                                                                                                                                            A
                                                                                                                                 Marseille




                                                                                                                                                                                L
      Abdul Hamid II was the last                                                           SPAIN                                                 Corsica




                                                                                                                                                                                    Y
          Ottoman sultan to wield                                                                                                                                    Rome
                                                                                                             Barcelona
 effective power over the Empire.
                                                                                            40°                    s
                                                                                                               land                               Sardinia
         An absolute monarch and                                                                      ri   c Is
                                                                                            Ba    lea                                                         T y rrehenian
             opponent of political                                                                                                                                  Sea
      liberalization, he nonetheless
     encouraged educational, legal,                                                                                                                                                  Sicily
                                                                                                                       Barbary Coast
            and economic reforms.                                                                                  Algiers             Bona
                                                                                                                                                      Tunis
                                                                                                                     Algeria                                                M A LTA
                                                                                                                      1830 French
                                                                                                                                                   Tunisia
                                                                                                                                                   1881 French


                                                                                                                                                                            Tripoli

                                                                                                                                                                            Tr
                                                                                                                                                                                    ipo
                                                                                                                                                                                              li
                                                                                                                                      Wargla

                                                                                            30°

                                                                                                                                                                        Fez
                                                                                                                                                                                zan1 9 1 2




                                       After a series of fratricidal struggles, the                                          S                          a                                           h
                                       Ottomans dealt with the problem of the suc-
                                       cession by confining the sultan’s male relatives                Ottoman Empire 1683–1914
                                       to the palace’s Inner Courtyard or harem,                                       Territory lost by 1718
                                       thereby preventing future sultans from acquir-                                  Territory lost by 1812
                                       ing vital knowledge of military and secular
                                                                                                                       Territory lost by 1881                           N                            A
                                       affairs. From the seventeenth century the
                                                                                                                       Territory lost by 1914
                                       Ottoman sultans, who came to power as a
                                       result of “Byzantine” maneuvers and harem            20°                        Ottoman Empire, 1914

                                       intrigues, lacked experience in the field and                        1811       Date granted autonomy

                                       familiarity with the realities of politics. The                      1830       Date of territory lost
                                                                                                                                                                    0                    200 km


                                       power of the state and the army held up briefly                                                                              0                                200 miles


                                       under ruthless viziers such as Mehmed Koprulu

88
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1650–1920




       20°                                                                        30°                                                            40°                                                                                           50°
    R                          U                     S                        S                      I                  A               N                                                 E                            M                       P                           I                   R                 E

                                                                                                                                                   A
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                                                                    SS
                                                                         AR                                      K HA         177                                                                                                                                 sp
                                                                                                 AN                                                                                                                                 DA
                                                                           AB            J E D IS                                                                                                                                      G                               i
                                                               MO




                                                                             IA
                                                                                            1792                                                                                                                                           ES




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  HUNGARY
                                                                   LD




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                                          LVANIA