HW-Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems 2000

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					                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    High-performance, Biodegradable Lubrication
    of German / European Railway Systems - Today




27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                             FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    High-performance, Biodegradable Lubrication of
    German / European Railway Systems - Today

    1 Introduction                                               5 Application
                                                                   - Switch lubrication
    2 Problems                                                     - Wheel flange lubrication
      - Wheel/Rail contact
      - Tribo-System Switch/Point                                6 Test Methods

    3 Requirements                                               7 Results

    4 Solutions                                                  8 Future Aspects
      - Lubricant formulation
                                                                 9 Summary


27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Lubricant consumption
    World‘s lubricant consumption:37.000.000 tons
    Consumption in Germany:      1.200.000 tons
     Total loss lubricants:         40.000 tons
     Railway Systems:                5.000 tons

    Total loss lubricants:
     Concrete release agents
     Two-stroke engine oils
     Chain saw oils
     Chain- and Wire rope lubricants
     ...
     Switch lubricants
     Wheel flange lubricants
     Rail lubricants
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Problem: Wheel/Rail contact
    Wheel/Rail contact is essential,
    because

    traction forces
    braking forces
    electric signals
    are transferred in this contact.

    No lubrication in the Traction Area A
   Lateral forces caused by

   centrifugal effects in curves
   dynamic interaction between vehicle and track
   Vibrations/Shock loads due to gauge variations
   lead to further contact zones B.

   Zone B needs effective lubrication to reduce friction and wear.
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                                       FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Problem: Wheel/Rail contact
    Influence of Lubrication on Wheel flange wear

     Wear area                                                   Loss of Material when reprofiling




         Lubricated                                               Not Lubricated


27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Problem: Switches
    Switches belong to the most important elements of the rail track,
    because failures influence directly the network operation, safety and
    availability of the network.




  Switches of the common slide chair design are extremely demanding
  in the tribological point of view, because the lubricant has to fulfil
  strong and partly opposite requirements.
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Requirements
    Generally:

     Environmentally harmless

     Low water pollution

     High biodegradability

     No toxic components

     Should be solvent-free

     etc.

    These requirements are not homogeneously regulated. Regarding
    biodegradability, the test method according to CEC L-33-A-93
    standard is commonly used. Additionally different OECD-guidelines
    are used.
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Requirements
    Wheel flange lubrication:
    primary:
     Reduction of friction between wheel and rail flange to reduce the
       risk of derailment and to minimise rolling noises generated in
       these contact zones.

     Reduction of wear of wheel and rail to minimise maintenance work
      and life cycle costs and to increase the availability of the rolling
      stock.

    secondary:
     High adhesion (gets more and more important for high speed
       trains)
     Lubricity and sprayability should be independent from
       temperature
     Independence from the lubricating system used
     Good resistance against ageing
     Long storage time
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Requirements
    Switch lubrication:

    primary:
     Reduction of friction to achieve low adjusting forces and safe
       operation

     Excellent corrosion protection, which is also effective under
      extreme weather conditions and in very thin lubricant layers

    secondary:
     Good applicability
     High creeping power for lubrication of inaccessible areas
     Lubricity should be independent from temperature
     Excellent EP- and damping properties (Shock loads during
       overrunning)


27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Solution
    Basics of lubricant formulation:

    In these applications normally soft free-flowing greases are used,
    which can contain special solid lubricants.

    It is important, that all single components are checked regarding their
    environmental potential, even though the base oil is by far the
    biggest portion of the lubricant.

    Base oils:

    Regarding biodegradability we can choose
    from the following fluids:
     Native esters
     Synthetic esters
     Low-viscous Polyglycols
     Low-viscous synthetic hydrocarbons
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Solution
    Beside the biodegradability the following properties have to be
    considered with the base oils:

     Lubricity
     Flow behaviour at low temperatures
     Thermal resistance
     Solubility / Miscibility of additives
     Compatibility with materials


    Following the thickeners, which can be used in biodegradable
    lubricants:

     Lithium soap
     Calcium soap
     Li-/Ca-Mix soap
     Inorganic thickeners, e.g. Bentonite

27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Solution
    Additives and Solid lubricants:

    EP additives play an important role, because wheel flange lubrication,
    as well as switch lubrication is working under boundary or extreme
    mixed friction conditions.

    Selection of additives must be done also with regard to the strong
    requirements of environmental aspects and must fulfil all the
    tribological demands as well.

    Long-term experience in practical applications has shown, that
    special solid lubricants can be extremely helpful in these
    applications. Mostly special graphite types as well as combinations
    of the so-called white solid lubricants are used.




27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                                                            FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Solution
    Synergetic combination of the mentioned components to ready
    formulations:


                                         DB-No. 077.01            Switch lubricant,        DB-No. 077.02            Wheel flange
                                        Switch lubricant,         environmentally          Wheel flange          lubricant, environ-
                                         conventional                harmless                 lubricant,         mentally harmless
                                                                                            conventional
      Base oil                         Mineral oil, bitumen            syn. Ester         Mineral oil, bitumen         syn. Ester
      Thickener                                  Ca-Soap               Bentonite               Ca-Soap                 Bentonite
      Additives                                        -           AC, AW, AO, EP*                 -               AO, AW, AC, EP*
      Solids                                     Graphite                          S
                                                                 Graphite, white FS * *            -                               S
                                                                                                                 Graphite, white FS * *
      Solvent                                  Petroleum                   -                  Petroleum                    -


    *AC = Anti-corrosion, AW = Anti-wear, AO = Anti-oxydant, EP = Extreme Pressure
    **FSS = solid lubricants



27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Application
    Generally:

     to make sure that you have the right quantity of lubricant right in
      time at the right place


    Switch lubrication:

     normally manually,
      e.g. with brush

     sometimes with portable
      lubricators




27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                             FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Application
    Wheel flange lubrication:

     with automatic lubricators, which spray extremely small quantities
      of lubricant onto the wheel flanges

     Regarding the controlling system, lubricators are divided into
        path controlled
        time controlled
        curve controlled systems.

                                                                  normally only the first wheel
                                                                   set is lubricated, all the
                                                                   following axles are
                                                                   lubricated indirectly




27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                                   FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Application
    Wheel flange lubrication, example:




                                                                 Type Vogel SP 9


27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                         FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Application
    Wheel flange lubrication, example:




                                                                 Type DeLimon RE




27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                          FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Application
    Wheel flange lubrication, example:




                                                                 Type BEKA Fluilub




27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                            FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Application
    Wheel flange lubrication, calculation example:
            Width of the spray jet on the wheel flange:                       20 mm
            Wheel diameter:                                                  900 mm
            Lubricant quantity per spray cycle:                               30 mg


                          Thickness of lube film on the first wheel set:ca. 0,5 µm




                                                                 Spray pattern
                                                                 from test rig trial




27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                            FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Application
     Wheel flange lubrication, calculation example:
             Lubricant quantity per cycle:                                 30 mg
             Travelling distance per cycle:                                500 m
             Total distance:                                             1000 km


                            Lubricant consumption at each side:               60 g




                                                                 Spray pattern
                                                                 from test rig trial




27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                                    FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Test methods
     Friction value                                              Corrosion       System test
      Tannert                                                    protection      DeLimon RE
      Timken                                                    Erichsen        DeLimon Railjet
      Almen-Wieland                                             Water           Vogel SP 8
                                                                  resistance      Vogel SP 9
                                                                 Emcor           Saxonia SSL-3
     Wear                                                                         Rebs
      FBT welding load                                                           Woerner
      FBT wear                                                                   Beka Fluilub
      Timken                                                                     SRS Clicomatic
                                                                                  Portec
     Adhesion power                                              Environment
      Tannert                                                    CEC L-33-
      Timken-                                                   A93
     Retention                                                    OECD 301 A-
      Fling-off test
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems   E
                                                                                                    FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Results: Field test
                  Biodegradable, High-Performance Lubricant
                                           LOCOLUB ECO              Conventional Lubricant
                                                        SPURKRANZSCHMIERE


                                                                          -0,22
         sd
                                                             -1,11

                                        -1,82
         sh
                                                       -1,32

                                                                                      0,25
          qr
                                                                                             0,91
                      Used E-Lok: BR 111,D
                      Total test distance: 1,9 Mill. km                                                     2,20
            a
                      remark: sh and a are not influenced by the lubricant                           1,71

                -3                            -2                     -1           0          1         2           3


                                                                 Wear in mm / 100.000 km

27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                                              FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Results: Field test
             100%                                                                   1991: Changing over
               90%                                                                  from a conventional,
               80%
                                                                                    mineral oil based
               70%
                                                                                    grease to a high
                                                                                    performance,
               60%
                                                                                    biodegradable lubricant.
               50%


               40%


               30%


               20%


               10%
                                                                                    Causes for Wheel
                                                                                    Flange Wear on
                 0%
                             1989            1990
                                          Flange wear
                                                       1991       1992       1993
                                                                 Flange/surface
                                                                                    Locomotive Wheels
                                          Surface wear
                                          Cracks
                                                                 Flat surfaces
                                                                 wear
                                                                 Others             (source: Austrian
                                                                                    Railway)
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                                                   FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Results: Field test
                                                                 Comparison of Switch lubricants
                                                                                                    10 to 15




                                           16
           Relubrication interval / days




                                           14


                                           12


                                           10

                                                                    2 to 5
                                           8


                                           6


                                           4


                                           2


                                           0

                                                  K & W 077.01
                                                  Conventional                        TRAMLUB 384 G

                                                Biodegradable
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                 FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Future Aspects
      Searching for more suitable raw materials

      New trends in environmental legislation

      New materials for wheels and rails

      New designs of carriages and bogies

      Higher wheel loads

      Higher velocities


      Further optimisation of the status quo
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                                    FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH


    Summary
     Biodegradable lubricants for wheel flange and switch lubrication
     in German / European Railway Systems

      have overrun their conventional ancestors and completely
       removed in many applications

      perform much better and at the same time help our environment
       by:

                                                Reduction of driving power (up to 15%)
                                                  Reduction of wear, noise and friction
                                                 Increase of the maintenance intervals
                                                    Reduction of maintenance works
                                                  Reduction of lubricant consumption
                                                   Reduction of the risk of derailment

           Increase of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety (RAMS)
                          Decrease of Life Cycle Costs (LCC)
                                              ...
27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems
                                                                            FUCHS LUBRITECH GMBH



         Thank you very much for your kind attention.




                                                       www.fuchs-lubritech.de


27.01.2013 / HW / Biodegradable Lubricants for Railway Systems

				
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