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					                                                                           SWPBS Workbook 1




     School-wide Positive
      Behavior Support
        Getting Started Workbook                                                    1




               Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
                           University of Oregon & Connecticut
                                 Ver. September 16, 2009




1
 This document is supported in part by the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions
and Supports (http://pbis.org). The Center is supported by a grant from the Office of Special
Education Programs, US Department of Education (H326S98003). Opinions expressed herein are
those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the US Department of
Education, and such endorsements should not be inferred.
                                                                          SWPBS Workbook 2




              School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

            OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports2
                           University of Oregon & Connecticut
                                      www.pbis.org




       The OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports is grateful to
the students, educators, administrators, families, support providers, researchers, and
teacher trainers who have worked tirelessly to improve educational outcomes for all
students and who have contributed to our understanding of the critical practices and
systems of positive behavior support.


       These training materials have been developed to assist schools in their efforts to
improve school climate and school-wide positive behavior support for all students.
Photocopying, use, and/or sale of these materials are forbidden without expressed
written permission by the OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and
Supports. To obtain a personal copy of these materials, contact the Center at
www.pbis.org.




2
 The Center is supported by a grant from the Office of Special Education Programs, US
Department of Education (H326S980003). Opinions expressed herein are those of the authors
and do not necessarily reflect the position of the US Department of Education, and such
endorsements should not be inferred.
                                                                         SWPBS Workbook 3




                        How Should I Use this Workbook?


What is the Purpose of this Workbook?
      To provide implementers of a School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)
approach with user-friendly supplement to formative training and implementation.


Who Should Use this Workbook?
      Trainers, Coaches, Facilitators – to support their efforts to implement SWPBS at
       the school level
      Coordinators and Administrators – to provide an overview of the content and
       process of SWPBS to others
      School and District Implementation Leadership Teams – to support and guide
       their development, implementation, and monitoring of SWPBS implementation


How is this Workbook Organized?
       Each chapter generally has the following organizational features:
      Organizing introduction (green) that provides rationale, definitions, “big ideas,”
       etc.
      Implementation guidelines (blue) that are used to support training, self-
       assessment, and action planning.
      Generic activity worksheets (yellow) that guide contextualized implementation
       and product development.
      Generic action planning (red) that structures commitments to follow-up
       activities and tasks.
        The Table of Contents serves as a summary and roadmap to the organization of
the content and process of SWPBS. Generally, the chapter sequence approximates the
typical order in which SWPBS trainers, coordinators, and coaches guide School
Leadership Teams through the practices and processes of SWPBS.
       Appendices include (a) tools and instruments, (b) supporting stand-alone
information and activities, and (c) materials referenced in workbook sections.
                                                            SWPBS Workbook 4



                     Table of Contents


Page                                  Chapter

       Appendices Description
 5
 7     1 – Overview of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support
             What is SWPBS?
             Why not “get tough” with problem behavior?
             What principles guide implementer use of SWPBS?
             What operational elements define SWPBS?
             What evidence-based behavioral interventions are included in
              SWPBS?
             What is the school-wide continuum of behavior support?
                 o Responsiveness-to-intervention
                 o Practices and systems by prevention tier
                 o Developing a SW continuum of PBS
             What is the SWPBS team-based implementation process?
                 o Basic action planning

40     2 – Getting Started with School-Wide Positive Behavior Support
             Primary prevention tier
             Step 1 – Establish team membership
                        Conducting leadership team meetings worksheet
             Step 2 – Develop brief statement of behavior purpose
             Step 3 – Identify positive school-wide behavior expectations
             Step 4 – Develop procedures for teaching school-wide
              expectations
             Step 5 – Develop procedures for teaching classroom-wide
              behavior expectations
             Step 6 – Develop continuum of procedures for encouraging and
              strengthening student use of school-wide behavior expectations
             Step 7 – Develop continuum of procedures for discouraging
              student behavior violations of school-wide behavior
              expectations
             Step 8 – Develop data-based procedures for monitoring
              implementation of SWPBS (primary tier)

74     3 – SWPBS Practices and Systems in Non-Classroom Settings
83     4 – Classroom Management Practices and Systems
                                                                            SWPBS Workbook 5




                                      Appendices

          Appendix                                     Description

A   School-Wide PBS              An example of one school’s implementation of SWPBS is
    Implementation Example       provided: leadership team, behavior purpose statement,
                                 school-wide and classroom-wide behavioral
                                 expectations, teaching matrices, encouragement
                                 procedures, behavior expectation violation procedures,
                                 and progress monitoring and data systems

B   Committee/Group/Team         This standalone activity gives leadership teams a
    Self-Assessment and Action   structure for identifying what behavioral initiatives,
    Planning                     programs, and interventions are in place, and evaluating
                                 how SWPBS fits with these efforts. The specific goal is to
                                 develop an effective, efficient, and relevant continuum
                                 of positive behavior support practices and processes for
                                 all students

C   Effective Behavior Support   This self-assessment is used by leadership teams to
    Self-Assessment Survey       determine staff perceptions about the status of the
                                 social and behavioral climate of the school. Perceptions
                                 about supports for school-wide, classroom,
                                 nonclassroom, and individual students are assessed. All
                                 school staff are usually included.

D   Team Implementation          Leadership teams and coaches use this self-assessment
    Checklist (TIC)              to monitor their initial and on-going SWPBS
                                 implementation. As such, leadership teams self-manage
                                 their implementation efforts.

E   SWPBS Team Monthly           This organizational tool is used by leadership teams,
    Planning Guide               coaches, coordinators teams to supplement their review
                                 and action planning efforts, especially at the beginning
                                 and end of the school year. Emphasis is on first year
                                 implementation of primary intervention tier of SWPBS.         The p

F   Detention and Suspension:    This FAQ has been developed to provide a general
    Frequently Asked Questions   summary of the implementation considerations and
                                 features of detention and suspension consequences. A
                                 question/answer format is used.

G   Functional Assessment and    Two self-assessment checklists are provided to enable
    Behavior Support Plan        review of the components and processes of completing a
                                                                             SWPBS Workbook 6



    Checklists                    functional behavioral assessment and developing a
                                  behavioral intervention plan.

H   Functional Assessment         The FACTS is an instrument used to guide the completion
    Checklists for Teachers and   of a functional behavioral assessment and facilitate the
    Staff                         development of a behavior intervention plan.

I   Emergency Prevention and      This primer provides general guidelines and
    Response                      considerations for being prepared, preventing, and
                                  responding to crises and emergency situations.

J   Teaching Social Skills        A basic and general lesson plan and examples for
                                  teaching social behavior are provided.

K   SWPBS and RtI                 A brief overview of the similar and different features of
                                  school-wide positive behavior support and
                                  responsiveness to intervention.

L   Selected References           These references provide additional and supporting
                                  information for the contents of this workbook.

M   Data-based Decision Making    Guidelines and examples for establishing efficient and
    and Office Discipline         effective data-based decision making systems. Emphasis
    Referrals                     is on formalizing and enhancing office disciplinary
                                  procedures.
                                 SWPBS Workbook 7




               CHAPTER 1

Overview of School-Wide Positive Behavior
                Supports
                                                                      SWPBS Workbook 8



SWPBS Message: Successful individual student behavior support is linked to
 host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant,
                        & durable for all students
                                 (Zins & Ponti, 1990)




                                 What is SWPBS?


       School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) provides an organizational
approach or framework for improving the social behavior climate of the schools and
supporting or enhancing the impact of academic instruction on achievement and
increasing proactive (positive/preventive) management.
                                                                        SWPBS Workbook 9



       SWPBS is comprised of evidence-based behavioral interventions and practices
that can be implemented by real users to effectively address and support the socially
and educationally important behavioral needs of students and their families.
        SWPBS has its conceptual foundations in
       Behavioral Theory - Behavior is learned, lawful, and manipulable

       Applied Behavior Analysis - Behavioral theory is applied to socially important
        observable behaviors in the context of the applied settings in which they are
        observed

       Positive Behavior Support – Behavioral supports are considered in the larger
        context of improvement of quality of life
                                                                        SWPBS Workbook 10




                 Why “Not Get Tough” with Problem Behavior?


       When students display problem behavior that is unresponsive to our typical
consequences or interventions, we often get stern or “tough” to see if the student’s
behavior will eventually improve. For many students this level of consequence works
because the student has strong alternative ways of responding that access success
without having to use the problem behavior.
        The problem behavior of some students continues to be unresponsive, and we
get “tougher” to get the student’s attention, make a clear statement or point about the
behavior, and minimize the likelihood of future occurrences. A few students respond to
this level of consequence but the improvement is often not long lasting.
        So, the problem behavior of a few students continues to be observed, and we
resort to further intensifying the aversiveness of our responses to force a halt to the
problem behavior.
                                                                           SWPBS Workbook 11



       See below for example of “Get Tough” Sequence


                             “GET TOUGH”                        BEHAVIOR RESPONSE

Initial problem   Given initial “aversive”              Behavior of many students improve;
    behavior      consequence, e.g.,                    however, for some their problem
                                                        behavior continues
                         Say “no.”
                         Remove “privilege
                         Send to “think seat”

    Further       Give additional and more              Behavior of a few more students
occurrences of    “aversive” consequence, e.g.,         improve; however, for a few individual
   problem                                              students, their behavior continues
                         Scream “NO!” louder
   behavior
                         Move closer and point
                          finger
                         Complete office discipline
                          referral
                         Threaten and establish
                          bottom line
                         Send to in-school detention

   Continued      Increase intensity, frequency, and    Behavior escalates in intensity,
occurrences and   duration of “aversive”                frequency, and duration to levels that
   increasing     consequences, e.g.,                   severely interfere with teaching and
  intensity of                                          learning
                         Establish and enforce zero
    problem
                          tolerance policies
    behavior
                         Increase monitoring and
                          security
                         Physically assist or
                          intervene
                         Give out of school
                          suspension
                                                                       SWPBS Workbook 12



       Why do we get tougher when student’s behavior does not improve? Because
we…
   1. Assume the student is inherently bad, and stubborn behaviors require much
      more intensive consequences.
   2. Assume the student must “learn” to take responsibility for their own behavior,
      and prove that they deserve to be part of the classroom or group.
   3. Assume aversive consequences “teach” the student to behave better.
   4. The behavior of some students does improve….albeit short-lived; so, we get
      temporary relief.
   5. Learn “tougher” consequences remove the student with irritating behavior
      which brings relief in the immediate environment, and the student’s behavior
      will be better “tomorrow.”
   6. Experience an initial improvement in problem behavior, when the student
      responds.


        So, what’s wrong with a get tough approach? The research is clear that if the
only thing we do is get tough and tougher when students display problem behavior,
   1. Environments of control are fostered
   2. Antisocial behavior is triggered and reinforced
   3. Shared accountability is shifted away from school and to the student, family,
      and/or community
   4. Child/youth-adult relationships are devalued and put at risk
   5. Link between academic achievement and social behavior programming is
      weakened


       So, what should we do? The science on human behavior has taught us that
students….
   1. Are not born with bad (or good) behavior
   2. Do not learn through the sole use of “aversive” consequences
   3. Learn better ways of behaving by being taught social skills directly and receiving
      positive feedback about what they are doing correctly or appropriately.
                                                                       SWPBS Workbook 13



       In addition, results from research on the prevention of youth violence
consistently indicates that preventing the development and occurrence of violent and
behavior is associated with the following:


           Youth Violence Prevention                         Sample Sources

   •   Positive, predictable school-wide climate     •   Surgeon General’s Report on
                                                         Youth Violence (2001)
   •   High rates of academic & social success
                                                     •   Coordinated Social Emotional &
   •   Formal social skills instruction
                                                         Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003)
   •   Positive active supervision & reinforcement
                                                     •   Center for Study & Prevention of
   •   Positive adult role models                        Violence (2006)
   •   Multi-component, multi-year school-family-    •   White House Conference on
       community effort                                  School Violence (2006)
                                                                       SWPBS Workbook 14




             What Principles Guide Implementer Use of SWPBS?


       Implementers of SWPBS use the following principles to guide their decisions and
actions:
   1.     Use data to guide decision making
   2.     Establish school discipline as instrument for academic and behavior success
   3.     Make decisions that are linked to important and measurable outcomes
   4.     Utilize research-validated practices, interventions, and strategies
   5.     Emphasize an instructional approach to behavior management
   6.     Emphasize prevention
   7.     Integrate initiatives, programs, interventions that have common outcomes
   8.     Adapt products, activities, actions, etc. to align with cultural and contextual
          characteristics of local environment (e.g., family, neighborhood, community)
   9.     Build and sustain a continuum of behavior support
   10.    Consider and implement school-wide practices and systems for all students,
          all staff, and all settings
   11.    Evaluate continuously
   12.    Coordinate efforts with a school-wide leadership team
                                                                         SWPBS Workbook 15




                   What Operational Elements Define SWPBS?


       Effective, efficient, and relevant school-wide discipline is based on a balance of
four key and interactive elements:


                                Social Competence &
                               Academic Achievement


                                     OUTCOMES

                                     S
                                   EM
                                                          Supporting


                                              DA
             Supporting
                                ST




                                                TA
                                                           Decision
            Staff Behavior
                              SY




                                                           Making


                                     PRACTICES



                                      Supporting
                                   Student Behavior
                                                                         SWPBS Workbook 16




                        DATA: What do we currently see and know?


Data-based decision making guides selection and modification of curricula and practices,
evaluation of progress, and enhancement of systems.


                          OUTCOMES: What do we want to see?


Clearly specified outcomes are related to academic achievement and social competence


PRACTICES: What practice could effectively, efficiently, and relevantly achieve what we want
                                          to see?


Evidenced-based practices have a high probability of outcome achievement for students.


 SYSTEMS: What needs to be in place to support (a) practice adoption that is informed and
       (b) full implementation that is contextualized, accurate, and sustainable?


Systems support adult adoption, high fidelity implementation, and sustained use of effective
practices.
                                                                            SWPBS Workbook 17




 What Evidence-based Behavioral Interventions are Included in SWPBS?


        SWPBS emphasizes selection and implementation of the most appropriate,
effective, efficient, and relevant practices and interventions that match the needs,
resources, and competence of users. These practices and interventions are organized in
five SWPBS subsystems:




 SUBSYSTEMS                     PRACTICES, PROCESSES, AND SYSTES FOR……

 School-wide      All students and staff members, across all settings

  Classroom       Settings in which delivery of instruction is emphasized

                  Settings and contexts in which the emphasis is on supervision and
Nonclassroom      monitoring, not instruction (e.g., sporting events, assemblies, lunchrooms,
                  hallways, buses, field trips, etc.).

                  Individual students whose behaviors are not responsive to school-wide or
   Student
                  primary tier prevention (secondary/tertiary tiers)

                  Engaging and supporting family participation in the activities and access to
    Family
                  resources of the school.
                                                                                SWPBS Workbook 18




                                 Behavioral Interventions and Practices

                    1. Leadership team
                    2. Common behavior purpose & approach to discipline
                    3. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors
   School-Wide




                    4. Procedures for teaching expected behavior school-wide & classroom-
                       wide
                    5. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior
                    6. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior
                    7. Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation

                    1. All school-wide above.
                    2. Maximum structure & predictability (e.g., routines, environment)
                    3. Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, &
                       supervised
   Classroom-Wide




                    4. Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond,
                       delivery of evidence-based instructional curriculum & practices
                    5. Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior
                       , including contingent & specific praise, group contingencies, behavior
                       contracts, token economies
                    6. Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior,
                       including specific, contingent, brief corrections for academic and social
                       behavior errors, differential reinforcement of other behavior, planned
                       ignoring, response cost, and time out.

                    1. Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged/acknowledged
Non-Classroom




                    2. Active supervision by all staff, emphasizing scanning, moving, &
   Settings




                       interacting
                    3. Precorrections, prompts, & reminders
                    4. Positive reinforcement
                                                                                    SWPBS Workbook 19




                       1. Behavioral competence at school & district levels

  Individual Student
                       2. Function-based behavior support planning
                       3. Team- & data-based decision making
                       4. Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes
                       5. Targeted social skills & self-management instruction
                       6. Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations

                       1. Continuum of positive behavior support for all families
Engagement




                       2. Frequent, regular, & positive contacts, communications, &
  Family




                          acknowledgements
                       3. Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partners
                       4. Access to system of integrated school & community resources
                                                                     SWPBS Workbook 20




          What is the PBS School-wide Continuum of Behavior Support?3


         A relatively small proportion of students (1-15%) have learning histories that
cause general school-wide interventions to be ineffective (i.e., not responsive), and
these students require additional specialized and individualized interventions. Thus,
school-wide discipline systems should not be abandoned because the behaviors of these
students are unresponsive. Instead, schools should think of school-wide discipline
systems as being important foundations for (a) supporting the majority of students, (b)
preventing the development of chronic problem behavior for students with high risk
backgrounds and learning histories, and (c) identifying (screening) and providing more
specialized and individualized behavior supports for students with high intensity,
difficult-to-change problem behaviors.




3
    Also referred to as “RtI” or Responsiveness-to-Intervention
                                                                      SWPBS Workbook 21



        The three tiered prevention logic organizes practices and systems along a
continuum of increasing intensity and/or complexity. Student behavior responsiveness
to intervention is used to match intervention intensity. Although the continuum is
dynamic and blended, the three tiers are generally described as follows:


Prevention                                                            General Response
                                   Description
   Tier                                                                   Criteria


Primary       Practices and systems for all students and staff        Behaviors of 70-
(Universal)   implemented across all settings.                        90% of students


              More intensive and specialized practices and systems
              for students whose behaviors have been
Secondary                                                             Behaviors of 10-
              documented as not responsive at the primary tier,
(Targeted)                                                            30% of students
              and generally provided in a common or standardized
              manner in small student groupings.


              Most intensive and specialized practices and systems
              for students whose behaviors have been
Tertiary      documented as not responsive at the primary or           Behaviors of 1-
(Intensive)   secondary tiers, and generally are highly                10% of students
              individualized to the specific needs and strengths of
              an individual student.
                                                                                 SWPBS Workbook 22



       The following figure illustrates this important concept:


                                                              Tertiary Prevention:
                    CONTINUUM OF                                  Specialized
                     SCHOOL-WIDE                                 Individualized
                   INSTRUCTIONAL &                           Systems for Students
                  POSITIVE BEHAVIOR           ~5%           with High-Risk Behavior
                       SUPPORT
                                                            Secondary Prevention:
                                              ~15%
                                                              Specialized Group
                                                            Systems for Students
                                                            with At-Risk Behavior
                   Primary Prevention:
                   School-/Classroom-
                    Wide Systems for
                      All Students,
                    Staff, & Settings




                                         ~80% of Students




       The following figure illustrates the an “applied” continuum of support in which
sequencing and integration of practices and supports varies by setting (e.g., elementary
v. middle v. high school; alternative programming; rural v. urban) and individual student
strengths and needs:
                                                                           SWPBS Workbook 23




         How does SWPBS Relate to Responsiveness to Intervention?


        “Responsiveness-to-Intervention” (RtI) has been described as an approach for
establishing and redesigning teaching and learning environments so that they are
effective, efficient, relevant, and durable for all students, families, and educators.
Specifically, RTI is shaped by six defining characteristics4:




4
 Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005; Christ, Burns, & Ysseldyke, 2005; Fuchs & Deschler, 2007;
Fuchs & Fuchs, 2007; Fuchs, Mock, Morgan, & Young, 2003; Gresham, 2005; Gresham et al.,
2005; Kame’enui, 2007; National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2006;
Severson, Walker, Hope-Doolittle, Kratochwill, & Gresham, 2007; Sugai, 2007
                                                                        SWPBS Workbook 24




    RtI Feature                                   Description

                     Learner performance and progress should be reviewed on a regular
                     basis and in a systematic manner to identify students who are (a)
1. Universal
                     making adequate progress, (b) at some risk of failure if not provided
   screening
                     extra assistance, or (c) at high risk of failure if not provided
                     specialized supports.

2. Data-based        Information that directly reflects student learning based on
   decision making   measurable and relevant learning criteria and outcomes should be
   and problem       used to guide decisions regarding instructional effectiveness, student
   solving           responsiveness, and intervention adaptations and modifications

3. Continuous        Student progress should be assessed on a frequent and regular basis
   progress          to identify adequate or inadequate growth trends and support timely
   monitoring        instructional decisions.

                     Priority should be given to using actual student performance on the
4. Student
                     instructional curriculum to guide decisions regarding teaching
   performance
                     effectiveness and learning progress

                     An integrated and sequenced curriculum should be available such
                     that a (a) core curriculum is provided for all students, (b)
                     modification of this core is arranged for students who are identified
                     as nonresponsive, and (c) specialized and intensive curriculum is
                     developed for students whose performance is deemed
5. Continuum of
                     nonresponsive to the modified core. Elements of this continuum
   evidence-based
                     must have empirical evidence to support efficacy (intervention is
   interventions
                     linked to outcome), effectiveness (intervention outcomes are
                     achievable and replicable in applied settings), relevant (intervention
                     can be implemented by natural implementers and with high fidelity),
                     and durable (intervention implementation is sustainable and student
                     outcomes are durable).

                     Team-based structures and procedures are in place to ensure and
6. Implementation
                     coordinate appropriate adoption and accurate and sustained
   fidelity
                     implementation of the full continuum of intervention practices.
                                                                                              SWPBS Workbook 25




           Practices and Systems by Prevention Tier and SWPBS Working Elements


                                                                   Prevention Tier

                                            Primary                  Secondary                  Tertiary
                                        Office discipline        Office disciplinary      FACTS
                                         referrals (ODR)           referrals                FBA
                                        EBS Self-                Points earned            Academic
                                         Assessment                token economy             competence
                                        SET                      Academic                 Curriculum based
                                        Benchmarks of             competence                measurement
                         Data




                                         Quality                  Curriculum based
                                        School Safety             measurement
                                         Survey                   FACTS
                                        Academic
                                         performance
                                        Curriculum based
                                         measurement
SWPBS Working Elements




                                        ~80% of students         ~15% of students         Individualized
                         Outcomes




                                         with 0-1 major ODR        with 2-5 major            academic and
                                        ~1/500                    ODR                       behavior objectives
                                         students/day                                       ~5% of students
                                                                                             with >6 major ODR
                                        Teach and                Universal screening      Function-based
                                         encourage small          Group social skills       Individualized
                                         number of school-         instruction               behavior support
                                         wide behavioral          Daily performance         plan
                                         expectations and          feedback                 Targeted social
                                         behaviors                Self-management           skills instruction
                                                                                        
                         Practices




                                         Continuum of              instruction               Academic
                                         consequences for         At least hourly           accommodations
                                         violations of             positive                  and supports
                                         behavior                  reinforcement            Family
                                         expectations             Family engagement         participation
                                        Active supervision
                                        Effective classroom
                                         management
                                                                 SWPBS Workbook 26



             SW leadership team       Behavioral             Specialized
             Formative data-           competence              behavioral
              and team-based           Weekly program          competence
              decision making           review                 Team-based
Systems       and action planning      Team based              coordination and
             High priority             coordination and        decision making
             Active                    decision making        Daily program
              administrator            Direct link to          review
              involvement               school-wide
                                        primary tier
                                        prevention system
                                                                               SWPBS Workbook 27




    Developing a School-wide Continuum of Positive Behavior Support

       The development of a SW continuum of requires a careful consideration of local
context (features and data), desired outcomes (data, priority needs, etc.), evidence-
based practices, and systems capacities and supports.
        To enhance efficiency and relevance, the following steps for selecting practices
within a school-wide continuum of positive behavior supports should be considered:

 Steps for Selecting Practices within a School-Wide Continuum of Positive Behavior Support

  Step 1: Identify what practices (e.g., interventions, programs, strategies) are available at
          each prevention tier. (See Practices Evaluation Chart)

  Step 2: Evaluate each practice against the following evaluation criteria
              Evidence-based – Does experimental research evidence exist to support the
               selection and use of a practice to achieve desired outcome?
              Outcome Data – Are relevant data collected to measure effectiveness?
              Non-Responder Decision Rule – Are data-based rules available and used to
               modify intervention for students who do not respond to practice?
              Implementation Fidelity – Are data collected to assess and improve accuracy of
               practice implementation?
              Effectiveness – Have data demonstrated that practice is effective in achieving
               desired outcomes?

  Step 3: Based on the above results, decide whether to (a) eliminate or discontinue, (b)
          integrate with other practices, (c) modify and continue or integrate, or (d) sustain as
          is.

  Step 4: Based on the above results, do new or different practices need to be considered and
          adopted to complete the continuum?
             Identify outcome that needs to be achieved.
             Evaluate practices that have experimental evidence of their effectiveness and
              are likely to produce desired outcome.
             Insert new practice into Practices Evaluation Chart


  Step 5: Complete display of continuum of behavior support practices (see following
          Continuum of School-wide Behavior Support triangle continuum)
                                                                                                      SWPBS Workbook 28




                                            Practices Evaluation Chart


                                                                              Evaluation
                                                                           Non-
                                                           Outcome                    Implem.
                              Practices        Evidence-                 Responder
                                                             Data                      Fidelity   Effective?   Decision
                                                Based?                    Decision
                                                           Collected?                Assessed?
                                                                           Rule?
                                                Y ? N5       Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S6
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                  Primary




                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
Prevention Tier

                  Secondary




                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                  Tertiary




                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S
                                                Y ? N        Y ? N        Y ? N       Y ? N        Y ? N       E I M S



5
    Yes ? No
6
    Eliminate, Modify, Integrate, Sustain
                                                                         SWPBS Workbook 29




             Continuum of School-wide Positive Behavior Support


Directions: Insert evaluated and selected practices and strategies into this table to
establish a continuum of school-wide positive behavior supports.

                                    
                                    
                        Tertiary    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                        Secondary




                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                        Primary




                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                                                    SWPBS Workbook 30




Example: Continuum of School-wide Positive Behavior Support


                            Function-based support
                            Wraparound/person-centered planning
                            Specialized & individualized instruction/intervention


             Tertiary
                            Crisis prevention & intervention
                         
                         
                         
                            Check in/out
                            Targeted social skills training
                            Peer-based tutoring
             Secondary




                            Social skills club
                            Behavioral contracting
                            Cognitive-behavioral counseling
                         
                            Teaching & rewarding positive school-wide behavioral
                             expectations
                            Proactive school-wide discipline
                            Effective academic instruction/curriculum
             Primary




                            Parent engagement
                            Active supervision
                         
                         
                                                                      SWPBS Workbook 31




         What is the SWPBS Team-Based Implementation Process?


         SWPBS implementation process or approach is premised on the finding that
sporadic one-time or occasional high intensity training events are ineffective and
inefficient at achieving system or organization-wide implementation of an intervention
or practice that is sustainable and accurate. Typical school inservice or professional
development events are more likely to be “train-and-hope” (Stokes and Baer, 1977)
events:
                                                                     SWPBS Workbook 32



       In contrast, the SWPBS approach adopts a continuous multi-component, multi-
year organizational approach. The features of the general team based implementation
process are summarized in the following:



                                              Team




                                           Agreements



                                           Data-based
                                           Action Plan



                              Evaluation                 Implementation
                                                                                        SWPBS Workbook 33



       When engaged in the general SWPBS implementation steps, consider the
following guidelines:


                                                       Guidelines

                            Yes No ?   1. Adequate representation

                            Yes No ?   2. Active administrator membership and involvement
   Form Team




                                       3. Efficient means for communications within team and with faculty
                            Yes No ?
                                          as a whole

                            Yes No ?   4. Capacity for on-going data-based decision making

                            Yes No ?   5. Priority and status among committees and initiatives

                            Yes No ?   6. Behavioral capacity on team

                            Yes No ?   1. Commitment to 3-4 years of priority implementation

                            Yes No ?   2. Use of 3-tiered prevention logic and continuum
   Establish Agreements




                            Yes No ?   3. Administrator participation and membership

                            Yes No ?   4. On-going coaching and facilitation supports

                                       5. Dedicated resources and time
                            Yes No ?   6. Agreement about operating procedures for roles, agenda,
                                          meeting times, action planning, etc.

                            Yes No ?   7. Top three school-wide initiatives based on need

                            Yes No ?   1. Regular self-assessment
   Data-based Action Plan




                            Yes No ?   2. Review and use of existing discipline data

                            Yes No ?   3. Multiple subsystems of evidence-based behavioral interventions

                            Yes No ?   4. Team-based decision making and action planning

                            Yes No ?   5. Efficient system of data input, storage, and summarization
                                                                                                               SWPBS Workbook 34




                                               Yes No ?   1. Emphasis on evidence based practices and interventions


Implementation Action Plan with Fidelity and
   Develop Procedures and Supports for         Yes No ?   2. Active administrator participation

                                               Yes No ?   3. Continuous staff involvement in planning

                                                          4. Efficient and effective support for staff training and
                Durability

                                               Yes No ?
                                                              implementation

                                                          5. Continuous monitoring of fidelity of implementation and
                                               Yes No ?
                                                              progress

                                                          6. Regular and effective staff acknowledgements for participation
                                               Yes No ?
                                                              and accomplishments

                                               Yes No ?   7. Team coordinated and managed implementation

                                               Yes No ?   1. Team- and data-based decision making and planning
Continuous Evaluation Fidelity of
 Implementation and Outcome




                                               Yes No ?   2. Relevant and measurable outcome indicators

                                               Yes No ?   3. Efficient input, storage, and retrieval of data
           Progress




                                               Yes No ?   4. Effective, efficient, and informative visual displays

                                               Yes No ?   5. Regular data review

                                                          6. Continuous monitoring of fidelity of implementation and
                                               Yes No ?
                                                              progress
                                                                              SWPBS Workbook 35




                                    Basic Action Planning


        Action planning is a process of organizing and using resources to enable
individuals to engage in activities designed to achieve specific and important outcomes.
The process is guided by the following principles:


                                             Process Principles

                  1.       Align with district goals.
                  2.       Focus on measurable outcomes.
                  3.       Base and adjust decisions on data and local characteristics.
                  4.       Give priority to evidence-based programs.
                  5.       Invest in building sustainable implementation supports.
                  6.       Consider effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, and efficacy in
                           decision making



       The action planning process can be facilitated by considering the following
questions:

                                          Facilitating Questions

                Question                                           Notes

     1. What need (problem,
        issue, concern, etc.) are
        we trying to address?



     2. What evidence do we
        have to confirm,
        understand, characterize,
        etc. the need?

     3. What factors seem to be
        contributing to the need?
                                 SWPBS Workbook 36




4. How high of a priority is
   addressing this need?




5. What would the solution
   (data, strategy, policy,
   etc.) look like to address
   the need?

6. What existing activities
   also are addressing this
   need?



7. What would we see if we
   have been successful in
   addressing this need in 3
   months, 1 year, 2 years,
   etc.?

8. What would a 1-3 year
   action plan look like to
   address this need?



9. What factors ($,
   roadblocks, agreements,
   capacity, leadership, etc.)
   need to be considered to
   support and maximize the
   successful implementation
   of this action plan?
                                                                                                 SWPBS Workbook 37



        The following flowchart has been designed to improve decisions related to
selection and use of instructional and behavioral interventions.

       Start




 Review questions
                          Does problem              Specify features of
 & data on regular                            Yes
                             exist?                   need/problem
       basis




                     No

                                                     Identify practice
                                                      that addresses
                                                       need/problem




                                                        Is practice             Is evidence of
                                                                                                        Consider another
                                                         research         No     effectiveness     No
                                                                                                            practice
                                                          based?                  available?



                                                           Yes            Yes




                                                       Can practice
                                                                                                   No
                                                       be adapted?




                                                           Yes




                                         No           Implement &
                                                     monitor effects




                                                       Is adequate
                                                         progress
                                                        observed?



                                                           Yes


                                                    Improve efficiency
                                                    & sustainability of
                                                         practice
                                                     implementation
                                                                       SWPBS Workbook 38




                      Generic Action Planning Worksheet – Example #1

Action Plan Outcome (measurable, achievable, priority):




Due Date:

        Activity             Persons        Due       Outcome            Notes

 1.
                                                               SWPBS Workbook 39




                     GENERAL PLANNING WORKSHEET – Example #2

    Planning Questions                            Planning

1. What did we propose to
   accomplish?

2. What have we done so
   far? Data?

3. How much have we
   accomplished? Are we
   satisfied?

4. What do we need to
   accomplish next?

5. What do we need to do                  What                  Who       When
   next?
                             1.


                             2.


                             3.


                             4.


                             5.


                             6.


                             7.


                             8.


                             9.
                                                    SWPBS Workbook 40



                 Actions Needed for
     Using SWPBS Basic Information and Concepts


        Action                          Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                                 SWPBS Workbook 41




               CHAPTER 2


Getting Started with School-Wide Positive
            Behavior Supports
                                                                                 SWPBS Workbook 42




                             GETTING STARTED WITH SWPBS:
                                PRIMARY PREVENTION TIER


      In the following sections, planning steps for getting started with the implementation of
SWPBS are described. Examples of outcomes for each step are provided in the Appendices.

                                             Guidelines

Yes No ?7          STEP 1 - Establish Leadership Team Membership

Yes No ?           STEP 2 - Develop Brief Statement of Behavior Purpose

Yes No ?           STEP 3 - Identify Positive School-wide Behavioral Expectations

Yes No ?           STEP 4 - Develop Procedures for Teaching School-wide Behavior Expectations

Yes No ?           STEP 5 - Develop Procedures for Teaching Classroom-wide Behavioral
                   Expectations

Yes No ?           STEP 6 - Develop Continuum of Procedures for Encouraging and Strengthening
                   Student Use of School-wide Behavior Expectations

Yes No ?           STEP 7 - Develop Continuum of Procedures for Discouraging Student Behavior
                   Violations of School-wide Behavior Expectations

Yes No ?           STEP 8 - Develop Data-based Procedures for Monitoring Implementation of
                   SWPBS (Primary Tier)



          Descriptions for each step (pink) include
         Guidelines (blue) for improving the completion of each step
         Sample worksheets (yellow) for completing each step
         Action planning (red) forms to organize and manage “next activities”




7
    Uncertain, unknown, more information needed
                                                                                    SWPBS Workbook 43




          STEP 1 - Establish Team Membership


        When establishing a school-wide PBS leadership team, consider the following
guidelines:

                                              Guidelines

Yes No ?8             1. Representative of demographics of school and community

Yes No ?              2. 1-2 individuals with behavior/classroom management competence

Yes No ?              3. Administrator active member

Yes No ?              4. Schedule for presenting to whole staff at least monthly

Yes No ?              5. Schedule for team meetings at least monthly

Yes No ?              6. Integration with other behavior related initiatives and programs

Yes No ?              7. Appropriate priority relative to school and district goals

Yes No ?              8. Rules and agreements established regarding voting, confidentiality and
                          privacy, conflict/problem solving, record-keeping, etc.

Yes No ?              9. Schedule for annual self-assessments
                                 EBS Self-Assessment Survey
                                 Review Office Discipline Referrals
                                 Benchmarks of Quality
                                 School-wide Evaluation Tool

Yes No ?              10. Coaching support (school and/or district/region)




8
    ? = uncertain, unknown, more information needed
                                                                               SWPBS Workbook 44




                                Team Profile and Agreements

School
Name: ___________________________ Level: El, Md/Jr, Sr, other_________
City: _____________________________ State: ________________________
District: __________________________

Team Member Name by Role
Principal: _______________________           Teacher: ______________________
Teacher: _______________________             Teacher: ______________________
Teacher: _______________________             Teacher: ______________________
Counselor: _____________________             Parent: _______________________
Classified: ______________________           Classified9: _____________________
Special Educator: ________________           Student10: _______________________
Other: _________________________             Other: ________________________
Other: _________________________             Other: ________________________

Coaching
Name: ________________________               Email: ________________________
Contact Telephone: ______________

Agreements for Getting Started
Dates for next two team meetings: ______________ ________________
Date for next presentation to whole staff: ______________
Date for completion of EBS Self-Assessment Survey: ________________
Date for collection and summarization of office discipline data: ______________
Date for completion/review of action plan: ______________




9
  Representatives from non-classroom settings (e.g., office staff, cafeteria and hallway
supervisor, bus driver, school resource officer, custodian, community member)
10
   Students are recommended particularly for secondary level school teams.
                                                                               SWPBS Workbook 45




                             Conducting Leadership Meetings Worksheet
                                            How did we do?

                                               Preparing

H M L na11          Review agreements/tasks from previous minutes

 H M L na           Identify/review/develop agenda items

 H M L na           Invite/remind/prepare participants

 H M L na           Prepare/review materials

 H M L na           Check/confirm logistics (e.g., room, location, time)

 H M L na           Other:

                                               Beginning

 H M L na           Acknowledge/introduce participants

 H M L na           Review purpose

 H M L na           Review/assign roles

 H M L na           Review/modify agenda items (e.g., discussion, decision, information)

 H M L na           Assign # of minutes for each agenda item

 H M L na           Set/review meeting rules/routines (Routines below)

 H M L na           Other:

                                              Conducting

 H M L na           Follow agenda items

 H M L na           Stay within timelines

 H M L na           Follow/review rules/routines

 H M L na           Restate/review/remind of purpose/outcomes

 H M L na           Other:



11
     H = high, M = medium, L = low, na = not applicable
                                                                    SWPBS Workbook 46




                                      Concluding

H M L na   Review purpose

H M L na   Review/summarize agreements/products/assignments

H M L na   Review/evaluate extent to which agenda items addressed

H M L na   Review new agenda items

H M L na   Review compliance with rules/routines

H M L na   Acknowledge/reinforce participation/actions/outcomes

H M L na   Indicate next meeting date/time/place

H M L na   Other:

                                     Following-Up

H M L na   Distribute minutes

H M L na   Complete agreements/products/assignments

H M L na   Contact/remind participants

H M L na   Prepare for next agenda

H M L na   Other:

                            Other Notes/Observations
                                                                           SWPBS Workbook 47




               Routines for Conducting Effective and Efficient Meetings

1. How are decisions made?




2. How are problems/conflicts/disagreements resolved and processed?




3. How are roles/responsibilities (e.g., leadership, facilitation, recording minutes,
   reporting) assigned and conducted?




4. How is participation encouraged and reinforced?
                                                    SWPBS Workbook 48



                  Actions Needed for
     Establishing Team Membership and Agreements


         Action                         Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                                                                       SWPBS Workbook 49




        STEP 2 - Develop Brief Statement of Behavior Purpose


       Each school has or should develop a brief statement of purpose relative to the
development and support of the social and behavioral climate of the school.
        When reviewing or developing this purpose statement, consider the following
guidelines:


                                       Guidelines

Yes No ?        1. Positively stated

Yes No ?        2. 2-3 sentences in length

Yes No ?        3. Supportive of academic achievement

Yes No ?        4. Contextually/culturally appropriate (e.g., age, level, language)

Yes No ?        5. Comprehensive in scope (school-wide – ALL students, staff, and
                   settings)

Yes No ?        6. Agreement by >80% faculty and staff

Yes No ?        7. Communicated to stakeholders (e.g., families, community
                   members, district administrators)

Yes No ?        8. Included in school publications (e.g., handbook, posters,
                   newsletters)



                       School-wide Behavior Purpose Statement
                                                       SWPBS Workbook 50



                  Actions Needed for
     Developing Brief Statement of Behavior Purpose


         Action                            Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                                                                         SWPBS Workbook 51




STEP 3 - Identify Positive School-wide Behavior Expectations



       When identifying 3-5 positive school-wide behavior expectations (a.k.a., rules,
character traits, values), consider the following guidelines:


                                        Guidelines

Yes No ?         1. Linked to social culture of school (e.g., community, mascot).

Yes No ?         2. Considerate of social skills and rules that already exists.

Yes No ?         3. 3-5 in number

Yes No ?         4. 1-3 words per expectation

Yes No ?         5. Positively stated

Yes No ?         6. Supportive of academic achievement

Yes No ?         7. Comprehensive in scope (school-wide – ALL students, staff, and
                    settings)

Yes No ?         8. Mutually exclusive (minimal overlap)

Yes No ?         9. Contextually/culturally appropriate (e.g., age, level, language)

Yes No ?         10. Agreement by >80% faculty and staff

Yes No ?         11. Communicated to stakeholders (e.g., families, community
                     members, district administrators)

Yes No ?         12. Included in school publications (e.g., handbook, posters,
                     newsletters)
                                    SWPBS Workbook 52




School-wide Behavior Expectations

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
                                                           SWPBS Workbook 53



                      Actions Needed for
     Identifying Positive School Wide Behavior Expectations


             Action                            Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                                                                          SWPBS Workbook 54




     STEP 4 - Develop Procedures for Teaching School-wide Behavior
              Expectations


                       Teach Social Behavior Like Academic Skills
        A frequent misrule is that social behavior is learned and encouraged through the
use of aversive consequences (especially, for errors). However, these types of
consequences do little to promote desired social skills, except to signal that an error has
occurred.
        “A behavior is a behavior” regardless of whether it is an academic or a social skill.
As such, whether teaching an academic skill or concept, a social skill, or a character trait,
the basic instructional process is the same. The following figure illustrates those basic
instructional steps, beginning with “define the skill.”




                             ADJUST for              DEFINE
                              Efficiency             Simply




                         MONITOR &
                       ACKNOWLEDGE
                                                            MODEL
                        Continuously



                                       PRACTICE
                                       In Setting




       Like academic skills that have been learned initially, social skills must be
practiced regularly and acknowledged/reinforced frequently for mastery, sustained use,
and generalized applications to be realized. If a student has a firmly learned problem
behavior, then formally and continually prompting, practicing, and reinforcing the
desired alternative becomes especially important and necessary.
                                                                                                                                                 SWPBS Workbook 55




                                                                                        SETTING
  Teaching
                                                                                                              Library/
   Matrix                               All
                                                        Hallways     Playgrounds         Cafeteria           Computer           Assembly               Bus
                                      Settings                                                                  Lab


                                      Be on task.                                       Eat all your
                                       Give your                                           food.              Study,
                Respect                                                                                                          Sit in one        Watch for
                                      best effort.        Walk.       Have a plan.        Select               read,
               Ourselves                                                                                                           spot.           your stop.
                                          Be                                             healthy             compute.
                                       prepared.                                          foods.
Expectations




                                       Be kind.
                                                        Use normal      Play safe.
                                      Hands/feet                                                                               Listen/watch.      Use a quiet
                                                          voice          Include          Practice           Whisper.
               Respect                  to self.                                                                                    Use              voice.
                                                         volume.         others.         good table          Return
               Others                 Help/share                                                                                appropriate       Stay in your
                                                         Walk to          Share           manners            books.
                                          with                                                                                   applause.           seat.
                                                          right.       equipment.
                                       others.



                                                         Pick up         Use             Replace              Push in
                                                                                                                                                  Wipe your
                                       Recycle.            litter.    equipment           trays &             chairs.             Pick up.
               Respect                                                                                                                               feet.
                                       Clean up          Maintain      properly.         utensils.             Treat            Treat chairs
               Property                                                                                                                               Sit
                                       after self.       physical     Put litter in      Clean up             books            appropriately.
                                                                                                                                                 appropriately.
                                                          space.     garbage can.       eating area.         carefully.




                                                              High School Example

                                                                                               ROUTINE/SETTING




                                                                                                                                    Library &
                                                                     Cafeteria   Common Area      Hallways       Parking Lot                      Activities
                                                         Classroom                                                                Computer Lab




                                         Respect
                   RULE/EXPECTATION




                                       Responsibility




                                        Community
                                                                                                                     SWPBS Workbook 56




                                        RAH – Athletics
RAH              Practice               Competitions           Eligibility            Lettering            Team Travel

Respect          Listen to coaches      Show positive          Show up on time        Show up on time      Take care of your
                 directions; push       sportsmanship;         for every practice     for every practice   own possessions
                 yourself and           Solve problems in      and competition.       and competition;     and litter; be where
                 encourage              mature manner;                                Compete x%.          you are directed to
                 teammates to excel.    Positive inter-                                                    be.
                                        actions with refs,
                                        umps, etc.


Achievement      Set example in the     Set and reach for      Earn passing           Demonstrate          Complete your
                 classroom and in       both individual and    grades; Attend         academic             assignments missed
                 the playing field as   team goals;            school regularly;      excellence.          for team travel.
                 a true achiever.       encourage your         only excused
                                        teammates.             absences



Honor            Demonstrate good       Suit up in clean       Show team pride in     Suit up for any      Remember you are
                 sportsmanship and      uniforms; Win with     and out of the         competitions you     acting on behalf of
                 team spirit.           honor and integrity;   school. Stay out of    are not playing.     the school at all
                                        Represent your         trouble – set a good   Show team honor.     times and
                                        school with good       example for others.    Cheer for            demonstrate team
                                        conduct.                                      teammates.           honor/pride.




          Teaching Matrix Activity
                       Classroom            Lunchroom                   Bus                Hallway            Assembly


                                                                                                            • Arrive on
                     • Use inside          • Eat your own        • Stay in your
   Respect                                                                             • Stay to right      time to
                     voice                 food                  seat
   Others                                                                              • _________          speaker
                     • ________            •__________           •_________
                                                                                                            •__________



   Respect           • Recycle                                   • Keep feet on        • Put trash in       • Take litter
                                           • Return trays
   Environment       paper
                                           •__________
                                                                 floor                 cans                 with you
   & Property        •_________                                  •__________           •_________           •__________



                                           • Wash your           • Be at stop on       • Use your           • Listen to
   Respect           • Do your best
                                           hands                 time                  words                speaker
   Yourself          •__________
                                           •__________           •__________           •__________          •__________


                     • Have                                      • Go directly                              • Discuss topic
                                           • Eat balanced                              • Go directly
   Respect           materials                                   from bus to                                in class w/
                                           diet                                        to class
   Learning          ready                                       class                                      others
                                           •__________                                 •__________
                     •__________                                 •__________                                •__________
                                                                            SWPBS Workbook 57



       The following worksheet provides a task analysis of the main steps involved in
developing a teaching matrix for school-wide behavior expectations:


Date Completed                            Implementation Worksheet

                  Develop and list on the Teaching Matrix 3-5 positively stated rules or
                  expectations that support the school’s mission/purpose. These rules should
                  use common and few words (e.g., Respect Others, Respect Yourself, Respect
                  Property), and should apply to all students and staff members.

                  Identify and list on the Teaching Matrix all school setting or classroom
                  contexts in which rules are expected

                  For each rule or expectation, provide at least two positively stated,
                  observable behavioral indicators or examples (e.g., Walk with hands and
                  feet to self, return lunch tray to kitchen) for each setting

                  Develop a standard lesson plan for teaching each expectation (e.g., Cool
                  Tool).

                  Develop a schedule for presenting each lesson plan.

                  Develop a procedure for prompting, precorrecting, and encouraging
                  appropriate displays of expectations.

                  Develop a procedure for proactively correcting errors in displays of
                  expectations.

                  Develop system for determining the extent to which students (a) have
                  acquired the rule or expectation and (b) are using the expectation in natural
                  school settings or classroom contexts.
                                                                        SWPBS Workbook 58



       When developing lesson plans for teaching school-wide behavior expectations,
consider the following guidelines:


                                      Guidelines

Yes No ?        1. Considerate of main school settings and contexts (e.g., classroom,
                   common areas, hallways, cafeteria, bus)

Yes No ?        2. Considerate of lessons that already exists.

Yes No ?        3. Specification of 2-3 positive observable behavior examples for each
                   expectation and each setting/context.

Yes No ?        4. Teach social behavior like academic skills.

Yes No ?        5. Involvement by staff, students, families in development

Yes No ?        6. Contextually/culturally appropriate (e.g., age, level, language)

Yes No ?        7. Schedule for initial instruction in natural and typical contexts

Yes No ?        8. Schedule for regular review, practice, and follow-up instruction

Yes No ?        9. Prompts, reminders, or precorrections for display of behaviors in
                   natural contexts and settings

Yes No ?        10. Feedback (corrections and positive acknowledgements) for displays
                    of behaviors in natural contexts and settings

Yes No ?        11. Procedures for providing instruction to new faculty, staff, students

Yes No ?        12. Procedures for informing others (e.g. families, community, district
                    administrators, substitute teachers & staff)

Yes No ?        13. Agreement by >80% faculty and staff

Yes No ?        14. Schedule for continuous evaluation of effectiveness, efficiency, and
                    relevance of teaching

Yes No ?        15. Procedures in place for identifying and supporting students whose
                    behaviors do not respond to teaching school-wide behavior
                    expectations

Yes No ?        16. Included in school publications (e.g., handbooks)
                                                           SWPBS Workbook 59




                 School-Wide Teaching Matrix

 Typical               School-Wide Behavior Expectations
Settings/
Contexts    1.    2.             3.            4.              5.
                                                               SWPBS Workbook 60



                          Actions Needed for
     Developing Plan for Teaching School-wide Behavior Expectations


                 Action                            Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                                                                               SWPBS Workbook 61




      STEP 5 - Develop Procedures for Teaching Classroom-wide Behavior
              Expectations
         When developing lesson plan for teaching classroom-wide behavior expectations, the
school leadership team’s goal is to increase consistency between school-wide and classroom-
wide expectations and procedures. However, individual teachers should fit examples, activities,
etc. to the context of their individual classrooms, students, and routines. Consider the following
guidelines:

                                           Guidelines

Yes No ?         1. School-wide action plan for classroom management practices and
                     procedures based on results from Classroom Self-Assessment

Yes No ?         2. Definitions and processes for responding to classroom versus office-
                     managed (minor) or administrator-managed (major) violations of behavior
                     expectations.

Yes No ?         3. Teaching matrix, procedures, and schedules developed for teaching school-
                     wide behavior expectations in typical classroom contexts and routines.

Yes No ?         4. Data system in place to monitor office discipline referral that come from
                     classrooms

Yes No ?         5. Procedures in place for obtaining behavior support for students whose
                     behaviors are not responsive to classroom-wide management
Yes No ?
                 6. Prompts (reminders and precorrections) for display of behaviors in natural
                     contexts and routines
Yes No ?
                 7. Feedback (corrections and positive acknowledgements) for displays of
                     behaviors in natural contexts and routines

Yes No ?         8. Involvement by staff, students, and families in development

Yes No ?         9. Contextually/culturally appropriate (e.g., age, level, language)

Yes No ?         10. Schedule for initial instruction

Yes No ?         11. Schedule for regular review, practice, follow-up instruction

Yes No ?         12. Agreement by >80% faculty and staffu

Yes No ?         13. Schedule for continuous evaluation of effectiveness, efficiency, and
                     relevance of teaching

Yes No ?         14. Included in school publications (e.g., handbooks)
                                                          SWPBS Workbook 62




                 Classroom-Wide Teaching Matrix

 Typical               Classroom-Wide Behavior Expectations
Contexts/
Routines    1.    2.            3.          4.          5.
                                                                SWPBS Workbook 63




                            Actions Needed for
     Developing Plan for Teaching Classroom-wide Behavior Expectations


                   Action                           Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                                                                                SWPBS Workbook 64




    STEP 6 - Develop Continuum of Procedures for Encouraging and
             Strengthening Student Use of School-wide Behavior
             Expectations


       When developing continuum of procedures for encouraging and strengthening
student use of school-wide behavior expectations, consider the following guidelines:

                                          Guidelines

Yes No ?     1. Easy and quick form of acknowledgement (e.g., object, event) for all staff
                 members to use.
Yes No ?     2. Considerate of strategies/processes that already exists.
Yes No ?     3. Contextually appropriate name for acknowledgements
Yes No ?     4. Culturally, developmentally, contextually appropriate/relevant form of
                 acknowledgement
Yes No ?     5. Back- or follow-up acknowledgements
Yes No ?     6. Schedule for daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly feedback to students and staff
Yes No ?     7. Use by all staff (e.g., office, security, supervisors, bus drivers)
Yes No ?     8. Schedule for initial introduction of acknowledgements.
Yes No ?     9. Schedule for regular boosters or re-implementation of acknowledgements
Yes No ?     10. Procedures for providing orientation to new faculty, staff, students
Yes No ?     11. Procedures for informing others (e.g. families, community, district
                 administrators, substitute teachers & staff)
Yes No ?     12. Procedures in place for identifying and supporting students whose behaviors
                 do not respond to school-wide acknowledgements
Yes No ?     13. Agreement by >80% faculty and staff
Yes No ?     14. Included in school publications (e.g., handbooks)
Yes No ?     15. Instructions and practice on how to pair acknowledgements with positive
                 social acknowledgements
Yes No ?     16. Means for keeping track of number of acknowledgements versus number of
                 disciplinary or corrective actions for violations of behavior expectations.
Yes No ?     17. Schedule and procedures for regular review and enhancement of
                 acknowledgements.
                                                  SWPBS Workbook 65




                Acknowledgements Worksheet

                        Type of Acknowledgement
Consideration


What




When




By Whom




How Often




How Many




Where
                                                                   SWPBS Workbook 66



                               Actions Needed for
Developing Continuum of Procedures for Encouraging and Strengthening Student Use
                     of School-wide Behavior Expectations


                      Action                           Person(s)           Date

  1.


  2.


  3.


  4.


  5.


  6.


  7.


  8.
                                                                             SWPBS Workbook 67




       STEP 7 - Develop Continuum of Procedures for Discouraging Student
                Behavior Violations of School-wide Behavior Expectations


       When developing procedures for discouraging violations of school-wide behavior
expectations, consider the following guidelines:

                                        Guidelines

            1. Specification of Definitions for Violations of School-wide Behavior
               Expectations

Yes No ?        a. Contextually appropriate labels/names

Yes No ?        b. Definitions represent continuum of severity (e.g., minor, major, illegal)

Yes No ?        c. Definitions comprehensive in scope (school-wide)

Yes No ?        d. Definitions in measurable terms

Yes No ?        e. Mutually exclusive (minimal overlap)

            2. Specification of Procedures for Processing Violations of School-wide
               Behavior Expectations

Yes No ?        a. Agreement regarding office staff versus teacher/staff responsibilities

Yes No ?        b. Office discipline form for tracking discipline events that specifies the
                    following:
                       Who violated rule (name, grade)
                       Who observed and responded to the violation of behavior
                        expectations
                       When (day, time) the violation of behavior expectation occurred
                       Where the violation of behavior expectation occurred
                       Who else was involved in the problem situation
                       What was the possible motivation or purpose of the problem behavior
                       What school-wide behavior expectation was violated

Yes No ?        c. Agreement regarding options for continuum of consequences

Yes No ?        d. Data decision rules for intervention and support selection
                                                                             SWPBS Workbook 68




           3. Implementation of Procedures

Yes No ?      a. Use by all staff (e.g., office, security, supervisors, bus drivers)

Yes No ?      b. Schedule for teaching to students and staff members

Yes No ?      c. Schedule for regular review of use and effectiveness

Yes No ?      d. Procedures for providing orientation to new faculty, staff, students

Yes No ?      e. Procedures for informing others (e.g. families, community, district
                   administrators, substitute teachers & staff)

Yes No ?      f. Agreement by >80% faculty and staff

Yes No ?      g. Included in school publications (e.g., handbooks)

Yes No ?      h. Means for keeping track of number of acknowledgements versus number
                   of disciplinary or corrective actions for violations of behavior
                   expectations.

Yes No ?      i.   Schedule and procedures for regular review and enhancement of
                   acknowledgements.

Yes No ?      j.   Schedule for daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly feedback to students and
                   staff

Yes No ?      k.   Included in school publications (e.g., handbook, posters, newsletters)

Yes No ?      l.   Procedures in place for identifying and supporting students whose
                   behaviors do not respond to school-wide continuum of consequences for
                   violations of behavior expectations.

                   •   Pre-referral intervention or behavior support team

                   •   Data-decision rule for initiating positive behavior support (e.g., 3
                       office discipline referrals for major rule violating infraction)

                   •   Precorrection intervention to prevent future occurrences of problem
                       behavior

                   •   Formal procedures for teaching, practicing, and reinforcing positively
                       prosocial behaviors to replace problem behavior

                   •   Adult mentor/advocate
                                                    SWPBS Workbook 69




                  Behavior Expectation Violations

                              Level

             I.   II.             III.               IV.

Name/Label




Definition




Examples




Procedures
                                                                    SWPBS Workbook 70



                               Actions Needed for
Developing Continuum of Procedures for Discouraging Student Behavior Violations of
                              School-wide Rules


                      Action                            Person(s)           Date

  1.


  2.


  3.


  4.


  5.


  6.


  7.


  8.
                                                                           SWPBS Workbook 71




       STEP 8 - Develop Data-based Procedures for Monitoring
                Implementation of SWPBS


      Establishment of a data system is preceded by determination of what questions
you want to answer. To guide this process, four steps should be considered:



 Steps for Selecting Practices within a School-Wide Continuum of Positive Behavior Support

  Step 1: Develop evaluation questions.
                                  What do you want to know?

  Step 2: Identify indicators or measures for answering each question.
                              What information can be collected?

  Step 3: Develop methods and schedules for collecting and analyzing indicators.
                     How and when should this information be gathered?

  Step 4: Make decisions and action plan from analysis of indicators.
               How was the question answered and what should be done next?

        To ensure the effective, efficient, relevant, and sustained implementation of a
school-wide discipline system, school staff members must receive information that is
accurate, timely, and easily available to guide decision making. In general, a record
keeping and decision making system must have (a) structures and routines for data
collection, (b) mechanisms for data entry, storage, and manipulation, and (c) procedures
and routines for review and analysis of data. In general, record keeping and data
decision making systems must be effective, efficient, and relevant. A readily available
source of information about the disciplinary climate of a school is the office discipline
system.
       After a specific question has been answered and a specific outcome is
determined, a practice or intervention must be selected to achieve that outcome. In
general, an evidence-based practice should be identified. However, if an evidence-based
practice is not identified, a promising practice can be carefully considered. See decision
making flowchart described previously on page 30
                                                                                           SWPBS Workbook 72




                                   Data and Evaluation Worksheet

                                             When do they
                           Who needs the                           Data Indicators &     Data Collection
     Evaluation Question                       need the
                           information?                                Sources         Methods & Schedule
                                             information?


1.



2.



3.



4.



5.



6.
                                                                           SWPBS Workbook 73




                                       Guidelines

           1. General data collection procedures
Yes No ?       a. Data collection procedures that are integrated into typical routines
                    (e.g., office discipline referrals, attendance rolls, behavior incident
                    reports).
Yes No ?       b. Data collection procedures regularly checked for accuracy of use
Yes No ?       c. Data collection limited to information that answers important student,
                    classroom, and school questions
Yes No ?       d. Structures and routines for staff members to receive weekly/monthly
                    data reports about the status of school-wide discipline
Yes No ?       e. Decision rules for guiding data analysis and actions
Yes No ?       f. Schedule for daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly feedback to students
                    and staff
Yes No ?       g. Data system managed by 2-3 staff members
Yes No ?       h. No more than 1% of time each day for managing data system.
Yes No ?       i.   Efficient, timely, and graphic displays of data
           2. Office discipline referral procedures
Yes No ?       a. Agreed upon definitions of violations of behavior expectations
                    organized in a continuum of increasing intensity (see Step 7).
Yes No ?       b. A form for documenting noteworthy behavior incidents (e.g., office
                    discipline referral form, behavior incident report)
Yes No ?       c. School-wide procedures for processing or responding to violations of
                    behavior expectations.
Yes No ?       d. Efficient and user-friendly procedures for inputting and storing
                    information
Yes No ?       e. Efficient and user-friendly procedures for summarizing and analyzing
                    information.
Yes No ?       f.   Efficient and user-friendly procedures for producing visual displays of
                    the data.
Yes No ?       g. Procedures for presenting data to staff on routine basis.
Yes No ?       h. Procedures for making decisions and developing actions based on the
                    data.
                                                             SWPBS Workbook 74



                           Actions Needed for
Developing Data-based Procedures for Monitoring Implementation of SWPBS


                  Action                         Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                             SWPBS Workbook 75




            CHAPTER 3


SWPBS Practices and Systems in Non-
       Classroom Settings
                                                                     SWPBS Workbook 76




                      Problematic Non-Classroom Settings


        Development and implementation of a formal, consistent, and continuous
system of SWPBS in nonclassroom settings is important because behavior success (or
failure) in those settings can carry-over into the classroom, and vice versa. Consider
the following examples:


           Non-Classroom Behavior Examples                          Strategy?

   1. An elementary school principal found that over 45%
      of their behavior incident reports were coming from
      the playground.

   2. High school assistant principal reports that over 2/3
      of behavior incident reports come from “four
      corners.”

   3. A middle school secretary reported that she was
      getting at least one neighborhood complaint daily
      about student behavior on and off school grounds.

   4. A high school nurse lamented that “too many
      students were asking to use her restroom” during
      class transitions.

   5. At least 2 times/month, police are called to settle
      arguments by parents and their children in parking
      lot.

   6. Dean of Students has made a request to the district
      school board to cancel all after school dances and
      pep rallies because student behavior is unruly,
      disrespectful, and unmanageable.

   7. Cafeteria staff have filed a complaint to the school
      administration because transitions into and out of
      the lunchroom are “plagued” by student
      misbehavior and staff shouting and complaining.
                                                                          SWPBS Workbook 77




                   Definitions and Intervention Considerations


       Nonclassroom settings are characterized as particular times or places where
supervision is emphasized, and where instruction is not available as a behavior
management tool.

               –    Cafeteria, hallways, playgrounds, bathrooms
               –    Buses & bus loading zones, parking lots
               –    Study halls, library, “free time”
               –    Assemblies, sporting events, dances


                     Compare and Contrast Classroom v. Nonclassroom Settings


                                                           Nonclassoom settings
                        Classrooms are…         V.
                                                                   are…

                        Teacher directed        V.            Student focused

                     Instructionally focused    V.            Socially focused

                      Small # of predictable              Large # of unpredictable
                                                V.
                            students                              students




       Basic Management Considerations                   Basic Management Practices

       Physical/environmental arrangements
                                                        Teach directly expected behaviors
       Routines and expectations
                                                         and routines in context
       Staff behavior and practices
                                                         Actively supervise (scan, move,
       Student behavior
                                                         interact)
                                                        Precorrect and remind
                                                        Positively reinforce expected
                                                         behavior
                                                                   SWPBS Workbook 78



       When establishing a plan for implementing practices and systems in non-
classroom settings, consider the following guidelines:

                                    Guidelines

Yes No ?        1. Implementation is school-wide by all staff

Yes No ?        2. School-wide behavior expectations taught in context

Yes No ?        3. Administrator active member

Yes No ?        4. Context-specific expectations and routines taught directly and
                   early in school year/term

Yes No ?        5. Regular opportunities for review, practice, & positive
                   reinforcement

Yes No ?        6. Team –based review, action planning, and implementation
                   coordination

Yes No ?        7. Data-based progress monitoring and action planning

Yes No ?        8. Regular review of accuracy of intervention implementation




           Self-Assessment of Non-Classroom Setting Practices



       The following self-assessment has been developed for teams and for multiple
purposes: (a) exposure to best practice, (b) determination of current practice, (c)
teaching of best practice, and (d) evaluation of changes in practice.
                                                                                SWPBS Workbook 79



                                  Supervision Self-Assessment12

Name______________________________                         Date_____________

Setting □ Hallway □ Entrance □ Cafeteria                   Time Start_________
       □ Playground □ Other_________________               Time End _________

Tally each Positive Student Contacts            Total #


                                                           Ratio13 of Positives to Negatives: _____: 1
Tally each Negative Student Contacts            Total #




       1. Did I have at least 4 positive for 1 negative student contacts?                  Yes No

       2. Did I move throughout the area I was supervising?                                Yes No

       3. Did I frequently scan the area I was supervising?                                Yes No

       4. Did I positively interact with most of the students in the area?                 Yes No

       5. Did I handle most minor violations of behavior expectations                      Yes No
          quickly and quietly?

       6. Did I follow school procedures for handling major violations of
                                                                                           Yes No
          behavior expectations?

       7. Do I know our school-wide behavior expectations (positively
                                                                                           Yes No
          stated rules)?

       8. Did I positively acknowledge at least 5 different students for
                                                                                           Yes No
          displaying our school-wide behavior expectations

Overall active supervision score:
           7-8 “yes” = “Super Supervision”
                                                                                        # Yes______
           5-6 “yes” = “So-So Supervision”
           <5 “yes” = “Improvement Needed”


                                          Action Planning

12
     Draft 3-10-04 Sugai
13
     To calculate, divide # positives by # of negatives.
                                                                             SWPBS Workbook 80



        The purposes of this assessment are to (a) determine the extent to which effective
non-classroom management practices are in place and (b) develop an action plan for
enhancement/maintenance based on this information. This assessment and action plan can
be completed as a “self-assessment” or by an observer.
     1.     Pick a typical non-classroom setting14 that has a specific learning
            outcome/objective.
     2.     During the activity, count number of positive and negative student contacts that
            occur during the activity.
     3.     After the activity,
            a. Sum the number of positive and negative contacts and calculate the ratio of
               positive to negative contacts.
            b. Assess whether each nonclassroom management practice was evident.
            c. Sum the number of “yes” to determine overall classroom management score.
            d. Based on your score, develop an action plan for enhancement/maintenance.



                                          Action Plan

 #           Current Level of                 Enhancement/Maintenance Strategies15
              Performance




                                     Actions Needed for

14
   Setting or activity in which academic instruction or teacher/staff-directed activities are not
available to engage students (e.g., cafeteria, playground, common areas, bus, hallways,
parking lots, assemblies, sporting events).
15
   What? When? How? By When?
                                                               SWPBS Workbook 81



     Establishing and Implementing Non-Classroom Practices and Systems


                   Action                          Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                                                                     SWPBS Workbook 82



                                 Selected References
Colvin, G., Kame’enui, E.J., & Sugai. G. (1993). School-wide and classroom
        management: Reconceptualizing the integration and management of students
        with behavior problems in general education. Education and Treatment of
        Children, 16, 361-381.
Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R., & Lee, Y. (1997). Effect of active supervision and
        precorrection on transition behaviors of elementary students. School
        Psychology Quarterly, 12, 344-363.
Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching, B. (1993). Pre-correction: An instructional approach
        for managing predictable problem behaviors. Intervention in School and Clinic,
        28, 143-150.
DePry, R. I., & Sugai, G. (2002). The effect of active supervision and precorrection on
        minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom.
        Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 255-267.
Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior
        support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior
        Interventions, 3, 150-161.
Haydon, T., & Scott, T. M. (2008). Using common sense in common settings: Active
        supervision and precorrection in the morning gym. Intervention in School and
        Clinic, 43, 283-290.
Heck, A., Collins, J., & Peterson, L. (2001). Decreasing children’s risk taking on the
        playground. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 349-352.
Kartub, D., Taylor-Greene, S., March, R.E., & Horner, R.H. (2000). Reducing hallway
        noise: A systems approach. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(3),
        179-182.
Leedy, A., Bates, P., & Safran, S. P. (2004). Bridging the research-to-practice gap:
        Improving hallway behavior using positive behavior supports. Behavioral
        Disorders, 19, 130-139.
Lewis, T. J., Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (2000). The effects of pre-correction and active
        supervision on the recess behavior of elementary school students. Education
        and Treatment of Children, 23, 109-121.
Lewis, T. J., & Garrison-Harrell, L. (1999). Effective behavior support: Designing
        setting specific interventions. Effective School Practices, 17, 38-46.
Lewis, T. J., Powers, L. J., Kelk, M. J., & Newcomer, L. L. (2002). Reducing problem
        behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of school-
        wide positive behavior and supports. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 181-190.
Lewis, T. J., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1998). Reducing problem behavior through a
        school-wide system of effective behavioral support: Investigation of a school-
        wide scoal skills training program and contextual interventions. School
        Psychology Review, 27, 446-459.
                                                                        SWPBS Workbook 83



Nelson, J. R., Colvin, G., & Smith, D. J. (1996). The effects of setting clear standards on
       students’ social behavior in common areas of the school. The Journal of At-
       Risk Issues, Summer/Fall, 10-17.
Putnam, R. F., Handler, M. W., Ramirez-Platt, C. M., & Luiselli, J. K. (2003). Improving
       student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention. Journal of
       Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 583-589.
Todd, A., Haugen, L., Anderson, K., & Spriggs, M. (2002). Teaching recess: Low-cost
       efforts producing effective results. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions,
       4(1), 46-52.
                            SWPBS Workbook 84




            CHAPTER 4

Classroom Management Practices and
             Systems
                                                                    SWPBS Workbook 85




                 Effective Classroom Management Practices



        Maximizing academic achievement is directly linked to academic engagement.
In turn, academic engagement is linked to (a) effective curriculum, (b) effective
delivery of curriculum (instruction), and (c) effective classroom management.

       More importantly, accurate and sustained use of effective management
practices is related to having comprehensive and effective support systems, including
SWPBS.
                                                                          SWPBS Workbook 86



       Although a review of the literature on effective classroom management
practices does not reveal a definitive list of evidence based practices, a “short-list” of
recommended best practices emerges from over 50 years of descriptive and
evaluation research:

Classroom Management
                                                       Description
        Practice

 1. Minimize crowding            Design environment to elicit appropriate behavior:
    and distraction               o   Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow.
                                  o   Ensure adequate supervision of all areas.
                                  o   Designate staff & student areas.
                                  o   Seating arrangements (classrooms, cafeteria, etc.)

 2.   Maximize structure         Teacher routines: volunteers, communications,
      & predictability            movement, planning, grading, etc.
                                 Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in
                                  groups, independent work, instruction, getting materials,
                                  homework, etc.

 3. State, teach, review         Establish behavioral expectations/rules.
    & reinforce
                                 Teach rules in context of routines.
    positively stated
    expectations                 Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering
                                  natural context.
                                 Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide
                                  specific feedback.
                                 Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make
                                  decisions, & follow up.

 4. Provide more                 Maintain at least 4 to 1
    acknowledgements
                                 Interact positively once every 5 minutes
    for appropriate
    than inappropriate           Follow correction for violation of behavior expectations
    behavior                      with positive reinforcement for rule following

 5. Maximize varied              Vary individual v. group responding
    opportunities to
                                 Vary response type
    respond
                                  o   Oral, written, gestural
                                 Increase participatory instruction
                                  o   Questioning, materials
                                                                  SWPBS Workbook 87




6. Maximize Active         Vary format
   Engagement
                            o   Written, choral, gestures
                           Specify observable engagements
                           Link engagement with outcome objectives

7. Actively &              Move
   Continuously
                           Scan
   Supervise
                           Interact
                           Remind/precorrect
                           Positively acknowledge

8. Respond to              Respond efficiently
   Inappropriate
                           Attend to students who are displaying appropriate
   Behavior Quickly,
                            behavior
   Positively, &
   Directly                Follow school procedures for major problem behaviors
                            objectively & anticipate next occurrence

9. Establish Multiple      Social, tangible, activity, etc.
   Strategies for
                           Frequent v. infrequent
   Acknowledging
   Appropriate             Predictably v. unpredictably
   Behavior
                           Immediate v. delayed

10. Generally Provide      Provide contingently
    Specific Feedback
                           Always indicate correct behaviors
    for Errors &
    Corrects               Link to context
                                                                   SWPBS Workbook 88



       When establishing a plan for implementing practices and systems in non-
classroom settings, consider the following guidelines:


                                     Guidelines

             1. Academic achievement is linked to social success, active
Yes No ?
                engagement, and effective teaching

Yes No ?      2. Good teaching is used as a behavior management strategy

              3. Behavior management is used as an instructional management
Yes No ?
                 strategy

              4. The three-tiered prevention logic is applied to the classroom
Yes No ?
                 context

Yes No ?      5. Classroom management is linked to school-wide behavior support

              6. School-wide support systems are used to sustain effective
Yes No ?
                 classroom management strategies

Yes No ?      7. Data-based progress monitoring and action planning

Yes No ?      8. Regular review of accuracy of intervention implementation
                                                                                       SWPBS Workbook 89



                               Classroom Management Self-Assessment

Teacher__________________________ Rater_______________________                               Date___________

Instructional Activity                                                                       Time Start_______
                                                                                             Time End _______

      Tally each Positive Student Contacts         Total #      Tally each Negative Student Contacts      Total #



          16
Ratio of Positives to Negatives: _____ to 1

                                      Classroom Management Practice                                     Rating

     1.    I have arranged my classroom to minimize crowding and distraction                           Yes No

     2.    I have maximized structure and predictability in my classroom (e.g., explicit classroom     Yes No
           routines, specific directions, etc.).

     3.    I have posted, taught, reviewed, and reinforced 3-5 positively stated expectations (or      Yes No
           rules).

     4.    I provided more frequent acknowledgement for appropriate behaviors than                     Yes No
           inappropriate behaviors (See top of page).

     5.    I provided each student with multiple opportunities to respond and participate during
                                                                                                       Yes   No
           instruction.

     6.    My instruction actively engaged students in observable ways (e.g., writing, verbalizing)    Yes   No

     7.    I actively supervised my classroom (e.g., moving, scanning) during instruction.             Yes No

     8.    I ignored or provided quick, direct, explicit reprimands/redirections in response to
                                                                                                       Yes No
           inappropriate behavior.

     9.    I have multiple strategies/systems in place to acknowledge appropriate behavior (e.g.,
                                                                                                       Yes No
           class point systems, praise, etc.).

     10. In general, I have provided specific feedback in response to social and academic
                                                                                                       Yes No
         behavior errors and correct responses.

Overall classroom management score:
               10-8 “yes” = “Super”
                                                                                                       # Yes____
               7-5 “yes” = “So-So”
               <5 “yes” = “Improvement Needed”



16
     To calculate, divide # positives by # of negatives.
                                                                        SWPBS Workbook 90



                                     Action Planning
        The purposes of this assessment are to (a) determine the extent to which
effective general classroom management practices are in place and (b) develop an
action plan for enhancement/maintenance based on this information. This
assessment and action plan can be completed as a “self-assessment” or by an
observer.
      1.    Pick a teacher-led/directed activity that has a specific learning
            outcome/objective.
      2.    During the activity, count number of positive and negative student
            contacts that occur during the activity.
      3.    After the activity,
            a. Sum the number of positive and negative contacts and calculate the
               ratio of positive to negative contacts.
            b. Assess whether each classroom management practice was evident.
            c. Sum the number of “yes” to determine overall classroom management
               score.
            d. Based on your score, develop an action plan for
               enhancement/maintenance.


                                       Action Plan

 #           Current Level of              Enhancement/Maintenance Strategies17
              Performance




17
     What? When? How? By When?
                                                              SWPBS Workbook 91




                           Actions Needed for
Establishing and Implementing Classroom Management Practices and Systems


                  Action                          Person(s)           Date

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.
                                                                     SWPBS Workbook 92



                        Selected Supporting References
Colvin, G., & Lazar, M. (1997). The effective elementary classroom: Managing for
   success. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching, W. (1993). Pre-correction: An instructional
   strategy for managing predictable behavior problems. Intervention in School
   and Clinic, 28, 143-150.
Darch, C. B., & Kameenui, E. J. (2003). Instructional classroom management: A
   proactive approach to behavior management. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY:
   Longman.
Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein C. S. (2006). Handbook of classroom management:
   Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Jones, V. F. & Jones, L. S. (2001). Comprehensive classroom management:
   Creating communities of support and solving problems (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn
   & Bacon.
Kameenui, E. J., & Carnine, D. W. (2002). Effective teaching strategies that
   accommodate diverse learners (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Latham, G. I. (1997). Behind the schoolhouse door: Eight skills every teacher
   should have. Utah State University.
Latham, G. (1992). Interacting with at-risk children: The positive position.
   Principal, 72(1), 26-30.
Martella, R. C., Nelson, J. R., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (2003). Managing
  disruptive behaviors in the schools: A schoolwide, classroom, and
  individualized social learning approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
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