Registration and Cadastre Project - FLOSS SOLA

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Lessons Learned &
  Good Practices

                                   Rome, Italy
                             November 18, 2010

                           Rumyana Tonchovska
       Senior Land Administration Officer – IT, FAO
                                 Gavin Adlington
         ECA Land Programme Leader, World Bank
      FAO/WB Cooperative Programme (CP)
        ECA Region /7/2009 -30/4/2010
     Land Administration and Management is recognised as the leading example of
         collaboration between the FAO and the World Bank through the CP

    It accounts for about 30% of the work delivered by FAO for the World Bank’s
                       European and Central Asia (ECA) region

    The WBs ECA region. Red=CIS

      Countries in ECA with WB funded Land
       Administration and Cadastre projects

    40 projects
             24 stand alone Land Administration projects
             16 with large Land administration components
    23 countries
    US$ 1.1 billion in loans and grants
    19 projects currently ongoing

    The largest program of land reform the world has ever seen!

          The Changes in ECA Region
             Have Been RADICAL
In 2000 Hernando de Soto linked the situation in
   transition countries to those of the less developed
   world and stated:

“….. today they look astonishingly similar: strong
   underground economies, glaring inequality,
   pervasive mafias, political instability, capital flight
   and flagrant disregard for law ….. most people can
   not participate in an expanded market because they
   do not have access to a legal property rights system
   that represents their assets in a manner that makes
   them widely transferable and fungible.”
                                 The Mystery of Capital.
                  Doing Business 2010

     9 of the top 20 performers in registering property Worldwide are
                             ECA countries:

2. Georgia                                         11.   Slovakia
4. Lithuania                                       13.   Estonia
5. Armenia                                         17.   Moldova
9. Azerbaijan                                      19.   Kyrgyzstan
10. Belarus

        And climbing a mountain is done “one step at a time”

             Changes in the ECA Region Were
                Done in Several Stages...
       Pre-1989
           State ownership very common
           Private ownership in some Central European
            countries, but transfers of ownership
           Mortgages generally unavailable.

       1989 – 2000
           Various programs to privatize land and property,
            and establish registration systems.
       2000-2010
           Building on the reforms.
      Land Management Projects in ECA
            Stage 1 and Stage 2
Stage 1
   • Focused on Land Privatization
   • Business, housing and enterprise privatisation
   • Restitution of property rights
   • Institutional development and Legal base
Stage 2
   • Registration of property rights and encouraging
     land and property markets to operate
   • Cadastre and Systematic registration
   • Improving services through changes in work
     flows, procedures, IT systems, introducing
     service standards

    Countries in ECA with Computerised Land
      Administration and Cadastre Systems

       Land Management Projects in ECA
                  Stage 3

The countries in the ECA region are requesting
  World Bank support in two key areas:

    Improving the quality of services and reducing
     corruption through e-government initiatives.
     The E-Cadastre;

    Spatial Data Infrastructure and meeting the
     requirements of the INSPIRE Directive.

       The World Bank Land New Agenda
               in ECA - Stage 3
The World Bank support for the next five to ten years in ECA
   region will be focused on the following five broad objectives:
Objective 1: Completion of property registers and cadastres to
   provide safe and secure property rights, and facilitate
   privatization and land reform;
Objective 2: Development of a more integrated approach to land
   management through land policies that reflect
   environmental and sustainable development concerns;
Objective 3: Encouraging innovation and the use of SDI or
   spatial information underpinning new products and
Objective 4: Improving the management of the organization and
   use of space data;
Objective 5: Supporting governance and quality and method of
   services provided

        FAO Current Work on Land Tenure

The current FAO work on Land Tenure includes:

    Investigations of the land tenure implications of climate
     change scenarios and policy options in relation to the rapid
     growth of land use for bioenergy production;
    land tenure in emergency and post-emergency work;
    compulsory purchase of land and compensation;
    state land management;
    low-cost land tenure security;
    good governance in land administration;
    making land information accessible for the poor.

IT Worldwide Statistics!
            WORLD IT Systems Statistics

More than 3 in 5 IT projects do not do what they were supposed
 to do for the expected costs and within the expected timeline.

At best, 7 out of 10 IT projects “fail” in some respect.

More gloomy stats include the following:
 49 % suffer budget overruns
 47 % result in higher than expected maintenance costs
 41 % percent fail to deliver the expected business value

         $6.2 trillion/year Worldwide cost of IT failure

The Diagnose: Predicted Annual Cost of IT Failure

                         Region GDP $ Billion        Cost of Failure $ Billion
                          World       69,800.00          6,180.48
                          USA         13,840.00 1,225.47
                          New Zealand     44.00              3.90
                          UK           2,260.00            200.11
                          Texas       1,250.00             110.68

 The cost of a failed project is only the tip of the iceberg.
  Every project failure incurs both direct costs (the cost of the IT investment
 itself) and indirect costs (the lost opportunity costs).

                   FAILURE FACTORS
          Factor                                 Percent

     1    Incomplete requirements                13.1
     2    No user involvement                    12.4
     3    Lack of resources                      10.6
     4    Unrealistic expectations               9.9
     5    No support from senior management      9.3

     6    Unstable requirements                  8.7
     7    Poor planning                          8.1
     8    System non-usable at finish            7.5
     9    No IT management                       6.2
     10   No technical competence                4.3
17                                      RPM-50
       The level of competency required is higher than
      that employed within projects for 70% of the cases

According to new research, success in 68% of technology projects is
“improbable.” Poor requirements analysis causes many of these failures,
meaning projects are doomed right from the start.
“Ambiguous requirements
  create failed projects”
               SUCCESS FACTORS
      Factor                                           Percent

 1    User involvement                                 15.9

 2    Support from senior management                   13.9

 3    Clearly defined requirements                     13.0

 4    Good planning                                    9.6
 5    Realistic expectations                           8.2
 6    Phased approach                                  7.7
 7    Competent personnel                              7.2
 8    User ownership                                   5.3
 9    One vision and clear goals                       2.9
 10   Effective and goal oriented personnel            2.4

20                                            RPM-50
              Twelve early warning signs of
                   IT project failure
                                         People-Related Risks
                        1. Lack of top management support
                        2. Weak project manager
                        3. No stakeholder involvement and/or participation
                        4. Weak commitment of project team
                        5. Team members lack requisite knowledge and/or
                        6. Subject matter experts are overscheduled
                                         Process-related Risks
 Managers often express 7. No business case for the project
                        8. Lack of documented requirements and success
      SURPRISE             criteria
   upon learning their  9. No change control process (change management)
                        10.Ineffective schedule planning and/or management
     project will run
                        11.Communication breakdown among stakeholders
LATE or OVER-BUDGET 12.Insufficient Resources assigned
 Building Houses &
Building IT Systems
     Building a House

              Step 1: Preparation
                Conceptual Design; Detailed
                Architectural Design and Bill of
                Quantities; Selection of Project
              Step 2: Tendering & Contracting
                   CONSTRUCTION
                   SUPERVISION
              Step 3: Building Construction
              Step 4: Supervision
              Step 5: Inspection
              Step 6: Final Acceptance
              Step 7: Maintenance

     Building an IT Systems
                 Step 1: Preparation:
                         User and System Requirements.
                          Business Processes Re-engineering;
                         System Architecture;
                         Selection of development approach;
                 Step 2: Tendering & Contracting
                 Step 3: Development &
                         Inception Phase
                         Construction Phase
                         Elaboration Phase
                         Transition Phase
                 Step 4: Quality Assurance
                 Step 5: Phases Acceptance
                 Step 6: Final Acceptance
                 Step 7: Maintenance
        Key Challenges
Good Practices & Lessons Learned
            Key Challenges- Cadastre and Registration
                           IT Systems
        Complex institutional arrangements;
        Lots of stakeholders involved;
        Complex procurement procedures;
        Unclear vision. Often the SW development starts prior to the Business
        Institutional reorganization going in parallel with the SW implementation;
        Legal changes at the time of system development and implementation;
        Underestimation of the complexity of the system;
        Different old systems in use, not well documented, based on different
         technical platforms, using different data structures and different data
         definitions. Issues with intellectual property rights;
        Data quality. Non harmonized data between the cadastre and registration
        Common standards and data definitions;
        Institutional capacity to manage big IT systems and perform quality
         control. QA/QC are not foreseen at the project design.
                        Good Practices
                        ICT Strategy
ICT Strategy Developed with clear:
    1. Organizational part (WHO? is responsible)
      Suggested management and quality assurance mechanism; Defined the
      necessary institutional capacity to manage the development and the
      implementation of complex IT System.
   2. Methodological and Management part (HOW? the IT project will be
   3. Technical part (WHAT? and WHEN? will be implemented). Defining
      Short-term, mid-term and long-term priorities.

Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Serbia,
Under development in Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina

                           Good Practices
        Management and Quality Assurance Mechanism

                              Cadastre and Property Registration Project
                                         Steering Committee

                                        IT Project Management
                                                                                Quality control
         Ist level

         IInd level                           IT Project                              Quality
                                               Manager                               Assurance

         IIIrd level             Working Groups, contractors, external experts Consultants
                       Working Groups Managers              Contractors/External

     Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kyrgyzstan

                           Good Practices
            User Requirements Preparation
  Business processes working group was established, trained and competent to
       develop use-cases AS-IS, to work on the re-design of the business
       processes – TO-BE, participated in the development of         User
       requirements, worked with the contractor at the design phase,
       participated in the testing and acceptance.
  The head of the working group was member of the Project Management Body.

 External User Working Group was established to work on the external User
       Requirements and testing the external users functionalities: two banks,
       property valuators, real estate agents, notaries, municipalities, state
       architecture and taxation office.

       IT System Development& Implementation

 Key Issues:
    Unclear and not detailed User and System Requirements/unrealistic
    Underestimation of complexity from both sides – purchaser and supplier;
    Lack of experience in managing big IT systems from both the purchaser
     and supplier sides.
    Contract management is underestimated;
    Weak quality assurance and quality control from the purchaser side;
    Data quality and Data Migration. The old systems in use are not
     documented and are using different data structures, resulting in additional
    Staff unavailability to support the system implementation.
    Underestimation of training needs. Underestimation the need of
     procedural and legal training, prior to the IT system users training.

                          Good Practices
        IT System Development& Implementation

 Good Practices Examples:
    Croatia: Clear User Requirements, Intensive Users involvement, Strong
     Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC)
    Serbia: Strong Project Management, QA and QC, clear requirements
    Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Kyrgyzstan: Step-by-Step - small
     contracts for SW development and implementation;
    Bulgaria: Well organized system roll-out and training. The nation-wide
     roll-out was organized within 6 months period only;
    Turkey and Russia: Good examples of system implementation in big

                     Good Practices
             IT System Roll-Out and Training
 Bulgaria: Training and roll-out within 6 months:
        Phase 1: One week - Basic IT training, Legal and Procedural
         training, IT system basic functionalities training
        Phase 2: Self training – at the working environment – 10-30 % of
         the incoming cases were entered into the testing environment
         several months before the system roll-out
        Phase 3: One week - Legal and Procedural training, IT system
         advance training
        Phase 4: On-the-job training – 1-3 days after the system
         implementation in the office.
 Help Desk: Available at the time of system roll-out. Interactive Help – both
   Procedural and IT Users Manual available with cross references;
 Roll-Out: Data migration – Friday night after the end of the working time.
   Testing – during the weekend. Monday – the office is working with the
   new system only. The old system was used for information only.
            System Operation and Maintenance

Key Issues:
    Lack of capacity within the administration to maintain complex
     systems and databases. Uncompetitive salaries in the public sector in
     comparison with the private sector – difficult to keep employ
     qualified IT staff with Governmental salaries;

    Lack of capacity to keep the data updated and support the data
     harmonization process after the project completion;

    Limited private sector involvement;

    Continuing to keep both paper and digital data, which requires
     double efforts and long processing time.

                  Good Practices
         System Operation and Maintenance


Public-Private Partnership. The Government of Croatia decided to outsource
  the system operation and Maintenance to the hosting company with
  experience in managing big nation-wide IT systems, such as customs and
The hosting company was involved at the time of design of HW technical
  specifications, testing and acceptance of the HW and licenses and system
  integration process.
Two separate long-term contracts have been signed with the private
  companies for the maintenance of the system in the two data centers
  (Disaster Recovery



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