Commercial Vehicle Safety Hazards by TPenney

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									Commercial Vehicle
     Units
Motor Vehicle Injury and Death Are
          Preventable
 – Around 5,000 CMV-
   related fatalities
 – More than 120,000
   CMV-related injuries
 – More than 650 truck
   drivers died on the
   job
 – Truck drivers have
   more nonfatal injuries
   than workers in any
   other occupation
           Driving Hazards
– Reckless driving
– Distracted drivers
– Road rage
– Fatigue
– Poor vehicle
  operating condition
– Alcohol or drugs
      Dangerous Conditions
– Bad weather
  conditions—rain,
  snow, ice, severe
  winds, and fog
– Road conditions
– Poor lighting or glaring
  sunlight
   Dangerous Conditions (cont.)
– Heavy traffic
– Busy intersections
– Accidents
– Shifting cargo
       Be a Defensive Driver
– Recognize hazardous driving situations
– Assume other drivers will make mistakes
– Make adjustments if a hazard develops
– Look ahead for approaching hazards
– Watch vehicles to your side and rear
– Scan the road before changing speed
  or direction
– Always use your turn signals
– Drive with your lights on
 Get Rest and Avoid Fatigue
– Get some sleep
– Take frequent breaks
– Keep cab
  well ventilated
– Adjust your vehicle’s
  environment
        Seat Belts Save Lives
– More than 110,000 lives saved in 25 years
– Prevent crashing into dashboard
– Keep you inside vehicle
– Strong bones take shock
  instead of delicate organs
– Better chance of remaining conscious
– Keep you behind wheel if you swerve
  or brake suddenly
       Pre-Drive Inspection
– Horn, lights, and turn
  signals
– Clean windows,
  mirrors, and lights
– Tire tread and air
  pressure
– Leaks under vehicle
– Brakes and steering
     Maintain Your Vehicle
– Regular tune-ups
– Oil changes
– Antifreeze levels
– Brakes
– Battery
– Compressed
  air system
– Tire changes
          Vehicle Inspection Topics


•   Reasons for performing inspections
•   Types of vehicle inspections
•   Common unsafe conditions
•   Pre-trip inspection procedure
•   Between-trip inspection procedure
•   Post-trip inspection procedure
•   Reporting unsafe conditions



                                III-2
       Types of Vehicle Inspections:
• Required monthly inspections by garage
  technicians
• Pre-trip
• Between-trip
• Post-trip
• Commercial Drivers License pre-trip




                            III-6
         Major Components of the
            Pre-trip inspection

•   Approach to the vehicle
•   Engine compartment
•   Operator’s compartment
•   Outside walk-around
•   Inside check
•   Final outside check
•   Departure


                          III-9
Operator’s compartment check:
          (continued)


                      • Operator’s seat area
                      • Gauges and warning
                        lights
                      • Mirror adjustment




             III-12
Operator’s compartment check:
          (continued)


• Warning devices for
  the brake system
• Remaining
  components of the
  operator
  compartment
• Light indicators

                        III-13
                   Drug Use
• When on duty, never
  possess or use:
   – Opiates
   – Amphetamines
   – Narcotics
   – Alcohol
   – Any other substance
     that makes you an
     unsafe driver
       Driving Hazard Exercise

             Match the hazardous drivers
            to the correct potential hazards
        DRIVERS                       HAZARD
Reckless drivers          Create road rage situations

Distracted drivers
                          React slower
Aggressive drivers
                          Tailgate
Fatigued drivers

                          Unaware of surroundings
          Driving Hazards—
           Any Questions?
– Any questions about
  driving hazards and
  dangerous
  conditions?
– Any questions about
  avoiding potential
  accidents?
         Cargo Securement
– Cargo must be properly distributed and secured
– Check within first 50 miles and make adjustments if
  necessary
– Recheck if:
   • There is a change in duty status
   • The vehicle has been driven 3 hours or 150 miles
          Conduct Start-Up/
           Back-Up Check
– Walk around your
  vehicle
– Check blind areas
  on right and front
– Adjust mirrors
– After checking, move
  vehicle
– Start up slowly
– Tap horn or recruit
  signal person
                      Fueling
• While fueling a CMV,
  never:
   – Fuel a CMV with
     engine running
   – Smoke or expose any
     open flame
   – Fuel unless the nozzle
     and intake pipe are
     in contact
             Right-of-Way
– Entering traffic,
  merging, turning
  left or right
– Do not force other
  drivers to brake
  or steer
– Assume other drivers
  will not see you
– Move only after
  “right-of-way” has
  been given to you
    Using and Changing Lanes
– Keep a safe following distance
– Scan ahead
– Flash brake lights
– Scan blind spot before changing lanes
– Clean and adjust mirrors
        Negotiating Curves
– Understand how and
  why rollovers occur
– Reduce speed before
  entering curve
– Stay off the shoulder
– Ensure cargo is
  secured
– Top-heavy cargo more
  likely to roll over
– Trailers roll first
   Negotiating Downgrades
– Break system
  maintenance
– Gear selection
– Light brake pressure
– Do not apply trailer
  brakes only
– Check brake function
  before descending
  long, steep grades
          A skid happens whenever the tires
          lose their grip on the road. This is
              caused in one of four ways:
• Over-braking. Braking too hard and locking
  up the wheels. Skids also can occur when
  using the speed retarder when the road is
  slippery.
• Over-steering. Turning the wheels more
  sharply than the vehicle can turn.
• Over-acceleration. Supplying too much
  power to the drive wheels, causing them to
  spin.
• Driving Too Fast. Most serious skids result
  from driving too fast for road conditions.
  Drivers who adjust their driving to conditions
  don't over-accelerate and don't have to
  over-brake or over-steer from too much
  speed.
Drive-wheel Skids
• By far the most common skid is one in which the rear wheels lose traction through excessive braking or
    acceleration. Skids caused by acceleration usually happen on ice or snow. Taking your foot off the accelerator
    can easily stop them. (If it is very slippery, push the clutch in. Otherwise, the engine can keep the wheels
    from rolling freely and regaining traction.)
• Rear wheel braking skids occur when the rear drive wheels lock. Because locked wheels have less traction
    than rolling wheels, the rear wheels usually slide sideways in an attempt to "catch up" with the front wheels.
    In a straight truck, the vehicle will slide sideways in a "spin out." With vehicles towing trailers, a drive-wheel
    skid can let the trailer push the towing vehicle sideways, causing a sudden jackknife.

Correcting a Drive-wheel Braking Skid
• Do the following to correct a drive-wheel braking skid.
• Stop Braking. This will let the rear wheels roll again, and keep the rear wheels from sliding any
• Countersteer. As a vehicle turns back on course, it has a tendency to keep on turning. Unless you turn the
    steering wheel quickly the other way, you may find yourself skidding in the opposite direction.
• Learning to stay off the brake, turn the steering wheel quickly, push in the clutch, and countersteer in a skid
    takes a lot of practice. The best place to get this practice is on a large driving range or "skid pad."

Front-wheel Skids
• Driving too fast for conditions causes most front-wheel skids. Other causes include lack of tread on the front
    tires and cargo loaded so not enough weight is on the front axle. In a front-wheel skid, the front end tends to
    go in a straight line regardless of how much you turn the steering wheel. On a very slippery surface, you may
    not be able to steer around a curve or turn.
• When a front-wheel skid occurs, the only way to stop the skid is to let the vehicle slow down. Stop turning
    and/or braking so hard. Slow down as quickly as possible without skidding.
       Crossing Intersections
– Assume cross traffic may not obey control signs or
  signals
– Allow enough time for your entire vehicle and
  trailer to clear the road
– Approaching drivers may not realize you have a
  trailer attached
– Keep side lights and reflectors clean
              Making Turns
– Turns are more
  difficult due to vehicle
  size
– Move to right lane
  and signal
– Wait for vehicles
  in other lanes
– Avoid improper
  tracking
    Crossing Railroad Tracks
– Stop 15 to 50 feet of,
  and not closer than
  15 feet to, the tracks
– Stop and look
  both ways
– Do not shift gears
  when crossing tracks
                   Passing
– Make sure no one is
  passing you
– Signal intention to
  pass
– Watch driver you are
  passing
– Watch for vehicles
  entering road
– Watch approaching
  traffic
– Do not get into a race
                 Pedestrians
– Expect the unexpected
– Pedestrians have
  difficulty judging vehicle
  speed
– Pedestrians assume you
  see them
– Make sure they give you
  right-of-way
– Prevent improper trailer
  tracking
– Scan blind spots
          Reduced Traction
– Increase your
  following distance
– Slow down
– Apply brakes gently
  and steer smoothly
– Brakes are more likely
  to lock up when
  lightly loaded
– Slide sideways on
  banked curves
         Reduced Visibility
– Slow down
– Watch for stalled or
  slow-moving vehicles
  in front of you
– Turn on fog lamps or
  emergency flashers
– Keep lights and
  windshield clean
– Get off the road
  and wait
            True or False?


                   
1. Once cargo is properly distributed and
   secured, you should not check it because
   it may then become unsecured.

 Cargo must be checked within first 50 miles.



2. Before startup or backup, you should walk
   around your vehicle to check for hazards.
         True or False? (cont.)



3. The most important rule in lane usage is
   to maintain a safe following distance.

                  
4. You should stop between 5 and 15 feet of
   railroad tracks.

 Stop 15 to 50 feet before tracks.



5. The gear you use for descending a grade
   should be no higher than that required for
   ascending the same grade.
        Safe Driving Habits—
           Any Questions?
– Any questions
  regarding inspections
  and basic
  maintenance of your
  vehicle?
– Any questions
  regarding how to
  operate your vehicle
  safely?
    Carry Emergency Supplies
–   Tire jack and spare tire
–   Flares
–   Flashlight
–   First-aid and tool kits
–   Jumper cables
–   Spare lightbulbs
–   Spare hoses
–   Gloves
–   Pry bar
–   Fire extinguisher
–   Spare fuses
       Emergency Stopping
– Turn on flashers and
  coast to shoulder
– Set up emergency
  warning signals
– Call for help
– Use fire extinguisher
  when necessary
– Replace fuses or bulbs
          Emergency Signals
– Activate the vehicle’s flashers
– Place warning device within 10 feet
  of vehicle toward approaching traffic
– Place second device 100 feet away toward
  approaching traffic
– Place third device 100 feet away
– Never attach flares to your vehicle
              Work Zone Safety
• Work Zone Facts at a Glance
   – Drivers not paying attention is the biggest cause of work zone
     crashes.
   – Speeding is the next biggest problem.
   – Over 40 % of work zone crashes happen in the transition zone
     before the work area.
   – Road construction is the most dangerous occupation in the
     United States.
   – More drivers and their passengers than workers die each year in
     work zones.
   – Work zone crashes tend to be more severe than other types of
     crashes.
    Farm Equipment
     – Rural Roads

Do you recognize these symbols?
It’s not just a reflector, it’s a signal to
SLOW DOWN

 This triangle is displayed on slow moving
 vehicles which travel less than 25 miles per
 hour. The vehicle may be wider than the lane
 and has reduced visibility.                       The symbol must be
 It is difficult to judge the speed at which you   visible from 500 ft
                                                   away. The red border
 are closing on the vehicle. Slow immediately.     is retro- reflective and
 Be Patient!                                       highly visible at night.
Farm Equipment – Rural Roads

• What Can We Do?
  – Be Patient – the Farmer will pull off as soon as he has a safe
    place; however, shoulders may be soft, wet or steep and
    cause the farm vehicle to tip.
  – Yield to wide vehicles. If approaching a wide piece of
    equipment traveling in the opposite direction, stop, pull over
    and let them pass you.
  – Pass with caution – do not pass unless you can see clearly
    ahead of you and the vehicle you will pass.
  – Check the operator’s hand signals – do not assume they are
    letting you pass. They may need to swing wide to turn.
         Deer, Elk, Wild Animals

• Usually early morning and evening
• Unpredictable
• Herd Animals – where there is one, there may
  be more
• Can do significant damage to your vehicle
           What can we do?
  SLOW! Stay Alert! Look for More!
Commercial Vehicles
   Commercial Vehicles – No Zone
• The No Zone is the area around a truck where cars disappear
  into the blind-spots or are so close they restrict the driver’s
  ability to stop or maneuver safely.
• Position yourself so that you can see the face of the driver in
  their mirror.
    Safe Driving Conditions—
         Any Questions?
– Always follow the
  National Safety
  Code law and
  restrictions

								
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