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					10
     Questionnaires and Instruments
     量表設計

            中央大學.資訊管理系
               范錚強

           mailto: ckfarn@mgt.ncu.edu.tw

                  2011.04 updated
      Learning Objectives
Understand...
  The link forged between the management dilemma
  and the communication instrument by the
  management-research question hierarchy.
  The influence of the communication method on
  instrument design.
  The three general classes of information and what
  each contributes to the instrument.

                     中央資管:范錚強                         2
         Learning Objectives
Understand . . .
  The influence of question content, question wording,
  response strategy, and preliminary analysis planning on
  question construction.
  Each of the numerous question design issues
  influencing instrument quality, reliability, and validity.
  The sources for measurement questions
  The importance of pretesting questions and instruments.

                        中央資管:范錚強                          3
Overall Flowchart for Instrument
Design




                         Instrument
                       Ready for Data
            中央資管:范錚強      Collection    4
Flowchart for Instrument Design
Phase 1




            中央資管:范錚強              5
Strategic Concerns in Instrument
Design

       What type of scale is needed?


 What communication approach will be used?


    Should the questions be structured?


    Should the questioning be disguised?

               中央資管:范錚強                      6
         Technology Affects
         Questionnaire Development
                                                Write questionnaires more
                                                quickly
                                                Create visually driven
                                                instruments
                                                Eliminate manual data
                                                entry
                                                Save time in data analysis


WebSurveyor used to write an instrument.
                                     中央資管:范錚強                            7
       Disguising Study Objectives

Reluctantly shared,                        Willingly shared,
 Conscious-level                           Conscious-level
    information                              information
                           Situations
                             where
                           disguise is
                          unnecessary
       Knowable,
                                         Subconscious-level
Limited-conscious-level
                                            information
      information

                          中央資管:范錚強                             8
        Dummy Table for
        American Eating Habits

                                Use of Convenience Foods


                           Use            Use
Age        Always Use   Frequently     Sometimes    Rarely Use   Never Use

18-24

25-34

35-44

55-64

65+


                            中央資管:范錚強                                         9
Flowchart for Instrument Design
Phase 2




            中央資管:范錚強              10
Question Categories
and Structure

Administrative



Classification



    Target

                 中央資管:范錚強   11
Question Content

       Should this question be asked?


Is the question of proper scope and coverage?

       Can the participant adequately
       answer this question as asked?

        Will the participant willingly
       answer this question as asked?


                 中央資管:范錚強                       12
      Question Wording

                Shared
 Adequate      vocabulary    Single
alternatives                 meaning

                 Criteria
                             Misleading
Personalized                assumptions


                 Biased

               中央資管:范錚強                   13
        Response Strategy

                           Objectives
                           of the study

Participant’s                                        Participant’s
motivation to                                          level of
   share                                             information
                            Factors



   Ease and clarity with                       Degree to which
    which participant                     participants have thought
     communicates                                through topic
                            中央資管:范錚強                                  14
  Free-Response Strategy




What factors influenced your enrollment in Metro U?
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
                   中央資管:范錚強                           15
          Dichotomous Response Strategy




Did you attend the “A Day at College” program at Metro U?

  Yes
  No
                           中央資管:范錚強                         16
           Multiple Choice Response
           Strategy




Which one of the following factors was most influential
in your decision to attend Metro U?

  Good academic standing
  Specific program of study desired
  Enjoyable campus life
  Many friends from home
  High quality of faculty  中央資管:范錚強                      17
             Checklist Response Strategy




Which of the following factors influenced
your decision to enroll in Metro U? (Check all that apply.)

       Tuition cost
       Specific program of study desired
       Parents’ preferences
       Opinion of brother or sister
       Many friends from home attend
       High quality of faculty 中央資管:范錚強                      18
         Rating Response Strategy
                             Strongly      Somewhat      Not at all
                             influential   influential   influential
Good academic reputation                                    
Enjoyable campus life                                       
Many friends                                                
High quality faculty                                        
Semester calendar                                           

                           中央資管:范錚強                                    19
                Ranking
Please rank-order your top three factors from the following list based on their influence in
encouraging you to apply to Metro U. Use 1 to indicate the most encouraging factor, 2 the
next most encouraging factor, etc.
_____ Opportunity to play collegiate sports
_____ Closeness to home
_____ Enjoyable campus life
_____ Good academic reputation
_____ High quality of faculty




                                       中央資管:范錚強                                          20
               Summary of Scale Types
Type                Restrictions                                Scale    Scale    Data Type
                                                                Items    points
                                               Rating Scales
Simple Category     Needs mutually exclusive choices            One or   2        Nominal
Scale                                                           more
Multiple Choice     Needs mutually exclusive choices; may use   many     2        Nominal
Single-Response     exhaustive list or ‘other’
Scale

Multiple Choice     Needs mutually exclusive choices; needs     many     2        Nominal
Multiple-Response   exhaustive list or ‘other’
Scale
(checklist)

Likert Scale        Needs definitive positive or negative       One or   5        Ordinal
                    statements with which to agree/disagree     more
Likert-type Scale   Needs definitive positive or negative       One or   7 or 9   Ordinal
                    statements with which to agree/disagree     more
                                            中央資管:范錚強                                          21
Type
               Summary of Scale Types
                     Restrictions                                      Scale      Scale    Data Type
                                                                       Items      points
Semantic             Needs words that are opposites to anchor the      One or       7      Ordinal
Differential Scale   graphic space.                                    more
Numerical Scale      Needs concepts with standardized or defined       One or     3-10     Ordinal or
                     meanings; needs numbers anchor the end-           many                Interval
                     points or points along the scale; score is a
                     measurement of graphical space from one
                     anchor.
Multiple Rating      Needs words that are opposites to anchor the      Up to 10    5-7     Ordinal
List Scale           end-points on the verbal scale
Fixed Sum Scale      Participant needs ability to calculate total to   Two or     none     Interval or
                     some fixed number, often 100.                     more                Ratio
Stapel Scale         Needs verbal labels that are operationally        One or      10      Ordinal or
                     defined or standard.                              more                Interval
Graphic Rating       Needs visual images that can be interpreted as    One or     none     Ordinal
Scale                positive or negative anchors; score is a          more                (Interval, or
                     measurement of graphical space from one                               Ratio)
                     anchor.                  中央資管:范錚強                                                     22
         Summary of Scale Types

Type            Restrictions                            Scale      Scale    Data Type
                                                        Items      points
                                       Ranking Scales
Paired          Number is controlled by participant’s   Up to 10     2      Ordinal
Comparison      stamina and interest.
Scale

Forced          Needs mutually exclusive choices.       Up to 10   many     Ordinal or
Ranking Scale                                                               Interval


Comparative     Can use verbal or graphical scale.      Up to 10            Ordinal
Scale




                                       中央資管:范錚強                                          23
Internet Survey Scale Options




          中央資管:范錚強              24
Internet Survey Scale Options




          中央資管:范錚強              25
Internet Survey Scale Options




          中央資管:范錚強              26
   Sources of Questions

Handbook of Marketing         Index to International
Scales                        Public Opinion
The Gallup Poll               Sourcebook of Harris
Cumulative Index              National Surveys
Measures of Personality       Marketing Scales
and Social-Psychological      Handbook
Attitudes                     American Social
Measures of Political         Attitudes Data
Attitudes                     Sourcebook

                   中央資管:范錚強                            27
Flowchart for Instrument Design: Phase 3




                            Instrument
                          Ready for Data
                             Collection




             中央資管:范錚強                      28
    Illustrating the Funnel Approach

How do you think this country is getting along in its
relations with other countries?
How do you think we are doing in our relations with Iran?
Do you think we ought to be dealing with Iran differently
than we are now?
(If yes) What should we be doing differently?
Some people say we should get tougher with Iran and others
think we are too tough as it is; how do you feel about it?


                     中央資管:范錚強                            29
Branching Question




          中央資管:范錚強   30
Components of Questionnaires




          中央資管:范錚強             31
 量表的編排

美觀清楚
 排列整齊
 分行清晰
 用線條、陰影等
用適當的字體大小
 層次感
避免字意混淆

         中央資管:范錚強   32
 量表翻譯

注意語意──不只是字意
英 (a) 翻中 (b) 之後,中翻英 (c)
  檢查 a 與 c 的語意差異
前測
  是否讀得懂?




            中央資管:范錚強      33
MindWriter Survey




          中央資管:范錚強   34
Overcoming Instrument Problems

    Build rapport

  Redesign question process

          Explore alternatives

                    Use other methods

                              Pretest

               中央資管:范錚強                 35

				
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