VIEWS: 21 PAGES: 29 POSTED ON: 1/26/2013
What Works in Classroom Instruction: 9 Essential Strategies Based on the work of Robert Marzano, et. Al. Presented by Amy Benjamin For Catapult Learning Father Judge High School Philadelphia, Pennsylvania November 2, 2009 9 Essential Instructional Strategies: What comes to mind? This is your brain on isolated facts: Monday Wednesday Friday This is your brain on connected information: Monday Friday Wednesday Strategy #1: Identifying Similarities and Differences What similarities do we find between things that are obviously different from each other? What differences do we find between things that are obviously similar to each other? Strategy #1: Identifying Similarities and Differences Classroom Applications: Opportunities to classify, sort, use Venn diagrams, write comparison/contrast essays, use T Charts, problem-solving by matching situations to precedents Strategy #1: Identifying Similarities and Differences Turn & Talk: What opportunities do students have in your class to identify similarities and differences? Do you employ any graphic organizers to help students think about similarities and differences? Strategy #2: Summarizing and Note-Taking Giving students opportunities to express what is most important, what is supportive, and what is just “nice to know” in their own words. Giving students opportunities to process new learning by using language, pictures, lists, charts, abbreviations, labeled diagrams, etc. Strategy #2: Summarizing and Note-Taking Meaningful note-taking == copying from the board Strategy #2: Summarizing and Note-Taking Turn & Talk: What opportunities do your students have to summarize and take notes? What forms of summarizing and note-taking do you expect? Do students have models for summaries and notes? Do students get to read each other’s summaries and notes? Strategy #3: Reinforcing Effort &Providing Recognition Reinforcing positive and constructive attitudes in students improves their performance. Make it a classroom practice to have students RRR their efforts: Recognize: What does my effort look like? Record & Reflect: Keep a written record of effort and its results. Strategy #3: Reinforcing Effort &Providing Recognition Rewarding effort: Rewards linked to achievement. Symbolic reward better than tangible reward. Strategy #3: Reinforcing Effort &Providing Recognition Turn & Talk: How do I know that students are putting forth effort in my class? How do I recognize, reward and reinforce their efforts? Strategy #4: Homework and Practice Homework allows learning to be extended outside the classroom, BUT… Strategy #4: Homework and Practice *Amount of HW should be age-appropriate *Parent involvement should be minimal *Purpose of HW be explained to students and parents *Feedback should be given for HW *HW should result in increased speed and accuracy Strategy #4: Homework and Practice Turn & Talk: Homework Heartburn: What particular homework assignment do you wish you had never thought of? Homework Happiness: What particular homework assignment do you strongly believe is helpful to students? Strategy #5: Nonlinguistic Representations Knowledge is stored in three forms: Linguistic Visual Muscle-memory Students need all three opportunities to store information. Nonlinguistic representations stimulate and increase brain activity. Strategy #5: Nonlinguistic Representations Use symbols and actions along with words. Use graphic organizers, models, creative dramatics, labeled diagrams, Venn diagrams, T charts, concept maps, other kinds of maps Strategy #5: Nonlinguistic Representations Turn & Talk: What opportunities do your students have to use nonlinguistic ways of learning? Strategy #6: Cooperative Learning Do’s and Don’ts of Cooperative Learning: Do: Keep the groups small Consider a variety of criteria in grouping students Provide for individual and group accountability Design tasks around positive interdependence Don’t: Overuse this strategy Strategy #6: Cooperative Learning Turn & Talk: What role does cooperative learning play in your class? Strategy #7: Setting Objectives; Providing Feedback Include formative assessments. Use rubrics to pinpoint progress in specific components of a skill. Include student input in objectives. Use “teacher-student contracts.” Formative and Summative Assessment: Formative: Summative: Student is aware of the questions Questions on a test are surprises to the throughout the assessment process student Timing is flexible Timing is limited Teacher’s feedback is commentary Teacher’s feedback is letter or number and/or letter or number grade grade Evaluation is used to guide future Evaluation is used to rank and sort learning students Considers the students’ zone of Test or task is not flexible proximal development Assessment by teacher or outside agency Test or task may be flexible only Student is involved in self-assessment No direct follow-up; when it’s over, it’s over Sets reachable targets for future learning Results reflected in report card grade Results are not used as a report card grade Strategy #7: Setting Objectives; Providing Feedback Turn & Talk: To what extent are any of the following in place in your classroom: Informal assessments, rubrics, teacher-student contracts, student-generated goals, a variety of methods for teacher feedback, long and short term goals, timely feedback, students giving tactful and helpful feedback to each other… Strategy #8: Generating and Testing Hypotheses Deductive Approach: Given a general rule, students generate specifics (apply the truth). Rule: A nutritious breakfast should consist of protein and a high-fiber grain or fruit. Specifics: Plan a week’s menu of nutritious, varied, attractive, economical, and flavorful breakfasts. Strategy #8: Generating and Testing Hypotheses Inductive Approach: Given a list of conditions or examples, students create a hypothesis (find the truth). Examples: *cantaloupe slice, egg white omelette w/spinach *whole wheat pancakes, applesauce *strawberry yogurt, granola Generality: Create a guideline for healthful, satisfying breakfast choices Strategy #8: Generating and Testing Hypotheses Turn & Talk: What opportunities do your students have to solve problems and achieve understanding using deductive reasoning? Inductive reasoning? Strategy #9: Advance Organizers Advance Organizer: A structure, such as an anecdote, image, summary, or chart; or a practice, such as skimming a text, that prepares the mind for learning that is about to take place. A “toe in the water,” a “sneak preview,” a “free sample” Strategy #9: Advance Organizers Turn & Talk: How do you prepare students by giving them a look-in-advance of what they are about to learn? Review: 1. Identifying similarities and differences 2. Summarizing and note-taking 3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 4. Homework and practice 5. Nonlinguistic representations 6. Cooperative learning 7. Setting objectives and providing feedback 8. Generating and testing hypotheses 9. Advance organizers Which of these instructional strategies did you see embedded in today’s presentation?
"What Works in Classroom Instruction_ 9 Essential Strategies"