What Works in Classroom Instruction_ 9 Essential Strategies

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					    What Works in Classroom
Instruction: 9 Essential Strategies
                Based on the work of
               Robert Marzano, et. Al.
            Presented by Amy Benjamin
                For Catapult Learning
              Father Judge High School
             Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
                 November 2, 2009
9 Essential Instructional Strategies:
      What comes to mind?
               This is your brain on isolated facts:

                       Wednesday                       Friday

          This is your brain on connected information:

 Monday                                                Friday
              Strategy #1:
Identifying Similarities and Differences

  What similarities do we find between things that
     are obviously different from each other?

  What differences do we find between things that
       are obviously similar to each other?
                 Strategy #1:
   Identifying Similarities and Differences

Classroom Applications:

      Opportunities to classify, sort, use Venn diagrams,
                       write comparison/contrast essays,
                       use T Charts, problem-solving by
                       matching situations to precedents
                 Strategy #1:
   Identifying Similarities and Differences

Turn & Talk:
       What opportunities do students have in your class
 to identify similarities and differences?

     Do you employ any graphic organizers to help
students think about similarities and differences?
            Strategy #2:
     Summarizing and Note-Taking
Giving students opportunities to
express what is most important,
what is supportive, and what is just
“nice to know” in their own words.

Giving students opportunities to process new
learning by using language, pictures, lists,
charts, abbreviations, labeled diagrams, etc.
             Strategy #2:
      Summarizing and Note-Taking

Meaningful note-taking == copying from the board
             Strategy #2:
      Summarizing and Note-Taking

Turn & Talk:
     What opportunities do your students have to
summarize and take notes? What forms of
summarizing and note-taking do you expect?
           Do students have models for summaries
             and notes? Do students get to read
               each other’s summaries and notes?
               Strategy #3:
       Reinforcing Effort &Providing
Reinforcing positive and constructive
attitudes in students improves their performance.

Make it a classroom practice to have students
RRR their efforts:
     Recognize: What does my effort
                 look like?
     Record & Reflect: Keep a written
                record of effort and its
               Strategy #3:
       Reinforcing Effort &Providing
Rewarding effort:

     Rewards linked to achievement.

     Symbolic reward better than tangible reward.
               Strategy #3:
       Reinforcing Effort &Providing
Turn & Talk:

      How do I know that students are putting forth
effort in my class? How do I recognize,
reward and reinforce their efforts?
               Strategy #4:
           Homework and Practice

Homework allows learning to be extended outside
the classroom, BUT…
                Strategy #4:
            Homework and Practice
*Amount of HW should be age-appropriate

*Parent involvement should be minimal

*Purpose of HW be explained to students
  and parents

*Feedback should be given for HW

*HW should result in increased speed and accuracy
                   Strategy #4:
               Homework and Practice
Turn & Talk:

Homework Heartburn: What particular
homework assignment do you wish you
had never thought of?

Homework Happiness: What particular
homework assignment do you strongly
believe is helpful to students?
             Strategy #5:
     Nonlinguistic Representations

Knowledge is stored in three forms:

Students need all three opportunities to
store information.

Nonlinguistic representations stimulate and increase
brain activity.
             Strategy #5:
     Nonlinguistic Representations

Use symbols and actions along with

Use graphic organizers, models, creative
dramatics, labeled diagrams, Venn diagrams,
T charts, concept maps, other kinds of maps
             Strategy #5:
     Nonlinguistic Representations

Turn & Talk:

What opportunities do your students have to use
nonlinguistic ways of learning?
                     Strategy #6:
                 Cooperative Learning
Do’s and Don’ts of Cooperative Learning:

         Keep the groups small
         Consider a variety of criteria in grouping students
         Provide for individual and group accountability
         Design tasks around positive interdependence

         Overuse this strategy
              Strategy #6:
          Cooperative Learning

Turn & Talk:

What role does cooperative learning play
 in your class?
             Strategy #7:
Setting Objectives; Providing Feedback

Include formative assessments.
Use rubrics to pinpoint progress in specific
  components of a skill.
Include student input in objectives. Use
 “teacher-student contracts.”
                       Formative and Summative Assessment:

Formative:                                     Summative:

Student is aware of the questions              Questions on a test are surprises to the
throughout the assessment process              student

Timing is flexible                             Timing is limited

Teacher’s feedback is commentary               Teacher’s feedback is letter or number
and/or letter or number grade                  grade

Evaluation is used to guide future             Evaluation is used to rank and sort
learning                                       students

Considers the students’ zone of                Test or task is not flexible
proximal development
                                               Assessment by teacher or outside agency
Test or task may be flexible                   only

Student is involved in self-assessment         No direct follow-up; when it’s over,
                                               it’s over
Sets reachable targets for future learning
                                               Results reflected in report card grade
Results are not used as a report card grade
             Strategy #7:
Setting Objectives; Providing Feedback

 Turn & Talk:
 To what extent are any of the following in place in your
        Informal assessments, rubrics, teacher-student
 contracts, student-generated goals, a variety of
  methods for teacher feedback, long and short term
  goals, timely feedback, students giving tactful and
  helpful feedback to each other…
             Strategy #8:
  Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Deductive Approach:
 Given a general rule, students
generate specifics (apply the truth).

Rule: A nutritious breakfast should consist of
 protein and a high-fiber grain or fruit.
Specifics: Plan a week’s menu of nutritious,
 varied, attractive, economical, and flavorful
            Strategy #8:
 Generating and Testing Hypotheses
Inductive Approach:
  Given a list of conditions or examples,
students create a hypothesis (find the truth).

*cantaloupe slice, egg white omelette w/spinach
          *whole wheat pancakes, applesauce
          *strawberry yogurt, granola

      Generality: Create a guideline for healthful,
        satisfying breakfast choices
             Strategy #8:
  Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Turn & Talk:
 What opportunities do your students have to solve
problems and achieve understanding
 using deductive reasoning?
Inductive reasoning?
             Strategy #9:
          Advance Organizers

Advance Organizer: A structure, such as an
anecdote, image, summary, or chart;
or a practice, such as skimming a text,
that prepares the mind for learning that is
 about to take place.

A “toe in the water,” a “sneak preview,”
a “free sample”
                  Strategy #9:
               Advance Organizers

Turn & Talk:

How do you prepare students by giving them
 a look-in-advance of what they are about to learn?
   1. Identifying similarities and differences
   2. Summarizing and note-taking
   3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
   4. Homework and practice
   5. Nonlinguistic representations
   6. Cooperative learning
   7. Setting objectives and providing feedback
   8. Generating and testing hypotheses
   9. Advance organizers

Which of these instructional strategies did you see
embedded in today’s presentation?

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