Consumer behavior

					Consumer Behavior
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Influences on consumer behavior
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Psychological
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Decision making Attitudes and attitude change Reference groups Family decision making Culture and subculture

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Sociocultural
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MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

1

Consumer Problems and Recognition
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Consumer problem: Discrepancy
between ideal and actual state--e.g., consumer:
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has insufficient hair is hungry has run out of ink in his or her inkjet cartridge

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Problems can be solved in several ways--e.g., stress reduction <----- vacation,
movie, hot bath, medication

MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

2

CONSUMER DECISIONS:
Theory and Reality in Consumer Buying
Problem Recognition

Information Search

Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase Postpurchase Evaluation/ Behaviors
MKTG 370

Theory Complications

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

3

Approaches to Search for Problem Solutions
INTERNAL
Memory Thinking

EXTERNAL
Word of mouth, media, store visits, trial
MKTG 370

CATALOG

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

4

Cost vs. Benefits of Search
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Market Characteristics Product Characteristics Consumer Characteristics Situation Characteristics
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Lars Perner, Instructor

MKTG 370

5

Decision Issues
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Types of decisions
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Type of evaluation:
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Routinized response (e.g., gas, sodas) Limited problem solving (e.g., car service, fast food) Extended problem solving (e.g., new car, computer, medical procedures)

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Compensatory: Decision based on overall value of alternatives (good attribute can outweigh bad ones) Non-compensatory: Absolutely must meet at least one important criterion (e.g., car must have automatic transmission)
Lars Perner, Instructor

MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

6

Variety Seeking and Impulse Buying
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Variety seeking
» need varies among consumers by optimal stimulation level (OSL) » Use innovativeness

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“Don’t give me that same old cola, that same old cola-I want a rock’n’roller!”
MKTG 370

Impulse purchases
» Motivation » Consequences

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

7

Psychological Influences
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Motivation Personality Perception
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Perceived risk Learning
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Attention and competition for attention Selective perception Subliminal influence?

Change in behavior May or may not be conscious

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Values, beliefs, and attitudes Lifestyle—e.g., VALS2
Lars Perner, Instructor

MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

8

Attitude Change Strategies
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Change Affect
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Classical conditioning Attitude toward the ad Mere exposure

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Change behavior (e.g., sampling) Change Belief Component
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Change existing beliefs Change importance of attributes Add beliefs Change ideal
9

MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

One-sided vs. two sided appeals
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One-sided: only saying what favors your side Two-sided: stating your case but also admitting points favoring the other side
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Why is this effective?
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Lars Perner, Instructor

MKTG 370

10

Sociocultural Influences
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Personal Influence
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Opinion leadership Word of mouth and rumors Reference groups
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Culture Subculture

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Associative: “We’re the Pepsi generation…” Dissociative: “It’s not your father’s car.” Aspirational
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Lars Perner, Instructor

MKTG 370

11

Potential Family Life Cycle Stages
YOUNG SINGLE YOUNG COUPLE EMPTY NEST I/II

FULL NEST I/II/III SINGLE PARENT BLENDED
MKTG 370

OLDER SINGLE

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

12

Economic/Marketing Implications of Household Cycles
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Income tends to increase with time But children/ obligations add cost Divorce
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Product demand due to
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increases costs may change income distribution marriage

singles with low expenses new couples divorced families children empty nesters --> more income
Lars Perner, Instructor

MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

13

Household Decision Making
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Roles/influence
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Information gatherers/holders Influencers Decision makers Purchasers Users

MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

14

More Sociocultural Influences
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Social class
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Subculture
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In the U.S.
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Positioning strategies:
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“Upward Pull” “At Level”

Ethnic Generational Regional Religious groups

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In other cultures

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Culture: “Share meanings”
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Lars Perner, Instructor

MKTG 370

15

Organizational Buyers
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Types
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Characteristics
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Industrial Reseller Government and non-profit organizations

Greater involvement Bureaucracy Long term relationships

MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

16

The Means-End Chain
Aim promotion/ positioning at higher levels of chain!

Self-esteem

Values Consequences Attributes

Feeling of power
Performance Fast acceleration Large engine

MKTG 370

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Lars Perner, Instructor

17


				
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