Naace ICT Curriculum V1.3ii

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					 Draft Naace Curriculum
 Information and Communication Technology
 (ICT) Key Stage 3

Paul Heinrich                            Allison Allen

 Document1       March 12        Page 1 / 70
        Acknowledgements                                                                                                                                      3
Context ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
        Why ICT?                                                                                                                                              4
        Drivers for change                                                                                                                                    4
Introduction to the Toolkit ........................................................................................................................ 5
        Using the Toolkit                                                                                                                                     5
        The Toolkit:                                                                                                                                          6
The ICT Capability...................................................................................................................................... 7
Knowledge................................................................................................................................................. 8
Link to Conversations: Computing History TimelineAn ICT Curriculum for KS3 - core areas of study...... 9
An ICT Curriculum for KS3 - core areas of study ..................................................................................... 10
Outline Principles .................................................................................................................................... 13
        Digital Life                                                                                                                                        13
        Digital Tools                                                                                                                                       13
        Digital Technologies                                                                                                                                13
                Digital Life – indicative topic areas                                                                                                       14
                Digital Tools – indicative topic areas                                                                                                      16
                Digital Artefacts – indicative topic areas                                                                                                  19
                Digital Technologies – indicative topic areas                                                                                               21
                Systems Design – indicative topic areas                                                                                                     21
                The user-centred design process - indicative topic areas                                                                                    25
Example Systems Design Process & Assessment: Mobile Apps ............................................................. 27
History of Computing - Opportunities .................................................................................................... 30
        Development suggestions                                                                                                                             31
Conversations.......................................................................................................................................... 32
        Conversations: Silicon Chips / Integrated Circuits                                                                                                  32
        Conversations: Computing History Timeline                                                                                                           33
        Conversations: Evaluation Reports                                                                                                                   34
Appendix ................................................................................................................................................. 35
        Attainment targets for ICT                           with typical UK equivalent.                                                                    36
        Bloom’s in a group ICT project –                                                                                                                    39
        Learning objective profile for a specific group project                                                                                             40
        Continuum of higher order thinking with ICT                                                                                                         40
        System Design and Lifecycle: Teacher Information                                                                                                    41
        User-Centred Design: Teacher Information                                                                                                            44
Information Resource for Computing History Timeline – ‘starter for ten’ ............................................. 46
e-Safety Keywords .................................................................................................................................. 50
e-Safety Glossary..................................................................................................................................... 53
        World Summit on the Information Society                                                                                                             63
OECD: THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY........................................................................................... 64
ICT Keywords ........................................................................................................................................... 65
        Endnotes                                                                                                                                            70

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The authors are grateful for the advice and support of the following groups and individuals:
Naace ICT Curriculum Community
Naace members
Naace Sponsoring Partners
Naace Board of Management currently; Rachel Ager (Chair), Miles Berry (Senior Vice Chair),
Lucinda Searle (Junior Vice Chair), Mark Chambers (Immediate Past Chair), Richard Allen,
Roger Broadie, Drew Buddie, Julie Frankland, James Langley, Dughall McCormick
Naace Professional Team, especially Bernadette Brooks (General Manager) and Michelle Cank
Events Officer
Members of the LinkedIn Naace group
We have brought together a modern, comprehensive curriculum toolkit based on 21 st Century
learning and acknowledge a number of elements from existing GCSE specifications including
EdExcel, OCR, Aqa, CCEA and WJEC.

Full license details here

 Naace Key Stage 3 ICT Curriculum by Naace [Heinrich, P; Allen, A] is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-
                                 NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
                                      Based on a work at
                Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at

Document1                 Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12            Page 3 / 70

Why ICT?
We are affected one way or another in our daily lives by the activities represented in curricular
subjects and few more so than ICT. Much of the time ICT infrastructure is so embedded as to be
invisible and our interface with it seamless, yet we marvel at ‘Smart’ technologies and devices that
allow us to do things we would never have dreamt possible, while relying on ubiquitous ICT to
allow us to engage with daily activities. The ICT report from Forum for the Future, ‘Connect,
Collaborate, Change’i featured in the Guardian February 2012, shows that one of greatest areas of
potential is for ICT to create new behaviours or systems. The report introduces a new method for
framing opportunities in ICT, in order to establish where ICT can achieve the biggest sustainability
gains by enabling system change.

Naace believes that ICT thus must develop as an essential part of the school curriculum so that our
learners, who will ultimately be our leaders and agents for change, understand it and are enabled
to design tools for action as well as a stimulus for fresh thinking about where interventions can
successfully be made. ICT could be one of the most powerful enablers of transformation we
possess; with excellent teaching and intelligent use of the curriculum, our pupils have the ability to
support the change needed by taking good ideas to a scale that fundamentally alters the way we

Drivers for change
2011 saw unprecedented demand for a refreshed ICT curriculum, a demand reinforced by the
Secretary of State for Education’s speech at Bett 2012. Anticipating this direction of thought,
throughout 2011 Naace members and experts attended national ThinkTanks focusing on the ICT
Curriculum and their views were captured; the outcomes were well informed, innovative and
founded on good practice and robust research. The views of these expert practitioners was that
there was need of an refreshed curriculum that should not be prescriptive, but that it should
contain sound indicators regarding the body of knowledge, skills and application of ICT that could
engage and astonish pupils and teachers, develop their interest, ability and higher thinking skills as
well as supporting pupils’ life-chances and enhancing their role in the workforce as productive,
engaged citizens.

Naace has abundant examples of good practice and frameworks in ICT that can support and
inspire schools including:
Naace Impact Awards
Naace 3rd Millennium Learning Awards
ICT Mark
Self Review Framework
Worth reading; ‘UNESCO ICT Competency framework for teachers’

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Introduction to the Toolkit

Welcome to the Naace ICT Curriculum Toolkit. We have developed this resource to help schools
talk about and teach with confidence the Naace ICT Curriculum. We hope you find it useful in
complementing your own materials and in moving forward with ICT.

The Naace ICT Curriculum has been introduced to raise standards of learning and teaching and
help improve our learner’s life chances. Building on the best, written by Naace practitioners for
practitioners in all schools, it focuses on the importance of knowledge, skills and the intelligent
application of ICT, and is about bringing life to learning and love of lifelong learning.

Using the Toolkit

It is widely acknowledged that many schools are well advanced in the adoption of a
transformational ICT Curriculum. This resource is one of a suite of resources made available by
Naace tailored to different needs. It is intended for you to use as you judge appropriate as part of
your teaching and learning related to ICT and to enable you to rise to the fast-changing agendas
that inform the what and the how of teaching.

There are so many questions - mobile learning for example: How do we prepare for ‘Learning in
the moment, Learning across space and learning across time’ii? "....... just in time, just enough and
just for me"iii? How do we reap the benefits of mobile apps and their creation without the risks?
How can we ensure coding delivers the learning outcomes pupils need? How do we develop the
learner who informs us he/she is ‘stuffing myself on the e-learning smorgasbord’iv? Can we
develop the use of ethical hacking ‘Hacking to Learn’? How do we use social (vicarious) learning?
What about the opportunity afforded by the ‘flipped classroom’? Should our pupils be aware of
the way 3D printing will affect them in the future? How can we best use QR v codes? Why should
we be bothered with any of this?

Naace believes that there is no prescribed way of delivering the message and there should be no
prescribed script for any lesson; just as there’s no prescribed way of delivering the Naace ICT
Curriculum. ‘Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.’ [Albert Einstein].

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The Toolkit:

We have listed some of the tools and functionalities from which learners would gain benefit
because they are used or will be used to enhance and enrich various aspects of life – school, work,
social, learning and personal, and we have identified key contextual areas of this within the
umbrella heading “Digital Life”. Teachers suggest finding creative and engaging resources for
teaching what might previously been ‘theory’ topics and didactic lessons – included are
simulations, cartoons, video, visits, speakers and video conferencing. A section called “Computing
History” is included, which we suggest encourages wider reading and through that, a sense of
wonder at the speed of technological change and vast increases in capability – we also suggest
that teachers consider engaging their learners in ‘future-gazing’ – debating and contemplating
hitherto unknown technologies. Where we already have some feedback from teachers, these are
titled “Conversations" plus the name of the related topic area in this publication. The Appendix
exists to provide what information may be useful to the teacher – it includes references,
terminology, assessment models and keyword maps.

Teachers are especially invited to send us your stories – how you taught something, what went
well, what you’d do differently, so that between us, Naace builds a core knowledge pool that
doesn’t stagnate. The curriculum resource is not solely intended as hard copy – we plan to build
an open development area.

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The ICT Capability
ICT capability is about having the technical, cognitivevi and affectivevii proficiency to access
appropriately, to use, develop, create and communicate information using technological tools.
Learners demonstrate this capability by purposefully applying technology to be creative, solve
problems, analyse and exchange information, develop ideas, create models and control devices.
They are discriminating in their use of information and ICT tools and systematic in reviewing and
evaluating the contribution ICT can make to their work as it progresses.

ICT capability is much broader than a set of technical competences in software applications
although, clearly, these are important. ICT capability involves the appropriate selection, use and
evaluation of ICT. In essence, pupils need to know what aspects of ICT are available to them, when
to use it and why it is appropriate for the task.

For example, when creating a presentation in a context, for a particular audience or user, ICT
capability involves the selection of appropriate software, consideration of fitness for purpose and
matching content and style to a given audience; similarly if programming, ICT capability involves
awareness of the paradigms, differing concepts and abstractions used to represent the elements
of a program (such as objects, functions, variables, constraints, etc.) and the steps that compose a
computation (assignment, evaluation, continuations, data flows, etc.).

It is important that lessons are not software – or technology – driven but focused on clear teaching
and learning objectives where ICT is used as a vehicle to support achievement of those objectives.
We recommend that as far as possible, teachers write lesson and course objectives with the aim of
enabling pupils to demonstrate their ability in the higher levels of attainmentviii.

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Naace has set out broad areas of ICT knowledge that it considers essential for learners in the Third
Millenniumix. However, these are intended to be general and not specific. Content cannot be fixed
in time as the speed of technological advance means that the schemes of work must be flexible
enough to enable teaching on new tools, ethical and safety issues and ways of working and
learning to be adopted quickly, both within the subject of ICT and the wider use of ICT tools
throughout learning and teaching.

We have defined the core areas of knowledge as follows:

Technical Knowledge
This area deals with knowledge and understanding of how
silicon technology, integrated circuits, computers and
computer systems work. It covers aspects of what is
sometimes referred to as computer studies or computer
science and considers how digital devices work, the reasons
                                                                          Figure 1 Silicon chip
for coding, programming, systems, networking and
standards and the ICT systems lifecycle, systems design and
user-centred design. Link to: Conversations: Silicon Chips / Integrated Circuits

Core Skills
This area deals with the use of a range of common ICT tools for communication, content creation,
control and the application of ICT to everyday personal, social, creative and business x outcomes.
This theme concerns the teaching and application of core skills.

Safety, Security and the Law
Personal e-safety is of increasing importance and should include knowledge of how to protect
computers and personal devices as well as the legal issues surrounding copyright, data protection
and computer misuse.

Businessx Aspects of ICT
This area develops the core skills theme in business contexts and might form a major unit of work
at the end of the term or key stage. It could equally be applied to social and creative contexts. Key
aspects include business standard tools, systems analysis, design and lifecycle, collaboration /
communication, web design and e-commerce. It is expected that this theme would include real
world examples from business users or through visits, video conferencing or videos for example.
This theme concerns the application of systems design (and user-centred design) which may
include core skills and/or coding. It is particularly designed to develop higher thinking skills.

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Digital Literacyxiv and Personal Use of ICT
The focus of this theme is safe, effective personal use of ICT including secure use of social
networking, sharing of good quality personally generated content, gaming and personal learning
together with an understanding of the impact of ICT on society. There is deliberate overlap
between some aspects of these core areas of knowledge in order to enable schools to plan flexibly
for the ability and aptitude of learners, including Gifted and Talented and available time-table time
and ICT resources.

Computer History
We suggest this section encourages wider reading along with creative activity in the classroom and
through that, a sense of wonder at the speed of technological change and vast increases in
capability – we also suggest that teachers consider engaging their learners in ‘future-gazing’ –
debating and contemplating hitherto unknown technologies.

Link to: Information Resource for Computing History Timeline – ‘starter for ten’

Link to Conversations: Computing History Timeline

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An ICT Curriculum for KS3 - core areas of study

The basic concept is of structure based around the areas of, technical knowledge, core skills, e-safety/security,
business/commerce and digital literacy . Not all of these topics need to be covered in depth, and most can and
should be taught within a particular context made relevant to pupils. Within this are identified areas of study that can
be linked to expected levels such as the current QCDA level descriptors for ICT or Bloom’s Taxonomy .

This section should be read in conjunction with and delivered through the sections on Digital Life, Digital Tools and
Digital Technologies.

This is not a scheme of work. Teachers should develop their own schemes, choosing the structure, order and
combination of areas of study to best meet the needs of their pupils.
Areas of Knowledge                                          Indicative Areas of Study
Technical Knowledge
How electronic devices work                                  Integrated Circuits and silicon technology , circuit
                                                             boards, systems, sub-systems, components.
Networks - how they work                                     LANs, WANs, wireless, telecommunications, network
                                                             topology, switches, routers, security, internet
Data storage                                                 Hard drives, solid state storage, backup, cloud, benefits
                                                             and risks of each.
Program, game and apps creation                              Binary, logic gates, Boolean logic, flow charts, input,
                                                             process and output, subsystems, control languages and
                                                             robotics e.g. LOGO, Scratch, Lego Mindstorms,
                                                             programming languages, introduction to programming,
                                                             apps design and creation. Comparison with non-
                                                             programming methods
ICT systems lifecycle                                        Definition of the problem, feasibility study, investigation
                                                             and analysis, design, development (programming),
                                                             testing, implementation, documentation, evaluation,
Systems Design and User-centred Design                       Both are about understanding user goals. SD considers
                                                             users in relation to a context and their interaction with
                                                             devices, each other, and themselves. UCD considers
                                                             information about the people who will use the product.
Embedded systems                                             Such as in telecommunications, consumer electronics,
                                                             transportation systems, medical equipment,
                                                             environmental control, multi-function devices including
                                                             smart phones.
Industry standards                                           De facto standards (e.g. embedded data in an MP3), de-
                                                             jure standards (e.g. ASCII, wireless protocols etc).
Organisation of data and data standards                      Data types, data structures, flat file and relational
                                                             databases, data quality, standards for data management,
                                                             data protection.

Core Skills
Digital communication including online environments          Knowledge of the functions, core technologies and
                                                             applications of text processing, graphics, sound, video,
                                                             email, SMS, web – including html, wikis, social networks,
                                                             user-generated content.
Producing and editing all types of media                     Expertise in creating digital documents; planning,
                                                             producing, editing graphics, sound and video for online

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Modeling – CAD, gaming, spreadsheet                           CAD, spreadsheet models, simulations including e.g.
                                                              science, medical, hydrology; core concepts of games
                                                              design and development including programming.
Control, data logging and programming                         Control of physical devices including sensors and
                                                              feedback; control programs (e.g. LOGO, Scratch); macros
                                                              and Visual basic in spreadsheets; music composition
Problem solving                                               Applying ICT knowledge and understanding to given
                                                              problems in personal, social and business contexts.
ICT career paths and working life                             ICT specific jobs – programmers, technicians, network
                                                              managers, systems analysts, database and e-commerce
                                                              developers, telecommunications designers and engineers
                                                              etc. ICT based jobs – games developers, graphic artists,
                                                              special effects creation, web designers, animators,
                                                              designers etc.

Safety, Security and the Law
Personal e-safety                                             Passwords, logons, bio-identity data, firewalls, antivirus,
                                                              viruses, worms, trojans, keeping personal data safe,
                                                              identity protection, trolling, social networking, cyber-
                                                              bullying, erasing data, medical/health issues.
Legal issues – Copyright, data-protection, hacking            Defamation, copyright, digital rights management
                                                              systems, data protection, online purchasing, spamming,
                                                              proxy avoidance, obscenity, discrimination,
Legislation concerning ICT                                    Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA) as
                                                              amended, Digital Economy Act 2010, Creative Commons,
                                                              Computer Misuse Act 1990, Data Protection Act 1998,
                                                              Information Commissioner, Health and Safety at Work
                                                              Act 1994. Law relating to intellectual property rights
Environmental issues                                          Energy issues, EU WEEE Directive – disposal, recycling.

Business aspects of ICT                                       Schools describe excellent outcomes when areas of study
                                                              are taught in a diverse range of business contexts
Common business software and applications (industry           Applications centred around office activities including at
standard hardware and software inc open source)               least word processing, presentation software,
                                                              spreadsheets, databases including document design,
                                                              layout, styles and formats, project management. This is
                                                              about transferable skills – pupils should be able to
                                                              quickly understand how to apply their skills to
                                                              unfamiliar/bespoke software
Collaboration and communication                               Including; email tools, audio and video conferencing,
                                                              shared document development, smart phones and apps,
                                                              communication etiquette and protocols, viral marketing.
Web design                                                    Design process, audience, layout, links, navigation,
                                                              graphics, objects, authoring tools.
Creative industries                                           Applications relevant to (including); advertising,
                                                              architecture, art and antiques, computer games, crafts,
                                                              design, designer fashion, film and video, music,
                                                              performing arts, publishing, software, TV and radio

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e-commerce                                                  Website design, payment systems, security, data
                                                            protection, authentication, USO, Shibboleth
Work related learning/training                              Information from practitioners including presentations in
                                                            a range of ICT contexts; visits (actual or virtual) to e.g.
                                                            WAN centres, radio and TV production, games designers
                                                            etc. Parents, governors, school manager

Digital literacy and Personal use of ICT –
Online identities                                           Security of user names and passwords, identity theft, bio-
                                                            identity data, netiquette, misuse and abuse, online
                                                            financial management, fraud.
Social networking                                           Benefits, harms, ethics, design, content, promotion.
Creating and sharing                                        User generated content, social networks, audit trails,
                                                            copyright and intellectual property rights.
Gaming                                                      Games design, creation and distribution.
Learning                                                    Self-study, shared study, use of VLEs, revision, plagiarism.
Finding, retrieving and                                     Search techniques, validity of sites and data, bias, linking,
validating information                                      attribution – i.e. basics of information science.
Impact of ICT on society                                    Communications, entertainment, publishing, commerce,
                                                            banking, automated trading, jobs, CCTV etc.

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Outline Principles

In all activities, pupils should be encouraged to model the systems design (or user-centred design)
process which helps develop higher thinking skills and maps well to Bloom’s Taxonomy as a means
of assessment. This may include project management ideas. Schools tell us that this works
particularly well when the teacher models the process habitually in lessons.

We base our proposals on the concept that learners have a “Digital Life”. In practice this will be
several interwoven digital lives - school, work, social networks, gaming, day to day activities such
as shopping and possibly use of Web 3.0xv technologies. All require learners to have a wide range
of core skills, knowledge and competence if they are to be effective, safe and knowledgeable
citizens. We break this down into three main areas into which the proposed core areas of study
can be mapped

Digital Life
This section concerns the impact of technology on individuals, such as;
     What a ‘computer’ is Link to: Conversations: Silicon Chips / Integrated Circuits
     current and emerging technologies e.g. personal digital devices
     connectivity
     online purchasing and services
     online communities and social networking
     risks in using ICT and safe practice including ethical and legal issues.

Jump to: Digital Life

Digital Tools
This section concerns the digital tools that support enquiry based learning and how these tools
may be used to create and design digital artefacts;
     examination of features of digital artefacts
     initiating ideas, including research and information gathering
     defining ideas and responding including modelling and prototyping
     designing, creating, making and documenting
     communicating
     presenting and evaluating

Jump to: Digital Tools

Digital Technologies
This section is concerned with the design of systems including:
     examination of features of digital systems, developing knowledge and understanding of
        design, system and user-centred design and the system life cycle
     developing awareness of the design process in real world situations with understanding of
        context, analysis, design, testing, implementation and critical evaluation
     design documentation.
Jump to: Digital Technologies

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Digital Life – indicative topic areas

We all have a digital life involving multifaceted interwoven strands that include home life,
education, employment, social networking, entertainmentxvi and activities such as e-commerce
and use of emerging technologies. It is thus essential that we are able to utilise effectively, safely
and responsibly the broad range of tools and services available.

1         Personal devices
Examples of digital devices include:             Related topic suggestions:

    Integrated circuits                            what is a computer
    Connected goods (e.g. fridge, TV)              how goods might be connected and why
    Cameras and camcorders                         choice of suitable devices and reasons
    Games, devices, haptics                        purpose and audience
    Home entertainment systems                     how features might affect choice, impact of diversityxvii on
    Mobile phones                                   choices and use
    Media players                                  how people use devices
    Multi function personal devices                connectivity of , communication between devices
    Personal computers (portable,                  peripheral devices
                                                    impact of device on individual and groups
    GPS devices
                                                    health and safety, security , responsible use

2.        Connecting devices and systems
 Examples of connection and need                 Related topic suggestions:
    communication solutions                        choice of communication modes
    device to device (cable, wireless)             issues of connectivity
    broadcast (TV, radio, GPS)                     contention ratio e.g. home broadband v RBC. Effect on user
    email, voice, video                            a home network components
    use e.g. gaming, downloading                   communication protocols e.g. VoIP, SMTP, HTTP/S
    connected goods – fridge, TV etc               keeping the system secure e.g. firewalls, WEP
                                                    mixing technologies for a purpose e.g. how a photo might be
                                                     taken and accessed by others remotely
                                                    responsible use of networks
                                                    the impact of networks

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3.    Life online
 Examples include:                             Related topic suggestions.
      Data protection                             www, internet, common use
      Internet                                    safe and responsible use
      Online identity                             making your space personal
      Profiles, privacy and spaces
                                                   misuse of personal information
      Risks and issues
                                                   Data Protection Act
        World Wide Web

4.    Buying, receiving and storing online
 Examples include:                     Related topic suggestions:
     Online shopping, booking, banking            advantages and disadvantages of online commercial activity
     Learning online                              marketing
     Gaming                                       payment methods
     Information online e.g. maps                 impact of online purchase, distribution and returns
     Streaming video                              impact on the high street
     Zero footprint and online software           cloud v locally software/storage. Learning Platforms
     Data storage                                 free/open source v commercial software and the impact on
     Search engines                                commercial providers
                                                   Internet search engines, methods, bias and validity of results

5.    Online communities
 Examples include:                             Related topic suggestions:
   Social networking                            different kinds of online communities and their use
   Online work spaces                           creating content online
   Learning Platforms                           safe, responsible use of online communities
   Wikis, blogs etc                             ownership of websites

6.    Choices
 Examples include:                             Related topic suggestions:
     Security                                     safe and secure use
     Privacy, safety and risks                    health and safety
     Health and safety                            ergonomics
     Legislation and behaviour                    testing security, hacking to learn
     Being green                                  copyright and data protection
     Ethical hacking                              the digital divide in the UK and abroad
                                                   disposal of devices, energy and green impact

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Digital Tools – indicative topic areas
This section focuses on Digital tools which are an integral part of the well regarded ‘enquiring
minds’xviii approach, and Digital Artefacts. Jump to Digital Artefacts

Digital tools and resources enable us to innovate, research and generate knowledge and the topic
considers how this may impact on other individuals, groups and society. In some cases digital
tools can be used to create artefacts that themselves become tools; programming is an example of
this and the section lends itself to developing some of the Computer Science curriculum. Digital
tools are about applying a range of third party and self created tools to undertake a given task e.g.
Digital cameras can assist young people in observing the world around them and shared online
discussion forums can help them to refine and share ideas.

Digital artefacts include digital documents, presentations, programmes and codes, video and audio
files, images and photographs.


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Digital Tools

1.       Researching and storing information

  Examples include:                         Related topic suggestions:
 analogue and digital information            advantages and disadvantages of a range of analogue
  sources                                      and digital information sources
 secondary sources                           interprets and analyses primary sources
                                              secondary sources may include content from primary
                                              advantages and disadvantages of publications:
                                               textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms,
                                               commentaries, encyclopaedias
                                              select appropriate sources
                                              appropriate searches
                                              quality, relevance, accuracy and bias
                                              legislation and ethics; copyright, intellectual property
                                             documents / objects written or created during the
    primary sources
                                                time under study.
                                             sources present during an experience or time period
                                                e.g. inside view of event.
                                             original documents, recordings etc

    databases                                  advantages and disadvantages of databases
                                                structure, common data types, records and tables
                                                add and amend records
                                                simple searches, relational searches and sorting
                                                interpret results
                                                explain choices made setting up the database
                                                 including audience, purpose and output

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2.       Modelling
Examples include:                            Related topic suggestions:
    spreadsheet models                          advantages and disadvantages
                                                 collect data for use in a model
                                                 understand common data types
                                                 input data
                                                 format data types
                                                 use formulae, functions and variables
                                                 use verification and validation techniques
                                                 improve clarity and presentation
                                                 model ideas and hypotheses
                                                   ask ‘what if’ questions
                                                   try out alternatives
                                                   charts and graphs
                                                   verify results
                                                   interpret results
    evaluation                                  explain choices made setting up the spreadsheet
                                                  including audience, purpose and output

3.       Publishing online
Examples include:                            Related topic suggestions:
    publishing tools                            advantages and disadvantages

 design digital publications and                use design tools (storyboarding, templates)
  interactive artefacts with sense of            refine after feedback from test users
  purpose & audience                             Use and combine content e.g. text, number, sound,
 the different types of digital                  images, video, animation
  content                                        purpose and audience
 digital publications and interactive           clarity
                                                 functionality and usability
    evaluation                                  explain choices made setting up the publication
                                                  including audience, purpose, appearance and usability

Document1               Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12        Page 18 / 70
Digital Artefacts – indicative topic areas
Digital technologies involves the use of digital tools and affords many types of digital artefacts
which are likely to be combined for a purpose or to builds a system, for example creating a
website containing information, photos and video about a particular interest for others to use.
Creating an artefact can include designing, developing and creating for a purpose such as
programming a game or developing an app for others to use. This includes but is not solely
focused, on development of pupils’ computational thinking, knowledge and understanding of
computer science and coding. Using a programming tool, pupils may create an artefact which is
itself a tool. Pupils need to know about their key characteristics and be able to evaluate their
design and suggest improvements.

Digital artefacts include digital documents, presentations, programmes and codes, video and audio
files, images and photographs.

1           Examples of digital artefacts

    Examples include:                            Related topic suggestions:

     web related artefacts                       purpose of digital artefacts
     maps                                        how design is influenced by the audience and hosting
     collaboration/forums                        importance of good design and user experience
     messaging                                   functionality, usability and accessibility
     games                                       evaluation
     databases                                   cultural influences
     multimedia                                  roles in digital design
     simulations                                 game related;
     presentations                                      software development
     e-books                                            agile development
     advertisements                                     iterative prototyping
     video/audio/tv on demand/podcasts                  software prototyping
     video-conference                                   Scrum
     genealogy                                          sprites
                                                         3D models
                                                         regression testing
                                                         Lead programmer, game developer, user interface

2           Overview of digital artefact design process
Examples include:                               Related topic suggestions:
       Investigate                               overview of a range of different artefact types
                                                  key features of digital artefacts
                                                  the review process

       Review a digital artefact (the less       audience and purpose
        able may benefit from attempting          strengths and weaknesses
        this section)                             functionality, usability

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                                                  ratings
                                                  recommendations

       Produce a proposal (allows access           how it meets audience needs
        to higher attainment levels)                purpose of artefact
                                                    overview and key features of the artefact, including
                                                     input, processing and output, interactivity and
                                                    plans for testing and feedback
                                                    resources required
                                                    how artefact will be demonstrated
                                                    success criteria
                                                    clear articulation of pans and taking account of
                                                     feedback from others

3      Designing digital artefacts
Stimulus question: We have a strong culture of planned obsolescence for our objects. When we
consider digital tools and artefacts we assume that they are purchased to be replaced within just a
few years because of new gadgets or tools. What it might mean to design an object that a person
would use or keep with them for life, and pass to others – an heirloom digital artefact?

 Examples include:                               Related topic suggestions:
     Images including banners, icons and         design elements and effects
      bullets,                                    file types
     Audio                                       data capture forms
     Video                                       video constraints
     Text                                        graphics types and constraints
     Animation                                   re-purposing elements
                                                  copyright e.g. Creative Commons licences
                                                  memory and constraints on file types

4          Artefact design principles

 Examples include:                               Related topic suggestions:
                                                  arrangement of elements
     Proximity, Visual hierarchy
                                                  colours, shapes, style and balance
     Symmetry / Asymmetry
                                                  focal points/priority
     Repetition
                                                  house styles
     Unity, Contrast
                                                  combination of elements to achieve harmony
     Dynamics, Emphasis
                                                  illusions
     Composition, Consistency
                                                  consistency
     Usability, Accessibility
                                                  accessibility
     Legal/ethical behaviour
                                                  intellectual property, copyright, licences and permissions

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Digital Technologies – indicative topic areas
Digital Technologies section focuses on two main sections; that of systems design and life-cycle
and that of user-centred design.

Systems design and user-centred design have considerable overlap. A systems designer looks at
users in relation to a context and in terms of their interaction with devices, with each other, with
themselves and in terms of the output desired; it may consider software, hardware, data, coding,
testing and life-cycle. User-centred design (UCD) is an approach to design that grounds the process
in information about the people who will use the product; it is likely to focus on programming or

This section is central to raising attainment with the ICT curriculum and brings together the areas
of Digital Life and Digital Tools. It supports development of computational thinking and the
Computer Science agenda where appropriate.

Systems Design – indicative topic areas
This section allows pupils to access higher attainment levels. Less able pupils may benefit from
attempting this and can ‘rise to the challenge’. All will benefit from seeing what a good written
evaluation looks like; however alternative routes to evidence include video, blog and teacher
questioning. It is important that systems design is focused on a real-life context such as a
business, home or social context with which the pupil can relate.

The core of both systems and user-centred approaches is understanding user goals. A systems
approach looks at users in relation to a context and their interaction with devices, with others, and

Systems design references to and consolidates learning from the An ICT Curriculum for KS3 - core
areas of study [Link]

Link to: System Design and Lifecycle: Teacher Information
Link to: Example Systems Design Process & Assessment: Mobile Apps

Document1             Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12      Page 21 / 70
Systems Design
1     Overview
 Examples include:                           Related topic suggestions:

  analysis , design, testing,                user guides, data capture forms
   implementation, evaluation                 how information systems work
  structure of information systems           what an ICT system is
  input, output, processing, feedback,       typical data, extreme, erroneous data
   sensors                                    writing programs, purchasing hardware and software, designing
  users                                       templates and models, writing user documentation, testing the
  integration of ICT devices and ICT          system, evaluating SMART criteria outcomes
   information systems, media                 user documentation; user guide, installation details, input and
   integration                                 output samples, screen shots, installing networks, training staff
  types of ICT system; Information           hardware, software, data, communications technology
   systems, Control systems,                  how, why and when people use the system
   Communications systems                     advantages and disadvantages of information system options
  input, output and system diagrams          Garbage In, Garbage Out (GIGO)
  Integration of information services        ICT system diagram
  SMART success criteria                     multi-purpose devices, connected things
                                              digital broadcasting

Development of higher thinking skills is most effective via engaging pupils in designing systems for
other to use. It is unlikely that lower ability or SEN pupils would be able to write an evaluation for
a project – but the teacher should be creative about obtaining evidence; questioning, observation,
video, photos, presentation, the pupil teaching another pupil/adult new ICT skills. However, some
pupils will demonstrate the required maturity in thinking and written articulation prior to
transition to KS3 and it will certainly become more evident in KS3 from Year 7 onwards according
to pupil ability. In a mixed ability school, typically 10%-20% Year 7 pupils will be able to write an
evaluation to support indicative assessment at level 7 or beyond. Link to: Conversations:
Evaluation Reports
ICT Evaluations should contain an explanation of (in pupil language);
     Context
     Analysis (what the problem/s is/are, the users, the tasks, the desired outcomes as SMART
     Design (including success criteria referring back to Analysis) Note designed systems can be
       based on commercial applications, programming or a combination – the decision should be
     Implementation (dry run – short version e.g. a database of 10-20 records is sufficient to
       establish a suitable solution). The implementation may be focused on programming.
     Testing (trying to make it fail too – what happens if? Expected, extreme and erroneous
       data. User feedback)
     Refinement (improving from test findings)
     Re-testing
     Evaluation (how well it works compared with success criteria articulated in the analysis)

Document1              Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12           Page 22 / 70
It is not necessary to include endless screen shots or printouts; the narrative should offer sufficient
evidence of the design process and the outcome. Pupils may wish to include screen capture for
purposes of illustration. The evaluation report should be interesting to a layperson and a
celebration of the pupil’s work. It should be written objectively and without ‘behaviour’
comments such as “I could of worked quicker” [sic] unless this illustrates a demand on the
intended user or audience.

Level 7 for example is the equivalent of GCSE grade C. Look for opportunities for all pupils to
demonstrate higher levels by adjusting activities and learning outcomes – the less able will often
respond to a challenge.

2          Context
 Examples include:                                Related topic suggestions:
        account of context                           Background to business etc
        reasons for introducing a new                Changes in the way work is carried out
         system                                       Business expansion
                                                      External influences e.g. requirement to store records
                                                      system redundant or outdated
                                                       Competition using more advanced or cost-effective systems
                                                      Customers demands
                                                       Software upgrade (impact on hardware)
                                                      Need for flexibility/reduced cost
                                                      Supplier/customer data processing changes

3     Analysis
Examples include:                                Related topic suggestions:
       Feasibility study                         Risk and benefits of options

       define the problem that the                  storage
                                                     data entry methods
        system is meant to overcome
                                                     employee use
                                                     total costs
                                                     performance
                                                     external factors
       define how the old system works              how information is handled & how people interact with it
                                                     relationships between the various systems
        (investigation) and the
                                                     data flow diagrams, process diagrams
                                                     requirements
                                                     functions – input/output/users/process
                                                      its expected performance
                                                      how it connects to other systems
                                                      how it is going to be maintained, kept secure. expected
                                                     SMART criteria

4     Design
Examples include:                                            Related topic suggestions:
       Design phase                                          data inputs/outputs
                                                              screen layouts

Document1                   Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12           Page 23 / 70
                                                           print out
                                                           data flow and procedures
                                                           file structure
                                                           data access, index, sort
                                                           operating system
                                                           hardware
                                                           code
                                                           testing plan
                                                           prototype

5     Implementation
Examples include:                                      Related topic suggestions:
   data conversion                                     changeover; direct, phased, parallel, partial
   system changeover                                   advantages and disadvantages
   training                                            user guide

6     Testing
Examples include:                                      Related topic suggestions:
   testing methods                                     expected, extreme and erroneous data
                                                        error messages

7     Evaluation
Examples include:                                      Related topic suggestions:
    Context                                            Reiteration of what the problem/s is/are,
    Analysis                                              the users, the tasks, the desired outcomes
    Design                                                as SMART criteria.
                                                        success criteria referring back to Analysis
    Implementation
                                                        dry run – short version e.g. a database of
    Testing
                                                           10-20 records is sufficient to establish a
    Refinement Re-testing                                 suitable solution.
 Evaluation                                            Testing results, trying to make it fail, what
                                                           happens if? Expected, extreme and
                                                           erroneous data. User feedback
                                                        how well it works compared with success
                                                           criteria articulated in the analysis

Document1             Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12         Page 24 / 70
The user-centred design process - indicative topic areas
Allows access to higher attainment levels; less able may benefit from the attempting this.
Evidence could include written reports, video and questioning. Implementation may include a
coding solution if appropriate.
Link to: User-Centred Design: Teacher Information

1         Overview
 Examples include:                               Related topic suggestions:

     Describing the context                      working to a brief, including project management
     Analysing and establishing user             market research
      requirements, Success criteria              user requirements
     Design and development                      audience effect
     Short implementation                        the iterative approach to design and development
     Testing, evaluation & refinement            user feedback and response
     Implementation
     Evaluation against success criteria
     User documentation/help guides
     Time management

2     Quality assurance
Allows access to higher attainment levels
 Examples include:                               Related topic suggestions:
     Formative testing                           different types of testing including expected, extreme,
     Summative testing                            erroneous (e.g. DOB = 11 August, = 29 February, =32 April)
     Test users                                  what and how to test
                                                  testing performance in different conditions
                                                  collecting feedback (checklist, interview, questionnaire)
                                                  refining after testing
                                                  retest

3         Evaluation
Evaluating outcomes includes
Review outcomes                                             Work collaboratively
 compare with requirements                                  choose suitable test users
 identify strengths and weaknesses                          respond appropriately to feedback from others
 suggest possible improvements                              give constructive feedback to others

Document1                  Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12           Page 25 / 70
4         Design documentation

 Examples include:                             Related topic suggestions:
                                                the purpose of design documents
     Storyboards
                                                content of design documents
     Flowcharts
                                                comparing others’ documentation
     Timeline storyboards
     Scripts
     Mock-ups
     Screen shots
     Structure diagrams

Link to: Example Systems Design Process & Assessment: Mobile Apps

Document1                Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12           Page 26 / 70
Example Systems Design Process & Assessment: Mobile Apps
             • Analysis                                                             • Design
               Defines project goals                                                  Describes desired features
               into defined functions                                                 and operations in detail,
               and operation of the                                                   including screen layouts,
                                                                                      business rules, process
               intended application.                                                  diagrams and other
               Analyses end-user                                                      documentation
               information needs

                                        Analyse                   Design

                                        Evaluate                Refine &
             • Evaluate                                                             • Implement,
               assessment of the                                                      Test & Refine
               effectiveness of app                                                    Real app is developed,
               system designs against                                                  checked for errors, bugs
               success criteria                                                        and interoperability

                             Context      Recognise real market opportunities: recount and analyse
                                          real stories of real problems. Identify areas where real-life
                                                                problems occur for further exploration

The approach to designing mobile apps described in this paper supports the development of
pupils’ higher thinking skills and allows them to access National Curriculum levels 7 and Bloom’s
Taxonomy 6 or higher throughout Key Stage 3. The assessment and learning opportunities have
two potential aspects; that of the system design and evaluation methodology and the product
design aspect of understanding personal digital technology and creating and marketing of a viable
app; the design principles are suitable to professional tools and/or programming.
Evidence of attainment is about recording stages and decisions as described below; this might be
via written report / blog / video / podcast / teacher questioning depending on the literacy level of
the pupil. There is of course the variety of learning outcomes as a result of using the app and apps
designed by other pupils or teachers.

The Systems Design Process

Pupils should learn about what is possible with mobile apps by taking a closer look at what an app
is, and what current mobile functions are available, using desktop research (e.g. Apple store,
Android and Blackberry apps stores, web search, interviews and other relevant websites. Pupils
perfect their ability to recognise real opportunities in the market in a personal way: recounting
and analysing real stories of real problems that they or people they know have experienced. By

Document1                Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12                  Page 27 / 70
sharing and discussing their experiences, and those of the people they know, they identify a whole
range of areas where every-day, real-life problems occur for further investigation and description.

Pupils investigate the various opportunities they have identified by interviewing stakeholders to
understand the context of desired outcomes that may be neglected and where apps might add
value. This part of the design process may include a feasibility study. By the end of this stage
pupils will have much clearer, more defined knowledge of who and where (physically) their
users/potential clients are, their motivations, interactions, and how they might use an app for a
purpose. They might usefully observe the user interacting with similar apps or prototypes.
They need to identify the likely users, the purpose of the app, data needed for capture/output and
what the outcome will be and how it might be communicated to the user. Working out the App
success criteria is important.

The broader topic of product development blends the perspective of marketing, design, and
manufacturing into a single approach to product development, so that design is the act of taking
the marketing information and creating the design of the product to be manufactured. Systems
design is the process of defining and developing systems (such as the interface look and feel and
how data flows) to satisfy the specified requirements of the user. App design involves pupils
developing a strategy for the best execution of their idea. They learn about how best to organise
enterprise around their application, also beginning the iteration of strategies for marketing,
distribution and business planning.

Once the product aspect of design is complete, pupils focus on perfecting their product design,
testing and improving the feature sets and user interactions in dialogue with potential users and
mindful of success criteria. This can be done through storyboards, paper wireframes as well as
interactive tools to allow for click through animations.

Implement, test & refine
Using a range of tools, pupils will work to create the first prototype app to be deployed onto the
relevant platform. They will then work to test and refine their design and get real-life testing
feedback from the public. The implemented app is supported, repaired, developed, upgraded and
constantly reviewed and evaluated to ensure that improvements are made to meet changing
statutory and user requirements and that the expected benefits are delivered.
In this phase those who are programming a solution translate the design into code. Computer
programs are written using a conventional programming language or an application generator:
Programming tools like Compilers, Interpreters, Debuggers are used to generate the code.
Different high level programming languages such as C, C++, Pascal, Java might be used for coding
and with respect to the type of application, the right programming language is chosen.

Document1             Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12    Page 28 / 70
Pupils comprehensively assess the effectiveness of app system design against the success criteria
expressed during the Analysis stage. Evaluation means ‘assessing a product’ and it is done
throughout the design and production process; it will include a description of method, choices and
testing. To evaluate a product (i.e. the App), a number of questions have to be considered, such
as: Does the app meet the specification? | Does it meet the needs of the user? | Is it fit for
purpose? Pupils need to evaluate their own apps and apps that already exist.
Apps can be evaluated against the original specification through testing. This can be done by using
the app, performance testing, and testing for appropriateness. It involves asking the following
questions: Is the app easy and convenient to use? | Does it do its job? | Does it appeal to the
       Quality of design - how well the app meets the user's needs
       Quality of build - how well the app has been made
The app is tested to see that it meets its specification and success criteria. The following questions
are asked: Does it do the job for which it was designed? | Does it work on the platform(s) where it
is used? | Does it meet other specification requirements?
Link to: Attainment targets for ICT      with typical UK equivalent. See Level 7 in particular

                                     This paper is available at

               This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
               3.0 Unported License.

Document1             Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12            Page 29 / 70
History of Computing - Opportunities
Adapted from Computing Research Association

Using history as a supportive component of the teaching and learning of topics within ICT can
provide an extra dimension to recall of the subject, while at the same time contributing a
‘humanistic’ view of a highly technical field. While pupils were born after the advent of the
personal computer and have never known a world in which a company like Microsoft did not exist,
most are totally ignorant of the stages of development that led from the first machines to the
Information Age in which they live.

Historical material help ICT teachers to liven and flesh out the topics with facts, rather than
repeating stale, incorrect, or misleading anecdotes.

      For more able pupils, history can place the technical or scientific advances of computing
       into an economic, social, legal, and political context, giving them a realistic but not
       condescending sense of progression
      History can let pupils know of the excitement, richness, and diversity of work in the field,
       and give them a sense of how they might someday be a part of it.
      History may be a way to introduce basic concepts of ICT to pupils considering a career in
       ICT, with the assumption that concepts such as memory, processing, I/O, and so on are
       more easily grasped when looking at early machines than a modern microprocessor.
Finally, introducing history into an ICT curriculum may enhance the quality of research done by
historians. When historians become involved in this process, they will encounter topics and pupils
who, thanks to Moore’s Law, will be part of history before long.

Jump to: Information Resource for Computing History Timeline – ‘starter for ten’

Jump to: Conversations: Computing History Timeline

Document1              Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12      Page 30 / 70
Development suggestions

Issue                  Development
                       exploring moral, cultural or environmental decisions in ICT tasks, achieving
                       feelings of wellbeing and spirituality.
                       investigating the impact of digital inclusion and the digital divide locally,
                       nationally and globally
                       exploring issues that arise when information is transmitted and stored
Social                 discussing issues surrounding the use of social networking
                       exploring the legislation relating to the use of ICT, including copyright and
                       data protection
                       advantages and disadvantages of shopping online rather than in the high
                       street, JIT ordering systems, video conferencing etc
Cultural               investigating how organisations use ICT to support different cultures
                       exploring ways of minimising/mitigating the environmental impact of digital
                       discussing health and safety issues relating to the use of ICT equipment and
Health and safety
                       the ways in which problems can be avoided
                       investigating how data protection issues in the use of ICT require EI and
European initiatives
                       legislative consideration

Document1              Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12      Page 31 / 70
Conversations: Silicon Chips / Integrated Circuits

    I used the pilot Silicon Wafer Naace CPD resources. I found the video covering
    from sand to microchip really helpful for Year 9 classes. I stopped it every so often
    as suggested and explained briefly some of the harder concepts or to point out a
    particularly interesting topic. I have never seen a whole class with their mouths
    open – literally. I was worried about the silence – but then a buzz started and it
    didn’t stop!
    Luckily I had been given some a silicon wafer and chips to show my class – they
    could generally make out the top 5 layers of the thousands of layers of circuits –
    pink, green, gold, blue were the main colours of evidence. I also showed them
    some silicon chips with the wiring & motherboard.
    What was really impressive was how this resource really made them understand
    that the computer isn’t a box & wires, it’s a tiny thing less than half the size of my
    little fingernail! They realised how many daily objects use ICs and how it’s
    The most sophisticated silicon chip, a microprocessor, can contain hundreds of
    millions or billions of transistors interconnected by fine wires made of copper. Each
    transistor acts as an on/off switch, controlling the flow of electricity through the
    chip to send, receive and process information in a fraction of a second.
    As they left the room they were still talking about it. The sheer scaling of silicon
    technology had astounded them.
    We went on to binary switching – because they had seen how the IC or microchip
    uses on/off or 0 1 states, like light switches. The class worked out all the possible
    permutations of an 8 switch bank and we went on to other coding including ASCII.
    I used this as a basis for two further projects; one on coding, programming and
    developing computational thinking, the other on control technologies via ‘analogue
    and digital’ and data logging.
    We also used our knowledge to ‘future gaze’ during the Computing History topic
    and they got very interested in nanotechnology.
    Head of ICT Department

Document1            Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12   Page 32 / 70
      Conversations: Computing History Timeline
      Link to Resource

          I thought this topic would                             I printed off some topics and got my class to
          be boring but my classes                               sort them in order. Nobody got them right,
          got really interested.                                 but they were all amazed at the how
          Lots of parents could                                  changes in technology had speeded up –
          describe the days before                               talked about mobile phone in their lifetime.
          internet and Google.                                   More able pupils talked about how some
          Grandparents could remember                            items had no history because they were only
          when a computer took up a                              developed recently; they were surprised that
          space the size of our Gym!                             things changed faster than the history of the
          One grandad came in and                                motor car.
          described taking his dog                               We video conferenced with a couple of
          into the computer when he                              experts – very interesting.
          did night duty! Pupils
          were quite shocked.                                    What was really effective was a ‘future-
          Teacher of Year 7 ICT                                  gazing’ session. Students got really involved
                                                                 and designs included very clever thinking.
    We found masses of information about                         I’ve one very disabled boy who comes in
    computer history. Some pupils experimented                   from time to time – he used his adapted
                                                                 wheelchair input device to write about a
    with coding on our very old machine. Some
                                                                 nano robot chip that could be implanted to
    played ‘Barrels’ – loved it, wrote their own
                                                                 his muscle functions. Impressive stuff!
                                                                 Teacher of Year 9 ICT
    We printed out info, code & pics, then stuck
    them on talking postcards with a recorded
    voice-over & made a wall display. Younger kids
    loved it!
    Teacher Year 9 ICT/Computing                                 I decided to make a timeline wall. Each
                                                                 pupil researched a topic and found or
                                                                 printed photos that they embedded in
   Set research on computer history for homework and             brief descriptions. We built the timeline
  everyone did a presentation. My pupils sort of missed          across a wall in the classroom and
 the point and it seemed to just be a list of facts. They
                                                                 pinned the topics up in the right ‘time-
didn’t ‘get’ the impact of the new technologies & Moore’s
 Law - I’ll be much more adventurous next year! I want           zone’
to try online mindmapping & maybe Flashmeeting with a            Teacher of Year 8 ICT
                school we know in New York
              Teacher Year 9 ICT/Computing

      Document1             Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich | March 12         Page 33 / 70
Conversations: Evaluation Reports

 I got my pupils to appoint a ‘SID’ – it means Standard
 IDiot Test and it’s what flatpack furniture makers are
 supposed to do with their instructions! It really means,
 get a layperson to read your report – if they can
 understand it – good, if they can’t, it’s up to the pupil to
 put it right! It’s a good way to involve parents
 meaningfully and it gives pupils a real audience to write
 for. It only works with adults – not at all with siblings.
 Teacher, Year 9

                              All my year groups attempt evaluation (all mixed
                              ability). After a unit of work we generally do a
                              longer project that brings everything together – at
                              the end of a term or even half term. I set it in a
                              context they can recognise.

                              I have examples around the room – some I’ve made
                              up to look like pupil writing but covering essential
                              points with red pen ‘marking’. Pupils never copy but
                              need to see what ‘good’ looks like. The examples
                              have all the elements of systems design. Some able
                              Year 7 can write like this because their literacy levels
                              are high. Others struggle and I use questioning (very
                              much with less able) and video for evidence.

                              By Year 9 they’re all pretty good at measurable
                              success criteria and evaluation. I get some level 7s in
                              Yr 7, lots in Yr 9 (and Ofsted agreed)
                              Head of Dept ICT

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Attainment targets for ICT      with typical UK equivalent.
These are based on QCDA targets, mapped to Bloom’s Taxonomy and with commentary drawn
from real schools. The QCDA targets are broad enough in description that they are generic, not
specific and can be comfortably used with emerging technologies, but teachers have told us that
they find the mapping to Bloom’s along with the commentary to be very helpful. It is helpful if
teachers “translate” terminology into pupil-level language so that assessment can be summative,
formative and informative. RAG status can help parents
Level 1         All years UK low - needs constant help
                See Bloom’s Taxonomy level 1-2 (Knowledge & some Comprehension)
Pupils explore information from various sources, showing they know that information exists in
different forms. They use ICT to work with text, images and sound to help them share their ideas.
They recognise that many everyday devices respond to signals and instructions. They make choices
when using such devices to produce different outcomes. They talk about their use of ICT. They are
likely to need 1 to 1 help for the simplest tasks.
Level 2         KS1 average, otherwise all years UK low - has basic skills
                See Bloom’s Taxonomy levels 1-2 (Comprehension & some Application)
Pupils use ICT to organise and classify information and to present their findings. They enter, save
and retrieve work without help. They use ICT to help them generate, amend and record their work
and share their ideas in different forms, including text, tables, images and sound. They plan and
give instructions to make things happen and describe the effects. They use ICT to explore what
happens in real and imaginary situations. They talk about their experiences of ICT both inside and
outside school.
Level 3         Above average KS1. Within range KS2
                See Bloom’s Taxonomy level 4 (Application)
                Yr. 7, 8 & 9 = UK – below average,
                Yrs. 10 & 11 = UK weak, some ability
Pupils use ICT to save information and to find and use appropriate stored information, following
straightforward lines of enquiry. They use ICT to generate, develop, organise and present their
work. They share and exchange their ideas with others. They use sequences of instructions to
control devices and achieve specific outcomes. They make appropriate choices when using ICT-
based models or simulations to help them find things out and solve problems. They describe their
use of ICT and its use outside school.
Level 4        Above average KS1. Average KS2
               See Bloom’s Taxonomy level 3-4 (Application & some Analysis)
               Yrs. (5),6, 7 & 8 = UK marginally above average for age,
               Yrs. 9, 10 & 11 = UK below average for age (typical Yr. 7/8)
Pupils combine and refine different forms of information from various sources. Pupils understand
the need for care in framing questions when collecting, finding and interrogating information.
They interpret their findings, question plausibility and recognise that poor-quality information
leads to unreliable results. They use ICT to present information in different forms and show they
are aware of the intended audience and the need for quality in their presentations. They exchange

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information and ideas with others in a variety of ways, including using digital communication. They
understand the risks associated with communicating digitally, including the security of personal
information. They plan and test sequences of instructions. They use ICT-based models and
simulations to explore patterns and relationships, and make predictions about the consequences
of their decisions. They use ICT to organise, store and retrieve information. They compare their
use of ICT with other methods and with its use outside school.
Level 5         Unusually able KS1. Above average KS2
                See Bloom’s Taxonomy levels 4-5 (analysis with some synthesis)
                Yr. (5) 6, 7 = UK clearly above average for age
                Yrs. 8 & 9 = UK marginally above average for age
                Yrs. 10 & 11 = UK below average for age (typical Yr. 8-9)
Pupils combine ICT tools within the overall structure of an ICT solution. They select the
information they need for different purposes, check its accuracy and organise it in a form suitable
for processing. They use ICT to structure, refine and present information in different forms and
styles for specific purposes and audiences. They exchange information and ideas with others in a
variety of ways, including using digital communications. They create sequences of instructions and
understand the need to be precise when framing and sequencing instructions. They explore the
effects of changing the variables in an ICT-based model. They use ICT to organise, store and
retrieve information using logical and appropriate structures. They use ICT safely and responsibly.
They discuss their knowledge and experience of using ICT and their observations of its use outside
school. They assess the use of ICT in their work and are able to reflect critically in order to make
improvements in subsequent work. They use appropriate evaluation criteria to critically evaluate
the fitness for purpose of their work as it progresses.
Level 6         See Bloom’s Taxonomy levels 4-5 (analysis & synthesis)
                KS1 Gifted
                Yrs. (sometimes 5) 6, 7 & 8 = UK well above average for age
                Yrs. 9 & 10 = UK above average for age
                Yr. 11 = UK below average for age (typical Yr. 9)
Pupils plan and design ICT-based solutions to meet a specific purpose and audience,
demonstrating increased integration and efficiency in their use of ICT tools. They develop and
refine their work to enhance its quality, using a greater range and complexity of
information. Where necessary, they use complex lines of enquiry to test hypotheses. They present
their ideas in a variety of ways and show a clear sense of audience. They develop, try out and
refine sequences of instructions and show efficiency in framing these instructions, using sub-
routines where appropriate. They use ICT-based models to make predictions and vary the rules
within the models. They assess the validity of these models by comparing their behaviour with
information from other sources. They plan and review their work, creating a logically structured
portfolio of digital evidence of their learning. They discuss the impact of ICT on society.

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Level 7        See Bloom’s Taxonomy level 6
Sometimes found in Year 6, 5 or even younger; child must be able to evaluate - teachers will need
to seek ways of enabling evidence as literacy levels may not otherwise cope (questioning, video,
demonstration, etc)
               (= GCSE “C”) Yrs. 7, 8 & 9 = UK unusual competence for age,
               Yr. 10 = UK clearly above average for age
               Yr. 11 = Average (typical GCSE C grade)
Pupils design and implement systems. They are able to scope the information flow required to
develop an information system. They combine information from a variety of ICT-based and other
sources for presentation to different audiences. They identify the advantages and limitations of
different information-handling applications. They select and use information to develop systems
suited to work in a variety of contexts, translating enquiries expressed in ordinary language into
the form required by the system. They develop, test and refine sequences of instructions as part of
an ICT system to solve problems. They design ICT-based models and procedures with variables to
meet particular needs. They consider the benefits and limitations of ICT tools and information
sources and of the results they produce, and they use these results to inform future judgements
about the quality of their work. They make use of audience and user feedback to refine and
enhance their ICT solutions. They take part in informed discussions about the use of ICT and its
impact on society.
Level 8        See Bloom’s Taxonomy level 6          (excellent) (GCSE A-B)
Sometimes in Year 6, 5 or even younger; child must be able to evaluate, teachers will need to seek
ways of enabling evidence as literacy levels may not otherwise cope (questioning, video,
demonstration, etc)
               Yrs. 7, 8 & 9 = UK unusual competence and insight for age,
               Yr. 10 = UK well above average for age
               Yr. 11 = typical GCSE A-B grade
Pupils independently select appropriate information sources and ICT tools for specific tasks, taking
into account ease of use and suitability. They design successful ways to collect and prepare
information for processing. They design and implement systems for others to use. When
developing systems that respond to events, they make appropriate use of feedback. They take
part in informed discussions about the social, economic, ethical and moral issues raised by ICT.

Exceptional performance      All years highest (can range from GCSE to degree level)
Pupils evaluate software packages and ICT-based models, analysing the situations for which they
were developed and assessing their efficiency, ease of use and appropriateness. They suggest
refinements to existing systems and design, implement and document systems for others to use,
predicting some of the consequences that could arise from the use of such systems. When
discussing their own and others' use of ICT, they use their knowledge and experience of
information systems to inform their views on the social, economic, political, legal, ethical and
moral issues raised by ICT.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy - summary
Bloom's Taxonomy divides the way people learn into three domains. One of these is the cognitive
domain which emphasizes intellectual outcomes. This domain is further divided into categories or
levels. The key words used and the type of questions asked may aid in the establishment and
encouragement of critical thinking, especially in the higher levels.

                                              Cognitive Domain
Category                         Description
Level 1 (NC Level 1, 2)
Knowledge                        Remembering previously learned information
Level 2 (NC Level 2, 3)
Comprehension                    Grasping the meaning of information
Level 3 (NC Level 4)
Application                      Applying knowledge to actual situations
Level 4 (NC Level 4, 5)
Higher order
                                 Breaking down objects or ideas into simpler parts and seeing how the
Analysis                         parts relate and are organised
Level 5 (NC Level 5, 6)
Higher order                     Rearranging component ideas into a new whole
Level 6 (NC Level 7, 8+)
Higher order                     Making judgements based on internal evidence or external criteria

Bloom’s in a group ICT project –
                                 Learning objectives for an ICT project
      Work in teams
      Analyse users and purpose including data
      Define functional requirements and constraints imposed on the design
      Perform design component testing and analyse the results
      Use the results during brainstorming
      Identify at least three possible system designs during brainstorming
      Choose one of the designs by using arguments based on knowledge gained during component
       testing, general knowledge of ICT systems and by general observations of existing similar systems
       (whether ICT or not)
      Build and test the prototype
      Refine or redesign
      Build and test the final design. Evaluate it against your original analysis
      Present the design to the other teams
      Write a report describing the design and possibly a user guide

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Learning objective profile for a specific group project




                                                  pr e
                                       w le



                                                                                           th e







           Need recognition
           Problem definition
           Information gathering
           Ideas generation
           Feasibility analysis

NB: Pupils worked individually to reach Synthesis and Evaluation in this instance.

Continuum of higher order thinking with ICT
Individuals          Individuals          Individuals              pupils use               pupils                   pupils
use higher           use higher           use higher              higher order             engage in                engage in
order thinking       order thinking       order thinking          thinking as              collaborative,           collaborative,
as they engage       as they engage       as they engage          they engage in           challenging              challenging
with                 with                 with                    collaborative            tasks which              tasks
challenging          challenging          challenging             challenging              involve group            accompanied
tasks using          tasks using          tasks using             tasks using              decision                 by challenging
ICT,                 ICT,                 ICT, with peer          ICT,                     making,                  questions from
independently        accompanied          support and             accompanied              accompanied              the teacher
                     by challenging       accompanied             by challenging           by challenging           and/or others
                     questions from       by challenging          questions from           questions from           with real life
                     the teacher          questions from          the teacher              the teacher              problem solving
                                          the teacher             and/or others            and/or others            and
                                                                                                                    making as an
                                                                                                                    integral part of
                                                                                                                    using ICT

“...when teachers perceive computers as tools that facilitate higher order thinking they begin to engage learners in
more productive high level uses of ICT (Jonassen, 2000; Roschelle et al., 2000; Wenglinsky, 1998)...... Teachers’
perceptions of higher order thinking in the context of using ICT in classrooms appear to exist on a continuum. This
continuum seems to extend from perceptions of higher order thinking for individualised learning to collaborative
approaches to fostering higher level thinking through social contexts as pupils use ICT. At the other end of the
continuum teachers embrace what may be seen as difficulties in using the technology itself, perceiving these as
opportunities for practicing higher order thinking in real life situations. Instead of seeing the difficulties related to
using ICT as obstacles, teachers could be encouraged to embrace these occasions as opportunities for teachers to
engage pupils in real life problem-solving and decision making skills. [Lincoln M, Queensland University of Technology,

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System Design and Lifecycle: Teacher Information
There are four main stages in setting up a new computer system: Analysis - studying the problem;
design - designing a solution; implementation - putting the solution into effect and testing it;
evaluation - checking that the solution is working as intended.

Activities always happen in a context, so there is a need to analyse the two together. Three useful
types of context are distinguishable; the organisational context, the social context and the physical
circumstances under which the activity takes place. Context can be a difficult term. Sometimes it is
useful to see context as surrounding an activity. At other times it can be seen as the features that
glue some activities together into a coherent whole.

Using ‘Withdraw cash from an ATM’ as an example, an analysis of context would include things
such as the location of the device (often as a ‘hole-in-the-wall’), the effect of sunshine on the
readability of the display and security considerations. Social considerations would include the time
spent on a transaction or the need to queue. The organisational context for this activity would
take into consideration the impact on the bank’s ways of working and its relationships with its
customers. It is important to consider the range of contexts and environments in which activities
can take place.

During this stage the systems analyst will investigate how the current system works and what
needs to be improved. This involves finding out whether a new computer system is needed at all
and exactly what it will be used for. Analysis is all about looking at how a job is done at present
and seeing if the job could be done better or more efficiently by upgrading or developing a new

With this goal in mind, the systems analyst might:
    observe staff at work
    interview staff about their work
    send out questionnaires about working practices
    inspect documents such as user guides, data capture forms and any printouts the current
       system creates

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Feasibility study
Having investigated the present system, the systems analyst will produce a feasibility study. This
will look at whether the new system is:
        Technically feasible - is the new system technically possible to implement in the time
        Economically viable - will the cost of the new system be offset by savings once it is
        implemented, i.e. will it save the organisation time, money or increase its performance?
The project will only continue to the next stage if the answer to both of these questions is yes. At
this point the decision makers in the organisation, e.g. the board of directors, decide whether or
not to go ahead

The next step is to draw up a requirements specification that outlines exactly what the new
system will do. For example, it will mention:
     what hardware is needed
     what software is needed
     what inputs are needed
     what processing must take place
     what information needs to be output

A test plan will be included in the design phase to explain exactly how the new system will be
tested and the expected outcomes for each test. Testing is important because computer software
is usually very complex. Any mistakes made by the designers or programmer can have a dramatic
effect depending on what the software is used for.

Usually software is tested with three distinct types of data:
    Typical data – this is normal data the system should be working with.
    Extreme data – this is data at the boundary between typical data and invalid data.
    Invalid data (sometimes known as erroneous data) – this is data that should cause the
       system to tell the user that there is a problem with data entered into the system.
Testing helps to ensure that the system always acts as expected

Implementation is the next stage of developing a new system, after design. This is where the new
system is created and installed. Tasks that might take place include:
     writing programs
     creating templates for others to use
     constructing databases, data capture, spreadsheets etc
     purchasing/specifying hardware and software
     writing user documentation
     testing the system using the test plan
     installing networks
     training staff

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If the tests are not satisfactory then any problems will need to be corrected and the system tested

User documentation
User documentation will be written to help staff become familiar with the new system. It will
     a user guide
     installation details
     input and output samples
     screen shots
     details of what error messages mean, i.e. troubleshooting advice

Methods of changeover
When the system is ready to go on-line there are different ways of moving from the old to the new
     Parallel running
    Running both the old and new systems until you are certain the new system is working
     Pilot changeover
    Changing over in a small part of the company to start with.
     Direct changeover
    The old system is scrapped and immediately replaced by the new system.
     Phased changeover
    The change over is split into phases or stages. Each stage is introduced one at a time and the
    old system is kept running to do the remainder of the tasks that have not yet been changed.

Once the system has been installed it will be monitored to check whether it is working correctly.
Sometimes problems with a system will not be found until it is being used by a large number of
people or an unusual situation occurs. Evaluation is really re-analysing - starting the same
systems analysis process all over again. Many of the same techniques can be used, such as
interviewing staff or sending out questionnaires.

Once a system is running correctly it can still need maintenance. This may be because a bug is
found or because the company needs a new feature.

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User-Centred Design: Teacher Information
User-centred designxix (UCD) is an approach to design that grounds the process in information
about the people who will use the product. UCD processes focus on users through the planning,
design and development of a product. In this model, once the need to use a human centred
design process has been identified, four activities form the main cycle of work:

                                  Figure 2 Usability Professionals' Association

1.      Specify the context of use
Identify the people who will use the product, what they will use it for, and under what conditions
they will use it.
2.      Specify requirements
Identify any business requirements or user goals that must be met for the product to be
3.      Create design solutions
This part of the process may be done in stages, building from a rough idea to a complete design.
4.      Evaluate designs
The most important part of this process is that evaluation - ideally through usability testing with
actual users - is as integral as quality testing is to good software development.
The process ends - and the product can be released - once the requirements are met.

A Typical UCD Methodology
Most user-centred design methodologies are more detailed in suggesting specific activities, and
the time within a process when they should be completed.
In this version, the UCD activities are broken down into four phases: Analysis, Design,
Implementation and Deployment, with suggested activities for each phase. They are:
Analysis Phase
•        Meet with key stakeholders to set vision
•        Include usability tasks in the project plan
•        Assemble a multidisciplinary team to ensure complete expertise
•        Develop usability goals and objectives
•        Conduct field studies
•        Look at competitive products
•        Create user profiles
•        Develop a task analysis
•        Document user scenarios
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•      Document user performance requirements
Design Phase
•      Begin to brainstorm design concepts and metaphors
•      Develop screen flow and navigation model
•      Do walkthroughs of design concepts
•      Begin design with paper and pencil
•      Create low-fidelity prototypes
•      Conduct usability testing on low-fidelity prototypes
•      Create high-fidelity detailed design
•      Do usability testing again
•      Document standards and guidelines
•      Create a design specification
Implementation Phase
•      Do ongoing heuristic evaluations
•      Work closely with delivery team as design is implemented
•      Conduct usability testing as soon as possible
Deployment Phase
•      Use surveys to get user feedback
•      Conduct field studies to get info about actual use
•      Check objectives using usability testing


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Information Resource for Computing History Timeline – ‘starter for ten’xx

Early computation
The timeline of early computation tools is often compressed into one period from 2400 BC–1949;
the escalation in speed of development after this is a remarkable feature.

The 2400 BC–1949 period includes:
2400 BC - the abacus
1110 BC - the Chinese South Pointing Chariot
5th C BC - Pāṇini and metarules, transformations and recursions
Circa 100 BC - The Antikythera mechanism
Circa 1000 - Mechanical analogue computer devices in the medieval Islamic world and
programmable machines were also invented by Muslim engineers
Middle Ages, several unsuccessful attempts to produce analogue computer devices.
13th C Ramon Llull; logical machines (unsuccessful)
17th C John Napier; logarithms for computational purposes
Charles Babbage; Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine (forerunner of a modern electronic
Ada Lovelace; program for the analytical engine to calculate Bernoulli numbers, (first example of a
true computer program a series of instructions that act upon data not known in full until the
program is run).
Unlike modern digital computers, analogue computers are not very flexible, and need to be
reconfigured (i.e., reprogrammed) manually to switch them from working on one problem to
another. Analogy computers had an advantage over early digital computers in that they could be
used to solve complex problems using behavioural analogues while the earliest attempts at digital
computers were quite limited.
 19th C - Nomogram invented 1884 - graphical calculating device. Gottfried Leibniz; calculating
20th C - Phillip H. Smith (1905–1987); The Smith chart, a graphical calculator and nomogram.
None of the early computational devices were really computers in the modern sense, and it took
considerable advancement in mathematics and theory before the first modern computers could
be designed.

First Generation (1945-1956) modern computers
During the start of the Second World War, governments aimed to develop computers in order to
create war strategies and increase their chances of success. Because of increased funding,
technology underwent rapid development. In 1941, Germany was able to develop a computer
named Z3. The computer, created by Konrad Zuse, used to design missiles and airplanes. In the
year 1943, the British were able to create a computer, the Colossus which could break German
codes. The overall impact of technology during this period was still limited.

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Second Generation Computers (1956-1963)
The transistor was invented in the year 1948, revolutionizing computer development. Instead of
the large vacuum tubes which were previously used, the transistor provided a smaller and less
cumbersome alternative for computers. Since then, the size of the computer has gradually and
dramatically changed. The transistor became incorporated into computers from the year 1956.
Together with advancements in magnetic-core memory, transistors led to a new generation of
computers. These computers were smaller, more reliable, much faster and more efficient in terms
of energy usage. They provided a comparative advantage against their predecessors.

Supercomputers were first developed in the 1960s. Supercomputers are very large groups of
computers that work together, combining their abilities to perform tasks that individual desktop
computers would be incapable of. These include highly intensive calculations such as problems
involving quantum mechanics, weather forecasting, climate research, astronomy, molecular
modelling and physical simulations (such as simulation of aeroplanes in wind tunnels, simulation
of nuclear weapons detonations and research into nuclear fusion).

Third Generation Computers (1964-1971)
While transistors were a major breakthrough but still presented a couple of
setbacks. These included generating a great deal of heat, resulting in damage to
computer parts. The quartz rock provided an effective alternative. In 1958, Jack
Kilby of Texas Instruments invented the integrated circuit, or IC. It was
comprised of three electronic components including small silicon discs made of quartz. Later,
scientists were able to devise a way to minimize the size of the chips. They were able to make a
single chip, known as the semiconductor. Third generation computers were not just made of
semiconductors but they also introduced the use of operating systems. Operating systems allowed
computers to process a range of programs and functions. The first e-mail was sent in 1971

Fourth Generation (1971-Present)
Following the introduction of integrated circuits, computer manufacturers were
further able to reduce the size of the computer. The idea of Large Scale
Integration allowed people to fit hundreds of different components onto a
small single chip. On the other hand, Ultra-large scale integration (ULSI),
provided a platform whereby one single chip could contain millions of
components. Because multiple components could be fitted on to one computer chip, the size of
computers dramatically reduced. Further, the changes in the capacity of the chips also provided
more reliability, efficiency and power. In 1971 the chip was able to hold the memory, the central
processing unit and also input and output controls.
1973 First computer with keyboard, mouse and GUI
1975 First affordable home computer
1980s Floppy disc for storage
1990 World Wide Web
1993 Internet

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1994 Web surfing begins
2010, it is possible to store 32 GB of data on a device measuring 11 x 15 mm,
weighing 0.5 grams. To put this in context: this is over 3 million times lighter and
over 10,000 times cheaper than an equivalent device of 30 years ago.
October 2010 - The Tianhe-1A supercomputer, located at the National
Supercomputing Centre in Tianjin, is capable of 2.5 petaFLOPS; that is, over 2½ quadrillion (two
and a half thousand million million) floating point operations per second.
2012 - Sequoia supercomputer comes online. This will have a maximum performance of 20
petaFLOPS; nearly an order of magnitude faster than Tianhe-1A. Exaflop-scale computing by 2019;
a thousand fold improvement over machines of 2010.

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond)
If this exponential trend continues, it is likely that complete simulations of the human brain and all
of its neurons will be possible by 2025. In the early 2030s, supercomputers could reach the
zettaflop scale, meaning that weather forecasts will achieve 99% accuracy over a two week period.
By the 2050s, supercomputers may be capable of simulating millions - even billions - of human
brains simultaneously. In parallel with developments in artificial intelligence and brain-computer
interfaces, this could enable the creation of virtual worlds similar in style to the sci-fi movie, The
Matrix. It is even possible that we are living in such a simulation at this very moment, without
realising it

The fifth generation is hard to describe because its progress is exponential compared to that of
earlier generations. New computers are developed at a pace too fast even for a market as
demanding as ours. Today computers come in all sizes, embedded inside mobile phones, and in
applications which were previously only dreamt of. Computers are now also equipped with article
intelligence and a whole range of applications that can be customized according to the preference
of the user; they are connected in vast networks thanks to the internet.

What is happening and might be about to happen – in no particular order
Biotechnology e.g. Bionic Hand controlled by brain signals
App allows you to take a picture of whatever you are looking at and instantly receive info about it
on your Android phone
In 2020, computers will have the intellectual capability of human beings - Ray Kurzweil
“Surf the Web with the power of your thoughts.”
2012 3-D bio printer that builds custom organs cell-by-cell. Each individual cell is based upon
sample cells from the body of the customer; veins and arteries will be available in 5 years, and
more complex organs like hearts and livers in 10.
On a more general note, nanotechnology is revolutionizing the health world. Scientists are finding
specific sequences of DNA that code for conditions like schizophrenia, autism and even aging. The
cures are actually in sight.
A robot able to teach itself human facial expressions by randomly contorting its face and receiving
feedback on what resembled real expressions

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Nanotechnology in Clothing
Phones generate full size holographic image – a virtual teacher
Self-organising chips
Active camouflage
Internet timeline graphic

Further into the future, chips may become integrated directly with the brain, combining AI/human
intelligence and dramatically enhancing our cognitive and learning abilities. This could allow
technologies once considered the stuff of science fiction to become a reality - such as full
immersion VR, electronic telepathy and mind uploading.
Relevant Resources

Moore’s Law dates from 1965 (the number of transistors we are able to cheaply put in computer
chips doubles every year, thereby doubling the speed). However, most people don’t know that
Moore, himself, came out and said his law will most likely fail finally in 2020 where the number of
transistors we can put on chips will be limited by the laws of physics.

Prediction: Chips will be assembled using individual atoms or molecules, a type of
From the 2020s onwards, it is possible that carbon nanotubes or a similar technology will reach
the mass market, creating a new paradigm that allows Moore's Law to continue. Chips constructed
on an atom-by-atom basis would reach incredible densities.

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e-Safety Keywords

Context & background
There is no scheme of work for e-safety and technology pervades almost every aspect of life in and
out of school. It is a school’s responsibility to ensure the safety of pupils outside school as well as
inside, even when pupils are at home.

Schools, colleges, children’s services and parents are all expected to play a role in helping children
and young people to stay safe online. Schools are encouraged to look for opportunities for
teaching e-safety across the curriculum rather than as a discrete subject, possibly to cover issues
that might not be encountered during in-school use of ICT. Although e-safety is not explicitly
referred to within the National Curriculum at present, there are a number of appropriate areas
within the programmes of study and non-statutory guidelines that offer opportunities to discuss e-
safety issues such as ICT, and PSHE and citizenship. It is important to understand that e-safety is
about behaviours that happen in all kinds of contexts and these are caused by people, not
technology – however technology amplifies the problems.

E-Safety (frequently referred to as Safeguarding) also involves responsibility within leadership,
management and administration, infrastructure and third party suppliers. Adults have
responsibility for the e-safety of minors and for educating them to adopt safe ways of working
online; similarly adults are responsible for their own safe practices which include personal online
safety and minimising avoidable risks to the institution’s digital infrastructure. Schools have a duty
to help children and young people remain safe when online, whether that use of the internet
occurs inside or outside school.

The keywords are drawn from the following well-publicised sources: Tanya Byron internet safety
report “Safer Children in a Digital World” March 2008 (UK government report), Becta (the
government agency leading on safe use of technology in education) and The UK Council for Child
Internet Safety (brings together over 140 organisations and individuals to help children and young
people stay safe on the internet, launched by the Prime Minister 29/09/08). Reference is also
made to CEOP, Childnet, Ofsted (“The safe use of new technologies”) – all of whom are familiar to
those working in UK schools and colleges.

Actor groups
1. Teacher, Parent,                    3. Key Stages 4 /14 -19            6. Key Stages 1 / 2
   Teacher / Parent                    4. Key Stages 3 / 4                7. KS 5 is not included at
2. 14-19 (Schools, FE &                5. Key Stages 1 / 2 / 3 / 4           this stage

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Keyword use
Essential keywords (Types 1-4) are categories of behaviours that cover the question topics across
all competitor types. The Essential keywords are drawn from the Byron report which is used as
the basis for most national e-safety education policies and advice. Emphasis on types will be
different according to the competitor group which indicate the maturity of the player. Additional
keywords could be used to form the question focus and Specialist keywords might be used for
Player groups 1-3; it may not be necessary to use each word as long as the player understands the
question context. We have provided a glossary of most of these specialist words. Additional and
Specialist keywords all fall within the Essential keywords categories.

Essential Keywords (Content, Contact, Conduct, Culture groups)

1. Content (child as recipient):
                                     (Commercial) Adverts, Spam, Sponsorship, Personal info,
                                     (Aggressive) Violent/hateful content, (Sexual) Pornographic or
                                     unwelcome sexual content, (Values) Bias, Racist, Misleading
                                     info, or advice
2. Contact (child as participant):
                                     (Commercial) Tracking, Harvesting, personal info, (Aggressive)
                                     Being bullied, harassed or stalked, (Sexual) Meeting strangers,
                                     Being groomed, (Values) Self-harm, Unwelcome persuasions.
3. Conduct (child as actor):
                                     (Commercial) Illegal downloading, Hacking, Gambling, Financial
                                     scams, Terrorism, (Aggressive) Bullying or harassing another,
                                     (Sexual) Creating and uploading inappropriate material,
                                     (Values) Providing misleading info/ advice
4. Culture:
                                     (Preference, peers and availability) Cyberbullying, camera
                                     phones, blogging, bullying websites, mobile phones or
                                     communication device, downloading copyrighted materials
5. Additional Keywords:
                                     (Used in common parlance) e-Safety, Safe online, Safeguarding,
                                     digital, digital literacy, internet, www, social networking, e-
                                     mail, website, virus, instant messaging, Acceptable Use Policy,
                                     communities, fraud, identity theft, filter, mobile phone, video
                                     games, personal data, password, privacy, hacker, virtual, web
                                     camera, video conference, credit reference agency, digital
                                     divide, console, criminal, control software, shred, wi-fi,
                                     predator, self-harm, hate site.
6. Specialist (Jargon) Keywords:
                                     (An average person would not readily understand) Cyber-bully,
                                     blog, wiki, phishing, firewall, file-sharing, chat, spoofing,
                                     pharming, flaming, bombing, webmail, HTTP, HTTPS, ISP,

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                           malware, profile, sexting, spyware, URL, USB (USB stick), Video
                           community, WEP, Web 1.0, Web 2.0, MSN, avatar, digital

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e-Safety Glossary

The Glossary is intended for the use of teachersxxi.

Acceptable-use policy (AUP)
An organisation’s policy to inform users about their rights and responsibilities that a user must
agree to abide by in order to gain access to a network or the internet. It should also consider how
other communications devices, such as mobile phones and camera phones, could be used on the
The publication “AUPs in Context”, is available free from Becta and although intended for schools,
contains excellent advice and action planning
Adware refers to computer programs that display adverts on the screen. Often installed without
people realising, these can be malware (see Malware)
Antivirus software
Antivirus software is a computer program that detects, prevents, and takes action to disarm or
remove malicious software programs, such as viruses and worms. You can help protect your
computer against viruses by using antivirus software. Computer viruses are software programs
that are deliberately designed to interfere with computer operation, record, corrupt, or delete
data, or spread themselves to other computers and throughout the Internet. To help prevent the
most current viruses, you must update your antivirus software regularly. You can set up most
types of antivirus software to update automatically.
Bin Raiding (aka Dumpster/Information Diving)
Bin raiding is where thieves search through people’s household rubbish hunting for personal
information that can be used to carry out fraud such as goods over the internet or on the
telephone, known as "card-not-present fraud" (CNP). Popular targets for bin raiders include bank
and credit card statements, application form, bills and receipts or detailed biographical
information. The information these items provide can be used to order goods, steal money or
even commit full-scale identity fraud. A survey found that most domestic bins contain the full
name and full address of at least one member of a household and some contain a whole credit or
debit card number that could be linked to an individual with an associated expiry date. One
London authority, recently discovered that criminal gangs were paying homeless people up to 5
pounds for any useful document they found rooting through bins.
Block is to stop a computer from reaching something on the internet, or stop a program running.
Websites that are blocked can’t be viewed on screen; chat programs that are blocked can’t be
started. There are many reasons why you may need to block a website, for example you may have
been targeted by spammers who use adware and “popups” to attack your PC or you may want to
prevent children from having access undesirable sites (See Filter)

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A blog, also known as a weblog, is a form of online diary or journal. Blogs contain short, frequently
updated posts. In addition to text, blogs can contain photos, images, sound, archives and related
links, and can incorporate comments from visitors.
Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range communications technology intended to replace
the cables connecting portable and/or fixed devices while maintaining high levels of security.
Some people use Bluetooth to harass, send files and bully others. Bluejacking - some users with
Bluetooth-enabled mobiles use this technology to send anonymous text messages to strangers.
Short for Web browser, a software application used to locate and display Web pages, eg
Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox. Both of these are “graphical browsers” which means that
they can display graphics as well as text. In addition, most modern browsers can present
multimedia information, including sound and video, though they require plug-ins for some
Buddy list
In instant messaging (IM) applications on a personal computer (PC), or on a mobile phone with
text display, a buddy list is a list of people a user wants to keep track of. A buddy list can be used
to see who is offline, who is online and who is online, but away from their computer, who has
their phone turned off, who has their phone turned on, or who is currently talking on their phone.
Buddy lists are a feature on some Learning Platforms and allow a pupil to see which
teacher/mentor is online and vice versa
Cash Card Fraud (see also Identity Theft & Fraud)
Cash machine fraud includes
Skimming – a skimming device is attached to the card entry slot to record the electronic details
from the magnetic stripe of your card as it is inserted into the cash machine. A separate,
miniature pinhole camera is hidden overlooking the PIN pad to film you inputting your PIN. This
enables the criminal to produce a copy counterfeit card and to withdraw money using your PIN.
Shoulder surfing – where criminals look over your shoulder and watch you enter your PIN, and
then steal your card using distraction techniques or pick-pocketing.
Card-trapping – a device, inserted into a cash machine card slot, retains your card inside the cash
machine. The criminal then tricks you into re-entering your PIN while they watch. When you leave
the machine the criminal removes the device, with your card, and withdraws cash.
 Fraud on the Internet/e-commerce fraud – involves the use of card details, fraudulently obtained
through methods such as skimming or bin-raiding. Your card details are then used to make
fraudulent card-not-present transactions, most commonly via the Internet. Internet fraud also
occurs when the criminal uses a genuine card intercepted in the post or obtained by application
The Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) Centre is dedicated to eradicating the sexual
abuse of children. They are part of UK policing and very much about tracking and bringing
offenders to account either directly or in partnership with local and international forces.
Anyone can report abuse to Ceop

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Copyright and Plagiarism
Copyright gives the author of an original work exclusive right for a certain time period in relation
to that work, including its publication, distribution and adaptation, after which time the work is
said to enter the public domain. Copyright applies to any expressible form of an idea or
information that is substantive and discrete and fixed in a medium and includes intellectual
property along with patents and trademarks.
The Council Chronicle for English teachers explains: Plagiarism is using someone else's work
without giving proper credit - a failure to cite adequately. Copyright infringement is using
someone else's creative work, which can include a song, a video, a movie clip, a piece of visual art,
a photograph, and other creative works, without authorization or compensation, if compensation
is appropriate. Always give credit to the author by including references.
Credit reference agency
Credit reference agencies provide lenders with information about potential borrowers, which they
then use to make lending decisions. The information shared may include information about your
previous credit history. They hold certain information about most adults in the UK. This
information is called your credit reference file or credit report.
The three main consumer credit reference agencies in the UK are: Callcredit, Equifax and
Experian. You have the right to write to any of the credit reference agencies and ask for a copy of
your credit reference file, which will cost you £2. Sometimes the credit reference agencies need
more information from you before they can send you your file. For example, they may need proof
of your name and address from a utility bill or bank statement. This is important to make sure that
no one else gets your file by mistake or to check that no one else has fraudulently applied for your
credit reference file
To download is to receive data to a local system from a remote system, such as a webserver, FTP
server, email server, or other similar systems. A download is any file that is offered for
downloading or that has been downloaded. Uploading, is the sending of data from a local system
to a remote system, such as a server, or peer, with the intent that the remote system should save
a copy of whatever is being transferred. Buffering is the process wherein some contents from a
remove machine/website is temporarily copied on to your desktop so that you can view it. Once
you finish viewing and close the browser or connection, this file/content would be erased from
your machine. Example: Youtube. Everything you view in Youtube would be buffered to your
desktop but the moment you close the browser the contents are gone
It is widely accepted that where an image or any other material is viewed on the Internet then
that viewing is driven by the transfer of data to the viewer’s computer. In many child pornography
cases, the evidence has largely consisted of the forensic analysis of the defendant’s hard disk
showing offending data having been viewed. (See also Copyright)
File Sharing
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such
as computer programs, multi-media (audio, video), documents, or electronic books. Common
methods are manual sharing using removable media, centralized computer file server installations
on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents, and the use of
distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) networking. The popularity of the mp3 music format led to the

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growth of Napster and other software designed to aid in the sharing of electronic files. Many file
sharing programs and services have been shut down due to litigation.
Filter (Content filter)
A method used to prevent or block users’ access to unsuitable material on the internet. Content
filtering is the technique whereby content is blocked or allowed based on analysis of its content,
rather than its source or other criteria. It is most widely used on the internet to filter email and
web access. Content filtering is the most commonly used group of methods to filter spam and is
used as an anti-virus measure. Content filters act either on the content, the information
contained in the mail body, or on the mail headers (like "Subject:") to either classify, accept or
reject a message. Filtering is commonly used by organisations such as offices and schools to
prevent computer users from viewing inappropriate web sites or content, or as a pre-emptive
security measure to prevent access of known malware hosts. Filtering software is sometimes also
used on home computers in order to restrict access to inappropriate websites for children using
the computer. Such software is typically described as parental control software.
A network security system used to restrict external and internal information traffic. A firewall is a
part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while
permitting authorized communications. Firewalls can be implemented in either hardware or
software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized
Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All
messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each
message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.
Hacking is the process of illegally breaking into someone else’s computer system, breaching the
computer’s security. A hacker is generally regarded as a person who breaks into computers,
usually by gaining access to administrative controls.
Short for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web.
HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and
browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in
your browser, this sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit
the requested Web page.
Https is "Hyper Text Transfer Protocol" with an added dash of "s", or Secure Sockets Layer,
another protocol primarily developed with secure, safe Internet transactions in mind. For
example, you might log into your bank account on the Web. You will have to enter in a user name
and password, and then after that you'll see your account information. The address bar at the top
of your browser should indicate that you are now in a secure session with the addition of "https"
at the front of the URL. The same should happen with online purchases. For added security,
always log out of any secure session when you're done, and especially if you are on a public
computer. When padlock icons are present and the web prefix https is there in the web address
box, it can be safely assumed that you can go on with your transaction. If the Website you are
using is not yet secured, you should be advised against continuing the usage of the site. That is

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because thousands of online fraud and theft victims all around the world report that unsecured
sites have led them to lose their transactions to Internet thieves and intruders.
Identity theft and fraud
Your identity is one of your most valuable assets. However, criminals can use a number of
methods to find out your personal information and will then use it to open bank accounts, take
out credit cards and apply for state benefits in your name. If your identity is stolen, you can lose
money and may find it difficult to get loans, credit cards or a mortgage until the matter is sorted
Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO)
The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) is the UK independent public body set up to
promote access to official information and protect personal information. ICO has a downloadable
leaflet the “Personal information toolkit” that gives advice and tips on how to manage and
safeguard your personal information
ICO has a useful Personal Information Health Check designed to help you find out how healthy
your attitude to your personal information is and how much you could be exposing yourself to
identity crime. Further advice from
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardised
Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks
consisting of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks locally
and globally linked by copper wires, fibre-optic cables, wireless connections, and other
technologies. (See IP)
Internet service provider (ISP)
A company providing a connection to the internet and other services, such as browser software,
email, a helpline, web space and subscriber-only content.
Internet Watch Foundation (IWF)
The only recognised non-statutory organisation in the UK operating an internet hotline for the
public and IT professionals to report potentially illegal online content.
An intranet is an internal or restricted access network that is similar to functionality as the
internet, but is only available to an organization internally. For instance your organization could
share documents, announcements, new product details etc, but only allow those computers in
the organization access to this information. In order to have an intranet, the computers in the
network do not have to have a normal internet connection.
Most organizations have both an intranet and internet access (sometimes called extranet), the
organization will provide a gateway such as a firewall, or the use of VPN (virtual private networks).
With these additions, individuals with clearance to access the intranet from outside sources, using
the internet can. For instance an off-site learner can have access to the intranet and be able to
download coursework.
IP (Internet Protocol)
IP by itself is like the postal system. It allows you to address a package and drop it in the system,
but there's no direct link between you and the recipient. TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a

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connection between two hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a period of
IP Address
An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical label that is assigned to devices that are
connected to a computer network using the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address
serves two principal functions in networking: host identification and location addressing – it is like
providing your home address for mail, pizza delivery and so on. A typical IP address looks like this: The Domain Name System (DNS) allows the IP address to be translated to words.
It is easier to remember a word than numbers eg web address name such as
compared to or in the case of email it is much easier to remember than email@
Internet Relay Chat: an old but still widely used way of having online chats with several people at
the same time. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet text messaging (chat) or
synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums,
called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message as well as chat
and data transfers via Direct Client-to-Client
JANET is the network dedicated to the needs of education and research in the UK. It connects the
UK’s education and research organisations to each other, as well as to the rest of the world
through links to the global Internet. In addition, JANET includes a separate network that is
available to the community for experimental activities in network development. The JANET
network connects UK universities, FE Colleges, Research Councils, Specialist Colleges and Adult
and Community Learning providers. It also provides connections between the Regional Broadband
Consortia to facilitate the DfES initiative for a national schools’ network.
(JANET policies

LAN, WAN and Other Area Networks
LAN - Local Area Network connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked
office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will
contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of
nearby buildings. In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owned,
controlled, and managed by a single person or organization.
WAN - Wide Area Network spans a large physical distance. The Internet is the largest WAN,
spanning the Earth. A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device
called a router connects LANs to a WAN. Wireless Local Area Network is a LAN based on WiFi
wireless network technology. Campus Area Network is a network spanning multiple LANs, such as
on a university or local business campus.
Malware – short for malicious software – is a program or file that is designed to specifically
damage or disrupt a system, such as a virus, worm or trojan horse. Viruses are sometimes
confused with computer worms and Trojan horses, which are technically different. A worm can
exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself to other computers without needing to be

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transferred as part of a host, and a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but has a
hidden agenda. Some viruses and other malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer
user, but many are surreptitious
For a video explanation and a quiz, see the TUC’s workSMART video at:
The Office of Communications (Ofcom) is the communications regulator. It regulates the TV and
radio sectors, fixed line telecoms and mobiles, plus the airwaves over which wireless devices
operate. It make sure that people in the UK get the best from their communications services and
are protected from scams and sharp practices, while ensuring that competition can thrive. Ofcom
operates under the Communications Act 2003.
OFCOM has research on privacy issues and other useful advice
Online grooming
Online grooming is defined by the UK Home Office as: “A course of conduct enacted by a
suspected paedophile, which would give a reasonable person cause for concern that any meeting
with a child arising from the conduct would be for unlawful purposes.”
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks
A peer-to-peer network allows connected users to exchange files by uploading and downloading
between them. (An example is the BBC iPlayer service.) This is only one of several ways files are
shared on the internet. Peer-to-peer was popularized by file sharing systems like Napster
Phishing (or spoofing)
Assuming the identity of someone else, using an email address either guessed or harvested from
repositories of valid email addresses (such as the address book of a virus-infected computer).
Spoofing is typically practised to veil the source of virus-laden emails or, often, to obtain sensitive
information from spam recipients, without revealing the source. (See Spoofed websites)
An easy-to-create web page which contains personal information users give about themselves. It
can include all kinds of information, and users can upload their favourite music, pictures and
video clips to their profile for other users to view. In general, social networking services allow
users to create a profile for themselves, and can be broken down into two broad categories:
internal social networking and external social networking sites such as MySpace, Facebook,
Twitter and Bebo. Social networks usually have privacy controls that allow the user to choose
who can view their profile or contact them, etc. (See Social Networking)
Search Engine
A web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The
search results are usually presented in a list and are commonly called hits. The information may
consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine
data available in databases or open directories. Search engines automatically create web site
listings by using “spiders” (also known as a "crawler" or a "bot.") that "crawl" web pages, index
their information, and optimally follows that site's links to other pages. Spiders return to already-
crawled sites on a pretty regular basis in order to check for updates or changes, and everything
that these spiders find goes into the search engine database.
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Sexting is when a someone takes an indecent image of themself and sends this to their friends or
boy / girlfriends via mobile phones. The problem is that once taken and sent, the sender has lost
control of these images and these images could end up anywhere. The images could be seen by
your future employers, friends or (in the case of children) by paedophiles.
Shredder (Paper Shredder)
A paper shredder is a mechanical device used to cut paper into strips or fine particles.
Government organizations, businesses, and private individuals use shredders to destroy private,
confidential, or otherwise sensitive documents. Experts recommend that individuals shred bills,
tax documents, credit card and bank account statements, and other items which could be used by
thieves to commit fraud or identity theft. (see also Bin Raiding)
Social networking
Social networking includes sites like MySpace, Bebo and Facebook that allow users to upload
images and messages and to form networks of contacts or ‘buddies’. A social network focuses on
building online communities of people who share interests and/or activities, or who are
interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. Most social network services are web
based and provide a variety of ways for users to interact, such as e-mail and instant messaging
services. In most mobile communities, mobile phone users can now create their own profiles,
make friends, participate in chat rooms, create chat rooms, hold private conversations, share
photos and videos, and share blogs and all the functions of social networking. Twitter is a free
social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its users to send and read messages
known as tweets. (ICO keeping yourself safe online advice )

Spam is email that you don’t want and didn’t ask for, and its content can often cause
embarrassment and distress. Most spam comes from outside the UK. Spam e-mail gives
fraudsters an easy way of contacting millions of Internet users around the world, regardless of
their physical location to try to dupe people into disclosing valuable personal information that
could be used to commit all types of identity theft or to get card details that can then be used to
make fraudulent purchases.
Spoofed Web sites
Some cyber criminals use phishing scams to set up convincing spoofs of legitimate Web sites. They
then try to trick you into visiting these Web sites and disclosing personal information, such as your
credit card number. Spoofed Web sites are commonly used in conjunction with phishing scams.
The spoofed site is usually designed to look like the legitimate site, sometimes using components
from the legitimate site. The best way to verify whether you are at a spoofed site is to verify the
Spyware is a type of malware that is installed on computers and that collects information about
users without their knowledge. Spyware programs can collect various types of personal
information, such as Internet surfing habits and sites that have been visited, but can also interfere
with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software and
redirecting Web browser activity. Spyware is known to change computer settings, resulting in

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slow connection speeds, different home pages, and/or loss of Internet or functionality of other
The abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator, which is the global address of documents and
other resources on the World Wide Web. The first part of the address is called a protocol
identifier and it indicates what protocol to use, and the second part is called a resource name and
it specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located. The protocol
identifier and the resource name are separated by a colon and two forward slashes. This specifies
a Web page that should be fetched using the HTTP protocol;
USB (USB Stick)
USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a popular hardware interface that allows users to attach hardware
devices to their computer in a Plug-and-Play fashion. A USB Memory Stick can be used to store
your data in a convenient and portable manner. Rather than using a floppy disc, which usually has
the capacity of 1.44MB, you are now able to purchase USB Memory Sticks in varying sizes such as
512MB, 1GB and 2GB
Video communities
A video community allows individuals to upload video clips to a website to share with others. The
video host stores the video on its server, enabling others to view and interact with the videos and
the person that posted the original video. The most popular is YouTube.
A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the
permission or knowledge of the owner. The term "virus" does not include malware, adware, and
spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. A true virus can only spread from
one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target
computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a
removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their
chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file
system that is accessed by another computer.
VOIP and Skype
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is the transmission of voice traffic over IP-based networks.
The Internet Protocol (IP) was originally designed for data networking. The success of IP in
becoming a world standard for data networking has led to its adaption to voice networking. VoIP
has become popular largely because of the cost advantages to consumers over traditional
telephone networks. Skype is a program that uses VoIP to make calls and video-calls, to chat and
to send texts and files. With Skype users can call from their computer to any other Skype user in
the world connected to internet, landlines and mobile phones.
WAP is short for the Wireless Application Protocol, a secure specification that allows users to
access information instantly via handheld wireless devices such as mobile phones, pagers, two-
way radios, smartphones and communicators.

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 WEP is short for Wired Equivalent Privacy, a security protocol for wireless local area networks
(WLANs) defined in the 802.11b standard. WEP is designed to provide the same level of security
as that of a wired LAN. WLANs, which are over radio waves, do not have the same physical
structure and therefore are more vulnerable to tampering. WEP aims to provide security by
encrypting data over radio waves so that it is protected as it is transmitted from one end point to
another. However, it has been found that WEP is not as secure as once believed. (See WPA)
The name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless
high-speed Internet and network connections.
Windows Update
Windows Update is a service provided by Microsoft that provides updates for the Microsoft
Windows operating system and its installed components. Security updates and can be delivered
whenever a software update is required to prevent an exploiter targeting Windows users. It can
be configured to install updates automatically, ensuring that a computer is always up-to-date and
not vulnerable to computer worms and other malware.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) is a certification program to indicate compliance with
the security protocol to secure wireless computer networks. This protocol was created in
response to several serious weaknesses researchers had found in the previous system, WEP WPA
helps to protect against Spoofing
The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.
Using a web browser, you can view Web pages that contain text, images, videos, and other
multimedia and navigate between them using hyperlinks. English physicist Tim Berners-Lee, now
the Director of the World Wide Web Consortium, wrote a proposal in March 1989 for what would
eventually become the World Wide Web. In 1990, was the address of the world's
first-ever web site and web server, running on a NeXT computer at CERN.

Main Sources: Becta, Wikipedia, London Grid for Learning, CEOP, Webopedia, Howstuffworks,

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World Summit on the Information Society
The Plan of Action of the first phase of WSIS includes two targets that are directly relevant to
ICT in education:
i) to connect universities, colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICT; and
ii) to adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the information
society, taking into account national circumstances.

Figure 3 Information needs & ICT penetration over time (UNESCO 2009 adapted from UNCTAD)

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“The OECD economies are increasingly based on knowledge and information. Knowledge is now
recognised as the driver of productivity and economic growth, leading to a new focus on the role
of information, technology and learning in economic performance. The term “knowledge-based
economy” stems from this fuller recognition of the place of knowledge and technology in modern
OECD economies.”

“OECD analysis is increasingly directed to understanding the dynamics of the knowledge-based
economy and its relationship to traditional economics, as reflected in “new growth theory”. The
growing codification of knowledge and its transmission through communications and computer
networks has led to the emerging “information society”. The need for workers to acquire a range
of skills and to continuously adapt these skills underlies the “learning economy”. The importance
of knowledge and technology diffusion requires better understanding of knowledge networks and
“national innovation systems”. Most importantly, new issues and questions are being raised
regarding the implications of the knowledge-based economy for employment and the role of
governments in the development and maintenance of the knowledge base.” [OECD 1996]

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development suggests that we live in a
'knowledge economy' but that we need to think carefully about what actually constitutes
knowledge. It proposes four distinct types: Know what, know why, know how and know who and
suggests that there is growing demand for the latter three compared with the more
straightforward factual knowledge embodied in know what. The traditional school curriculum
consists of the know what category.

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                                                                           ICT Keywords
                           Mapped to National Key Stages 1-4, ICTAC and current GCSE, iGCSE, Nationals, DiDA and ITQ.
Evidence of Higher Thinking skills (Systems design) can be found in pupils at all key stages, but the type of evidence and means by which it is
obtained by the teacher varies according to the age and maturity of the pupil; indicative words are included.
Key Stage 1 & 2; base for KS Key Stage 3 builds on KS        Key Stage 4 builds on previous        Evidence of Higher Thinking skills
3 & 4 (RED). Language used, 1&2 (GREEN)                      key stages; questions also            (Systems design) can be found in
depth and breadth of                                         support ICT Key Skills &              pupils at all key stages, but the
coverage and pupil response                                  common qualifications                 type of evidence and means by
                                                                                                   which it is obtained by the
changes across key stages                                    including GCSE, iGCSE,
                                                                                                   teacher varies according to the
                                                             Nationals, DiDA, ITQ (BLUE)
                                                                                                         age and maturity of the pupil.
Knowledge                            Skills                          Application                         Systems Design (Higher           ICT across the
                                                                                                         thinking skills)                 Curriculum (ICTAC)
Advantages and Limitations           Analysing data                  Accuracy                            Analysis                         Art & Design
of ICT
Bias, plausibility & validity        Animation                       Complex issues                      Audience                         Design &
Devices & appliances                 Collaboration                   Conclusions                         Context                          English
Effects on People                    Collecting data                 Conflicting needs and criteria      Design                           Geography
Effects on Society                   Combine types of                Copyright                           Document                         History
E-safety                             Communication tools             Evaluation                          Evaluate                         Maths
Hardware                             Complex searches                Fitness for purpose                 Exploration of ideas and         Modern Foreign
                                                                                                         patterns                         Languages
Health and safety                    Computer file                   Hypothesis                          Implement                        Music
How computers work                   Control                         Information origin                  Maintenance                      PE
ICT                                  Copy                            Information quality & reliability   Mind map                         PHSE and
Input                                Data logging                    Interpret graphs                    Modify                           Science

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Input devices                     Database                        Make inferences               Reflect critically
Interactive                       Digital movies                  Mathematical skills           Report
Learning Platform (MLE, VLE)      Digital music                   Online communication          Review
Output                            Digital Photographs             Organise information          Test
Output devices                    Download                        Plagiarism                    Train others
Peripherals                       E-mail                          Predictions                   User guide
Process                           Finding things out              Problem solving & recording   User requirements
Purpose of computers              Graphics                        Questionnaires                ICT in the outside world
Security                          Graphs and charts               Represent                     Complex systems
Sensors                           Handling information            Technical vocabulary          Evaluation (processes and tools)
Software                          Hyperlink                       Testing                       Inhospitable environment
Technical vocabulary              Making things happen            Web page                      Methodology
Technologies                      Manipulation                    'What if' situations          Reflective evaluation
Criminal activities               Modelling                       DDE                           Simple systems
                                  Monitoring                                                    SoAP (sense of audience and
Data types                                                        multimedia authoring          purpose)
Electronic commercial systems     Multimedia                      OLE                           Success critera
File types                        Pictograms                      test data                     System flow diagram
Legislation                       Presentation package            validation, verification      Digital business
Networks                          Presenting information          Career planning (ICT)         Eportfolio & structure
Protecting data                   Print                           Web research                  Project Management
CAD/CAM                           Save                            Work experience in ICT        Web research
Connectivity                      Simulation
digital content                   Sound
economic issues                   Source files
environmental issues              Source material
Ethical issues                    Spreadsheets
Gaming                            Understand instructions
Home entertainment systems        Upload

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Hosting and managing websites    Use Internet
interface                        Web authoring
Mobile devices                   Word processing
Navigation aids                  Algorithm
Online goods and services        Control system
Removable storage                Developing ideas & making things happen
social issues                    Flow diagram
Social networking/online
workspaces                       Formatting
Storage devices and media        Gantt
Types/components of
computer systems                 Music technology
                                 Search engine
                                 sharing information
                                 Binary logic
                                 Boolean logic

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Key Stage 3 Words Build on KS2
Knowledge                      Skills                    Application              Systems Design (Higher thinking    ICT across the Curriculum (ICTAC)
                               ICT Tools                 Inhospitable                                                How ICT can help work in other subjects
Criminal activities                                      environment              ICT in the outside world
                                                                                  Simple systems                     When and how to use ICT and its
Data Protection Act            Algorithm             Methodology                                                     limitations
Data types                     Control system                                     Complex systems
Data warehouse                 Developing ideas and making things happen          Reflective evaluation
DDE                            Fixed & variable                                   Evaluation (processes and tools)
Electronic commercial
systems                        Flow diagram                                       System flow diagram
File types                     Formatting                                         Success critera
Log-in                                                                            SoAP (sense of audience and
                               Gantt                                              purpose)
multimedia authoring           Music technology
Networks                       Programming
OLE                            Remote sensors
Personal data                  Search engine
Protecting data                Sensor types
Risks to data                  sharing information
                               test data

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KS4 - ICT Key Skills & other common qualifications including GCSE, iGCSE, Nationals, DiDA, ITQ
Knowledge                                    Skills                     Application              Systems Design (Higher thinking skills)
CAD/CAM                                      Binary logic               Career planning (ICT)    Eportfolio & structure
Camcorders                                   Boolean logic              Digital business         Project Management
computer games                               Research                   Work experience in ICT   Web research
Computer peripherals
digital content
economic issues
emerging digital technologies
environmental issues
ethical issues
Games consoles
Home entertainment systems
Hosting and managing websites
legal issues
Mobile devices
Mobile phones
Navigation aids
Online goods and services
Personal computers
Personal media players
Removable storage
social issues
Social networking/online workspaces
Storage devices and media
Storage devices and media
Types/components of computer systems
Computer Misuse Act

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    Naomi Norman 2011
     Traxler 2007
    Quick Response Codes are a type of two-dimensional barcode that can be read using smartphones and dedicated QR
     reading devices, that link directly to text, emails, websites, phone numbers etc
     Bloom’s Taxonomy's_Taxonomy#Cognitive
     Bloom’s Taxonomy's affective
      See Appendix for Attainment targets
    ‘Business’ should be read in the broadest sense to include for example commercial activities, gaming, creative
industries, social enterprise etc
     See Appendix
     Naace teaching resource under development
      See Appendix
      As illustrated
Further resources
     Web 3.0; connective intelligence; connecting data, concepts, applications and ultimately people, sometimes
     described as the internet of connected things
        Includes gaming and games creation
       Dimensions of diversity include but are not limited to: age, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities/qualities, race,
sexual orientation, religious beliefs
      Usability Professionals' Association
     Useful source

                                  Naace Board of Management co-authors
                           Allison Allen and Paul Heinrich (Immediate Past Chair)

Document1                  Allison Allen | Paul Heinrich        March 12          Page 70 / 70

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