Psychology 201 by chenboying

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									Psychology 201 Study Guide III 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. ____________ tests gauge a person's mastery and knowledge of various subjects. ______________ tests measure various aspects of personality, including values, motives, and attitudes. _____________ tests measure general ability, while __________ tests measure specific types of ability. ___________ refers to the uniform procedures for administration and scoring of a test. _______ _______ provide information about how a person's score compares relative to other scores. If a test produces consistent results, it is said to be _____________. If a test measures accurately what it is supposed to measure, then it is ___________. The ___________ validity of a test refers to the degree to which the test content is representative of its domain. The __________ validity of a test is the extent to which there is evidence that the test measures a particular hypothetical construct. The __________________ validity is estimated by correlating subjects' scores on a test with their scores on another, independent measure of the trait assessed by the test. ________ ______ developed the first useable test of intelligence. If a child is ten years old and has a mental age of eight years, then the child's IQ is _______. If a child is nine years old and has a mental age of twelve years, then the child's IQ is _______. If a child has a mental age of six years, then that child displays the mental ability of the average _______ year old child. The ____________ tests have separate verbal and performance measures. IQ tests strongly predict __________ performance. IQ tests measure a blend of _____________ and ____________. On intelligence tests, the mean IQ is _______. The __________ distribution is a symmetric, bell-shaped distribution that represents how many traits are distributed in the population. People who score high on IQ tests are more likely than are those who score low to wind up in _______-status jobs. In everyday settings, people tend to recognize ____________ intelligence, _________ intelligence, and ___________ intelligence. The ingredients of intelligence are ___________-specific. ________ __________ refers to subaverage intellectual ability that is accompanied by impairments in adaptive skills and originates before age 18. Typically, people are considered retarded if their IQs are below _____ or ____. ___________ syndrome is due to an extra chromosome #21. _______________ is a metabolic disorder that can lead to retardation if the person is not diagnosed and treated. ______________ is due to the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid. People who have _________ retardation have IQs between 51 and 70 and may acquire the equivalent of sixth grade academic skills by the late teens. The cases of retardation due to unknown causes typically involve __________ retardation. The usual IQ cutoff for participation in programs for the gifted is about ______. Terman's sample of gifted individuals grew to be _______ average in physical and mental health, emotional adjustment, and social maturity. According to Winner, profoundly gifted children are often ________________ and ________ ________.

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Renzulli theorized that rarer forms of giftedness depends on the possessors being high in ____________, ___________, and ____________. Identical twins share _____% of genes in common. The correlations between IQs for _________ twins tends to be the highest. A ______________ ratio is an estimate of the proportion of trait variability that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance. The consensus among most researchers is that about _______ of one's intelligence is inherited. The ____________ range refers to those genetically determined limits on IQ or other traits. People who are raised in enriched environments should score near the ______ _______ of their reaction range. In ______ ________, correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters or variables. Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence consists of three parts: the _____________ subtheory, the ___________ subtheory, and the ____________ subtheory. Gardner's eight categories of intelligence are ______ - ___________, _________, __________, ______-____________, ___________, ___________, ____________, and ___________. ___________ intelligence consists of the ability to perceive and express emotion in thought, reason with emotion, and regulate emotion. In ___________, ideas that are original, new, and innovative are developed by the person. In ___________ thinking, one seeks to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions. According to Feist, underlying creativity is independence and ______________ (conformity/nonconformity). ______________ involves goal-directed behavior. ____________ is a state of physiological equilibrium or stability. Human motives are divided into ____________ and _________ motives. Cannon theorized that ________ _________ cause hunger. If the __________ hypothalamus of a rat is destroyed, then it loses interest in food. When a rat's _____________ hypothalamus is lesioned, the rat tends to become obese. Contemporary theories of hunger focus more on ________ ________ rather than anatomical details. ___________ are neurons that are sensitive to sugar levels in the blood. Three key environmental factors in hunger are: __________ of food, __________ preferences and habits, and ________. The incidence of obesity in the United States has recently ____________. A person is considered obese if his weight exceeds his ideal weight by ______%. There is/is not a genetic component in obesity. ______________ theory proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable. The principal gonadal hormones in males are __________. The principal gonadal hormones in females are ___________. As we go up the phylogenetic scale from rats to primates, hormones play _______ (more/less) of a role in sexual behavior. Sex hormones ________ (do/do not) play a role in human sexual behavior. Erotic materials, while they do not seem to affect sexual behavior directly, may influence __________ regarding sexual behavior. The ___________ effect refers to the effect that a new sexual partner can have to revive dwindling sexual interest. Evolutionary theory predicts that _______ would place more emphasis on youthfulness and attractiveness than would _______.

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Men think ______ often about sex than do women; and men desire ______ sexual partners than do women. According to parental investment theory, members of the sex that make the _________ parental investment will mate more widely, while the members of the sex that makes the _________ parental investment will tend to be more conservative in mating behavior. ______________ seek emotional and sexual relationships with members of the same sex. The four stages of human sexual response are the _____________, ___________, ___________, and ___________ phases. After orgasm, men experience a _____________ period. Researchers often use the ________ _________ Test to measure the strength of achievement needs. The Thematic Apperception Test is a ___________ test. The need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, and meet high standards of performance is referred to as the ______________ motive. People who are high in need for achievement tend to choose tasks of ___________ difficulty. According to Atkinson, in addition to need for achievement, we must also consider the __________ of achievement and its ____________ value. Emotions have a _____________ component, a _____________ component, and a __________ component. Much of emotional responsivity involves the ____________ nervous system. The ___________ is an instrument that records autonomic fluctuations while a person is questioned. Cross-cultural research indicates that the facial expressions that accompany emotions _______ (are/are not) highly similar across different cultures. People who live in different cultures may categorize emotions ____________. The ___________ plays a particularly central role in the modulation of emotion. The _______-________ theory of emotions holds that different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions. Cannon and Bard emphasized the role of the _________ in emotional reactions. According to Stanley Schachter, our experience of emotions is dependent on ______________ arousal and __________ interpretation of that arousal. Factors that do not predict happiness are ________, _____, _____________, ____________, and ________ ____________. Strong predictors of happiness are ________, ________, and _____________. Religion, health, and social activity are ____________ predictors of happiness. In happiness, _________ _______ are more important than objective reality. The __________ stage encompasses the first two weeks of development, while the _________ stage lasts from two weeks to the end of the second month. The _________ stage is the third stage of prenatal development. The age of viability occurs somewhere between ___ and ____ weeks after conception. _______ ________ syndrome is caused by excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Premature babies are typically born during the ____________ stage. Maternal _________, ______ ______, and _________ are three environmental factors that might influence prenatal development. ___________ is development that involves the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint. __________ development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities. Motor development proceeds along two axes: the _______________ axis (head-tofoot) and the _______________ axis (center-outward). ____________ norms indicate the median age in which individuals display various behaviors and abilities. Infants can typically walk alone at about ______ months.

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The median age at which children can sit up is about _______ or ______ months. The rate in which motor development occurs _______ (is/is not) influenced by culture variations. When groups of subjects of differing ages are compared at a single point in time, the study is called a ________________ study. When the same group of people are observed at different times in their lives, then a ______________ study is being done. A child's temperamental individuality is well-established around ____ or _____ _______ of age. According to Thomas and Chess, about 40% of babies were ________ babies: happy, regular in sleep and eating, adaptable, and not readily upset. According to Thomas and Chess, about ________ percent are difficult babies. In general, infants who had been categorized as "difficult" were ______ likely to have emotional problems at age ten. According to Kagan and associates, about _________ percent of children have an inhibited temperament. The close, emotional bond of affection between an infant and its caregiver is called ____________. Separation anxiety typically first occurs at about ______ to _____ months of age. According to Ainsworth, most infants develop ____________ attachment. ___________ attached infants may become distressed when their mothers leave, but are quickly calmed with her return. Children who are ___________ attached seek little contact with their mothers, and are not distressed when she leaves. Temperamentally 'difficult children are more likely to develop __________ or ___________ attachment. Infants who were _________ attached as infants tend to have better adjustments by age ten. Erik Erikson's theory emphasized _____________ crises. According to Erikson, the psychosocial crisis associated with the first year of life is _______ ________ versus _______ ___________. In Erikson's theory, the psychosocial crisis of young adulthood is __________ versus __________. In Erikson's theory, the psychosocial crisis of older adulthood is __________ versus __________. _____ ________ proposed a theory of cognitive development. The first stage of cognitive development is the _______________ period, lasting for the first two years of life. The sense of object permanence develops during the _____________ period. Children's thought processes are typically egocentric during the ____________ period. Abstract thinking and problem solving is a capability associated with the _________ operational stage. The __________ operational period lasts from about ages seven to eleven. _____________ is the tendency to focus on only one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects. Adolescents in the formal operations period are ______ (more/less) systematic in their problem solving. Lawrence Kohlberg thought that moral development is determined primarily by _________ development. According to Kohlberg, the three stages of moral development are the ______________ level, the ______________ level, and the ______________ level. Younger children at the ______________ level think in terms of external Authority in moral reasoning. People at the ____________ level see rules as necessary for social order. Acceptance of rules is less rigid at the ____________ level of moral reasoning.

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The primary crisis of adolescence is __________ vs. ______ __________ In Marcia's categories of identity, adolescents who are delaying commitment and actively considering alternatives are said to be in a state of ______________. Adolescents who have not had a crisis of identity, but who have already have made a commitment are said to be in _____________ status. _________ marks the beginning of adolescence. ____________ is an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment. Based on ____________ data, the evidence indicates that adult personality traits tend to be stable; but based on _____ _________ data, the evidence is that some traits do change. According to age-related data, older adults tend to be lower in extraversion, ___________, and ___________ to experience; but higher in _______________ and conscientiousness. About _______ percent of adults marry. The ___________ ________ _________ is a series of stages that families tend to pass through. Most parents ______ (do/do not) adjust effectively to the empty nest. Aging does have an impact on _______ of performance. As compared to women, men tend to do better on ___________ and ______-______ ability, but lower on __________ ability. The brains of males tend to show ______ (more/less) cerebral specialization than do those of females. The preponderance of evidence ________ (does/does not) support the idea that a midlife crisis is normative in adult development. (07/22/2008)


								
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