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					                     Trait Approaches to Personality




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                     Tom Farsides
                            Lecture contents


         • From cardinal to basic traits

         • Issue 1: What and where are traits?

         • Issue 2: What use are traits?




ATP PAID 2: Traits                               Tom Farsides
                        Traits: The gist

 Personal (‘internal’) rather than situational (‘external’)

 Stable rather than transitory (across time)

 Consistent rather than inconsistent (across ‘similar’
  situations)

 General rather than specific (across ‘different’ situations)

 Universal dimensions: Individual differences (across people)



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                            Tom Farsides
              Manifest, latent, or manifest because latent?

 • Potential vs. actual

 • Internal vs. interactive

 • Explanation vs. description

 • Behaviours vs. motives, affects, cognitions




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                            Tom Farsides
                        An early definition


         “generalized and personalized determining
         tendencies - consistent and stable modes of an
         individual’s adjustment to his environment”

                                Allport & Odbert (1936, p. 26)




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                         Tom Farsides
         Behavioural traits and individual differences from


 • Situational preferences

 • Cognitive styles

 • Expressive styles




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                       Tom Farsides
           Traits and individual differences attenuated by


 • Strong situational constraints

 • Trait combinations

 • Trait conflicts
         Other traits
         Motives
         Temporary moods
         Roles




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                           Tom Farsides
                     Allport’s non-common traits

 Cardinal traits
      Single defining traits that characterise some, but not all,
       individuals.


 Central traits
      Typically 5-10 traits: “those usually mentioned in careful letters of
       recommendation … or in brief verbal descriptions of a person”
       (Allport, 1937).


 Secondary traits
      Like central traits but more specific to particular stimuli or
       particular responses.



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                                      Tom Farsides
                     Cattell’s 16 PF (5th Edition)
 A. Warmth                    Reserved           Warm
 B. Reasoning                 Low                High
 C. Emotional stability       Reactive           Calm
 E. Dominance                 Deferential        Assertive
 F. Liveliness                Quiet              Energetic
 G. Rule consciousness        Expedient          Dutiful
 H. Social boldness           Shy                Socially bold
 I. Sensitivity               Logical            Sensitive
 L. Vigilance                 Trusting           Vigilant
M. Abstractness               Practical          Contemplative
N. Privateness                Forthright         Private
O. Apprehension               Self-assured       Apprehensive
Q1. Openness to change        Traditional        Free thinking
Q2. Self-reliance             Affiliative        Independent
Q3. Perfectionism             Unexacting         Perfectionist
Q4. Tension                   Relaxed            Tense

ATP PAID 2: Traits                                               Tom Farsides
ATP PAID 2: Traits   Tom Farsides
ATP PAID 2: Traits   Tom Farsides
                        Have I read you right?

    You have a need for other people to like and admire you, and yet you
    tend to be critical of yourself. While you have some personality
    weaknesses you are generally able to compensate for them. You have
    considerable unused capacity that you have not turned to your
    advantage. Disciplined and self-controlled on the outside, you tend to
    be worrisome and insecure on the inside. At times you have serious
    doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the
    right thing. You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and
    become dissatisfied when hemmed in by restrictions and limitations.
    You also pride yourself as an independent thinker; and do not accept
    others' statements without satisfactory proof. But you have found it
    unwise to be too frank in revealing yourself to others. At times you are
    extroverted, affable, and sociable, while at other times you are
    introverted, wary, and reserved. Some of your aspirations tend to be
    rather unrealistic.



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                                   Tom Farsides
                     The 16PF5 (Global Factors)


 Tough-Mindedness/Receptivity

 Low Self-Control/High Self-Control

 Introversion/Extraversion

 Independence/Accommodation

 Low Anxiety/High Anxiety



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                Tom Farsides
                     Hans J. Eysenck’s ‘Big Two’




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                 Tom Farsides
                     Eysenck’s Extraversion


                          Extraversion



      Sociable        Lively                 Active     Assertive



      Carefree       Dominant                Surgent   Venturesome


                                Sensation-
                                 seeking



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                           Tom Farsides
                     Eysenck’s Neutroticism

                            Neuroticism



        Anxious       Depressed                Tense       Irrational



           Shy         Moody                 Emotional   Low self-esteem


                                   Guilt-
                                  feelings



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                              Tom Farsides
                         For fun only

 Answer the following questions using a scale of 1 (not at all)
  to 5 (very much)

 1. Do you stop to think things over before doing
   anything?
 2. Would being in debt worry you?
 3. Do you lock up your house carefully at night?
 4. Would it upset you a lot to see a child or animal suffer?
 5. Do you believe insurance plans are a good idea?

 Add the scores together.


ATP PAID 2: Traits                                        Tom Farsides
                     Eysenck’s PEN model




ATP PAID 2: Traits                         Tom Farsides
                     Eysenck’s Psychoticism

                           Psychoticism



      Aggressive        Cold               Egocentric   Impersonal



      Impulsive      Unempathic             Creative    Anti-social


                                  Tough-
                                  minded



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                           Tom Farsides
                           (P)EN Evaluation

 • E & N result from almost all factor analyses
 • Measures (e.g., EPQ-R) are generally accepted as
   psychometrically impressive
 • Each factor score correlates with different biological stuff
 • Genetic contributions to E and N scores
 • Systemmatic mean differences across highs and lows,
   e.g., Introverts vs. Extraverts

 • I want to know more about:
      predictive/criterion validity
      comprehensiveness
      Utility generally


ATP PAID 2: Traits                                        Tom Farsides
                     Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis

                              The ‘Big Five’


       “the most important individual differences in human
       transactions will come to be encoded as single terms in
       some or all of the world’s languages”
                                       (Goldberg, 1990, p. 1216)


    • Single-trait words reveal factors I-V in US, UK, Japan,
      China, etc



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                         Tom Farsides
                     The Five-Factor Model (FFM)

                         Costa & McCrae (1992)

         Openness            (Curious and unconventional)

         Conscientiousness   (Ordered and persistent)

         Extraversion        (Exuberant and sociable)

         Agreeableness       (Caring and considerate)

         Neuroticism         (Emotional and anxious)



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                          Tom Farsides
                     FFM: Openness to experience


                                 Openness



        Fantasy          Aesthetics         Feelings       Ideas




                      Actions                     Values




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                           Tom Farsides
                      FFM: Conscientiousness


                            Conscientiousness



     Dutifulness        Competence       Order           Deliberation




                        Self               Achievement
                     Discipline              Striving




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                             Tom Farsides
                          FFM: Extraversion


                                  Extraversion



  Gregariousness        Activity level    Assertiveness      Warmth




                     Excitement                   Positive
                      Seeking                    Emotions




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                              Tom Farsides
                          FFM: Agreeableness


                               Agreeableness



          Trust           Altruism       Modesty            Compliance




                       Straight-                Tender-
                     forwardness               mindedness




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                               Tom Farsides
                            FFM: Neuroticism


                                 Neuroticism



        Anxiety           Depression     Vulnerability      Impulsiveness




                         Self-                   Angry
                     consciousness              Hostility




ATP PAID 2: Traits                                                Tom Farsides
                       ‘Consensus’ on 5 ‘basic’ traits

 16PF5                                Big 5                 FFM

 Tough-Mindedness/Receptivity         Intellect             Openness

 Low Self-Control/High Self-Control   Conscientiousness     Conscientiousness

 Introversion/Extraversion            Surgency              Extraversion

 Independence/Accommodation           Agreeableness         Agreeableness

 Low Anxiety/High Anxiety             Emotional Stability   Neuroticism


 Remember the two crucial skills of factor analysis:
      Factor labeling
      Input variable selection


ATP PAID 2: Traits                                                          Tom Farsides
                                 FFM Evidence

 • Cross cultural replication
      using translation
      Using lexical method


 • Self-other correlations

 • Biological
         Genetic inheritance
         Evolutionarily consistent
         Cross species
         Neurological


 • Diagnosis

 • Prediction
ATP PAID 2: Traits                              Tom Farsides
                      What is being claimed?

       The claim that the FFM is comprehensive does not mean
       that it exhaustively measures individual differences in
       personality, any more than a comprehensive
       examination asks every single question a student
       should be able to answer on a topic. What the model
       hypothesizes is that almost every personality trait is
       substantially related to one or more of the five factors,
       and that any remaining traits…form a miscellaneous
       category rather than covarying to define a sixth or
       subsequent factor.

                             Costa & McCrae (1995, p. 218, f. 1)


ATP PAID 2: Traits                                         Tom Farsides
                           Evaluation

 Description more than explanation.

 Conceptual fuzziness.

 Little prediction or control.

 Person-situation controversy continues.

 However, the Five Factor approach does seem well
  grounded and the best trait taxonomy currently available.



ATP PAID 2: Traits                                     Tom Farsides
ATP PAID 2: Traits   Tom Farsides

				
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