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					LOCALIZATION
Make it closer
What does localization
means?
 Beyond simple translation, localization
 means that the web page has been
 adapted to the culture and practices of
 a specific locale.

 Due to his length is abbreviated L10n
 (being 10 the letters from L to n)
Definitions
   The process of adapting a product (such as a
    software program, website etc.) to the language
    and culture of a particular region (Xenotext)

   The process of converting a program to run in a
    particular locale or country, so that all text is
    displayed in the native language, and native
    conventions are used for sorting, formatting, etc.
    (IBM)

   A process the goal of which is to create a document
    that looks and feels as though it was created in the
    target country or market (Bena Internet Publishing
    services)
Localization vs.
internationalization
             L10n                         I18n
   Addition of special         Adaptation of products
    features for use in a        for potential use
    specific locale              virtually everywhere




   Is done once for each       Is done once per
    combination of product       product
    and locale
What can we localize?

   Software
   Videogames
   Mobile phones
   Web pages
   Technical translations
   Subtitling
        .
        .
        .
What to consider when
localizing

   Language
   Culture
   Writing conventions
   Regulatory compliance of the
    product/service
Language

   Computer-encoded text
       Alphabets/scripts
              language
       Different systems of numerals

              1 or I or 1st
       Left-to-right script vs. right-to-left scripts

              › language             ‫‹ لغة‬
       Spelling variants

              localization/localisation
Culture

   Images and colors
   Names and titles
   Government assigned numbers
   Telephone numbers, addresses and
    international postal codes
   Currency
   Weights and measures
Writing conventions

   Date/time format
       5.35 p.m. vs. 17h35min
   Time zones
       GMT
   Formatting of numbers
       7.23 vs 7,23
Difficulties
   User requirements might differ significantly over
    cultures

   Development team needs someone who
    understands foreign languages and cultures and
    has a technical background and such a person may
    be difficult to find

   If a message displayed to the user in one of several
    languages is modified, all of the translated versions
    must be changed
To localize easier

   Computer assisted
    translation

   Translation memory

   Glossaries
Glossary

                                              Localization End   Test final de
Consistency            Consistència
                                              Test               localització
Culture name           Espai de noms          Localization       Enginyeria de
space                  cultural               Engineering        Localització
In-country             Soci local de
                                              Neologism          Neologisme
localization partner   localització
In-house
                       Localització pròpia    Pidgin             Pidgin
localization
Input method editor                           Pseudo
                       Mètode d’entrada                          Pseudolocalització
(IME)                                         Localization

Internationalization   Internacionalització   Romanization       Romanització

LISA                   LISA                   Simship            Enviament simultani

                                              Translation        Memòria de
Locale                 Local
                                              memory             traducció
Localizability         Testing de
                                              XLIFF              XLIFF
testing                localizabilitat
Puzzles

   Match the following words with their
    suitable definition

    Romanization Globalization Transliteration
    Localization Normalization Glossarization
    Glocalization Internationalization Translation
   The process of converting a program to run
    in a particular locale or country, so that all
    text is displayed in the native language, and
    native conventions are used for sorting,
    formatting, etc.

   The process of producing an application that
    can be localized for a particular country
    without any changes to the program code.
    Internationalized applications store their
    text in external resources, and use locale-
    sensitive utilities for formatting and
    collation.
   The process of developing, manufacturing, and
    marketing software products that are intended for
    worldwide distribution. This term combines two
    aspects of the work: internationalization (enabling
    the product to be used without language or culture
    barriers) and localization (translating and enabling
    the product for a specific locale).

   The process of converting Unicode text into one of
    several standardized forms in which precomposed
    and combining characters are used consistently.

   Transformation of text from one script to another,
    usually based on phonetic equivalencies. For
    example, Greek text might be transliterated into the
    Latin script so that it can be pronounced by English
    speakers.
   The conversion of text from one human
    language to another. When localizing an
    application, one of the largest tasks is the
    translation of all text resources into the
    target language.

   The word formed by merging the sounds of
    globalization + localization. This word
    means one or both of the following: -
    Creation or distribution of products or
    services intended for a global market, but
    customized for a locale. - Using Internet to
    provide local services on a global basis.
   Refers to the process of locating and
    translating product-specific terminology. All
    available materials undergo a linguistic
    review, then are compiled and translated to
    ensure consistency and fluency among
    different versions.

   In linguistics, the representation of a word
    or language using the Roman (latin)
    alphabet, or a system for doing so, where
    the original word or language uses a
    different writing system.
   Fill in the gaps with the suitable word

    – CAT = Computer .......... Translation
        attended assisted aided avoided
    – LISA = Localization ………… Standards Association
        industry investigation investment input
    – NLP = …………. Language Processing
        neutral natural normal negative
    – SRX = Segmentation …………… eXchange
        roles records random rules
    – TMX = ……………… Memory eXchange
        transliteration transcoding translation tradition
    – XLIFF = XML Localization Interchange …………. Format
        file    fake    false    forged
    – ANSI = ……………. National Standard Organization
        Australian Austrian American Afghan
    – DBCS = Double ……………. Character Set
        byte      bit   bold    built
    – ISO = International ……………… Organization
         stand Stuttgart standard system
    – UTF = …………….. Transformation Format
        unique universal USB unicode
    – MLV/SLV = Multi-Language ………… / Single-Language ………..
        vending vendor visitor view
About localization
 In this text, we will shed some light on one of the top five myths that are believed by many executives
 and decision makers in the corporate world. To read the whole text go to:
                       Top Five Localization Myths
                                     InfoMail, Q4-2006
                                     GlobalVision International, Inc.
                                     http://www.globalvis.com/news/InfoMailQ1_04.shtml


 Myth 1: Localization is simply translation
 Many executives do not realize the level of effort involved in localization, dismissing it as simply
 translation.
           For many years now, advances in internet technologies, development tools, authoring tools
 and platforms, have expanded the use of different file formats and build environments. Software
 applications and manuals are no longer based only on Microsoft resource files or Word documents.
 Java, XML, ASP, HTML, as well as many other formats, have become standard in many applications and
 products.
           Furthermore, with the continued trend toward the convergence of technologies, companies are
 marrying software, hardware, mechanics, chemistry, biology and other sciences to develop high-end
 solutions.
           Translators are now expected to understand all these different technologies and file formats,
 and accurately translate only what is needed, without modifying tags, links or code. If errors are made,
 a significant amount of debugging time is needed to fix and build the international products.
           Localization is both an art and a science. Do not underestimate the efforts needed or short-cut
 the process. It takes experienced engineering and translation professionals to properly implement an
 efficient translation-reuse process and localize your product.
References
   Internationalization and localization. Wikipedia
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalization_and_localization

   The Localization Industry Standards Association
    http://www.lisa.org/

   Localisation Research Centre (LRC)
    http://www.localisation.ie/

   Globalvision International, Inc.
    http://www.globalvis.com/

   Revista Tradumàtica
    http://www.fti.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/articles/mpagans/mpagans.PDF
    http://www.fti.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/articles/otorres/otorres.PDF
   iDISC. Information Technologies.
    http://www.idisc.es/procediments.asp?lang=CA

   Localversion. Traducció de software i documentació
    http://www.localversion.com/consells.htm

   Ampersand. Translation solutions
    http://www.ampersand.es/ca/vincles.htm

   MSS. Localització i traducció.
    http://www.mss.cat/locali_transla.php
Glossary references
   Softcatalà
    http://www.softcatala.org/projectes/eines/recull/recull.htm

   The Localization Tool
    http://www.delphi-localization-tool.com/?page_id=7

   Open Internet Lexicon
    http://www.openinternetlexicon.com/Glossary/LocalGlossary.html

   Weizman software localization
    http://www.wsl.co.il/glossary.htm

   Localization consultant and trainer Gerrit Sanders
    www.xenotext.net/en_glossary.htm

   Word reference
    http://www.wordreference.com
   IBM
    www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/glossaries/unicode.html

   Bena. Internet Publishing Services

    www.bena.com/ewinters/Glossary.html

				
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