Docstoc

midevalorder.SP13

Document Sample
midevalorder.SP13 Powered By Docstoc
					  Check Mike


  Check Sound


  Circulate Attendance




Time
        Today’s Lecture:




        Athens and Government




Topic


  2
1. Press 1 if you are   0
   here
                Class Announcements


 Reading for the first test

-- Gordon Wood’s book
-- Chapter 1 (pages 3-57)
                Class Announcements


 wiki

-- Take a look at the new stuff




                                      Questions?
            Rule by the few is called:



              1.   Democracy             0
Only get      2.   Authoritarian         0
credit if     3.   Monarchy              0
correct!      4.   Dictatorship          0
              5.   Oligarchy             0
            The country has no rule of law, but two
            factions compete to control it (through
            violence). Although one is currently in
            power, it has to watch its back. The form
            of government is:
              1.   Authoritarian                 0
Only get
              2.   Constitutional                0
credit if
correct!      3.   Totalitarian                  0
              4.   Republic                      0
              5.   Plutocracy                    0
Introduction to England
Lecture Organization for Topic 1:

  Part I:               Part II             Part III

Medieval Political      The Dawn of the   The Glorious
     Order               Enlightenment     Revolution

Aristocracy               The Rise of      The First
                          Parliament        Modern
Absolute                                  Nation State
Monarchy                The Birth of
                          Rights
 time period
-- Part-I from about 1066 through 1500 in England.
(Could also apply elsewhere in Europe)
               medieval political order

-- Part II takes place, roughly from 1400s through the 1700s
(strong in America in the 1700s ).
                        the rise of a new way of thinking
-- Part III takes place in the mid to late 1600s, culminating in
1688.
          English Civil War & Glorious Revolution
Today’s Lecture:




Medieval Political Order
Divine Right
Divine Right
-- Divine Right suggested that the King was God’s chosen
agent on earth to be the Landlord of that particular country.


     Imagery:

   • Lord of the Rings (Aragorn)
   • Film clips of Paul Giamatti as King John in Ironclad
Divine Right
-- Divine Right suggested that the King was God’s chosen
agent on earth to be the Landlord of that particular country.


     Imagery:

   • Lord of the Rings (Aragorn)
   • Film clips of Paul Giamatti as King John in Ironclad

  Caution: the part about the Barron being concerned about
  “the people” isn’t historically accurate. That rhetoric won’t
  happen until the mid1600s. This is in 1200.
Absolute Monarchy
                Absolute Monarchy


Conceptualizing
-- To understand the theory of absolute monarchy, one must
understand a few things:
 Government as a personification

   -- The government is a person
   -- you fight for your king against enemies like you would for
   your family
   -- there is no basic difference between king and country.
   (we see a difference today, but in medieval times there is
   not much of a difference. These things are a unity)
                Absolute Monarchy


Conceptualizing
-- To understand the theory of absolute monarchy, one must
understand a few things:

   Subjects, not citizens
   -- There are no citizens; there are only subjects
   -- There is a parent-child relationship between country
   (king) and citizen (subject).
   -- liberty as we know it is not really invented yet
                Absolute Monarchy


Conceptualizing
-- To understand the theory of absolute monarchy, one must
understand a few things:
  No branches of government

   -- The king, in theory, performs the executive, judicial and
   legislative functions.
   -- if others help, it is under an agency theory

        Jobs at Court
      Absolute Monarchy and its Prerogatives


  Dispensing Power



                                                  illustration
Dispensing Power:      The King can dispense with the
                       law by mere statute
   T-1              Timeline        T-2

King Rooney                    King Belichick

 Must King Belichick follow King Rooney’s Law?
                 Absolute Monarchy


Important Caveat
-- Although medieval Kings were in theory (in ideology)
absolute, in truth they were never really “absolute.”
 Strategic environment
-- Operated within limited environments. The nobility and
aristocrats had power, too. If you turned too many of them
against you, you could be in trouble.
-- had to be strategic to preserve power      Machiavelli

-- All that the King really was, was the strongest aristocrat
(strongest peer). Analogy: crowned checker
Great Chain of Being
                                          Social Castigation
Great Chain of Being

-- Everything has its place in nature
-- God has ordained a celestial and natural order to the
universe and to the entire human agency
-- The closer you are to God, the higher you are in the rank.
                                         Social Castigation
Chains of Being

-- Basic idea: God had put everything in its place

                                         1. God
                                         2. Angels
                                         3. Man
                                         4. Animals
                                         5. Plants
                                         6. Stones
                                         1. God Castigation
                                          Social
                                         2. Angels
 Chains of Being                                 seraphim
                                                 cherubim
-- Basic idea: God had put everything in its place
                                         3. Man
-- That within this preordained hierarchy, there were sub
                                                  king
hierarchies.                                     peasant
                                         4. Animals
                                                 Lion
                                                 Cockroach (snake?)
                                         5. Plants
                                                 Mighty Oak
                                                 clover? Moss?
                                         6. Stones
                                                 Regal diamond
                                                 ?? Gravel ??
                                          Social Castigation

Chains of Being

-- Basic idea: God had put everything in its place
-- That within this preordained hierarchy, there were sub
hierarchies.
-- The complete human chain is as follows …
Aristocracy -- Social Stratification
                                                      Monarchy
Great Chain of Being
                                                 Aristocracy
                                                Gentry




                                   Peasants, Serfs




                       City-dwellers, drunks




1/25/2013               Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007              29
Aristocracy -- Social Stratification
                                                      Royal Blood --
                                                      King, Queens, Princes,
        Monarchy                                      Princesses, etc.

                                                  Highest Titles;
                                                  Immense Lands

                                                  Closest to God on Earth


                                                         Divine Right




1/25/2013               Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                            30
Aristocracy -- Social Stratification


        Monarchy
                                                      Dukes and Barons of the
            Nobility
                                                      countryside

                                                      High Titles;
                                                      Immense Lands

                                                      The Great Peers




1/25/2013               Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                             31
Aristocracy -- Social Stratification


        Monarchy

            Nobility

            Gentry
                                                      2nd and 3rd sons

                                                      Primogeniture

                                                      Lower inheritance;
                                                      Less land

                                                      Justice of the Peace
                                                      Command a regiment
                                                      Jobs at Court



1/25/2013               Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                          32
Aristocracy -- Social Stratification


         Monarchy

             Nobility

             Gentry


                                                      Laborers, craftsmen,
Peasants,                                             “smiths,” peasant
Serfs                                                 farmers




 1/25/2013              Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                          33
 Aristocracy -- Social Stratification


          Monarchy

              Nobility

              Gentry



Peasants,
Serfs




City-dwellers,                                         No jobs, no place to live.
drunks

  1/25/2013              Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                            34
Magna Carta
   Magna Carta                                                Agreement in 1215
                                                              between the King and his
                     Monarchy                                 Nobility
                   Nobility
                                                         Mainly concerned when
                Gentry                                   the King could tax them


             Peasants,                                John had been a terrible
             Serfs                                    King, confiscating land
                                                      and property of the
                                                      aristocrats


City-dwelling                       (mention John’s eventual demise)
drunks




 1/25/2013                      Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                              36
(mention Machiavelli writing in the 1400s)
Social Rank
 Chains of Being
-- Each group within the human chain is further subject to rank
Monarchy:      Nobility:      Gentry:
• King         • Duke         • Knights
                                              Lawyers
• Queen        • Marquis      • Esquires      sometimes use
• Prince       • Earls        • Gentlemen     “esquire” by their
                                              name
• Princess     • Count
               • Viscount        Gentlemen do not do not work
                                 their lands. This is a mark of
               • Barons
                                 social status that starts with
                                 gentlemen and goes all the
                                 way up
 Chains of Being
-- Each group within the human chain is further subject to rank
Monarchy:      Nobility:      Gentry:         Peasants/
                                              Serfs:
• King         • Duke         • Knights
                                              • Yeoman farmers
• Queen        • Marquis      • Esquires
                                              • Husbandmen
• Prince       • Earls        • Gentlemen
                                              • Cottagers
• Princess     • Count
               • Viscount
               • Barons         Big farmers, but they work
                                their land. (mention Pride and
                                Prejudice)
 Chains of Being
-- Each group within the human chain is further subject to rank
Monarchy:      Nobility:      Gentry:         Peasants/
                                              Serfs:
• King         • Duke         • Knights
                                              • Yeoman farmers
• Queen        • Marquis      • Esquires
                                              • Husbandmen
• Prince       • Earls        • Gentlemen
                                              • Cottagers
• Princess     • Count
               • Viscount
               • Barons
                                              Small farmer
 Chains of Being
-- Each group within the human chain is further subject to rank
Monarchy:      Nobility:      Gentry:          Peasants/
                                               Serfs:
• King         • Duke         • Knights
                                               • Yeoman farmers
• Queen        • Marquis      • Esquires
                                               • Husbandmen
• Prince       • Earls        • Gentlemen
                                               • Cottagers
• Princess     • Count
               • Viscount
               • Barons                     Rented with no
                                            farm attached
  Primogeniture
-- The mythology that suggested the first born were
preordained to be naturally better.
-- They therefore had “favor” within the ranking system.
-- The ranking order was …
Family:
• Father
• Mother
• Male Children (in birth order)
• Female Children (in birth order)
                                                                           illustration
     Family Rank             1                       Baron

                                                     Baroness
                            2


 First Male Child       3                                       Second Male Child


First Female Child
                        4



         Question: What is the rank of the children now?
         Think of the answer silently. Then I will poll you.
 1/25/2013                      Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                             45
Everyone
 Votes!
           1.   Stays at 4   0
           2.   Goes to 5    0
           3.   Goes to 3    0
                                                                          illustration
     Family Rank           1                       Baron

                                                   Baroness
                          2


 First Male Child    3                              4          Second Male Child


First Female Child                                            Second Female Child
                     4
                     5                                   6



                         Rank Changes!

 1/25/2013                    Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                              47
                                                               illustration
The First Set of Barons                    Second Barons?

            1


            2



3               4
                                        What is the rank now?
                                        Think of the answer
5                                       silently, and then I will
                6                       poll you




1/25/2013                 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                       48
Everyone
 Votes!
           1.   Stay unchained. They   0
                were there first
           2.   Fall by 1              0
           3.   Fall by 12             0
                                                              illustration
The First Set of Barons                    Second Set of Barons?

            1                                             2


            3
            2


4
3               4
                5               These numbers change by +1


5
6               6
                7




1/25/2013                 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                      50
                                                               illustration
 The First Set of Barons                    Second Set of Barons?

             1                                             2


             2
             3                                             4


4
3                5
                 4
                 6
5

75
6                6
                 8
                 7




 1/25/2013                 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                      51
                                                                   illustration
 The First Set of Barons                       Second Set of Barons?

                  1                                           2


                  3
                  2                                           4


4
3                     5
                      4
                      6
5                                                7                8


95
7                     86
                      10
                                                11                12

             You could theoretically put every single person
             in the society into a numerical order!
 1/25/2013                    Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.                       52
Domination of Landed
       Elites
                                             Servitude
Domination of the Landed Elites


-- Let’s examine how aristocratic Lords dominated
                                                               illustration
      The Domination of Landed Elites

      • Shires
      • Manor Estate
      • Duties of the Landlord
                                  Hypothetical Territory
      • Duties of the Tenant
      • Feudalism (hard and soft)
      • Affinities!                                Lord’s
          “Muster the Rohirrim!”  A
                               Hampshire             B
                                               Pembroke
                                              Manor Estate
      Y                                  h
                       C
      Y                                   C                D
                                                     Servant
                                                     High Ground
                       c                               Husbandmen
            c      c           c             h        Cottagers
                                                     Quarters, a Mill
                                                      Yeomen
                                                      The Church
  c                                                  or Oven.
                                                      Farmers
1/25/2013              Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                      55
Religion and Society
                  Religion and Society


  Religion
-- Bibles are not in English
-- Literacy rates are low
-- The Church is a center for learning and social gathering
-- The Church is a creature of the state at two different levels:
   Local level
       -- local creature of the Baron or Lord
       (Rectory or “Living”)
               Religion and Society


Religion

 National Level
 -- creature of the monarchy
 -- established Church of England
     (briefly mention Henry VIII and Catholic Church)
     (Church of England retained Catholic rituals and
     orderly hierarchy)
 -- the King appoints the Bishops and church hierarchy
 -- Church teaches and reinforces Divine Right and Chain
 of Being     Important symbiotic relationship
The Statute
    Question:
What is a Statute?
What is a statute?
                     0
                     0
                     0
     Question:
  How does this idea
work in a world where
there are no branches
   of government?
What is a statute?
                     0
                     0
                     0
              Kings, Parliaments & Statutes


The Statute

-- King could issue proclamations, decrees, pronouncements,
etc.
-- as time goes by, the “statute” came about:
   • sometimes, for political purposes, King would have both
   himself and his nobility sign extremely important
   pronouncements so that they appeared more powerful
   (e.g., taxes, war)
   (Parliaments had to be convened for this purpose)
           Absolute Monarchy




Power over statutes          “Parliament” = “Congress”

                                (Parliament)
                 The King



  Decree                       “Statute”
              Proclamation
  “Calling Parliaments”
-- Kings would need to call Parliaments in order to pass statutes
for very important things

    taxes          war
                                      Things requiring
                                           “local
                                      administration?”
             Kings, Parliaments & Statutes


 Custom and Tradition
-- As each King would call a parliament to approve certain
issues, people became used to this practice
-- it became traditional and customary (in England) to say that:
   • no taxes unless parliament approves
   • no war unless parliament approves
-- as parliament is used more and more, this grows:
   • nothing big unless parliament approves
                           Note the corollary: The King can only
                           proclaim “regular” things on his own?
              Kings, Parliaments & Statutes


   Final Straw
-- Final straw: The parliament is permanent and is the sovereign
(English revolution)!
-- Parliament (the legislature) writes the law!



         The Final Straw:
         Parliament becomes permanent!
         Every statute must have
         parliament’s approval!
State the
   law
                The Rise of Parliament


The Rise of the Gentry

-- I’ve left out an extremely important point!
-- By the time Parliament is permanent, it is no longer composed
of just the highest aristocrats. It is composed of two things

   The House of        -- highest aristocrats
      Lords

   The House of         -- the gentry (middle-level aristocrats)
    Commons
END SESSION

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:21
posted:1/25/2013
language:English
pages:71