Athens.government

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        Today’s Lecture:




        Athens and Government




Topic


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 class participation

-- remember not to click unless called upon
-- once called upon, click 1
   penalty

-- if you click before hand, points subtracted
                Class Announcements


 Reading for the first test

-- Gordon Wood’s book
-- Chapter 1 (pages 3-57)
                Class Announcements


 wiki

-- Try to get current today




                                      Questions?
            An institution in Roman governance that
            was based upon the amount of wealth
            that you had (not the amount of land):

             1.   Plebian Assembly              0
Only get     2.   Tribal Assembly               0
credit if    3.   Centuriate Assembly           0
correct!     4.   Senate                        0
             5.   Consul                        0
Athens
                        Government in Athens


    Intro

      -- Date: 508 to 276 B.C.
      -- Athens was a city not a country. Greeks never
      attempted to unite all Greek speakers into one political
      union.
            Language:          “polis” city-state
                               politics
                               politician
                               metropolis
1/25/2013                      Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.     10
                  Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

      -- What is different about Athens is that it attempted
      “democracy” without intermediaries.
      -- No politicians. No campaigns. No elections.


                                                  Question:
                             How can you have democracy
                             without campaigns, elections
                                     or politicians

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Democracy without
   campaigns,       0
  elections or      0
   politicians?     0
                  Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

      -- What is different about Athens is that it attempted
      “democracy” without intermediaries.
      -- No politicians. No campaigns. No elections.


                                                  Question:
                                                   Answer:
                             How can you have democracy
                                   The people do it
                             without campaigns, elections
                                        directly.
                                     or politicians

1/25/2013                  Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.       13
                  Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

      -- What is different about Athens is that it attempted
      “democracy” without intermediaries.
      -- No politicians. No campaigns. No elections.


                                       Question:
                                        Answer:
                                        Question:
                             How can you have democracy
                                   The people do it
                               How do they do it directly?
                             without campaigns, elections
                                        directly.
                                 Describe how it works?
                                     or politicians

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How does this idea
     work?           0
                     0
                     0
                    Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

            The Assembly

      -- If you lived in the country you had to get up at the crack of
      dawn in order to get to the meeting place, called the
      Assembly, which was a rocky hillside within the city gates.
      -- 10,000 men could be accommodated comfortably; 15,000
      uncomfortably
      – wooden benches; most just stood
      – met 40 times a year, each meeting lasted a couple of
      hours
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                    Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

            The Assembly

      – 6,000 citizens constituted a quorum
      (imagine 20-50 % of your fellow citizens, squeezing into an
      open-air stadium, voting on proposals, electing magistrates,
      empanelling jurors).




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                       Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

            Participation

      -- any male citizens over 18 years of age and willing to
      attend the sessions (held about every 10 days).
      -- eligible to attend: about 45,000 male citizens




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                   Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

        Drawing Lots for Service

      -- almost all the administrative officials were chosen by lot
      for one year
       -- Usually they were selected in groups of 10 to carry out
      one specific function, such as policing the markets or caring
      for the streets.




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                        Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

            Ostracism

     -- once a year they decided whether to have an ostracism.
     -- if yes, each wrote down the name of the person to leave.
     -- whoever received the most votes “won” (actually, lost).
     -- They would be banished for 10 years.
                                        Question:
                                              Why would they do this?


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Why have an
 ostracism?   0
              0
              0
                        Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

            Ostracism

     -- once a year they decided whether to have an ostracism.
     -- if yes, each wrote down the name of the person to leave.
     -- whoever received the most votes “won” (actually, lost).
     -- They would be banished for 10 years.
                                         Answer:
                                        Question:
                                               Eliminated would-be
                                              Why would they do this?
                                                tyrants and nuisances

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                  Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

        Courts

      –- 201-501 citizens served as jurors and judges.
      –- The courts of law were really committees of the people.
      -- Each year a panel of 6000 jurors over 30 years of age
      was drawn up from those who volunteered to serve.
      -- For each trial a jury of 201 or more was drawn by a very
      complicated system of lots so that bribery and influence
      could be limited.

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                  Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

        Courts

      -- Each of the two parties in a lawsuit had to speak and act
      for himself, though he could hire a professional speech
      writer to compose his speech.
      -- Undoubtedly one had to be very careful as to how one
      appealed to the elders of the community who sat on the jury
      and determined by majority vote their verdict. (Socrates).



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                 Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

        Courts

      -- There could be no appeal from this committee of the
      people in its judicial capacity.
      -- In verdicts of capital punishment one was sometimes
      allowed to commit suicide by drinking poison, except those
      who were found guilty of murder (and the like). These
      unfortunate culprits were attached to a vertical plank on
      which they hung until they died.


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                       Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

            The Big Picture




               Question:
                                                              Question:
 Is Athens good or bad?
 That is, what is better: a                    What might be the flaw
     republic or direct                        in the Athenian model?
       democracy?


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Everyone
 Votes!
           1.   Direct Democracy   0
                (Athens)
           2.   A Republic, with   0
                representatives
                (politicians)
 What is the flaw, if
any, in the Athenian    0
       Model?           0
                        0
                       Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

            The Big Picture

      -- mob rule? Mob “justice.”




1/25/2013                     Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.   29
                       Government in Athens


 “Direct Democracy”

            The Big Picture

      -- mob rule? Mob “justice.”


                                                          Question:
                                     Might it be good to have some
                                     aristocratic (elitist) element to
                                               government?


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   Is it good for
government to have   0
 some non-elected    0
  elites that have   0
   power in the
      system?
Everyone
 Votes!
           1.   True    0
           2.   False   0
Vocabulary
                  Forms of Government


    Intro

      -- vocabulary words for different kinds of government
      and political arrangement




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extent of participation




     autocracy
    Rule by a single person

     Example: monarchy or dictatorship
extent of participation




     autocracy        oligarchy

                      Rule by a few
                          example: senate in Rome for a while
extent of participation




     autocracy        oligarchy            “democracy”

                                            Rule by “the many”

                          • exactly “how many” is an issue that is
                          side-stepped (explain)
extent of participation


                           adjective uses seem
                              more helpful


     autocracy        oligarchy           “democracy”

      Autocratic
      Ultimate authority tends to be concentrated in a single person
extent of participation


                              adjective uses seem
                                 more helpful


     autocracy        oligarchy               “democracy”

      Autocratic          Oligarchic
                          authority tends to be found in an elitist group
extent of participation


                              adjective uses seem
                                 more helpful


     autocracy        oligarchy             “democracy”

      Autocratic          Oligarchic       Democratic

                                 Enough “regular” people have a say
style of the rule




   monarchy
  Hereditary succession
style of the rule




   monarchy
  Hereditary succession

   dictatorship
  Rule by the strongest
  (usually, military head)
style of the rule




   monarchy                        republic
  Hereditary succession
                             Democracy through
                             agents or representatives
   dictatorship
                              “direct democracy”
  Rule by the strongest
  (usually, military head)   No (political) intermediary
by constraint upon the rule




   constitutional
 The regime is limited by the “rule of law”
 (e.g., constitution)
 by constraint upon the rule




    constitutional         authoritarian

                        • The regime is not significantly limited
                        by limited by legality;
                        • but has competition by other
                        authoritarian (lawless?) forces that it
(imagine two tribes)    cannot control, and hence, has to live
                        with and compromise.
                        • (example: an autonomous territory)
by constraint upon the rule




   constitutional        authoritarian           totalitarian

                                   • the regime is not significantly
                                   limited by limited by legality;
                                   • and conquers or is otherwise
                                   unencumbered by competition
                                   with other authoritarian forces
                                   in the society
                                   • dominates al spheres of
                                   political, economic and social
                                   life
Aristotle’s View
Views about government

1. No uni-dimensional government was
without critical flaws
   • Monarchy looks out primarily for
     the monarch
   • Oligarchy looks out for the rich
   • Democracy looks out for the
     indignant (specious?) mob
   Views about government

For tyranny is a kind of monarchy
which has in view the interest of the
monarch only; oligarchy has in view the
interest of the wealthy; democracy, of
the needy: none of them the common
good of all. Tyranny, as I was saying, is
monarchy exercising the rule of a
master over the political society;
oligarchy is when men of property have
the government in their hands;
democracy, the opposite, when the
indigent, and not the men of property,
are the rulers."
Mixed systems are the best

The best system of government is a
mix between oligarchy and democracy
A system that lets the middle class be
the most important.
   the best constitution is one
   controlled by a numerous middle
   class which stands between the
   rich and the poor.
What is Political
  Science?
                 What is Political Science?


There Is No Such Thing
   Method
    There is no distinct method of inquiry or craft that “political
    science” owns.
    We are a concern, not a science.

 Shared Conversation
   There is no conversation distinct to political science.
   Historians talk about (and analyze politics). So do
   journalists, law professors, sociologists and lay people.
1/25/2013                  Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.          52
                 What is Political Science?


There Is No Such Thing
      A Reservoir
    The taking of other inquiries (law, statistics, history,
    philosophy, psychology) and applying it to analyze political
    phenomena
    “Political science,” in this sense, is a social club
    You don’t need to be a “political scientist” to do “political
    science” – just learn the requisite “input” sciences and start
    your analysis
    Discipline could be called: “educated political analysis”
1/25/2013                  Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.         53
                  What is Political Science?


 “politicology”

-- we need to re-name the discipline
-- Other names: “politics” or “politology”
   (c.f. “anthropology”)

				
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