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        Today’s Lecture:




        Rome and Government




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Romans
                                     around 147 A.D.




1/25/2013   Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.              9
Roman Bridges
Roman Bath
  House
Social Structure
               Introduction to Social Caste


  Definition



                                                       Question:
                                          What does the term
                                           “caste” mean?




1/25/2013              Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.               14
What is a caste?
                   0
                   0
                   0
                  Introduction to Social Caste


  Definition
1. Caste = grouping people together in order to artificially deny
them certain rights and entitlements
2. Creating a system of stratification
      -- hierarchical arrangement of social class, strata, or castes
-- key:
      (1) relegated to your caste artificially or by default
      (2) your “membership” artificially denies something to you


1/25/2013                   Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.        16
                 Introduction to Social Caste


 “Aristocracy”
   -- definition (natural elites by birth)
       -- had always been present in history
       -- theory of why:
       (a) strongest male dominates in a ritual of conflict
       (b) His bloodline considered sacred
                                Note the role of superstition
-- hence, castigation by birth or bloodline.
-- only the well-birthed should lead and have privilege.
Patricians

  -- Rome called its aristocrats “Patricians.”
  -- Julius Cesar was from a patrician family called the
  “Julians.” Claudius was a “Claudian.”


Plebeians
  --- ordinary working people. (merchants, shopkeepers,
  laborers).
      Roman Society                    The bosses of the society

                                          Statistics: 510 B.C. – 50 Patrician
               Patricians
                                          Clans (10% of the free population).

                                                         “Julians,” “Claudians”


            Plebeians                        Laborers, Shopkeepers, Merchants,
                                             “Regular People” – roughly, the
                                             middle and lower class.

      Slaves

                                                    Different from American
                                                    slavery (explain)


1/18/2007                   (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.                      19
Early Republic
                Government in Rome


The Republic

  -- Before 510 B.C., Rome had Kings
  -- Kings overthrown in 510 B.C. (legend?)
  -- Era of republic 510 B.C. - 287 B.C.
      Res       Publica
                                           Republic

      “Thing”             “The Public’s”
The Senate

  -- The word “Senate” = “old folks” or “elders”
  (people who had always been around to give advice to the
  King )
  -- Theoretically, the Senate was the most important
  institution in Roman government
The rise of the Plebs
 -- over time, plebs want rights
 -- resort to strikes, shutting down the economy

Plebeian uprisings

You didn’t have any place to shop. You couldn’t get goods
manufactured. Traders had no one to trade with. No clothes were
getting cleaned. Kids are not getting watched. Can’t go to war with
55 generals and no foot soldiers.

Source -- Frances Titchener (Paraphrased)
The Plebian Assembly
 -- Obtain their own assembly (union hall)
 -- Early on, any initiate passed by the assembly had to be
 approved by the Senate (but not vice versa)
 -- Later on, the assembly was permitted to pass laws that
 only applied to plebs
 -- Still later on, could veto acts going on in the Senate
                 Early form of Bicameralism?


                          Representing
                          Social Strata



                                        Assembly of the
             SENATE
                                           Plebeians

            Upper House
                                              Lower House




1/18/2007                  (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.   25
 Office of “Consul”

-- 2 elected annually
-- Could lead the Senatorial army in battle
-- Symbolized the state in foreign relations (treaties, etc)
-- Could appoint government offices “spoils, patronage”

      Example:     Quistor

       -- person in a military unit in charge of money
                Government in Rome


 Office of “Consul”

-- Retired in the Senate
-- Julius Caesar was a Consul
-- Napoleon was called the “First Consul.”
                                                   Executive

                          CONSUL



                                       Assembly of the
             SENATE
                                          Plebeians

            Upper House
                                             Lower House




   Look familiar?

1/18/2007                 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.     28
                                                   Executive

                          CONSUL



                                       Assembly of the
             SENATE
                                          Plebeians

            Upper House
                                             Lower House



                                              Question: What
                                           happened to the Roman
                                                 Republic?

1/18/2007                 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.         29
What happened to
  the Roman        0
   Republic?       0
                   0
                                                   Executive

                          CONSUL



                                       Assembly of the
             SENATE
                                          Plebeians

            Upper House
                                             Lower House


                                             Answer:
                                          Question: What
                                      happened disbanded it
                                   Julius Caesarto the Roman
                                  in 44 B.C. (Rule by emperor;
                                              Republic?
                                   Senate becomes advisory)
1/18/2007                 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.       31
The Late Republic
Significant Reforms

  -- There were significant reforms in the Republic by the time
  of 287 B.C.
  -- Different institutional arrangements
      • Senate was opened up to everyone (not just
        patricians)
      • But it no longer passed laws; it just approved treaties.
      • New Institutions:
        Tribal Assembly          Centuriate Assembly
 Tribal Assembly

-- Roman people were organized according to districts
-- 4 districts in the city; 29 in the surrounding countryside
-- By the time of the birth of Christ, Rome had about 1 million
people living in the city
-- Those 1 million people = 4 votes.
Simplified example

                                        Hypothetical Territory




                         districts


                     1               90% of the people living in
                            2        the city; only get 2 votes in
                                             the Assembly

                     City
Simplified example

                             Hypothetical Territory




                     1   2

                                Rural district with 1
                                 vote, not many
                         3            people
Simplified example

                                      Hypothetical Territory

                                  6
              7


                                             5
    8
                          1   2

                                             4
        9
                              3
                     10
Simplified example

                                        Hypothetical Territory

 Direct Democracy?                  6
                7
 -- Whoever showed up from
 each district that day could
 vote.                                         5
     8
 -- Didn’t matter how many 1
 showed up. The vote for that 2
 block was only 1
                                               4
 -- Theoretically, only one
         9
 person could show up from
 district 4, and the district   3
                       10
 would get it’s one vote.
Simplified example

                                            Hypothetical Territory
Not as elitist as you might think
                                        6
                  7
 -- In district 4, the poor
 people probably still
 outnumber the rich.                               5
      8
 -- So landowners could, in 1       2
 theory, be outvoted
 --But the rich guy controls
                                                   4
 most of the land, which
        9
 means he is exercising
 indirect (implicit) control        3
                       10
Centuriate Assembly

-- The idea is not “century” as in time. It’s “cent” as in WEALTH
-- They grouped people by wealth
-- Every five years, the Censors tried to survey the wealth of the
people (Censor = Roman office).
-- Your wealth placed you in a census class
-- There were a total of 192 centuries (classifications)
-- About 10% of the population were within the first 100
centuries; 90% made up the rest
Simplified example        Imagine a 10
                          vote council


1. Billionaires belong to their own constituency: get 1 vote.
2. Million and a half: their own constituency: 1 vote
3. Millionaires: their own constituency: 1 vote
4. Those making $750,000: 1 vote
5. Those making $500,000: 1 vote
6. Those making $250,000: 1 vote
7. Those making $100,000: 1 vote
8. Those making $75,000: 1 vote
9. Those making $50,000: 1 vote
10. Those making $30,000: 1 vote
Simplified example        Imagine a 10
                          vote council


1. Billionaires belong to their own constituency: get 1 vote.
2. Million and a half: their own constituency: 1 vote
3. Millionaires: their own constituency: 1 vote
4. Those making $750,000: 1 vote         The wealthy control half of
                                         the votes in the council
5. Those making $500,000: 1 vote
6. Those making $250,000: 1 vote
7. Those making $100,000: 1 vote
8. Those making $75,000: 1 vote
9. Those making $50,000: 1 vote             50% of the country
10. Those making $30,000: 1 vote            could only add up to 2
                                            votes
Simplified example        Imagine a 10
                          vote council


1. Billionaires belong to their own constituency: get 1 vote.
2. Million and a half: their own constituency: 1 vote
3. Millionaires: their own constituency: 1 vote
4. Those making $750,000: 1 vote
                                          Again: doesn’t matter
5. Those making $500,000: 1 vote          how many from each
                                         group show up to vote.
6. Those making $250,000: 1 vote
7. Those making $100,000: 1 vote          1 billionaire results in
8. Those making $75,000: 1 vote             1 vote being cast

9. Those making $50,000: 1 vote          50,000 people making
10. Those making $30,000: 1 vote          $30,000 show up to
                                             vote = 1 vote
Not separate assemblies!

-- Every Roman is a member of BOTH assemblies
-- You are a member of the Tribal Assembly because you live
somewhere.
-- And you are a member of the Centuriate Assembly because
you have a certain amount of wealth.
  Comparison:
Board of Directors
  Board of Directors

-- When you vote to elect members of the board of a
corporation, voting is based upon the amount of stock that you
own
-- Rich people get more votes than poorer people
-- Board of Directors = Congress or legislature for the company.
(Imagine if a country did that: vote based upon wealth)
Board of Directors
 10 votes          100 votes          50 votes




               Board of Directors


8,000 votes                               600 votes




20,000 votes               20 votes         70 votes
  Board of Directors

-- When you vote to elect members of the board of a
corporation, voting is based upon the amount of stock that you
own
-- Rich people get more votes than poorer people
-- Board of Directors = Congress or legislature for the company.
(Imagine if a country did that: vote based upon wealth)
Simplified example              1 billionaire’s vote would be
                               worth how many votes of those
                                       earning $50,000?
1. Billionaires get 1,000 votes for president.
2. 1.5 Million gets you: 500 votes for president
3. Millionaires: get 100 votes for president
4. Those making $750,000: 75 votes for president
5. Those making $500,000: 50 votes for president
6. Those making $250,000: 25 votes for president
7. Those making $100,000: 10 votes for president
8. Those making $75,000: 7.5 votes for president
9. Those making $50,000: 5 votes for president
10. Those making $30,000: get 3 votes for president
Everyone
 Votes!
           1.   10      0
           2.   200     0
           3.   5,000   0
           4.   1,000   0
Simplified example          What the billionaire’s vote is worth in
                              terms of other people’s votes


1. Billionaires get 1,000 votes for president.    1
2. 1.5 Million gets you: 500 votes for president      2
3. Millionaires: get 100 votes for president     10
4. Those making $750,000: 75 votes for president          13.33

5. Those making $500,000: 50 votes for president          20
6. Those making $250,000: 25 votes for president          40
7. Those making $100,000: 10 votes for president          100
8. Those making $75,000: 7.5 votes for president 133.33
9. Those making $50,000: 5 votes for president 200
10. Those making $30,000: get 3 votes for president 333.33
Vocabulary
                  Forms of Government


    Intro

      -- vocabulary words for different kinds of government
      and political arrangement




1/25/2013                  Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.      54
extent of participation




     autocracy
    Rule by a single person

     Example: monarchy or dictatorship
extent of participation




     autocracy        oligarchy

                      Rule by a few
                          example: senate in Rome for a while
extent of participation




     autocracy        oligarchy            “democracy”

                                            Rule by “the many”

                          • exactly “how many” is an issue that is
                          side-stepped (explain)
extent of participation


                          adjective uses seem
                             more helpful



     autocracy        oligarchy           “democracy”

      Autocratic
      Ultimate authority tends to be concentrated in a single person
extent of participation


                              adjective uses seem
                                 more helpful



     autocracy        oligarchy               “democracy”

      Autocratic          Oligarchic
                          authority tends to be found in an elitist group
extent of participation


                              adjective uses seem
                                 more helpful



     autocracy        oligarchy             “democracy”

      Autocratic          Oligarchic       Democratic

                                 Enough “regular” people have a say
style of the rule




   monarchy
  Hereditary succession
style of the rule




   monarchy
  Hereditary succession

   dictatorship
  Rule by the strongest
  (usually, military head)
style of the rule




   monarchy                        republic
  Hereditary succession
                             Democracy through
                             agents or representatives
   dictatorship
                              “direct democracy”
  Rule by the strongest
  (usually, military head)   No (political) intermediary
by constraint upon the rule




   constitutional
 The regime is limited by the “rule of law”
 (e.g., constitution)
 by constraint upon the rule




    constitutional        authoritarian

                       • The regime is not significantly limited
                       by limited by legality;
                       • but has competition by other
                       authoritarian (lawless?) forces that it
(imagine two tribes)   cannot control, and hence, has to live
                       with and compromise.
                       • (example: an autonomous territory)
by constraint upon the rule




   constitutional        authoritarian           totalitarian

                                   • the regime is not significantly
                                   limited by limited by legality;
                                   • and conquers or is otherwise
                                   unencumbered by competition
                                   with other authoritarian forces
                                   in the society
                                   • dominates al spheres of
                                   political, economic and social
                                   life
What is Political
  Science?
                  What is Political Science?


There Is No Such Thing
   Method
     There is no distinct method of inquiry or craft that “political
     science” owns.

    Conversation

   There is no conversation distinct to political science.
   Historians talk about (and analyze politics). So do
   journalists, law professors, sociologists and lay people.


1/25/2013                   Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.              68
                  What is Political Science?


There Is No Such Thing
      A Reservoir
     The taking of other inquiries (law, statistics, history,
     philosophy, psychology) and applying it to analyze political
     phenomena
     “Political science,” in this sense, is a social club
     You don’t need to be a “political scientist” to do “political
     science” – just learn the requisite “input” sciences and start
     your analysis
     Discipline could be called: “educated political analysis”
1/25/2013                   Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.         69
                  What is Political Science?


There Is No Such Thing
   A Resevoir
     The taking of other inquiries (law, statistics, history,
       “Political psychology) and applying a description
     philosophy, Science” is a name, not it to analyze political
     phenomena
     “Political science,” in this sense, is a social club
          Functions the same in language as …
     You don’t need to be a “political scientist” to do “political
                     “Sally” or “Rotary”
     science” – just learn the requisite “input” sciences and start
     your analysis
     Discipline could be called: “educated political analysis”
1/25/2013                   Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.            70
                  What is Political Science?


 “politicology”

-- we need to re-name the discipline
-- this class: historical and philosophic politicology
-- other classes: statistical politicology

				
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