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					                                                                     Asia-Pacific Satellite Communications Council•ISSN 1226-8844   NEWSLETTER

Asia-Pacific Satellite Communications Council
Suite T-1602, Poonglim Iwantplus, 255-1 Seohyun-dong,
Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, 463-862 Korea
Tel: +82-31-783-6244 Fax: +82-31-783-6249
E-mail: Website:

                                                        Cellular Backhaul over Satellite
                                                                                                                                                    2 0 1 2

                                                        Interview with Erez Antebi, Chief Executive Officer,
                                                        Gilat Satellite Networks
                                                        FOCUS ASIA
                                                        The Case for Hosted Payloads in Asia                                           
    2 n d Q u a r t e r 2 0 1 2 • Vo l u m e 1 8 • I s s u e 2


	    04	 Using	Satellite	to	Achieve	Access	for	All	(HUGHES)
	    10	 	 mall	Cells	Backhaul	for	Mobile	Coverage	Expansion	and	
         Disaster	Communications	(IPSTAR)
	    16	 Advancing	Cellular	Backhaul	Through	Satellite	(iDirect)

	    22	 	 rez	Antebi,	Chief	Executive	Officer,	Gilat	Satellite	Networks

	   26	 FOCUS ASIA
	    26	 The	Case	for	Hosted	Payloads	in	Asia

	    30	 	 SS	Industry	Driven	to	Increased	Partnerships,	
         Innovative	Satellite	Procurement

	    36	 	 ustralasia	Satellite	Forum	2012

	    42	 NanoTronix

I participated in Satellite 2012 Conference & Exhibition held       the viewpoint of securing fairness, although there are no per-
in Washington DC, in March. About 1,200 people, including           fect solutions.
many readers, flocked to this conference. I had an impression
through the conference that the satellite business is stable        The next topic was a plan announced during the conference.
and growing steadily, amid the global political and economic        The plan is that ABS and Satmex jointly purchase several
turmoil.                                                            Boeing’s new 702SP satellite and collaboratively launch the
                                                                    satellites on Falcon 9 of Space X. This attempt is innovative
I would like to comment about some topics in the conference.        in 3 aspects. Firstly, different operators procuring satellites
The first topic was that WRC 2012 held in the preceding             and launching them with the same rocket collaboratively is a
month clearly defined the start of satellite operation related      new type of cooperation. Secondly, this is related to the
to the issue of securing orbits and frequencies. The start of       design policy of 702SP. 702SP is a satellite with all-electric
satellite operation was defined as keeping a satellite that can     propulsion, it is injected into a geostationary orbit with elec-
transmit and receive specified frequencies in the announced         tric propulsion only, and it does not have an apogee motor.
orbit for over consecutive 90 days. At the same time, suspen-       Compared with conventional satellites, the weight at the time
sion period of recorded assignment to a satellite was extend-       of launch is significantly reduced. What is more, two satel-
ed from 2 years to 3 years, considering the period for satellite    lites can be combined just like a single satellite so that they
manufacturing. Many considered the clarification of rules is        can be easily loaded onto a rocket together. Lastly, because
favorable, but the operators related directly to the interests      of this satellite design, it becomes possible to launch 2 satel-
for securing their orbit rights had delicate opinions. Since the    lites on Falcon 9 of Space X, which claims competitive price,
orbits and frequencies for geostationary satellites are con-        so that the launching cost per satellite can be significantly
gested, it is vital for each operator to secure them for busi-      reduced. If this scheme is successful, this will produce a
ness. Accordingly, they applied for as many orbits as possible      great impact on the satellite business. I think there have been
relocated old satellites and those leased from other operators      no commercial geostationary satellites with all-electric pro-
to target orbits for their advantages, and operated them for a      pulsion systems so far. The new satellite is also expected to
short period of time to secure interests, regardless of their       enable the automation of on-orbit operation and lead to the
plans of launching satellites. The interests of an orbit matter     reduction in operation cost through the satellite life, although
to not only operators, but also countries from a global view-       it takes long time to be put into geostationary orbit. I would
point, and so this issue cannot be settled easily. However, if      like to welcome the new trend in the satellite industry, which
the operators in each country keep their orbits idle for the        has not witnessed innovative activities in recent years.
future business, hindering the effective use of orbits and fre-
quencies, this is problematic for the entire satellite industry.                                                   Yutaka Nagai
In this light, the clarification of rules is preferable also from                                              President, APSCC
 04        FEATURESⅠ

                                      Using Satellite to Achieve Access
                                      for All
                                      Vince Onuigbo, Senior Marketing Director, Hughes Network Systems

                                      The tremendous growth of wireless devices,                   subscribers leaving the lower density rural
                                      including smart phones, tablets and the like, in             areas not as well connected. Urban communi-
                                      the last several years has driven the need for               ties, with good terrestrial infrastructure such as
                                      connectivity anywhere, anytime. Moreover,                    fiber and the power grid are well connected.
                                      according to studies by the World Bank and                   But the “hard-to-serve” areas, including rural
                                      other economic organizations,* it has been                   areas, islands, ocean vessels, and airplanes, are
                                      demonstrated that the introduction of these                  oftentimes served most effectively by using sat-
                                      technologies improves productivity and econo-                ellite communications.
                                      mies at a faster pace. It is estimated that a ten
                                      percent increase in penetration of mobile
                                      phones in a country increases the economic                   Evolution of Cellular Standards and
                                      growth in the range of 0.6% to 1.5% in develop-              Infrastructure
                                      ing and developed countries respectively. Thus,              Before exploring the case for satellite backhaul,
                                      bringing connectivity to developing and rural                it is useful to address the evolution of cellular
                                      areas is an important element in economic                    standards and technology. As summarized in
                                      development.                                                 Figure 1, since the introduction of the first gen-
                                                                                                   eration analog cellular standards and technolo-
                                      However, there are significant challenges in                 gy in the early 1980’s, the industry has continu-
                                      bringing connectivity to “hard-to-serve” or rural            ally evolved into subsequent generations of 2G,
                                      areas. Mobile operators initially target affluent            3G and now 4G digital standards to meet the
                                      cities and communities with a high density of                ever-increasing demand for high-speed Internet

                                      Figure 1. Wireless Standards Evolution

                                            Generation                         Technology                            Throughput	per	User
                                                 1G                        NMT, AMPS, CDPD, etc.                         10 - 100 kbps
                                                 2G               D-AMPS, iDEN, GSM, GPRS, CDMA 2000                     100 k - 1 Mbps
* Journal of Economic Perspectives,
  Volume 24, Number 3, Summer 2010,              3G                     WCDMA, UMTS-TDO, HSPA+                           22 - 56 Mbps
  pages 207-232                                  4G                             WiMax, LTE                                  75 - 1 Gbps
06   Quarterly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Q2•2012               07

                                                                                                                                                SCPC is advantageous for links where the
                                                                                                                                                                                                       SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier)
                                                                                                                                                amount of traffic is constant and TDMA for links
                                                                                          Satellite                                             where the traffic is variable. Usually high-
                                                                                                                                                capacity base stations will have a constant
                                                                                                                           Rural - 2G, 3G
                                                                                                                                                traffic load while low-capacity base stations                                                                                      F2
                                                                                                                                                will have variable traffic load. The decision of
                                                                                    Microwave PTP & PMP                                         what satellite backhaul solution to use in             DVB-S2(TDM) / FD-TDMA
                                  Public                                                                                                        providing cellular coverage to an area depends
                                                                                                                         Urban - 2G, 3G, 4G     on several factors including:                                                               DVB-S2 Forward
                                                    Mobile Switch                        Fiber Optic

                                                                                                                                                  1. Cost
                                                                                                                                                  2. Throughput
                                                                                                                     Dense Urban - 2G, 3G, 4G     3. Availability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FD-TDMA Return
                            Figure 2. Cellular Wireless Network with Backhaul Options
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Figure 3. Satellite Access Schemes

                            access and associated bandwidth-intensive,                     nects with the co-located or nearby core net-        Cost                                                                                     OPEX at Remote Sites
                            largely video-driven applications.                             work (mobile switching center or MSC). In gen-       Among the key factors affecting the cost of
                                                                                           eral, fiber is the preferred choice when avail-      extending cellular coverage to rural areas are
                            In general, different classifications of cell site             able due to high capacity and reliability.           the distance of the base station to the core net-
                            infrastructure have evolved to cost effectively                However, as described further below, its costs       work, power, backhaul link capacity or through-
                            serve geographic coverage areas with varying                   are distance-sensitive making it prohibitive in      put, site rental, and maintenance. With refer-
                            subscriber density and traffic demands, namely:                rural and hard-to-reach areas; the same con-         ence to terrestrial backhaul solutions like fiber,
                            Macro, Micro or Pico, and Femto. Macrocells                    straint applies to copper and microwave options      copper, and microwave, the further the base                     Satellite Transmission                                    40%
                            typically provide cellular coverage to the largest             although with different parameters. Only satel-      station is from the core network the higher the
                            areas, e.g. rural and ex-urban areas and                       lite backhaul has a cost model that’s insensitive    backhaul infrastructure cost. For satellite solu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Site Rental & Maintenance
                            highways, while micro or picocells are used in                 to distance and location, requiring only direct      tions the story is completely different, as cost is
                            areas such as stadiums, malls or large office                  line-of-sight from compact antennas at the base      insensitive to distance. For this reason the low-                                                   Figure 4. Opex at a Remote Site Connected via Satellite

                            complexes. Femto cells are the smallest class,                 stations and base station controller locations.      est cost solution for base stations located in
                            typically found in residences or small offices,                                                                     rural areas may be satellite.                         of 70 percent; today it’s dropped to approximate-
                            and more recently in ruggedized forms as a low-                                                                                                                           ly 20 percent; the improvement due to signal
                            cost solution in very low density rural and                    Choices for Satellite Access                         With reference to power, in rural areas beyond        processing and packaging efficiencies gained by
                            remote areas.                                                  Connections                                          the reach of the electrical grid, the choice is       both the BSS and satellite manufacturers.
                                                                                           Generally speaking, satellite backhaul connec-       either generator or solar power. When practical,
                                                                                           tions are implemented using one of two access        solar provides a lower cost point than a genera-      With new generation Ka-band High Throughput
                            Backhaul Connections                                           schemes: Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) or        tor given the requisite fueling and maintenance       Satellites (HTS) designed with multi-spot beams,
                            An overview of a cellular network is shown in                  Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). As illus-      costs. Based on current generation satellites,        the cost equation of satellite backhaul will
                            Figure 2, including the different backhaul con-                trated in Figure 3, SCPC is an access scheme         Figure 4 shows the estimated breakdown of the         change drastically, as the cost per bit is expect-
                            nectivity options, namely fiber, copper, micro-                where a bi-directional channel is dedicated to a     operating cost for a rural base station in central    ed to be up to ten times less compared to
                            wave, and satellite. Backhaul terminology in                   link between two points. TDMA is an access           Africa backhauled via satellite according to          today’s conventional satellites. The cost efficien-
                            cellular infrastructure deployment refers to the               scheme where a channel is shared amongst             Altobridge, a manufacturer of cost-effective          cy of HTS is inherent in its design approach —
                            methodology of connecting the edge radio sub-                  multiple end points and access is granted on         GSM rural base stations. Several years ago, the       employing coverage beams together with fre-
                            systems (base transceiver station or BTS) to the               demand.                                              operating cost of a remote base station site          quency re-use as in cellular systems to achieve
                            base station controller or BSC, which intercon-                                                                     attributed to satellite backhaul was in the range     very high capacity. According to NSR Wireless
08   Quarterly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Q2•2012   09

                                                               Global Wireless Backhaul In-service Units,                                              Availability                                                     • Complete remote maintenance
                                                                   Macrocells & Picocells, 2010-2020                                                   For the purpose of this article, availability is
                                           60                                                                                                          measured in how much time per year the back-                  As mobile infrastructure manufacturers are
                                                                                                                                                       haul link will be down or out of service.                     developing these very low cost, ruggedized
                                                                                                                                                       Typically the range for backhaul application will             small cell solutions for rural coverage, satellite
                                           40                                                                                                          be from 99.9% to 99.99% (four nines). For                     networking companies such as Hughes are mak-

                                                                                                                                                       99.9% availability it means that the backhaul                 ing great strides in developing cost-effective
                                                                                                                                                       link will be out of service for 8.76 hours in a               and practical VSAT solutions for cellular back-
                                           20                                                                                                          year and for 99.99% availability, the backhaul                haul. Through the implementation of thousands
                                                                                                                                                       link will be out of service for 52.56 minutes in a            of cellular backhaul links via satellite, Hughes
                                                                                                                                                       year. Normally backhaul links designed to sup-                has learned that there are a number of key fea-
                                            0                                                                                                          port higher availability require more resources,              tures that must be taken into consideration in
                                                2010    2011    2012   2013     2014      2015       2016       2017    2018     2019       2020
                                                                                                                                        Source: NSR    which in general cost more.                                   other to minimize the overall total cost of own-
                            Figure 5. Global Wireless Backhaul In-service Units, Macro & Picocells, 2010-2020                                                                                                        ership, including:

                            Backhaul Via Satellite, 5th Edition report, (see                  Consider the following scenario based on                 Implementing Satellite Backhaul                                  • Highest efficient space segment access
                            Figure 5), the lower cost per bit of HTS will drive               Hughes experience. In 2007 Hughes launched               There exists a real “digital divide” in the world                • Dynamic bandwidth assignment efficiency
                            the high forecasted growth rate of satellite con-                 SPACEWAY®         3, a Ka-band satellite with 10 Gbps    where small communities in rural areas are not                       across multiple sites
                            nectivity for picocells in particular.                            of capacity, the world’s first with on-board             effectively connected. In an effort to address                   • Easily expandable network by adding new
                                                                                              switching and routing. SPACEWAY 3 is equiva-             this digital divide, mobile infrastructure manu-                     sites without additional equipment at the
                            In addition to the cost of space segment signifi-                 lent to approximately eight conventional Ku-band         facturers are developing low cost pico and                           Hub site
                            cantly coming down, the cost of Ka-band                           satellites yet its cost was approximately the            femto cells to serve these very rural and diffi-                 • Lowest latency and jitter for efficient real-
                            remote satellite equipment will also be reduced                   same as one Ku-band satellite; today SPACEWAY            cult-to-reach areas. From these efforts the                          time data traffic throughput
                            compared to conventional Ku-band sites.                           3 supports over 500,000      HughesNet®       consumer   industry is bringing forth a new generation of                   • Low power consumption for remote units
                                                                                              subscribers in North America, representing the           solutions with the following characteristics for                 • Zero truck roll for maintenance
                                                                                              world’s largest Ka-band network.                         these hard-to-serve areas:
                            Throughput                                                                                                                                                                               Satellite cellular backhaul uniquely addresses
                            Throughput measured in bits per second (bps) is                   In mid-2012, Hughes will launch its next-gener-            • IP enabled base stations with higher                      the issue of providing full mobile services, voice
                            the average rate of data delivered over the back-                 ation satellite, EchoStar XVII, with JUPITER™                 bandwidth efficiency than E1/T1 base                     and 3 & 4G data, to everyone, especially those
                            haul link. The driver of the wireless cellular tech-              high-throughput technology, with well over 100                stations                                                 in difficult to reach areas. It is certain that the
                            nology evolution has been the drastic subscriber                  Gbps capacity through sixty steerable beams. To            • Lowest possible infrastructure cost                       continuing evolution of both cellular and satel-
                            and data increase over time. In general, high-                    put it in context, each single EchoStar XVII               • Near zero field configuration (NZFC)                      lite technologies will continue to serve to bridge
                            capacity cell sites require higher throughput for                 beam has more capacity than an entire conven-              • Green energy powered — solar and wind                     the digital divide.
                            backhaul. When available and practical, fiber and                 tional Ku-band satellite — making EchoStar
                            microwave connectivity provide more cost- effec-                  XVII equivalent to approximately 80 convention-
                            tive support for high- throughput backhaul links                  al Ku-band satellites — truly transformational
                            compared to satellite, when distance between                      for the industry. This shows clearly that the cost
                                                                                                                                                                                    Vince Onuigbo leads the technical marketing and business development function of
                            the base and the core network is in the order of                  per bit is in a downward trend, and a clear indi-                                     the Satellite and Terrestrial wireless backhaul business globally. Prior to joining Hughes
                            tens of miles. When considering distances                         cation that satellite is a viable option for back-                                    in 1996, he held various technical positions at Motorola Cellular Infrastructure Group. He
                            between base station and the core network of                      hauling high capacity base station sites cost-                                        is a Member of the IEEE and holds a BS degree with honors in Electrical Engineering and
                            hundreds of miles, the whole equation drastically                 effectively moving forward.                                                           an MBA degree.

                            changes in favor of a satellite solution, based on
                            the new generation of HTS systems.

                 Small Cells Backhaul for Mobile
                 Coverage Expansion and Disaster
                 Taksin Uppalakom, Director, Marketing and Business Development,
                 Thaicom PLC.

                 Mobile Service Trends                                these less developed areas. Mobile handset
                 There has been an exponential increase in            vendors are continuously developing low cost
                 mobile services in recent years. In the Asia         phones specifically targeting the low-income
                 Pacific region, the mobile penetration rate is       rural areas. Semi-smart phones with built-in
                 expected to hit 106%, and the number of sub-         social networking applications are being manu-
                 scribers is expected to reach 4 billion by 2016.     factured by vendors to target these developing
                 In parallel with the increase in mobile voice ser-   markets. Even though such low cost handsets
                 vice, data services have also increased expo-        are now widely available, the fact still remains
                 nentially in recent years, mainly thanks to the      that it is not cost-effective for operators to
                 popularity of social networks. The overall data      extend their reach into remote areas using ter-
                 traffic usage is expected to grow to more than 4     restrial based fiber and microwave networks.
                 exabytes per month in the next five years in the     Satellite backhaul still remains the effective
                 Asia Pacific region alone. This kind of demand       choice for targeting remote areas out of reach
                 puts tremendous strain on the existing mobile        from terrestrial nodes, and this choice will
                 networks and technologies. At the same time          remain so in the foreseeable future.
                 competition among mobile network operators is
                 increasing in markets which are seeing ever          Operators in Asia-Pacific’s low ARPU markets
                 shrinking ARPU (Average Revenue per User).           have mostly depended on funding and subsidies
                 Mobile operators need to expand their coverage       from governments, for example USO (Universal
                 and target new subscribers, while keeping their      Service Obligation) funds to provide services in
                 CAPEX and OPEX within profitable limits.             remote areas. While in the past the objective of
                                                                      these funds was to provide basic telecommuni-
                                                                      cation services, the intent has now widened to
                 New Frontiers                                        include the uplifting of quality of life of rural cit-
                 The urban and suburban mobile markets are            izens. The focus now is on providing broadband
                 now saturated, however many rural and remote         to the remote areas, where access to broad-
                 areas are still lacking service coverage. The        band services will play a key role in bridging the
                 focus of the mobile industry is now shifting to      Digital Divide through health services, rural
   12          Quarterly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Q2•2012              13

                                                   schools, distance education programs, SME’s          Although originally intended for indoor use with
                                                   and agriculture, and other community services.       a small coverage of around 10 or 20 meters,
                                                   This vision of broadband services in rural areas     Small Cells are increasingly being adapted for
                                                   can be realistically implemented using existing      use outdoors with an extended range of up to 1
                                                   broadband satellite backhaul technology.             or 2 kilometers. Small Cells are plug-and-play
                                                                                                        devices with Ethernet interfaces and work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            IPSTAR           Indoor
                                                                                                        immediately after connecting to a broadband                                                                                       User Terminal    Small cell AP
                                                   Small Cells – New Technology                         Internet connection, without the need for any                           IPSTAR Gateway

                                                   A new technology in the field of mobile commu-       configuration.
                                                   nications – Small Cells, is ideal for penetrating
                                                                                                                                                                                               Femtocell GW(RNC)
                                                   rural areas and providing cellular voice as well
                                                                                                                                                                  APMS                                                                      IPSTAR            Outdoor
                                                   as broadband Internet services. Small Cell is a      Small Cells and Broadband Satellite                                                                                               User Terminal     (IP-Node-B)
                                                   small cellular base station originally designed      Backhaul – Perfect Combination for
                                                   to be used in residential or small business envi-    Rural Communication                                                      Core Network
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AP: Access Point
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AMPS: Access Point Management System
                                                   ronments where the mobile network’s coverage         Small Cells are small devices about the size of                                                                                   RNC: Radio Network Controller

                                                   is weak or non-existent. It was designed to con-     an average Wi-Fi Access Point (AP), consumes         Figure 2. Small Cell service over broadband satellite backhaul
                                                   nect to the mobile network using broadband           little space, and can be easily integrated into an
                                                   ADSL or any other type of IP-based Internet con-     outdoor waterproof box. This enables rapid           costs of a broadband satellite as compared to a                  vice, the quality of voice connections should be
                                                   nection as shown in figure 1. A sma ll cell typi-    installation and deployment by operators. When       conventional satellite allow for the feasible                    as good as that of terrestrial networks. What’s
                                                   cally supports 8 or 16 concurrent voice calls, as    coupled with broadband satellite backhaul ser-       operation of Small Cell service with reduced                     more, the Japanese islands are subject to vari-
                                                   well as access to data service. Small Cells from     vices, a Small Cell based outdoor base station       OPEX. For remote areas beyond the reach of ter-                  ous forces of nature such as rain, typhoons,
                                                   different telecom vendors are currently avail-       can provide instant coverage in any remote           restrial access networks, Small Cells and broad-                 snow, and varying temperatures from very hot
                                                   able for 2G, CDMA and 3G technologies—ser-           location. The remote base station site using         band satellite backhaul are the perfect combina-                 to extreme cold. The IPSTAR backhaul solution
                                                   vice providers can easily integrate them into        Small Cells can be setup rapidly within a few        tion for a profitable business model. The combi-                 would have to work flawlessly under all these
                                                   their existing networks. When a 3G small cell is     hours using a standard electric pole. The Small      nation allows mobile operators to immediately                    technical and environmental constraints to pro-
                                                   chosen for deployment, it can easily provide the     Cell AP, a signal booster, and satellite modem       tap into previously inaccessible markets and                     vide seamless voice and data communication
                                                   broadband speeds required for today’s needs          can be installed in a small weatherproof box. A      start generating revenue from new subscribers.                   services.
                                                   and applications.                                    standard Ku-band satellite antenna can be
                                                                                                        strapped to the pole and the Omni-directional                                                                         Teams from the mobile operator and IPSTAR
Figure 1. Small Cell (Femtocell) generally backhauls over Internet to connect to the core network.
                                                                                                        cellular 3G antenna placed on top of the pole,       Small Cells over Broadband                                       made a joint technical effort to fine tune the
                                                                                                        providing circular coverage of up to 1 or 2 kilo-    Satellite for Rural Voice and Mobile                             system and reduce jitter for the service to per-
                                                                                                        meters. Due to the low power requirements of         Broadband Services                                               form within adequate levels of voice quality and
                                                                                                        Small Cells, these remote sites can be powered       In 2010, one of Japan’s largest mobile operators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 IPSTAR-Small Cell service in Japan [Photo: Thaicom]
                                                                                                        using solar panels and other alternative energy      embarked on a project to expand its 3G service
                 Indoor Small Cell                                                                      sources, if grid electricity is not available. The   in the remote islands of the country to provide
                                                                                                        network configuration of Small Cell backhaul         voice communications as well as broadband
                                  ADSL Router
                                                                                                        over broadband satellite service is shown in fig-    Internet service to rural communities. The oper-
                                                                                                        ure 2.                                               ator chose a broadband satellite service with
                                                          Internet                                                                                           virtually nationwide coverage in Japan, the
                                                                                                        The inexpensive cost of Small Cell equipments        IPSTAR system as their backhaul platform. One
                                                                                        Core Networkc   and accessories enables deployment of this ser-      technical constraint that comes with any satel-
                                                                                                        vice using lower CAPEX as compared to tradi-         lite based cellular backhaul is the problem of
                                                                                                        tional base stations. Also, the lower bandwidth      latency, or delay. To provide a high level of ser-
  14         Quarterly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Q2•2012   15

                                               deployment cost. The solution that was final-                    Cell base stations backhauled over broadband         caused extensive and crippling structural dam-              Small Cells – A Proven Solution
                                               ized supports 16 concurrent voice conversations                  satellite can be a permanent solution.               ages, including to that of communication net-               This successful commercial deployment in Japan
                                               as well as multiple Internet data sessions. Trial                Additionally, their advantages can also be lever-    works. All the 4 major mobile operators of                  has demonstrated the effectiveness of Small
                                               operations were conducted at 100 different                       aged as an interim solution. Mobile operators        Japan had their infrastructure destroyed—with               Cells backhauled over broadband satellite in pro-
                                               sites in rural areas to verify long term stability               generally have deployment plans spread over          NTT Docomo, KDDI, Softbank Mobile (SBM) and                 viding an efficient and scalable mobile service in
                                               of IPSTAR backhaul for the Small Cell system.                    several years. To reach some of the outlying         Emobile losing 6720, 3680, 3800 and 878 base                remote areas. Broadband satellite eliminates the
                                                                                                                areas, deployment of fiber may take a year or        stations, respectively, in 11 prefectures.                  need to set up microwave links and optical fiber
                                               These systems could be deployed within the                       more; deployment of microwave also requires                                                                      networks, thus reducing CAPEX by up to one-
                                               short period of a few days due to the compact                    several months and requires line of sight.           In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, the             eighth depending on distance. A broadband sat-
                                               size and plug-and-play capability of Small Cell                  However, using a broadband satellite the base        mobile operators also used instant IPSTAR                   ellite also enables the efficient use of spectrum
                                               base station equipments, and the small form                      station deployment can be done immediately.          backhaul to provide mobile phone and Internet               by allowing a number of base stations within the
                                               factor of the IPSTAR satellite modem – the                       This enables the mobile operator to start gener-     services in emergency shelters, schools and                 same spot beam to share bandwidth, which in
                                               IPSTAR User Terminal (UT). Each such node can                    ating revenues right away instead of waiting for     community centers. SBM and KDDI used Small                  turn reduces long term OPEX.
                                               provide 3G coverage up to a radius of 2 Km. The                  several months or even years. Once the desig-        Cells to provide mobile coverage in designated
                                               operator has chosen to extend this service to its                nated area has been covered by fiber, the            locations. Coupled with IPSTAR User Terminals               This combined technology of Small Cells and
                                               customers in remote areas. Till date nearly 6000                 broadband satellite unit can then be moved to a      (UT), Small Cells became the ideal platform to              broadband satellite backhaul enables network
                                               3G Small Cell base stations sites have been                      more remote area.                                    provide instantaneous cellular service in disas-            operators to quickly and seamlessly expand 3G
                                               deployed in various parts of Japan, with a total                                                                      ter and emergency situations.                               cellular service into rural areas as a permanent
                                               bandwidth consumption of more than 2,400                                                                                                                                          or interim solution. Extending service to accom-
                                               Mbps.                                                            Small Cells over Broadband                           Additionally, the mobile operators also used                modate higher traffic loads or to cover more
                                                                                                                Satellite in Disaster Management                     IPSTAR for its instant backhaul capability to               geographical areas can be done economically
                                                                                                                and Emergency Communications                         bring back their service into operation. Base               via satellite since satellite-enabled cell sites
                                               Small Cells over Broadband                                       The Small Cell satellite backhaul proved to be       stations of various capabilities such as Pico               only require minimal additional infrastructure.
                                               Satellite for Temporary Coverage                                 highly useful in the aftermath of the Great East     BTS, Micro BTS, and even full capacity Macro                This technology has also proved to be of tre-
                                               Expansion                                                        Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011. In addi-       BTS made use of IPSTAR backhaul to connect to               mendous advantage for providing emergency
                                               It is evident that in very remote areas, Small                   tion to the tremendous loss of lives, the disaster   their core network. This backhaul over IPSTAR               communications in the aftermath of disasters,
                                                                                                                                                                     was continued until the service providers recov-            and for recovering lost cellular coverage quickly.
                                                                                                                                                                     ered their capability and reconnected their lost            IPSTAR, the broadband satellite service cover-
Deployment of IPSTAR-Small Cells in the aftermath of Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami [Photo: Thaicom]
                                                                                                                                                                     terrestrial networks. Up to 500 base stations               ing 14 countries in the Asia Pacific, has suc-
                                                                                                                                                                     were backhauled via IPSTAR, with most of the                cessfully demonstrated in Japan that mobile
                                                                                                                                                                     deployments in the hardest hit Iwate and                    network backhaul via Small Cells can be a cost-
                                                                                                                                                                     Miyagi prefectures.                                         effective and robust technology. The technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 is currently being replicated in other countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in the Asia Pacific.

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Taksin Uppalakom is responsible for product and business development of
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Thaicom’s Telecom and Government related market segments throughout the Asia
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Pacific. He has worked in the satellite industry for over 15 years in various roles in
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Marketing and Engineering. He has a Master’s degree in Information Technology and a
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Bachelor of Engineering degree in Telecommunication.

                 Advancing Cellular Backhaul
                 Through Satellite
                 Richard Deasington, Director, Market Development, iDirect

                 The mobile industry is at an important cross-         Advancing Cellular Backhaul
                 roads. With new technology emerging every             Through Satellite
                 day, mobile operators are rapidly moving from         Over the past decade, mobile technology has
                 GSM standard 2nd generation (2G) networks to          been advancing at a phenomenal rate and
                 3rd generation (3G) and 4th generation (4G) net-      nowhere have these changes been felt more
                 works. With these changes, however, come              strongly than in the developing world where
                 challenges. While 2G networks offered primari-        mobile devices are the primary way that individ-
                 ly voice connectivity, 3G and 4G networks are         uals access the Internet. In a 2010 report, Cisco
                 much richer and more complex, offering Internet       projected that mobile data traffic would grow
                 access, video, and much more. As such, they           from 14 million to 788 million users by 2015 - a
                 deliver a significantly greater volume of data.       26-fold increase. With an ever-increasing num-
                                                                       ber of subscribers transitioning from 2G mobile
                 In major urban areas, there is the infrastructure     phone networks to 3G and 4G technology, we’re
                 to support all of this data, but in rural areas, it   coming closer to that reality. For mobile opera-
                 is much harder for mobile operators to backhaul       tors, however, tapping into rural communities is
                 3G and 4G data affordably. Fortunately, there is      easier said than done.
                 a solution. Mobile operators that have used
                 advanced satellite technology to backhaul 2G          A key challenge preventing mobile operators
                 traffic are discovering that it is also a viable      from delivering 3G and 4G service to developing
                 solution for backhauling more complex and             regions, including many areas in Asia-Pacific, is
                 bandwidth-heavy 3G and 4G voice and data.             backhauling rural network traffic. Because
                 This article will examine how satellite delivers      these regions are often remote and cut off from
                 cellular backhaul for 3G and 4G, the ways that        terrestrial communications, it can be difficult for
                 satellite has evolved in the last several years to    mobile operators to backhaul cellular data
                 be more efficient and affordable, and the impli-      affordably. While this was less of a concern
                 cations that the expansion of 3G and 4G cellular      with previous mobile technology, which was pri-
                 services has had on the Asia-Pacific region.          marily focused on voice communications, 3G
                                                                       and 4G mobile provide voice, video, and Internet
18   Quarterly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Q2•2012   19

                            access, which accounts for significantly greater     fixed amount per site, as in a TDM network.           basis of optimal operation under clear sky con-        ing data from the wireless network to the terres-
                            data volume.                                         Concurrent to this change in the mobile industry      ditions instead of having to assume worst-case         trial network, but they also offer the ability to
                                                                                 was a shift to IP in the satellite industry.          conditions.                                            cost-effectively expand a wireless service area.
                            Fortunately, there is a solution for mobile opera-
                            tors, and it’s one that they’re already familiar     IP-based satellite networks use a concept called      A second important development was the inte-           Many vendors are offering small cell platforms,
                            with: satellite. Mobile operators can look to sat-   TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) to share         gration of TDMA and SCPC technology onto a             power amplifiers, power supplies and outdoor
                            ellite as a solution for growing 3G and 4G net-      bandwidth across many sites. Through TDMA             single networking platform. This innovation,           enclosures to produce packages that can sup-
                            works in rural areas in the same way that they       technology, it is possible to allocate satellite      pioneered by iDirect, allows mobile operators to       port 30 – 60 voice calls plus HSPA data traffic
                            used it to grow 2G networks. Furthermore,            bandwidth on demand, based on the real-time           use an SCPC Return channel when they need to           and backhaul that traffic using any available IP
                            because of significant recent advances in satel-     requirements of each site. When you pool band-        sustain fairly constant capacity, or to switch to      connectivity – including carrier-class satellite.
                            lite technology, mobile operators can leverage       width like this, it creates a significant “trunking   a TDMA link when throughput is more variable.
                            satellite solutions even more efficiently than       gain” – requiring up to 80% less capacity on a        This flexibility takes away the guess-work from        Compared to macro-cell solutions, which have
                            before.                                              per site basis.                                       network deployment – having to predict which           to be mounted on high towers and are expen-
                                                                                                                                       sites will be high-traffic in advance of their roll-   sive to deploy and maintain, the price of these
                            To understand how mobile operators can use           Modern carrier-class satellite systems built for      out.                                                   small cell packages are significantly lower and,
                            satellite technology for 3G and 4G, it’s impor-      IP traffic are highly compatible with newer                                                                  combined with a low-cost remote satellite rout-
                            tant to revisit how satellite helped mobile oper-    IP-based 2G, as well as IP-based 3G and emerg-        Combining TDMA and SCPC on one platform not            er, allow mobile operators to expand coverage
                            ators manage 2G data. The legacy approach for        ing 4G networks. Additionally, there have been        only saves bandwidth but also lowers up-front          into rural areas quickly and economically.
                            backhauling cellular data relied on a technology     several other key technical innovations in the        capital expenses by eliminating the need to
                            called SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier). This       satellite industry that made backhaul over satel-     implement different types of ground infrastruc-        Small cell solutions are challenging the tradi-
                            technology extends an E1 (or T1) fractional link     lite an especially compelling option for 2G and       ture. Rather than sending a team to physically         tional models that were used by mobile vendors
                            from the Base Station Controller (BSC) site to       continue to make it a viable solution for 3G and      swap a remote modem, a mobile operator can             by developing new systems that incorporate the
                            the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) using a pair      4G mobile operators.                                  switch modes from a central NOC using the              entire 3G core network on the same server plat-
                            of devices called SCPC modems. This solution                                                               same hardware in the field. This is a powerful         form that hosts the small cells. The effect of
                            was effective for sites that had a high level of     The first key innovation supporting backhaul          incentive for mobile operators, particularly in        this is to release mobile operators from the
                            traffic, but was operationally inefficient for       over satellite was the move to the second gen-        the Asia-Pacific region where rural subscribers        need to operate large and extremely expensive
                            more remote and rural locations.                     eration of the Digital Video Broadcasting stan-       may be in areas where geographies and topog-           proprietary 3G core networks and replace them
                                                                                 dard, or DVB-S2. This transition has made             raphies make deployment difficult.                     with much lower cost soft-switches. These
                            Because the capacity of the satellite link           TDMA networks significantly faster, particularly                                                             devices allow scaling to much smaller networks
                            between two SCPC modems has to be configured         when fine-tuned for maximum efficiency. The           A third key development in the mobile industry         – even to allow entirely separate networks to
                            for peak usage – which typically occurs for only a   addition of Adaptive Coding and Modulation            that has made cellular backhaul over satellite         be operated in a building, ship or aircraft.
                            few hours on the busiest day of the year – it ends   (ACM) technology makes satellite even more            appealing is the introduction of small cell/femto-
                            up costing mobile operators significant money in     efficient.                                            cell technology. Mobile operators are already          Given the game-changing potential of femtocell
                            wasted bandwidth. The shift in the market that                                                             familiar with small cells as a means of offload-       technology, mobile operators that are already
                            enabled mobile operators to backhaul data via        ACM enables each remote to operate at its
                            satellite more efficiently came in the mid-2000s     most efficient coding and modulation scheme at
                                                                                                                                         IP-Based Cellular Network
                            with the deployment of IP technology instead of      any moment, depending on its location within
                            TDM (Time Division Multiplex) links.                 the satellite contour, antenna size and atmo-
                                                                                 spheric conditions. In practical terms, ACM
                                                                                                                                                IP interface                                           IP interface
                            As cellular data began to become more complex,       ensures that satellite connectivity will be unin-
                            IP networks offered more efficiency to operators     terrupted by sudden weather changes in regions
                            by providing the ability to share capacity           where rain fade was previously a problem and
                                                                                                                                              RNC         Hub System        Teleport          Remote                  Node B
                            between multiple sites rather than having a          allows the satellite links to be configured on the
 20         Quarterly Newsletter

                                             invested in Femto-gateways for core operations                   already in place in major cities. While extending
                                             in major cities are naturally interested in lever-               this infrastructure to rural areas with terrestrial
                                             aging their existing investment to support rural                 technology can be complicated and costly, sat-
                                             coverage.                                                        ellite presents a strong complementary solution
                                                                                                              that can overcome geographic barriers and
                                                                                                              extend mobile network from cities to remote
                                             Mobile Data Statistics in Asia                                   areas affordably and efficiently.
                                             One important characteristic of satellite tech-
                                             nology as it relates to cellular backhaul is that
                                             satellite can be integrated easily with existing                 Conclusion
                                             terrestrial networks. When you consider mobile                   As wireless communications technology contin-
                                             data usage trends in Asia, it is easy to see how                 ues to evolve and operators are able to offer
                                             this can be a valuable benefit.                                  greater and more sophisticated high-speed
                                                                                                              wireless data services to customers, they need
                                             According to research from the International                     a solution that can backhaul data efficiently and
                                             Telecommunication         Union 1,   South Korea and             affordably. Because satellite can reach places
                                             Japan are ranked number one and number two                       that no terrestrial technology can, it is the ideal
                                             worldwide in mobile broadband penetration,                       solution for mobile operators to reach remote
                                             with 91 and 87.8 percent penetration respec-                     and rural areas that are lacking 3G and 4G cov-
                                             tively. The ITU also found that, by the end of                   erage. Additionally, as satellite technology con-
                                             2011 there were 6 billion mobile subscriptions                   tinues to evolve with the development of band-
                                             worldwide – roughly 87 percent of the world                      width management breakthroughs and integra-
                                             population.2 Of those 6 billion mobile subscrip-                 tion with small cell technology, it is becoming
                                             tions, 4.5 billion came from the developing                      easier to deploy and significantly more afford-
                                             world, with adoption in China and India driving                  able to manage.
                                             much of the growth. Unsurprisingly, the top
                                             three mobile operators in the world are from                     By using satellite to extend cellular coverage to
1        these two countries (China Mobile, China                         remote and rural areas in Asia-Pacific, where
  2011/material/ICTFactsFigures2011.         Unicom, and Bharti Airtel India, according to                    mobile technology continues to be the primary
                                             Portio Research3).                                               way that individuals access the Internet, mobile
2                                                                        operators are able to expand their customer
                                             In countries like this, which have large and                     base while also facilitating important economic
3             highly populated urban areas, there is a high-                   and social change by improving access to infor-
                                             level of telecommunications infrastructure                       mation.

                             Richard Deasington has more than 25 years of experience in the telecommunications industry, holding senior level positions in
                             R&D and Engineering working closely on voice, data and transmission network systems. In his current role as Director of Market
                             Development for iDirect, Richard is currently responsible for leading iDirect’s engineering and sales efforts for GSM backhaul solutions.
                             Prior to joining iDirect, Richard held Managing Consultant position at PA Consulting Group and later Questus Ltd where he focused on
                             mobile systems: GSM and 3G systems in particular. He has been involved in a large range of mobile related activities from architecting
                             the world’s first shared 3G network to leading the design of a range of network planning tools. Richard has written several well-known
                             books and published many articles on subjects ranging from 3G power amplifier efficiency to network sharing and push-to-talk. Richard
                             holds a Bachelor of Science degree with Honors in Computer Science with Biology from the University of London.
     WEIVRETNI                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Q2•2012   23

                 Interview with Erez Antebi,
                 Chief Executive Officer,
                 Gilat Satellite Networks

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SkyEdgeⅡ Hub

                                                                                                                                                                SkyEdgeⅡ Accent

                                                                                                                        Figure 1. Cellular Backhaul over VSAT

                 Gilat Satellite Networks is a leading provider of products and services for satellite-based
                 broadband communications. Gilat develops and markets a wide range of high-performance                  expanding their service footprint and growing their subscriber base and service portfolio. In addition,
                 satellite ground segment equipment and VSATs, with an increasing focus on the consumer                 operators have been awarded large scale government USO (Universal Service Obligation) project for
                 and Ka-band market. In addition, Gilat enables mobile SOTM (Satellite-on-the-Move) solu-               providing rural telephony services using this kind of satellite-based cellular backhaul.
                 tions providing low-profile antennas, next generation solid-state power amplifiers and
                 modems. With over 25 years of experience, and over a million products shipped to more
                 than 85 countries, Gilat has provided enterprises, service providers and operators with effi-            How has Gilat been addressing this market?
                 cient and reliable satellite-based connectivity solutions, including cellular backhaul, bank-
                 ing, retail, e-government and rural communication networks. Gilat also enables leading                 Gilat has been focusing on the cellular back-
                 defense, public security and news organizations to implement advanced, on-the-move tacti-              haul market for many years and we have
                 cal communications on board their land, air and sea fleets using Gilat's high-performance              been continuously investing both in develop-
                 SOTM solutions.                                                                                        ing customized solutions dedicated to opti-
                                                                                                                        mize cellular backhaul, and integration with
                                                                                                                        the leading cellular equipment vendors such
                                                                                                                        as Huawei, ZTE, Ericsson and others, in order
                   What role does satellite play in the cellular market?                                                to ensure seamless multi-vendor operation of
                                                                                                                        the solution. We have deployed over 40 cellu-
                 Cellular networks have been expanding over the past decade, sometimes at surprising rates, and the     lar backhaul networks around the world using
                 underlying transmission infrastructure is the “make or break” of this expansion. Terrestrial-based     our satellite broadband systems. As an expe-
                 transmission technologies such as fiber-optic cables, DSL, SDH and Microwave cover most of the         rienced market leader we are able offer
                 densely populated areas but for countries with large rural populations, many areas cannot be reached   mobile the most advanced VSAT systems that
                 if one relies only on terrestrial transmission. By using satellite broadband transmission systems      allow them to deliver the highest quality cel-
                 mobile operators gain unlimited geographical access and can provide their subscribers with coverage    lular service to their users while saving satel-
                 virtually anywhere. Mobile operators that have taken advantage of this benefit have succeeded in       lite bandwidth.                                     Figure 2. Rural Cell Tower with VSAT, Africa (Photo: Gilat)
   24         Quarterly Newsletter

                                             How do you view the progress of cellular backhaul over satellite?

                                           We believe that the business case for using VSAT technology for cellular backhaul is growing even
                                           stronger than before. Mobile operators are seeking ways to expand their coverage and to address
                                           new market segments, and cellular vendors are releasing new compact pico-cell and femto-cell base
                                           stations that are ideal for the remote locations outside the reach of the terrestrial infrastructure
                                           where satellite is the only broadband communications means. Leading operators such as Orange,
                                           Telefonica, China Unicom, Optus and many more use our cellular backhaul solution in order to estab-
                                           lish communications between their remote base stations and their core network. In the past these
                                           networks would only have had only a few dozen sites but nowadays we are deploying cellular back-
                                           haul networks with hundreds of sites. In addition, mobile operators are taking advantage of the fact
                                           that VSAT technology can enable rapid-deploy cell-sites that can be used for a wide range of scenari-
                                           os such as sports events or disaster recovery.

Figure 3. Solar powered Base station and
VSAT, Asia (Photo: Gilat)
                                             What new advancements and innovations do you see in this market?

                                           Because the cellular market is a fast growing and highly competitive one, it is necessary to innovate
                                           constantly in order to remain in the game. We recently deployed a network in Africa which imple-
                                           mented a new breed of 2G base stations that are able to transmit the calls directly to one another
                                           (BTS-to-BTS). We were able to support this new functionality due to the fact that the VSAT system
                                           that we provided for this project is capable of simultaneously combining Mesh and Star connectivity.
                                           This was the first ever deployment of its kind. Another example is an emergency response project in
                                           Asia that required cellular connectivity for a convoy of vehicles, while in motion, and outside the cov-
                                           erage area of the network. In order to achieve this this we used our low profile SOTM antenna system
                                           connected to a base station both of which were mounted on a jeep.

                                           A common dilemma that many operators face when designing the satellite potion of a cellular net-
                                           work is whether to deploy SCPC or TDMA systems as each one is most suited for a particular set of
                                           network conditions. These conditions cannot always be predicted in advance and the wrong choice
                                           leads to wasted bandwidth. One of our latest developments on our SkyEdge II VSAT platform is the
                                           Accent, a modem that can switch between SCPC or TDMA mode depending on the network condi-
                                           tions. This development addresses the challenge and gives operators greater flexibility when deploy-
                                           ing satellite based backhaul. We believe that this flexibility will contribute further to the increasing
                                           demand for the advanced cellular backhaul solutions that we develop.

                                             Erez Antebi is the Chief Executive Officer at Gilat Satellite Networks. Erez Antebi has been with Gilat for over 17
                                             years. In his latest role as executive advisor to the CEO, Erez led Gilat’s entry to the new market of spot-beam satel-
                                             lites and Ka Band VSAT technology. Previously Mr. Antebi served as Gilat’s Chief Executive Officer for Gilat Network
                                             Systems (GNS) and Spacenet Rural Communications business units. Mr. Antebi previously served as the CEO of
                                             Clariton Ltd, Gilat’s Chief Operating Officer (COO) and other executive positions in Gilat Satellite Networks LTD. Mr.
                                             Antebi holds an MSc and a BSc, Summa Cum Laude, in Electrical Engineering from the Technion, Israel Institute of
                                             Technology, Haifa.
  26      FOCUS ASIA
          AISA SUCOF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Q2•2012         27

                                   The Case for Hosted Payloads in                                                                                     that could drive the hosted payload arrangement. The focus on mili-
                                                                                                                                                       tary activities has largely been concentrated on Iraq and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 if Australia at around $60 billion is removed from the Asian figure.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 India, which is primarily concerned over Pakistan but is also in a

                                   Asia                                                                                                                Afghanistan over the past decade, but as U.S. and Allied engage-
                                                                                                                                                       ment appears to be drawing to a close in terms of troop presence,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 superpower race with China, has increased its military budget to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 $49 billion.
                                                                                                                                                       the new focus is headed towards the Asia Pacific. Indeed, the U.S.
                                   Jose Del Rosario, Senior Analyst, Northern Sky Research (NSR)                                                       Department of Defense has coined its so-called “Pivot Strategy            With an escalating arms race, how would nations, particularly small
                                                                                                                                                       towards Asia,” and some satellite operators have indicated to NSR         nations with limited budgets, boost their capabilities? A nascent
                                                                                                                                                       that the shift in terms of demand has already begun.                      market proposition that governments, specifically their military
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 agencies, have used is hosted payloads, but exercising these
                                                                                                                                                       There are currently five potential flashpoints in the region that could   options globally has been relatively limited. However, as countries
                                                                                                                                                       erupt into a full blown conflict at any given time. Apart from the        in the region cannot match or outspend China in military hardware
                                                                                                                                                       threat of piracy, China is not only part of the other four potential      including space-based capabilities, hosted payloads should provide
                                                                                                                                                       flashpoints but is considered a major component or player in each.        or become an increasingly attractive option to narrow the gap.

                                                                                                                                                       Foremost and related to these concerns is its military spending,          As the partnership between governments and the commercial satel-
                                   Growing concerns over Asia’s flashpoints and                 cations for a variety of mission requirements.         which is the second largest in the globe after the U.S. China official-   lite industry becomes stronger, hosted payloads will likely become a
                                   potential hotspots are leading to a burgeoning               Leasing of satellite bandwidth has been the            ly announced that military spending will rise by 11.2% in 2012,           growing option by which governments take advantage of more long-
                                   arms race within the region, led and proliferat-             most popular and most prominent option gov-            pushing the budget to $110 billion. However, experts estimate that        term arrangements that help buffer China’s build-up.
                                   ed by China. Large, wealthy but over-extended                ernments have used to date.                            Beijing's actual military spending could be as much as double the
                                   countries as well as small, cash-strapped                                                                           official figures. In 2010 for instance, the U.S. Pentagon estimated
                                   nations are looking for ways to counter China’s              Over time, however, as governments are                 China's real total military outlays were already at over $160 billion.    Market Prospects
                                   resurgence. Hosted payloads present large,                   required to continue and increase engagement           The 2012 increase follows a 12.7 percent rise in 2011 and a string        South Korea’s communications satellite, Koreasat 5 (Mugungwha 5),
                                   wealthy countries with options to quickly deploy             via tactical and ISR (intelligence, surveillance &     of double-digit increases over the past two decades.                      launched in 2006. The satellite offers secure military communica-
                                   assets, while cash-strapped nations can exer-                reconnaissance) missions, while at the same                                                                                      tions for the Korean defense forces. The payload carries 12 military
                                   cise the arrangement to achieve some kind of                 time working under heavy budget constraints,           Various reports indicate that China’s spending is towards developing      relay terminals and 24 commercial terminals, with military coverage
                                   parity with China on space-based capabilities.               more creative, cost-effective and quickly deploy-      an aircraft carrier, a stealth fighter jet, and missiles that can shoot   from the Malacca Strait to the central Pacific Ocean areas.
                                                                                                able arrangements have to be undertaken.               down satellites. China’s anti-satellite or ASAT weapon provides a
                                   In past, present and future military activities,                                                                    direct justification for hosted payloads:                                 On 25 March 2012, an International Launch Services (ILS) Proton M
                                   the commercial satellite industry was, is and                China, Asia’s Flashpoints and                                                                                                    vehicle successfully launched the Intelsat 22 satellite, which carried
                                   will continue to be a key player in addressing               Increasing Military Budgets                              • Hosted payloads can be deployed relatively quickly in case            a specialized UHF communications payload for the Australian
                                   strategic planning for current and future appli-             In Asia, its many hotspots may be the impetus               military satellites are shot down.                                   Defense Force (ADF). Once operational in May, it is expected to
                                                                                                                                                         • Hosted payloads in terms of cost are generally less expensive         have a useful life of approximately 18 years.
                                                                                                                                                            compared to dedicated military satellites so funds for capaci-
Regional Flashpoints and Hotspots
                                                                                                                                                            ty-building are better spent.                                        For the ADF, the launch is its second deployment, the first of which
   Flashpoints	and	Hotspots                                                       Description
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 was aboard the Optus C1 satellite launched in 2003, which was a
                              North and South Korea officially remain at war. North Korea launched a rocket carrying a weather satellite in April
                                                                                                                                                       Beijing is also building new submarines and ships, and developing a       UHF payload as well. It will not be surprising to see more hosted
       Korean Peninsula       2012. The launch was a failure but region remains highly concerned over the North’s nuclear development program and
                              missile technology. Various reports indicate that China has conducted military sales to North Korea despite a ban.       range of anti-ship ballistic missiles. Its armed forces, the People's     payloads deployed by the ADF in the coming years, particularly as
        East China Sea        China and Japan continue tensions over disputed islands northeast of Taiwan.                                             Liberation Army, have more than two million personnel, which is the       the Optus C1 satellite comes to its end of life.
                              Beijing’s military spending has been on the rise and is estimated to be much higher than its officially released         biggest military in the world.
         Taiwan Strait
                              figures. As a result, Taiwan has been upgrading its military aircraft and air defenses.                                                                                                            Other nations can emulate the ADF and Koreasat’s example in terms
                              China, Vietnam and the Philippines have competing claims over the Spratly Islands. The surrounding waters are            The result is that Asian military spending is expected to overtake        of managing costs to facilitate space-based capabilities, particularly
       South China Sea
                              believed to contain vast reserves of oil and gas.                                                                        Europe in 2012 for the first time in centuries. Defense spending for      nations that have tight and/or limited budgets. The ADF program in
       Strait of Malacca      Threat of piracy is constant.                                                                                            European members of NATO have dropped below that of Asia, even            general and the latest launch in particular establishes the viability
                                                                                                                                         Source: NSR
 28            Quarterly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Q2•2012                29

                                          Asia’s Hosted Payload Programs for Military Communications                                                         cialized capabilities, the value proposition of             to long term. A sustainable and viable busi-
                                               Program/	                                                                              Number	of	 Launch	     hosted payloads in the region should strength-              ness model has emerged exemplified by the
                                                                       Payload                   Spacecraft               Host
                                            Government	Entity                                                                         Host	Years Date        en as well.                                                 Australian and Korean programs whereby risks
                                                                                        Prime contractor is                                                                                                              associated with hosting complex military
                                                                                        Mitsubishi Electric Company
                                                Australian       UHF,                                               SingTel Optus                            Globally, from an estimated $106.2 million in               instruments can be justified by commercial
                                                                                        (MELCO); assembly,                               20       2003
                                              Defense Forces     X and Ka-band                                      C-1 satellite
                                                                                        integration and testing by                                           2012, revenues for payload equipment, engi-                 operators with the right compensation
                                                                                        Space Systems/Loral                                                  neering services and commercial satellite oper-             arrangements and risk-mitigating safeguards.
                                                                 12 relay                                                                                    ator hosting services are expected to range
                                                Koreasat 5
                                                                 terminals in Ka- Alcatel Alenia Space               Koreasat 5          15       2006
                                              (Mugungwha 5)                                                                                                  from $330.8 million to $554.0 million by 2022,
                                                                 band and SHF
                                                                                                                                                             yielding cumulative revenues of $1.8 billion to             Bottom Line
                                                                 UHF                    BSS-702B bus                 Intelsat IS-22      15       2012       $2.9 billion over an 11-year period. The range              The recently successful launch of the ADF
                                              Defense Forces
                                                                                                                                               Source: NSR   of revenue streams depends largely on the                   hosted payload aboard the Intelsat 22 satellite
                                                                                                                                                             types and varying costs of hosted payload                   as well as the solid track record of both the
                                          and value proposition of hosted payloads in                    times of severe budget cuts and fiscal con-         equipment, and here, NSR conducted a scenar-                Korean and Australian programs have estab-
                                          delivering customized space solutions for gov-                 straints.                                           io-based approach in its forecast methodology               lished a firm layer of confidence in Asia’s host-
                                          ernment and military users, particularly during                                                                    to reflect various payload complexities.                    ed payload market. Over time, with Asia’s
                                                                                                         Indeed, in its latest market research study,                                                                    flashpoints becoming more serious as well as
                                                                                                         Hosted Payloads on Commercial Satellites, 2nd       The revenue flows, when taken from a cumula-                China’s spending and military ambitions creat-
                   Deployments & In-service Hosted Payloads                                              Edition, NSR found that the market will become      tive perspective, do suggest increased streams              ing more concern, instability and vulnerability
                          on Commercial Satellites                                                       more fully developed over the next 10 years         and thus opportunities in this given market.                in the region’s smaller and less affluent
                                                                                                         where it has been fairly limited as an option       The specific annual revenue flows could be                  nations, hosted payloads are likely to become
 200           Hosted Payloads Deployed
 180                                                                                                     exercised by governments during the past            erratic; however, the overall trend of market               a leapfrogging strategy to be adopted over
               In-service Hosted Payloads
 160                                                                                                     decade. From 13 hosted payloads in 2012, the        opportunity is expected to increase within the              time.
                                                                                                         market is expected to grow to over 180 in-ser-      forecast period.
 100                                                                                                     vice payloads by the end of 2022. Significant                                                                   Moreover, countries outside the region that                This article is an excerpt from
  80                                                                                                     factors in this growth are the instruments          Although long procurement processes are                     have a large interest (such as the U.S.) may                 a new NSR report entitled
  60                                                                                                     aboard the Iridium NEXT constellation.              expected largely due to the inherently complex              adopt a hosted payload strategy as well to              Hosted Payloads on Commercial
  40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Satellites, 2nd Edition.
                                                                                                                                                             hosted payload arrangements as well as asso-                complement its internal asset build-up to
  20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Complete information can be found at
   0                                                                                                     Military communications missions are expected       ciated fiscal and budget issues, the hosted                 quickly and cost-effectively contain, track and
        2012     2013    2014   2015   2016    2017    2018    2019     2020     2021     2022                                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                         to drive revenue streams for the entire hosted      payload proposition as a feasible capability-               prepare for impending crises.
                                                                                    Source: NSR
                                                                                                         payload market. Historically, the level of pro-     boosting instrument is expected to be exer-                 e level of orders and the same kind of applica-
                                                                                                         curement has been high in dollar terms, particu-    cised by a host of Asian countries over the mid             tions.
           Hosted Payload Revenues on Commercial Satellites
                                                                                                         larly the ADF contract that carried a $167 mil-
600.0      Baseline Revenues                                                                             lion price tag. The recent ADF 2012 launch is
           Moderately Priced Payload                                                                     likely at the same level as its 2003 predecessor
           Highly Priced Payload
                                                                                                         in dollar terms. Over time, more military pro-
                                                                                                         grams similar to the ADF and Koreasat 5 are
                                                                                                                                                                                       Jose Del Rosario is a senior member of the consulting team and conducts research
                                                                                                         expected to emerge.                                                           in policy analysis, economic indicators, regulatory initiatives and end user demand
200.0                                                                                                                                                                                  trends. Prior to joining NSR, Jose worked with USAID/Philippines, Frost & Sullivan, the

100.0                                                                                                    It is worth noting that Asia has actually been                                European Commission, the Malaysian Embassy, and the Law Offices of Irwin & Lesse.
                                                                                                         one of the forerunners in hosted payloads over                                Jose holds an M.A. in Applied Economics from The American University, and a B.S. in
   0                                                                                                                                                                                   Political Science/International Relations from the University of Santa Clara.
        2012      2013   2014   2015   2016     2017   2018     2019     2020    2021      2022          the past decade and with the region’s growing
                                                                                    Source: NSR          dependence on space-based resources for spe-

                        FSS Industry Driven to Increased
                        Partnerships, Innovative Satellite
                        Wei Li, Senior Consultant, Euroconsult

                        A dynamic and diversified industry                   • Large top-tier global operators. This
                        In 2011, the FSS industry counted 40 active            includes the four leading and globally
                        fixed satellite system (FSS) operators of differ-      active operators: SES, Intelast, Eutelsat
                        ent sizes and regions. Most FSS operators are          and Telesat. They account for more than
                        solely involved in satellite activity and are not      two-thirds of the industry’s revenues. They
                        part of the larger telecommunications compa-           have large satellite fleets, significant
                        nies. Presently, eight FSS operators are busi-         economies of scale, good access to distri-
                        ness units of incumbent telecom operators              bution channels, great access to capital
                        (Hellas Sat, Indosat, KT Corp., SingTel, Optus,        and a large portfolio of services.
                        Telkom Indonesia, Telenor and Vinasat).              • Regional operators with medium-sized
                        Thaicom, which also has business from cellular         satellite fleets. The majority of operators
                        and terrestrial broadband activities, derives only     fall into this category. They are operating
                        a part of its total revenues from fixed satellite      on a regional basis, covering one or two
                        activity. In addition, EchoStar, a large U.S. set-     continents, and generally have more diffi-
                        top-box manufacturer and owner of pay-TV pro-          culty coping with the capital intensity of
                        vider Dish Network, now leases some satellite          the satellite industry. However, in many
                        capacity to third parties other than Dish              cases, they have a good regional distribu-
                        Network. Fifteen of the satellite operators are        tion network and sufficient knowledge of
                        publicly listed companies, either on their own or      customers’ needs and their regions’ speci-
                        through a parent telecom company. Two new              ficities (ex: JSAT, Star One, Optus, Arabsat
                        companies have started commercial operations           and RSCC).
                        in 2011: Avanti Communication (United                • Emerging small national and regional
                        Kingdom) and Yahsat (Abu Dhabi).                       operators. They have one or two satellites
                                                                               at most in operation; in many cases, they
                        Euroconsult segments these FSS operators into          primarily serve national interests (e.g.,
                        three main categories:                                 Hellas Sat, Vinasat, Paksat, Venesat, etc.).
32   Quarterly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Q2•2012                             33

                            Emergence of new market players                     either because of regulatory measures or by sim-                     Capital Expenditure vs. Satellite Orders                                                Backlog as a Multiple of Revenues in
                            In the last few years, several new satellite        ply favoring national over international capacity.                         in the FSS IndustryIndustry                                                                the FSS Industry
                            operating entities have emerged in various          On the other hand, markets could open up as                 Number of satellite ordered and capex as % of revenue      (World, 1996-2010)       Backlog as a multiple of revenues                                                             (World, 2000-2010)
                                                                                                                                            80                                                                                  10
                            world regions. Two major categories of entrants     national operators face capacity shortages and                              Capex to sales ratio (capex in % of revenues)                        9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       * Average for a sample of companies including mainly SES, Intelsat, Asiasat, SatMex,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Thaicom (not including IPStar), Eutelsat , Telesat as well as New Skies Satellite and Loral Skynet in former years.
                                                                                                                                            70              for a sample of FSS operators
                            can be identified:                                  subsequently take an opportunistic approach to                                                                                                   8
                                                                                import additional third-party capacity.                                                                  Replacement and expansion phase
                                                                                                                                            50                                                                                                                                                                           Max backlog/revenue
                              • State-owned national satellite operators
                                                                                                                                            40                                                                                   5
                                 that mainly serve national interests and       It seems relatively clear that achieving profitabili-
                                                                                                                                            30                        Record lows in satellite order and    Peak in orders                                                                                                       Average sample*
                                 typically have a domestic focus (e.g.,         ty is difficult for small operators. Therefore, there                                                                                            3
                                                                                                                                                                            capex to sales ratio
                                 Paksat, KazSat, Nigcomasat, Vinasat,           are more small operators trying to increase their                                                                                                2
                                                                                                                                            10                                                                                                                                                                           Min. backlog/revenue
                                                                                                                                                 Satellite orders                                                                1
                                 Venesat, Yahsat, Arsat, AzerSpace); and        fleet size as quickly as possible to achieve scale
                                                                                                                                                 (in # of GEO FSS satellites per year)
                                                                                                                                             0                                                                                   0
                              • Private regional satellite operators that try   economies in opex and capex, and to amortize                  1996      1998       2000       2002       2004       2006     2008      2010          2000     2001       2002        2003        2004        2005        2006        2007        2008        2009       2010
                                 to profit from capacity shortages in certain   their investments faster. A few examples are
                                 areas and markets (such as Avanti and          Arabsat and Gazprom Space Systems, which
                                 NewSat).                                       have significant fleet expansion plans over the              2003. The plunge also reflected low satellite ordering activity                  More partnerships and ventures
                                                                                next few years. In addition, new entrants such as            in 2002, when orders for only six FSS satellites were sent to                    After the large mergers in the middle of the decade and several
                            While the privately owned satellite start-ups try   Avanti and Yahsat are trying to put a constella-             manufacturers. There was also relatively low launch activity in                  regional or national consolidations in 2007-2008 with Telesat, Loral,
                            to assure financing and the realization of the      tion of satellites in place in a short timeframe             2003, as only eight FSS satellites were launched.                                Skynet, JSat, SCC, Chinasat and Sinosat, consolidation activity has
                            business plan through an aggressive pre-launch      rather than depending solely on one satellite.            • In 2005, capital expenditures declined again to an industry                       been lower. However, FSS operators continued to invest on an
                            purchase policy, the nationally owned operators                                                                  average of 30%, which was caused by major capex cuts experi-                     opportunistic basis in selected in-orbit assets (satellites) rather than
                            seem to have a more secured domestic busi-                                                                       enced by Intelsat, Eutelsat, Loral and regional operators such                   acquiring entire companies. This could be seen in Hong-Kong based
                            ness future. They have less pressure on finan-      The FSS industry has entered into a                          as Measat. The plunge in capex-to-sales ratios was the result                    ABS’ acquisition of Mabuhay’s Agila-1 satellite and the Koreasat-2
                            cial performance, since they are largely subsi-     new capex cycle                                              of the low number of satellite orders in 2004 and the effects of                 and Koreasat-3 of KT Corp. Intelsat acquired Protostar-1 and SES
                            dized by their government shareholders.             Over the past 10 years, the industry experienced             a tight cost policy by private equity-owned operators.                           Protostar-2 satellites, already both deployed in orbit after being auc-
                                                                                four phases of changes in the capex-to-sales ratio.       • Since 2007, capital expenditures have started to rise again,                      tioned due to Protostar’s bankruptcy. Intelsat also bought the aging
                            The list of national satellite operators that are                                                                signaling, on the one hand, the current replacement cycle in                     Amos-1 satellite and uses it as an inclined orbit satellite.
                            at least partially owned by governments               • In the early 2000s, capex represented on                 the FSS industry and, on the other, the growth and expansion                     Meanwhile, Amos-Spacecom acquired the former Asiasat-2 satel-
                            includes Paksat (Pakistan), Venesat (Venezuela),          average just over 50% of sales, while in               strategies that a number of FSS operators are now pursuing.                      lite to bridge the gap until the launch of Amos-5.
                            Vinasat (Vietnam), and Yahsat (Dubai), which              the mid-1990s, the ratio was around 70%.               The current level is at around 45% which is close to the level
                            are already operational, as well as Arsat                 This was the period when the operators                 of the early 2000’s.                                                             In parallel, another trend has been observed, namely that of regional
                            (Argentina), Kazsat (Kazakhstan), Nigcomsat               launched numerous heavy satellites for                                                                                                  strategic partnerships and joint ventures. Although strategic partner-
                            (Nigeria), AzeSpace (Azerbaijan), and UkrSat              the booming TV and Asian markets.                 The trend of increasing capital expenditures is expected to continue                  ships between operators are nothing new, they seem to have
                            (Ukraine), which are expected to come in the          • In 2003, the capex-to-sales ratio of the            at least for the next couple of years because many operators such                     become an increasingly attractive alternative for operators to expand
                            years ahead. The list of countries that are               industry plunged from 50% to 30%, when            as Intelsat, SES, Arabsat and RSCC still have a large number of sat-                  into new markets with limited costs and risks, and they involve the
                            reviewing possible satellite acquisition is grow-         all but three operators (Measat, Thaicom,         ellites under construction, and some are in the midst of their compa-                 large global and small regional and national FSS operators.
                            ing (ex: Angola, Bolivia, Laos, and Afghanistan).         and Star One) reduced their capital expen-        nies’ largest fleet renewal phases in history. Eutelsat also confirmed
                                                                                      ditures significantly. The plunge occurred        in 2011 that it would likely keep a level of 40%-50% of capex to                      In addition to historic partnerships such as Horizon, an Intelsat and
                            Apart from increasing regional competition, the           after the large operators entered a down-         sales over several years. Although a slowdown in demand could                         JSat joint venture for North America, partnerships between Eutelsat
                            entrance of those new satellite operators, in             turn in their investment cycles, with sever-      affect plans for expansion capacity, the investment cycles that need                  and Nilesat in the Middle East, Eutelsat and RSCC for Russia and
                            particular the state-owned systems, could have            al large satellites being launched in 2004        two to three years to build and launch the satellites results in fairly               Central Asia, and Intelsat and TSB for Western and Central Eastern
                            a double-sided effect on the industry. On the one         (Anik F2 and Intelsat 10) and in 2005 (IA-8       good visibility on capex requirements in the next two to three years.                 Europe, recent regional strategic partnerships involving FSS opera-
                            hand, the establishment of national operators             and IPStar), which meant that capital                                                                                                   tors include:
                            will close certain markets for foreign operators          expenditures started to decelerate in
   34            Quarterly Newsletter

                                                                                                                         cult markets, such strategic partnerships and joint ventures provide
Trend & Range in EBITDA Margin for the FSS Industry
                                                                                                                         market access opportunities for satellite operators while mitigating
EBITDA margin (in % of revenues)                                                         (World, 1998-2010)
                                                                                                                         their financial and market risks. This “cooperative” model seems par-
 90%                                                                                                                     ticularly preferable for emerging markets with high uncertainty factors
                                                                                                  Max. EBITDA
                                                              Weighted average adjusted EBITDA*                          and the need for a strong local partner. They also aim at managing
                                                                                                                         issues related to spectrum rights at different orbital positions.
                                                                              Weighted average EBITDA
                                                                                                   Min. EBITDA
 30%                                                                                                                     The carriage of payloads for governments as a
                                                                                                                         growing business opportunity
        * Adjusted EBITDA is EBITDA, not considering unusual items (severance, relocation costs, one-time compensation
        charges) and non-cash items.
                                                                                                                         Another trend currently observed is an increasing interest from the
    1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010                                                     public side in hosted payloads, which are welcomed by commercial
                                                                                                                         operators as an additional source of revenue and/or as a means to
                                                                                                                         reduce capex. Examples were seen over the last 24 months with
  • A partnership between ictQatar and Eutelsat to launch a high                                                         contracts for SES and Intelsat. SES signed two contracts with the
       throughput broadband satellite to the 25.5°E orbital position in                                                  European Space Agency (ESA) to host two EGNOS payloads on the
       2012                                                                                                              Astra 4B and 5B satellites, scheduled to be launched in 2011 and
  • Yahlife, a strategic joint venture between SES Astra and UAE-                                                        2013, respectively. Intelsat was awarded a hosted UHF payload con-
       based Yahsat for provision of DTH capacity and services for                                                       tract by the Australian Defence Force onboard the Intelsat 22 satel-
       the Middle East region                                                                                            lite, due to be launched in 2012. Although hosted payloads, in par-
  • New Dawn, a regional satellite joint venture between Intelsat                                                        ticular for the military, are nothing new in the FSS industry, they
       and local African companies to provide satellite capacity and                                                     seem to have gained more attention due to government budget con-
       service for the African market                                                                                    straints combined with the continuously increasing need for military
  • A strategic agreement between ABS and SingTel for the pur-                                                           communications. Nearly all large FSS operators are actively looking
       chase of transponder capacity on ABS-2 that SingTel will mar-                                                     for more such opportunities.
       ket as ST3
  • An agreement between Measat and the Azerbaijan Ministry of                                                           In the U.S, this has resulted in the Hosted Payloads Alliance, an
       Communications and Information Technologies for the launch                                                        association of industry players that aims to promote the concept of
       of a new Azerspace/Africasat-1A satellite at the 46°E orbital                                                     hosted payloads. In Europe, the general interest of governments in
       position                                                                                                          public-private partnerships should favor the development of hosted
  • An agreement between ABS and Satmex to jointly purchase                                                              payloads in the future. The European Space Agency recently signed
       four Boeing satellites                                                                                            a PPP contract with Astrium Services for the development and oper-
                                                                                                                         ation of a data relay system, which will include at least one hosted
Rather than acquiring and merging companies and/or assets in diffi-                                                      payload in addition to a dedicated satellite.

                                             Wei Li is senior consultant at Euroconsult and editor of Maritime Telecom Solutions by Satellite - Global Market Analysis & Forecasts,
                                             Aeronautical Telecom Solutions by Satellite - Global Market Analysis & Forecasts, Mobile Satellite Communications Markets Survey –
                                             Prospects to 2020, and Company Profiles – Analysis of FSS Operators. Euroconsult is a consulting firm specializing in satellite applica-
                                             tions, communications, and digital broadcasting, providing strategic consulting and analysis, comprehensive research reports and fore-
                                             casts, and executive-level events. Mr Li can be reached at
     WEIVER TNEVE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Q2•2012                37

                    Australasia Satellite Forum 2012                                                                          Mr Hartsuyker continued by stressing how “Australia, all of Australia, must have modern high-speed
                                                                                                                              broadband”. His only question being: “How best to deliver that?”. With a portfolio covering not only
                    Australasia Satellite Forum shows off region’s satellite                                                  broadband but a wide range of communications issues including television and the mobile phone net-
                                                                                                                              work, Mr Hartsuyker couldn’t emphasise enough that “the satellite sector has a role to play in each
                                                                                                                              one of these arenas.”

                                                                                                                              The forum drew attention to the versatility of satellites when it came to providing fast, efficient, reli-
                                                                                                                              able and cost effective communications across the government, enterprise and consumer markets.
                                                                                                                              The satellite industry provides mobile phone coverage in parts of the country and some of Australia’s
                                                                                                                              key industries operate in these remote areas. According to Mr Harsuyker, “the satellite industry has
                                                                                                                              developed innovative solutions to ensure that mobile communications are available across 100% of
                                                                                                                              Australia’s land mass and out to sea.”

                    The annual Australasia Satellite Forum took place in Sydney on the 16th of April 2012. The forum
                                                                                                                               Moderator Kevin French and NewSat CEO and Founder Adrian Ballintine discuss the cooperation and                 Arianespace Chairman and CEO, Jean-Yves Le Gall presents on the
                    brought together Australian Parliament representatives and industry heavyweights from around the           competition in the Australasia satellite industry, during the ‘Supply v Demand Satellite Operator Roundtable’   satellite launch services and facilities offered by Arianespace and the
                                                                                                                               panel discussion. [Photo: NewSat]                                                                               cooperation that exists in the satellite industry, during the Australasia
                    world to discuss the satellite industry in Australia, Asia and the Pacific.                                                                                                                                                Satellite Forum. [Photo: NewSat]

                    The forum provided a great opportunity for open debate and discussion of challenges at the core of
                    the satellite industry today, with panels, roundtables and presentations focusing on the National
                    Broadband Network (NBN), supply and demand of satellite services, new technologies and first
                    responder communications in disaster zones. Forum hot topics included the NBN and the unique coop-
                    eration and competition that exists within the satellite industry.

                    Among the industry experts and market leaders in attendance were Shadow Regional
                    Communications Minister, Luke Hartsuyker, NewSat Founder and CEO, Adrian Ballintine, Arianespace
                    CEO, Jean-Yves Le Gall, SES Vice President Asia Pacific Glen Tindall, Intelsat Senior Sales Director
                    Robert Suber and Optus Director Paul Sheridan.                                                            During the ‘Supply v Demand Satellite Operator Roundtable’ panel discussion, NewSat Founder and
                                                                                                                              CEO, Adrian Ballintine, discussed NewSat’s focus on the oil, gas, government, enterprise and military
                    In the opening presentation, Shadow Regional Communications Minister, Luke Hartsuyker, provided           markets, and also underlined the many benefits of satellite enabled communications in remote areas
                    many insights into the applications of satellite communications within regional and remote Australia,     both in Australia and overseas. With many government agencies, military and resource companies
                    recognising the need for wireless communications and high-speed broadband while putting into ques-        expanding their operations into remote areas of Australia, the Middle East, Africa and South America,
                    tion the effectiveness and efficiency of the Labor Government’s NBN.                                      NewSat has attracted many customers in need of fast and reliable communications on the eve of its
                                                                                                                              Jabiru-1 satellite launch. “Many Jabiru customers are existing customers of NewSat through our
                    Mr Hartsuyker drew attention to the wealth that the mining boom is delivering to Australia, which,        existing Teleport business. Jabiru 1’s Ka-band satellite will be Australia’s first commercial satellite
                    like almost every other sector of the Australian economy is heavily dependent on “high speed reliable     and will provide NewSat customers with faster speeds, smaller end-user antennas and more cost-
                    communications, providing easy access to new markets, at home and abroad”. He reiterated that the         effective solutions - along with more available bandwidth.”
                    potential for regional Australia to increase its contribution to our economy is huge, as “communica-
                    tions will also provide new opportunities for new industries to move into regional areas: call centres,   Panel moderator, Senior NSR Analyst, Patrick French, steered focus of the conversation towards both the
                    data processors, designers, and software engineers”. Mr Hartsuyker also argued that better communi-       cooperation and competition within the satellite industry. He defined the relationship between satellite
                    cations would provide many improvements to the quality of life in regional areas with “better health-     companies as “coopertition” and urged the panel to talk about their interactions and collaborations with
                    care, better opportunities and also entertainment in isolated locations”.                                 other companies within the fairly small and close-knit circle which makes up the global satellite industry.
38     Quarterly Newsletter

                                          First to speak, Mr Ballintine said that NewSat has an interesting perspective, being a new aspirant to
                                          the world of satellite: “What I’ve learned in coming from other ally industries is that this is an industry
                                          that’s good at cooperating and I’ve been generally surprised at how much cooperation we have been
                                          lent in our journey going forward. I’ve been surprised for example that Arianespace CEO, Jean-Yves
                                          Le Gall, will speak to me and say, “How do we help you move forward?”. Not with his sales hat on,
                                          but in terms of helping us grow our vision. Arianespace has been extremely supportive and that then
                                          manifests itself into how we see our journey progressing in developing the 8 orbital slots we have
                                          with a dozen or so satellites that we are able to procure.”

                                          Moreover, Mr Ballintine sees cooperation as extremely beneficial because it’s something which NewSat
                                          has learnt a lot from, as the company found that it could get things done faster and more efficiently this
                                          way. Combining muscle and putting forward a better solution for customers is what it’s all about, reiter-
                                          ated Mr Ballintine. NewSat’s cooperation with Measat on Jabiru-1 and Jabiru-2 has helped the company
                                          go forward. “Combining our intellectual sets helps us do things in a better way”, added Mr Ballintine.

     ‘Supply v Demand Satellite Operator Roundtable’ panel discussion – Patrick French, Senior Analyst - NSR, Adrian
     Ballintine, CEO – NewSat, Paul Sheridan, Director – Optus, Glen Tindall, VP Asia Pacific – SES, Robert Suber, Senior Sales
     Director - Intelsat and Ng Guan Soon, Regional Manager – Technical Services Support Thuraya. [Photo: NewSat]

                                          The satellite operator panel echoed Mr Ballintine’s sentiments, “two parties can make a whole from
                                          the parts that each doesn’t have”, explained SES Vice President Asia Pacific, Glen Tindall, and Robert
                                          Suber, Intelsat Senior Sales Director, agreed, “cooperation and competition, combining the two is
                                          becoming essential”, said Mr Suber.

                                          According to Mr Suber, a lot has to do with the gestation period of a particular project. “From beer
                                          coaster to seeing a satellite deploy takes about 3 years. So I think we’re all looking at mechanisms to
                                          be able to enter the market earlier and take advantage of some opportunities earlier”, he added.

                                          The Australasia Satellite Forum also provided opportunities for satellite experts to discuss the media
                                          side of the business, as well as the role and capabilities of satellite-enabled first responder communi-
                                          cations. Ultimately, the forum showcased an excellent line-up of Australian and Asian companies
                                          which are complementing the rest of the world in the deployment of satellites and bringing innovation
                                          to the global satellite communications industry with state-of-the-art, fast, reliable, efficient and cost-
                                          effective solutions.
                                                As	of	23	May	2012

Platinum Member                Regular Member

Gold Member

Affiliate Member

Regular Member (Governments)
42       NEW MEMBERS
         SREBMEM WEN

                                 APSCC Welcomes a New Regular Member

                                 NanoTronix is a Korean company in Seoul, listed in the stock market (KOSDAQ, very similar to
                                 NASDAQ in Korea), that specializes in the development and manufacturing of international standard
                                 technology DVB-RCS (DVB-Return Channel via Satellite) based VSAT for hub and terminals.

                                 Nano-Tronix is a total solution provider of Satellite Communication, manufacturing interactive
                                 MF-TDMA VSAT modems for broadband service (upto Tx 4.7Mbps Rx 120Mbps) supporting star topol-
                                 ogy of Point-to-MultiPoint remotes. NanoTronix is also a total SI/NI of all components of VSAT ODU/
                                 IDU including FDMA etc of
                                   - 1 way solution (Hub / Receiver)
                                   - 2 way solution (Hub / IDU for Tx/Rx)
                                   - Broadcasting solution.

                                 OpenRCS 10000 is the TDMA VSAT Hub which supports Forward link (Downstream) 120Mbps and
                                 Return link (Upstream) 18.8Mbps with system capacity (Concurrent Subscriber) maximum 3,500 sub-

                                 OpenRCS-4800 is an enterprise-grade VSAT Modem based on DVB-RCS, where the forward supports
                                 DVB-S2 up to 120Mbps and return DVB-RCS based on MF-TDMA up to 4.7Mbps. OpenRS-4800 is the
                                 most stable model commercialized up to 5 thousand units deployed during past decade.

                                 VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) solution converts the traditional land/marine communication
Contact • Mike	KIM
Dept. • SatCom	Division          sites into a network that can be efficient nodes by offering value-added, online services previously
Tel • +82-2-3444-7755            unavailable. It comprises the core of an efficient, cost effective and always-on satellite network, link-
E-mail •	
         or		                    ing all the sites- geographically remote from one another. VSAT is ideal for quick and efficient commu-
                                 nication, gathering data and monitoring the status of all its networked sites in real-time.
   44       Quarterly Newsletter
                                                                                                                                                 Q2•2012   45

Satellite Industry News

Astrium Receives Secure Airborne Satcom Contract                         examine the possibility of deploying its research and production
from Yahsat                                                              capabilities on Russian territory in the immediate vicinity of one of
May 9, 2012 - Astrium has been awarded a contract to provide             RSCC's Space Communication Centres. RSCC and Hughes expect to
airborne satcom systems from Star Satellite Communications               develop in the following year a full-scale partnership cooperation
Company, a subsidiary of Al Yah Satellite Communications                 program that would offer cost-effective solutions for public and
Company (Yahsat). Initially Astrium Services will supply Yahsat          private entities interested in multiple-system services.
with airborne systems comprising modems, baseband equipment,
cryptos, network management and ground segment. The system               Space Systems/Loral Provides High Capacity
will help overcome the increasing requirement and demand for             Broadband Satellite to Hughes
secure, high speed transmission of data in the area.                     May 14, 2012 - Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) announced that the
                                                                         EchoStar XVII satellite, designed and built for Hughes Network
Nilesat Chooses Cisco Media, Satellite, and                              Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of EchoStar Corporation, has
Broadcast Solution                                                       arrived at the European Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, where
May 11, 2012 - Cisco and Nilesat announced that Nilesat has              it will be launched aboard an Ariane 5 launch vehicle by
successfully installed Cisco Digital Media solutions for its             Arianespace. One of the highest capacity satellites ever built,
contribution network. Cisco's end-to-end Media, Satellite, and           EchoStar XVII will be used to provide HughesNet® Gen4 high-speed
Broadcast Video Solution provides all the important features             Internet service in North America. EchoStar XVII, with JUPITER
Nilesat will need in the digital headend, including acquisition, video   high-throughput technology, is an all Ka-band, broadband satellite
encoders and transcoders, video processors, encryption and               designed to provide well in excess of 100 gigabits per second
management. Using the Cisco Lifecycle Services approach, Cisco           capacity to HughesNet's rapidly growing subscriber base. Its multi-
and its partners developed a broad portfolio of services that            spot beam architecture will expand coverage and focus capacity on
addressed all aspects of planning, deploying, operating, and             the areas with the highest traffic demand for enhanced services by
optimizing Nilesat's video network. The Cisco ROSA Video Service         consumers and businesses in North America.
Manager system will also provide a complete solution for end-to-
end management. It will monitor, manage, and control equipment           Newtec Provides Key Satellite Communication
and services throughout the Nilesat network.                             Technology for EURO HAWK
                                                                         May 14, 2012 - Newtec's IP traffic enhancement and shaping
RSCC and Hughes Sign Technology Cooperation                              technology Cross-Layer-Optimization has been implemented in the
Memorandum of Understanding                                              flagship EURO HAWK Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which
May 14, 2012 - The Russian Satellite Communications Company              detects and collects information. The Newtec technology is
(RSCC) and Hughes Network Systems signed MoU under which the             required in order to secure the downlink via satellite. EURO HAWK
companies will explore the development of multi-media video and          is a joint program between Cassidian, an EADS company, and
broadband Internet services via RSCC satellites in Russia. RSCC          Northrop Grumman. It is a UAS which signals a new era for
expects to apply the experience gained by Hughes to the                  Germany’s Federal Armed Forces – the debut of the largest
development and management of satellite communications                   unmanned aerial system in German airspace.
networks in Russia. RSCC is furthermore willing to consider
providing Hughes with the necessary ground and space                     Ariane 5 ECA Orbits JCSAT-13 and VINASAT-2
infrastructure at RSCC's Space Communication Centres to conduct          May 15, 2012 - Arianespace successfully launched a direct
testing and develop new solutions. Hughes, in turn, will thoroughly      broadcast and a communications satellite: JCSAT-13 for Japanese
   46       Quarterly Newsletter

Satellite Industry News                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2 0 1 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 01   02     03   04

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 05   06     07   08

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 09   10     11   12
operator SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation and VINASAT-2 for the             with Eutelsat, Arqiva has taken up 36MHz of capacity on EUTELSAT       APSCC Officers
operator Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group (VNPT), as          7A. This provides Arqiva with excellent overall coverage of Europe
part of a turnkey contract with Lockheed Martin Commercial Space        and specific coverage of the Middle East, Turkey and Russia. This      Yutaka	Nagai,	SKY	Perfect	JSAT
Systems (LMCSS). JCSAT-13 is to be positioned in geostationary          new contract for one transponder further consolidates a                Advisory Board
                                                                                                                                               Nongluck	Phinainitisart,	Ph.D.
orbit at 124 degrees East, providing direct TV broadcast links to all   longstanding partnership between the two companies. Arqiva has         THAICOM
of Japan as a replacement satellite for JCSAT-4A, and its capacity      the infrastructure and experience to help rights owners, program       Eui	K.	Koh,	Ph.D.                                   17-22	 50th International Paris Air Show, Paris, France
will meet satellite relay coverage demands in Southeast Asia.
JCSAT-13 is equipped with 44 Ku-band transponders and has a
                                                                        makers and broadcasters to create and capture content, and to
                                                                        manage and deliver high quality television around the world. With a
                                                                                                                                               JB Technologies

                                                                                                                                               Yasuo	Otaki
                                                                                                                                                                                         June      18	
                                                                                                                                                                                                           CASBAA Satellite Industry Forum, Singapore
                                                                                                                                               David	W.	Thompson                                 
design life exceeding 15 years. VINASAT-2 is the second satellite       fleet of SNG trucks and over 80 earth stations, Arqiva regularly       Orbital Sciences Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                   19-22	 CommunicAsia2012, Singapore
launched by Arianespace for operation by the VNPT, and follows          enables the managed global delivery of live and special events         G.	Madhavan	Nair,	Ph.	D.
                                                                                                                                               Indian Space Research Organisation
the lofting of VINASAT-1 on an Ariane 5 flight in April 2008.           including sports, news and entertainment.
                                                                                                                                               John	Celli                                          19	     CommunicAsia2012 Summit, Singapore
Equipped with 24 Ku-band transponders to handle radio, television                                                                              Space Systems/Loral                               
and telephone links for all of Vietnam, VINASAT-2 will operate from     Inmarsat Launches FleetBroadband Multi-Voice                           Richard	E.	Butler                                   26-29	 Military Satellites 2012, London, UK
                                                                                                                                               Asia Space
an orbital position at 131.8 degrees East during a design lifetime of   May 17, 2012 - Inmarsat announced the launch of FleetBroadband                                                          
                                                                                                                                               Board of Directors
15-plus years.                                                          Multi-voice, a new capability that will allow up to 9 simultaneous     Richard	Bowles	
                                                                        telephone calls to be made through a single FleetBroadband
                                                                                                                                               Thomas	Choi
Thuraya and GTNT Say in One Voice ‘Hello Russia’                        terminal. The enhancement to FleetBroadband (FB) will enable           Asia Broadcast Satellite                            13-16	 26th Annual Conference on Small Satellites, Logan, UT, USA
May 15, 2012 -Thuraya Telecommunications Company has
announced the launch of its mobile satellite services in Russia in
                                                                        vessel owners and managers to separate crew communications
                                                                        from operational use. It will also provide crew with more privacy,
                                                                                                                                               William	Wade	
                                                                                                                                               AsiaSat                                   08

                                                                                                                                               Zhiheng	Fu	
partnership with GTNT. Spanning more than 140 countries,                making it easier to make personal low-cost calls away from the         China Great Wall Industry Corporation
Thuraya’s sophisticated satellite communications network                bridge. The new capability is targeted at any vessel with the need     Thomas	Carroll	
                                                                                                                                               International Launch Services
guarantees reliable, secure and affordable communications within        to manage separate voice calls – particularly the merchant
                                                                                                                                               Terry	Bleakley	
the world’s largest country, especially in remote and rural locations   maritime market, but also other vessels that have similar crew or      Intelsat                                            03-07	 	 012 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference,
typically underserved by terrestrial networks. Thuraya’s portfolio of
products includes high-speed data, voice and maritime offerings
                                                                        passenger communications requirements, such as superyachts or
                                                                        deep-sea fishing vessels.
                                                                                                                                               Young	Taik	Kim	
                                                                                                                                               KT Corporation                            09
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sopot, Poland
                                                                                                                                               Paul	Brown-Kenyon	
that are tailored for the vertical markets. Through its partnership                                                                            MEASAT Satellite Systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                   06-11	 IBC 2012, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
with GTNT, Thuraya will provide uninterrupted satellite                 Successful Launch of H-IIA F 21 with SHIZUKU and                       Hiroyuki	Inahata	

communications services to federal, departmental and corporate          SDS-4 aboard
                                                                                                                                               Mitsubishi Electric Corporation                     10-13	 World Satellite Business Week, Paris, France
                                                                                                                                               Ted	McFarland                                    
users in energy, petrochemical, construction, logistics, forestry,      May 18, 2012 - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and the Japan         Orbital Sciences Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                   11-14	 	 th Annual GDI APAC: Geospatial Defence &
relief and media sectors. GTNT is Thuraya’s sole Service Partner in     Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the Global                Dani	Indra
                                                                                                                                               TELKOM Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Intelligence Asia-Pacific, Thailand
Russia authorized to distribute Company products, solutions and         Changing Observation Mission 1st - Water “SHIZUKU” (GCOM-W1)                                                            
                                                                                                                                               Deepak	Mathur
services across the country.                                            and the Korean Multi-purpose Satellite 3 (KOMPSAT-3) of the            SES                                                 11-15	 COMSYS VSAT 2012, London, UK
                                                                        Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) by the H-IIA Launch          Titus	Yong	                                      
Arqiva Takes Additional Satellite Capacity on                           Vehicle No. 21 (H-IIA F21) from the Tanegashima Space Center. The                                                          19-21	 China Satellite 2012, Beijing, China
                                                                                                                                               Dawn	Harms	
EUTELSAT 7A                                                             launch vehicle flew smoothly, and, at about 16 minutes and 3                                                            
                                                                                                                                               Space Systems/Loral

May 16, 2012 - Arqiva has signed a new contract with Eutelsat           seconds after liftoff, the separation of the KOMPSAT-3, then at        Christophe	Bauer                                    25-27	 APSCC 2012 Satellite Conference & Exhibition, Seoul, Korea
Communications for additional satellite capacity to meet growing        about 22 minutes and 59 seconds after liftoff, the separation of the
                                                                                                                                               Eddie	Kato	
demand for its Occasional Use satellite services. In this agreement     SHIZUKU were confirmed respectively.                                   Thales Alenia Space, North America
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                                                                                        2nd Quarter 2012
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                                                                                                        NewSat                                   Inside	front	cover
                                                                                                Space	Systems/Loral                                        02
                                                                                                        Hughes                                             05
                                                                                                      THAICOM                                              11
                                                                                                      INTELSAT                                             17
                                                                                                        Newtec                                             21
                                                                                                     Via	Satellite                                         25
                                                                                        Hughes	VSAT	Workshop	Series                                        29
                                                                                                    Content	Asia                                           35
                                                                                              CommunicAsia2012	Summit                                      39
                                                                                                         Sat	TV                                            43
                                                                                                     APSCC	2012                                            45
                                                                                                           ILS                                  Inside	back	cover

APSCC is a non-profit, international regional association representing all sectors of                                             Editorials and Inquiries
satellite and space related industries. APSCC membership is open to any government body,
                                                                                                   Inho Seo, Editor
public and private organization, association, or corporation that is involved in satellite
                                                                                                   Asia-Pacific Satellite Communications Council
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