Snap Surveys2. Questionnaire Design

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					                              2. Questionnaire Design




Should you require any technical support for the Snap survey software, please contact us at the offices listed
                                      on the back of this user guide.
 For any assistance with software licences, training and SurveyShop research services, please contact your
                    local sales offices. Details can be found at www.snapsurveys.com.
     Snap



CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 1
         Conventions Used in this User Guide ........................................................................................... 2
         Introduction to Questionnaire Design ........................................................................................... 3
         Questionnaire Window Modes...................................................................................................... 4
         Questionnaire Window Toolbar .................................................................................................... 6
         Quickstart Guide to Questionnaire Design.................................................................................... 8
         Create a New Customer Satisfaction Survey................................................................................. 9
         Questionnaire Design Editing Commands .................................................................................. 11
         Add a Title and a Sub-Title to your Questionnaire ..................................................................... 12
         Create a Multi Choice Question .................................................................................................. 13
         Add an "Other Please Specify" Question .................................................................................... 14
         Add a Series of Grid Questions................................................................................................... 15
         Add an "Open" or "Comments" Question ................................................................................... 16
         Access Questions from the Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak ........................................ 17
         Load Preset Templates onto the Questionnaire ........................................................................... 18
         Preview and Print a Questionnaire .............................................................................................. 19
         Survey Constructor Wizard ......................................................................................................... 20
         Your Notes .................................................................................................................................. 24
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN ............................................................................................................... 25
         Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 27
         Question Styles............................................................................................................................ 28
         Questionnaire Title and Sub-title ................................................................................................ 30
         Multi Choice Questions............................................................................................................... 32
         "Other" Questions........................................................................................................................ 33
                                                                                                                                                           Snap
        Grid Questions ............................................................................................................................ 34
        Open Questions ........................................................................................................................... 36
        Questionnaire Instructions .......................................................................................................... 38
        Using the Undo/Redo Facility..................................................................................................... 39
        Question Ordering....................................................................................................................... 40
        Editing Question Text and Code Labels ..................................................................................... 44
        Editing Commands...................................................................................................................... 45
        Right Mouse-Button Menus........................................................................................................ 47
        Dynamic Question Text .............................................................................................................. 49
        Using Style Picker....................................................................................................................... 51
        Showing and Hiding Question Elements .................................................................................... 53
        Showing Variable Properties....................................................................................................... 54
        Changing the Question Numbers ................................................................................................ 57
        Changing the Appearance of Questions ...................................................................................... 58
        Creating New Question Styles .................................................................................................... 59
        Applying Font Settings to Questions in Design Mode................................................................ 60
        Inserting Images .......................................................................................................................... 62
        Altering the Position of Questions and Codes ............................................................................ 68
        Setting Up Fields Such As Name and Address ........................................................................... 69
        Using Page, Column Breaks and Section Breaks........................................................................ 71
        Adding Headers and Footers....................................................................................................... 74
        Saving the Questionnaire ............................................................................................................ 75
QUESTIONNAIRE ROUTING............................................................................................................ 77
        Introduction................................................................................................................................. 78
        Routing Rule Types .................................................................................................................... 79
        Modifying Routing Within Your Questionnaire ......................................................................... 89
        Routing Rules Summary Table ................................................................................................... 90
     Snap
        If Condition Syntax ..................................................................................................................... 91
QUESTIONNAIRE STYLES ............................................................................................................... 93
        Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 94
        Default Question Styles............................................................................................................... 95
        Using Style Mode to Modify Question Styles............................................................................. 97
        Modifying Styles ......................................................................................................................... 98
        The Style Selection Box .............................................................................................................. 99
        Based on Styles ......................................................................................................................... 103
        Style Attributes.......................................................................................................................... 105
        The Elements of a Question ...................................................................................................... 107
        Using the Style Organiser.......................................................................................................... 109
        Renaming a Style ...................................................................................................................... 112
        Style Properties ......................................................................................................................... 113
        Questionnaire Templates........................................................................................................... 114
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN TOPICS............................................................................................... 117
        Toolbar Topics .......................................................................................................................... 118
        Alignment.................................................................................................................................. 119
        Background ............................................................................................................................... 120
        Boxes......................................................................................................................................... 124
        Break ......................................................................................................................................... 126
        Columns .................................................................................................................................... 129
        Find............................................................................................................................................ 133
        Font............................................................................................................................................ 136
        Margins...................................................................................................................................... 139
        Numbering................................................................................................................................. 140
        Positions .................................................................................................................................... 148
        Response.................................................................................................................................... 150
                                                                                                                                                               Snap
         Show ......................................................................................................................................... 151
         Tabs........................................................................................................................................... 153
REFERENCE WINDOW.................................................................................................................... 155
         Reference Window Introduction ............................................................................................... 156
         Reference Window Buttons and Menu Options........................................................................ 157
         Opening the Reference Window ............................................................................................... 158
         Opening SurveyPaks ................................................................................................................. 159
         Browsing SurveyPaks ............................................................................................................... 161
         Using a SurveyPak to Construct a Questionnaire ..................................................................... 162
         Dragging Whole Topics ............................................................................................................ 163
         Using SurveyPak Code Frames................................................................................................. 164
         Searching for Questions in SurveyPaks .................................................................................... 165
         Search Expressions ................................................................................................................... 166
         Referencing Other Surveys ....................................................................................................... 167
         Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak.................................................................................. 168
OTHER FEATURES .......................................................................................................................... 175
         Zoom ......................................................................................................................................... 176
         Page Setup................................................................................................................................. 177
         Printing Questionnaires............................................................................................................. 181
         Spell Check ............................................................................................................................... 184
         Scanning.................................................................................................................................... 187
         Exporting a Questionnaire......................................................................................................... 188
VARIABLES ...................................................................................................................................... 193
         Why Two Windows, Questionnaire and Variables? ................................................................. 195
         Toolbar Buttons......................................................................................................................... 196
         Creating New Variables ............................................................................................................ 198
         Editing Variables....................................................................................................................... 199
     Snap
        Cloning/Copying Variables and Variable Codes ...................................................................... 200
        Deleting Variables and Variable Codes .................................................................................... 201
        Routing in the Variables Window ............................................................................................. 203
        Viewing Routing ....................................................................................................................... 206
        Source and Dependents ............................................................................................................. 207
        Including Calculations Within the Questionnaire ..................................................................... 208
        Tailoring Variables.................................................................................................................... 210
        Reporting on Variables.............................................................................................................. 212
        Moving Variables/Questions Between Snap Surveys ............................................................... 213
        Transferring a Partial Survey from Snap to Another Survey Package ...................................... 215
        Transferring a Partial Survey from Snap to SPSS..................................................................... 217
        Question Variables .................................................................................................................... 219
        Date Formats ............................................................................................................................. 226
        Note Variable ............................................................................................................................ 228
        Derived and Compound Variables ............................................................................................ 229
        Numeric Variables..................................................................................................................... 234
        Pre-coded Variables .................................................................................................................. 239
        Alphanumeric Variables............................................................................................................ 242
VARIABLES IN DETAIL .................................................................................................................. 245
        Name ......................................................................................................................................... 246
        Label.......................................................................................................................................... 248
        Type........................................................................................................................................... 249
        Response.................................................................................................................................... 251
        Text............................................................................................................................................ 255
        Codes......................................................................................................................................... 257
        Code List ................................................................................................................................... 258
        Errors......................................................................................................................................... 259
                                                                                                                                                               Snap
         Not Asked ................................................................................................................................. 260
         No Reply ................................................................................................................................... 261
         Code Label ................................................................................................................................ 262
         Value ......................................................................................................................................... 264
         Counts ....................................................................................................................................... 265
         Source ....................................................................................................................................... 266
         Sequence ................................................................................................................................... 269
         Length ....................................................................................................................................... 270
         Coding....................................................................................................................................... 271
         Must Answer ............................................................................................................................. 272
GLOSSARY........................................................................................................................................ 273
         Glossary of Terms ..................................................................................................................... 274
         Your Notes ................................................................................................................................ 280
INDEX ................................................................................................................................................ 281
Snap
Introduction                                                         Snap



INTRODUCTION
This section gives you a general overview of questionnaire design.

Contents
2         Conventions Used in this User Guide
3         Introduction to Questionnaire Design
4         Questionnaire Window Modes
6         Questionnaire Window Toolbar
8         Quickstart Guide to Questionnaire Design
20        Survey Constructor Wizard




                                                     1
    Snap

Conventions Used in this User Guide
This Snap user guide uses several common conventions to show you how to use the software.
     If a task requires you to choose from a menu, the user guide separates menu commands with a vertical
      bar and the commands appear in a bold font. For example, Tailor | Data Entry indicates that you
      should open the Tailor menu and choose the Data Entry option.
     If a task requires you to select a key on the keyboard this is indicated by the key description being
      enclosed in square brackets. For example, [Enter] indicates that you should use the Enter key on your
      keyboard.
In addition to typographical conventions, the following special elements are used to set off various pieces of
information and to make them easily recognisable.


         Special notes highlight the material you are reading in a section. They clarify concepts and
           procedures.



  ?        You will find tips that offer shortcuts and solutions to common problems.




  u        Caution sections warn you about pitfalls. Reading them will save you time and trouble.




                                                    2
Introduction                                                                                           Snap

Introduction to Questionnaire Design
A questionnaire is essentially a form containing a series of
questions that are to be put to a respondent. Snap provides a
structure into which the text of each of these questions can be
set, along with any codes or answer lists that may be
appropriate.
This structure represents a layout that proves satisfactory for
most situations. However, since all research questionnaires
have different constraints, Snap has been developed to allow
you to create your own questionnaire layouts, choosing from
a full range of fonts, boxes, positioning and column set up.
Snap will enable you to type your question text, followed by a list of up to 2000 codes, and control how each
question appears on the printed page. Snap does this by having 10 basic styles pre-set within the software.
These styles provide you with a design framework in which you can lay out a questionnaire. Should you
wish to change a style, by perhaps adding bold text and round boxes, then all questions in the questionnaire
of the same style can be automatically updated. Should you wish to make major changes to the styles, then
you have the capability in the software to create and store your own Style Templates.




                                                        3
   Snap

Questionnaire Window Modes
There are three distinct modes for the Questionnaire window. To switch between the different modes, use
the toolbar buttons indicated in the sections below. One of the three buttons will always appear to be
selected; this will indicate the current mode.
It is also possible to switch between the three modes using the keyboard. The first two, Design and Style,
are used when the questionnaire is being created and the shortcut [Ctrl] + [M] will toggle between the two.
The third mode, Data View, is used once data has been collected and entered in to Snap. [Ctrl] + [Shift] +
[D] will switch to Data View mode.
When you are using either Design or Style mode, Snap may switch between the two automatically. This will
happen if you try to make changes to the questionnaire that can only be made in the mode than you are not
in. In this case, Snap will automatically change to the correct mode and make the changes, but will not
switch back to the original mode.




Design Mode
Design Mode is the starting point in Snap and is the mode you work in when setting up the questionnaire.
Design Mode allows you to enter questions, headings and instructions, decide the order in which they will be
asked, apply response types and value limit constraints, create rules to route the respondent and change the
 uso per c r s l .The questionnaire will open up in Design Mode and this should be the
      i         a
qet napa neo ‘y ’          te
starting point when creating a new questionnaire. Formatting of individual questions, elements of questions
and individual words can also be completed in this mode.



 ?        You can customise the start up settings for Snap so that the questionnaire window always opens up
                                                              al o        vne…
          when you open a new survey. To do this, select T i r|Ad a c d , click on the tab marked
          General and then select Questionnaire from the Opening Survey drop-down list.




                                                   4
Introduction                                                                                           Snap

Style Mode
Style Mode allows you to format the questionnaire in the same way as Design Mode, but is used to make
modifications to larger parts of the questionnaire. Style Mode will allow you to modify the selected style
only, modify all styles related to the selected style or modify every style (all questions) within the
questionnaire. This mode is also used to rename styles or create new styles.



Data View
Data View does not form a part of the questionnaire design process. It allows you to view responses to the
survey, either in summary (counts or percentages) or for individual respondents. There is also a facility to
apply a filter to the data based on responses to one or more questions. This mode is useful to generate a
simple summary of results after the survey has been completed.
For a full explanation of the Data View mode, see User Guide 4, "Analysis/Results Edition".



 u       You are advised to avoid making changes to the questionnaire design once case data has been
         entered. If this cannot be avoided you should note that Snap may make changes to the variable
         definitions to allow for changes to the way case data will be stored. See page 199 for further
         details about variable definitions.




                                                     5
   Snap

Questionnaire Window Toolbar
The questionnaire window has a toolbar to help you to create a questionnaire. The table below gives a brief
explanation of what each button does and provides menu and keyboard alternatives. Subsequent sections in
this chapter provide a more detailed explanation about some of the options.

 Button     Menu Option              Alternative          Description

                                     [Ctrl] + [M]         Switch to Design mode. The keyboard keys
                                                          (Ctrl + M) work as a toggle between Design
                                                          mode and Style mode.

                                     [Ctrl] + [M]         Switch to Style mode. The keyboard keys (Ctrl
                                                          + M) work as a toggle between Design mode and
                                                          Style mode.

                                     [Ctrl] + [Shift]     Switch to Data View mode.
                                     + [D]

            Edit | New               [Ctrl] + [N]         Create a new question. Digits and stops are
                                                          allowed, e.g. Q1, Q1.1, Q1a. The name of the
                                                          question must be unique within a survey.

            Edit | Clone             [Ctrl] + [O]         Copy the existing question definition to a new
                                                          question of a different name.

            Edit | Delete            [Delete]             Delete the current question.

            Edit | Undo              [Ctrl] + [Z]         Undo the last action.

            Edit | Redo                                   Redo the last action.

                                                          Save the questionnaire but do not close the
                                                          Questionnaire window.




                                                    6
Introduction                                                                                     Snap

 Button        Menu Option          Alternative        Description
                                                       Opens the Variable Properties dialog box in
                                                       Design Mode. Property values for the selected
                                                       variable are changed here. In Style Mode the
                                                       Style Properties dialog is opened.
                                                       Changes from Style Picker in Design Mode to
                                                       Style Organiser in Style Mode.
                                                       Opens the Routing Rules dialog box. Different
                                                       routing rules can be created here.
                                                       Renumber the questionnaire. Double-click to
                                                       switch on auto-renumbering.

                ie  a e eu …
               Fl |P g S t p                           Page set-up to define the number of columns,
                                                       portrait / landscape, page size and margins.

               File |               [Ctrl] + [Shift]   Produce a preview of the questionnaire with the
                                    + [F12]            option to print a copy.
               Print Report

               Edit | Spell check   [F9]               Spell check the questionnaire.

               File | Template                         Load a Style Template onto the current
                                                       questionnaire or save a template of the current
                                                       questionnaire layout.
                                                       Zoom in or out to change the size of the
                                                       questionnaire on the screen.
                                                       Define scanning. This button is only displayed
                                                       if the scanning module is installed




                                                  7
   Snap

Quickstart Guide to Questionnaire Design
This section of the user guide is intended to provide a brief introduction to Questionnaire Design and is
designed as a tutorial. The majority of the Snap user guides use a questionnaire called the Customer
Satisfaction Survey, held in the survey named snCrocodile. The chapter on routing uses a questionnaire
called Activate Leisure Club which is held in the survey named snActivate. In the quickstart guide you will
create a short questionnaire that is based on some of the questions that appear in snCrocodile.




                                                  8
Introduction                                                                                            Snap

Create a New Customer Satisfaction Survey
With Snap loaded, you will be presented with the Survey Overview Window, a list of the surveys already
stored in your current working folder (e.g.C:\my documents\Snap 8). The first task is to create the structure
for a new survey.

1. With the snCrocodile survey highlighted, click   at
   the top of the Survey Overview window and a Survey
   Details dialog box will appear.




2. In the field marked Survey, type in a unique identifier,
   perhaps Quick, replacing the existing name.
3. Press [Tab] and enter a description in the field marked
   Title. Notice that as you tab to the Title field, Snap
   automatically prefixes the survey with the letters sn.
   Type in a title of "Quickstart Satisfaction Survey".

4. Click               to store the survey details.



5. The Survey Details dialog box will close. Depending
   on how Snap is currently set up, the Questionnaire
   window may appear. If it does not appear, click on the
        button.




                                                      9
   Snap




 ?        You can customise the start up settings for Snap so that the questionnaire window always opens up
                                                              al o        vne…
          when you open a new survey. To do this, select T i r|Ad a c d , click on the tab marked
          General and then select Questionnaire from the Opening Survey drop-down list.




6. The software is able to set up "Multi Choice" questions
   (sometimes known as "closed" questions) where
   respondents tick boxes and "open" questions where you
   may wish to record numbers, dates or free-format text or
   comments. The software has extensive features to alter
   fonts, boxes and text layout, but in these few pages, we
   will concentrate on the basics.




                                                  10
Introduction                                                                                             Snap

Questionnaire Design Editing Commands
There are six important sets of keys for questionnaire design:
     The [Tab] key is used to create extra codes in the list of answers to a question. When you have
      entered your first answer in the list, press [Tab] to create a new line and a new box.
     The [Enter] key is used when you have finished a question and want to create another new question.
      After typing the list of possible answers for a question, press [Enter] to begin the next question.
     [Ctrl] + [Enter] is used to create another "part" of a question, rather than an entirely new question. It
      is particularly used to create Other questions and Grid Next questions.
     To move from one question to another, use the [Page Up] and [Page Down] keys, or [Ctrl] +
      [Home] to move to the top of the questionnaire and [Ctrl] + [End] to move to the bottom of the
      questionnaire.

     The       button is used to save the questionnaire.
     [Ctrl] + [+] and [Ctrl] + [-] can be used to increase and decrease the size of boxes that are used to
      record the replies to Open questions.
 There are three areas of a questionnaire design 
 window:
                                                 
 1. At the top is the Questionnaire Toolbar.
 2. Below that is the Settings Toolbar, providing
    capability to alter the format of questions and
    the layout of the questionnaire.                

 3. The main body of the window is the area to type
    in and edit your questionnaire.


The pages that follow will help you to set up your own questionnaire by entering a few questions, accessing
questions from the Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak, loading a Style Template and printing the
completed questionnaire.
                                                      11
   Snap

Add a Title and a Sub-Title to your Questionnaire
Text can be added to any part of the questionnaire. Two Styles, Title and Sub Title are designed to provide
an introduction to the questionnaire. These Styles can, of course, be modified and used in other areas of the
questionnaire.

1. When you first click on the       button you will be
   presented with a blank questionnaire showing an area
   for the Title of the survey.
2. In the area marked "Click here for text", type
   "Satisfaction Survey". Notice that the toolbar at the
   top of the window is already showing a Style of
   Title. The default layout and font for the title is
   black text in Arial font on a white background.

 ?        You can change any of these settings and the procedures are explained in full in the Questionnaire
          Design section.


3. Press [Enter] when you have set up your title and an
   area for a Sub Title will be displayed. In this area
   type "Please help us to continue improving the
   standards in our restaurant by answering a few simple
   questions." The default setting for Sub Title is Arial
   text with all lines of text being centred.
4. Press [Enter] when you have set up your title and
   sub-title and Snap will assist you in creating the first
   of your Multi Choice questions.




                                                    12
Introduction                                                                                           Snap

Create a Multi Choice Question
The first question that we are going to ask relates to items purchased in the restaurant. A list of items is
going to be presented, and the respondent will be able to tick/check as many as they wish. This is termed a
Multi Choice question.
1. Question 1 will be displayed and an area will be marked
   "Click here for text". In this area type "Which of the
   following items did you order today?" Notice that the
   toolbar shows a Style of Multi Choice, so a series of
   boxes will be created as answers for this question.
2. Press the [Tab] key on your keyboard and the cursor will
   move into an area to the left of the first box. Type
   "Hamburgers" and press [Tab] to move to the next line.
3. Continue with the text for the other items and press [Tab]
   after each one:-
    French fries [Tab]
    Pizza [Tab]
    Salad [Tab]
    Ice cream [Tab]
    Coffee/tea [Tab]
4. For the last code (Soft drink) type it in but at the end
   instead of pressing [Tab] press [Enter]. This will inform
   Snap that you want to start a new question. (If you
   accidentally tap [Tab], press [Backspace] or click      .




                                                    13
   Snap

Add an "Other Please Specify" Question
An Open question is used to collect either free format text, numbers or dates, and our second question is to
collect information on any other items ordered other than those already on the list as presented in Question 1.
1. Having pressed [Enter] after completing Question 1, Snap
   will now create the structure to set up Question 2.
2. The first step is to inform Snap that you are setting up an
   Other question, rather than another Multi Choice question
   as in Question 1. Use the        button to the right of the
   words Multi Choice to display the other style names and
   select Other. This will allow you to enter free format text
   as a reply, but will move the text of the question up to just
   below the previous question. In addition, the question
   name will be suppressed, although it will be stored with
   the questionnaire when it is saved.
3. Use your mouse and click on the box marked "Click here
   for text" and type "Other, please specify."
4. An Other question only needs a single area to record the
   reply, but this needs to be large enough to store an
   expected reply of perhaps 20-30 characters. The single
   line therefore needs to be larger and this is achieved by
   holding down the [Ctrl] key and pressing the [+] key to
   make the box larger. Press [Ctrl] and [-] to make the box
   smaller.




 ?        When you increase the length beyond one line, using the [+] will increase it by a line at a time.




                                                    14
Introduction                                                                                            Snap

Add a Series of Grid Questions
A grid is simply a series of single response questions organised in the form of a grid. Their construction and
operation during later stages of data entry and analysis are basically the same as other Multi Choice
questions. However, it is their appearance on the questionnaire that sets them apart from other questions.
1. Having pressed [Enter] after completing Question 1, Snap will now
   create the structure to set up Question 2.
2. The first step is to inform Snap that you are setting up a grid
   question, rather than another Multi Choice question as in Question
   1. Use the        button to the right of the words Multi Choice to
   display the other style names and select Grid First. This will allow
   you to set up the headings for the first of a series of grid questions.
3. Use your mouse and click on the box next to Q2 to highlight it.
   Type "How did you rate the following?" Press the [Tab] key on
   your keyboard.
4. The cursor will now move to the list of codes across the top of the
   first grid question. Type "Good" and press [Tab]. Type "OK" and
   press [Tab]. Type "Poor" and since this is the last code to be set up,
   press [] instead of [Tab].
5. The cursor will move to the text of the first grid question. Type
   "Service" and press [Tab]. Type "Quality" and press [Tab].
6. For the last question, type "Price" but instead of pressing [Tab],
   press [Enter] to move to a new question.




                                                      15
   Snap

Add an "Open" or "Comments" Question
An Open question is used to collect either free format text or numbers, and our next question is to collect
information on any other comments. We plan to set up this question as Q3.
1. Having pressed [Enter] after completing Question 2, Snap
   will now create the structure to set up Question 3.
2. The first step is to inform Snap that you are setting up an
   Open question, rather than another Multi Choice question.
   Use the     button to the right of the words Multi Choice to
   display the other Style names and select Open Ended. This
   will allow you to enter free format text as a reply.


3. Use your mouse and click on the box next to Q3 to highlight
   it. Type "Do you have any other comments?"
4. We are expecting a reply of perhaps 20-30 characters and
   the single line needs to be made longer. Hold down the
   [Ctrl] key and press the [+] key to make the line longer.
   Press [Ctrl] and [-] to make the line shorter.




You have successfully created a short questionnaire, and if you wish to save your work, simply click .
Alternatively, you can carry on and add some questions from one of the SurveyPak libraries, apply a
Template, or see a preview of the questionnaire and then print it.




                                                  16
Introduction                                                                                                Snap

Access Questions from the Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak
Questions from any of the SurveyPaks (or any other Snap survey) can be accessed and placed onto a
questionnaire. The Reference window is opened by clicking on the             button of the main Snap toolbar.
1. The window consists of a control panel which includes buttons on a
   toolbar and, initially, the folder and drive being referenced.
2. Below that is a list of available SurveyPaks and/or surveys. Below
   that is a description of the highlighted item in the list.
3. You can adjust the amount of space allocated to the list and
   description parts by clicking and dragging on the dividing bar.

4. The Tailor button                  is used to view a list of SurveyPaks
   only, a list of surveys only, or a list of both.
5. Double-click on a survey or SurveyPak to open it and browse
   around the SurveyPak to identify the required question.
6. Drag the question from the SurveyPak by clicking on the image of
   the question and, keeping the left mouse button depressed, moving
   the mouse towards the questionnaire.


7. Identify the correct location for the question in the questionnaire.
   As the mouse pointer is dragged over the questionnaire it will
   change from         to one of these three alternatives:

     means: Insert the new question before this question

     means: Replace this question with the new one

     means: Insert the new question after this question
8. When the mouse button is released the new question will be
   dropped in the position indicated.

                                                       17
    Snap

Load Preset Templates onto the Questionnaire
The Template option in Snap allows you to design a questionnaire using existing styles and then apply a
template that represents a particular house style in terms of page set-up, colours and layout. The result is that
professional questionnaires can be produced easily and quickly.

1. With the Questionnaire window open, click on the
   button to display the Template dialog box. Use the
                  button to display the Open dialog box
   displaying the list of .qsf files that contain the templates
   for the questionnaire.

2. Highlight one of the .qsf files and press                   to
   load the file name into the Template dialog box.
3. The three Options fields relate to Page Setup (portrait/
   landscape etc.), Colours (the individual colours for the
   background of the questionnaire and the colour of all the
   fonts used in the text of the question and the code labels),
   and Layout (the arrangement and format of individual
   styles of questions). If all three options are selected, then
   the entire format of the template will be loaded.




4. Press                to load the template over the current
   questionnaire. When the template has been loaded, it will
   be saved along with the changes, when the window is
   closed or the questionnaire is saved.
5. For more information on templates, see page 114.




                                                     18
Introduction                                                             Snap

Preview and Print a Questionnaire
Click the      button to produce a print preview of the questionnaire.

1. Click      to see a preview of the questionnaire on the screen.
   The appearance will be exactly the same as would be
   produced on a printed copy. A report control dialog will also
   be presented.
2. All Pages will be selected as the default, but the Current
   Page can be selected to print just the page currently shown on
   the screen.



3. Multiple copies of the questionnaire can be selected by
   selecting                       .
4. To return to the questionnaire without printing, simply press
                .
5. We have now created the series of questions on the
   questionnaire together with a title, so click    to save them.




6. Close the Questionnaire window and click on the          button
   to open the Variables window. It will show the 6 questions
   that have been created together the notes N1 and N2 that were
   set up as the title and sub-title. To re-open the Questionnaire
   Window click on        .



                                                      19
   Snap

Survey Constructor Wizard
The Survey Constructor Wizard is a simplified method of creating new surveys within Snap. It allows you
to build a survey based on a Survey Template from a SurveyPak. The purpose of the wizard is to automate
the questionnaire design process, by matching your required content against a pre-set template.


         A SurveyPak (.wdf) contains a pre-set list of questions which can also include Survey Templates
          (these are built into an .mdf file, in Snap). Survey Templates are survey files generated from a list
          stored in a SurveyPak file.

You will be prompted to select one of the available surveys and choose a publication method (e.g. Scanning
or Internet). It is designed for users who prefer to work from the finished article or whenever the formatting
of a questionnaire is essential to successful data-entry, making it an ideal tool for users of modules such as
Scanning.
The first step is to select the SurveyPak to be used, followed by a Survey Template prototype. It is called a
Survey Template because although it is a completed survey, it will include details specified as part of the
wizard process. Values typically include text to be inserted into the various fields, but may also comprise
file names for image files. Some Survey Templates allow for the addition and removal of whole sections
from a questionnaire (template), at the survey contents page.
The next step is to choose a publication method. The wizard directs the user to the selection of the Style
Template, to be applied to the survey at the next page.
You are then prompted to a choice of Style Template and to apply a suitable delivery method selected from
a list of options dependent on the publication method that has been chosen. For example, paper
questionnaires would have page orientation, page size and 1/2/3 column options.
The final window will display a summary before the survey is built and then opened in Snap.

u         As Survey Templates are supplied as part of a SurveyPak, a SurveyPak must be chosen before a
          Survey Template can be selected.




                                                    20
Introduction                                                        Snap

1. To open the Introduction page, click on File | Survey
        r co     z r…
   Constu t rW ia d .

2. At the Introduction page, click on the           button.




3. The Survey page allows you to enter the name of the survey and
   to specify the SurveyPak on which you would like your survey
   to be based. Select a SurveyPak from the drop-down menu or
   browse your files for one by clicking on . A description of
   the chosen SurveyPak is displayed. Choose a template from
   the drop-down list of Template Surveys.
4. Having entered a survey name, selected the SurveyPak and
   corresponding Survey Template, click on the
   button.

5. After the survey title, SurveyPak and Survey Templates have
   been selected from the survey page, the Survey Contents page
   appears containing a tree view listing the variables in the
   survey. Some templates have their questions grouped into
   sections and will have check-boxes allowing whole sections to
   be removed from the final survey, by removing the tick from
   the adjacent check box. Highlighting the section in the left-
   hand pane will display its title and summary in the right hand
   pane.
6. When the appropriate selections have been made click on the
                 button.

                                                  21
   Snap

7. A Fields page displays custom fields for you to enter values
   appropriate to your survey. These typically appear in the
   survey itself although some may be used in the composition of
   the survey description or as headers/footers on pages of the
   questionnaire. Should no details be entered in a particular field,
   a warning may appear in the finished questionnaire. Click on
   the               button.



8. The options available for the method of publication include
   Internet, PDA, Scanning and Text-based e-mail as well as the
   standard paper-based survey. Only those that you have access
   to will be displayed in the drop-down list. For example, the
   PDA method will only appear if you have installed the PDA
   module. Once a publication method has been chosen (in this
   case Internet), the Style Template can then be applied to the
   questionnaire. Browse to a Style Template (.qsf) by clicking
   on the  button. The effect of the Style Template can be seen
   in the preview pane.      Once you are happy with the
   questionnaire style, click on the                      button to
   continue.
9. The contents of the options page vary according to the
   publication method selected. The options that appear here are
   for Internet and PDA publication methods and allow you to
   modify the layout of the survey in the following ways:
      ~ show single questions as drop-down boxes,
      ~ show multi response questions as list boxes,
      ~ Must Answer routing questions


                                                    22
Introduction                                                                                          Snap

10. The options page for the Normal and Scanning publication
    methods allows you to modify the layout of the survey in the
    following ways:
      ~ Orientation (either Portrait or Landscape)
      ~ Number of columns
      ~ Remove page background
   A preview-image of the changed questionnaire is always
   available in the preview pane.

11. If you choose to publish your questionnaire for Text e-mail responses there is no options page.
12. The final page summarises the selections made in the Survey
   Constructor Wizard.      Click on the                  button to
   complete the dialog.




                                                     23
  Snap

Your Notes




             24
Questionnaire Design                                                 Snap



QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN
This section takes you through basic questionnaire design process.

Contents
27        Introduction
28        Question Styles
30        Questionnaire Title and Sub-title
32        Multi Choice Questions
33        "Other" Questions
34        Grid Questions
36        Open Questions
38        Questionnaire Instructions
39        Using the Undo/Redo Facility
40        Question Ordering
44        Editing Question Text and Code Labels
45        Editing Commands
47        Right Mouse-Button Menus
49        Dynamic Question Text
51        Using Style Picker
53        Showing and Hiding Question Elements
54        Showing Variable Properties


                                                     25
     Snap

57          Changing the Question Numbers
58          Changing the Appearance of Questions
59          Creating New Question Styles
60          Applying Font Settings to Questions in Design Mode
62          Inserting Images
68          Altering the Position of Questions and Codes
69          Setting Up Fields Such As Name and Address
71          Using Page, Column Breaks and Section Breaks
74          Adding Headers and Footers
75          Saving the Questionnaire




                                                   26
Questionnaire Design                                                                                    Snap

Introduction
Questionnaire Design in Snap has two distinct parts: the structure and the appearance. Structure includes
which questions should be asked, what form those questions should take and when and of whom they will be
asked. Question routing may also be a necessary component, as the questionnaire may have questions that
are skipped or only asked to certain respondents and the design will have to reflect this. Appearance includes
font colours, styles and layout including customising the questionnaire through the addition of graphics.
The weight of this section of the user guide is on the structure and printing of a paper questionnaire. Once
                                   a b ue t et t e odn ’ nw r n aa s t e l. h
                                                     e e s             s
the questionnaire is printed, Snap cn e sd o n rh r pnet as e ad nl eh r u s T es         y e st
Variables section (starting on page 155) details the way in which variables are set up. It should be
emphasised that Snap can still be used even if the questionnaire has already been created in other packages.
The questionnaire in the following worksheets is loosely based on
the Snap survey snCrocodile. It relates to a satisfaction survey
carried out amongst customers of a restaurant and it is a self-
completion questionnaire. In the first part of this section, we will be
creating this survey using a small number of the questions. In the
remaining part of the section, we will be working with the full
questionnaire as well.
The section on routing is based on the Snap survey snActivate which
is a customer satisfaction questionnaire about a leisure club.




                                                      27
    Snap

Question Styles
A questionnaire in Snap is made up of a series of questions. There are a number of different question types,
and Snap even considers content such as the title and questionnaire instructions to be types of question,
although no response is permitted.
Altogether there are ten different question styles built in to Snap and the user can add other custom styles.
These styles differ in their appearance and also the type of response, if any, that is permitted.
The table below describes the 10 pre-set Styles in Snap together with an example of how they might appear
on the finished questionnaire.

Style          Description                                   Example
Title          Notes and headings are regularly
               required in a questionnaire, and the
               default title style presents text in a bold
               format with a white background, ideal
               as the title of the questionnaire.
Sub Title      Other notes are generally required to
               separate sections in a questionnaire or
               provide instructions for completion.
Instruction    A variation on Title and Sub-title, the
               instruction style can be used anywhere
               on the questionnaire as notes for the
               respondent or the interviewer.
Multi Choice   A question with tick or check boxes,
               where the respondent can either respond
               with a single answer or a number of
               answers. This is sometimes described
               as a "closed" question.



                                                    28
Questionnaire Design                                                Snap

Style         Description                                 Example
Grid First    Grid questions are variations on Multi
              Choice questions, but are laid out in a
              different format, with headings for each
              of the boxes presented across the page.
Grid Next     In a series of grid questions, the
              headings across the top are suppressed
              for all subsequent questions, and just
              the boxes appear.

Open Ended    A question with an answer in the form
              of free-format text, a number or a date.




Open First    To collect series of free format text or
              numbers in a series, this style provides
              an initial question heading and then a
              list of groups, products, services etc.
Open Next     The open first questions are continued
              as Open Next, leaving out the initial
              question name and question text.
Other         Many Multi Choice questions have a
              list of codes and then an "other please
              specify".    This style provides free
              format text as an addition to an existing
              tick box question.



                                                    29
   Snap

Questionnaire Title and Sub-title
A questionnaire normally starts with a heading together with text to explain its purpose and how it should be
completed. As soon as a new questionnaire is started, Snap will prompt for a title and then a sub-title.

1. To create a new questionnaire, you should first click on in the
   Survey Overview window to identify the name and title of your
   survey.

2. When you first click on the    button you will be presented with a
   blank questionnaire showing a highlighted area for the title of the
   survey.
3. In the area marked "Click here for text", type "Satisfaction Survey".
   Notice that the toolbar at the top of the window is already showing a
   style of Title. The default layout and font for the title is black text
   in Arial font on a white background.




  ?       You can change any of these settings and the procedures are explained later in this section.



 u        It is always wise to save your questionnaire on a regular basis by clicking on       , particularly
          once you are happy with the layout and text of a question. Questions entered in the Questionnaire
          window are not stored anywhere until the questionnaire has been saved.




                                                    30
Questionnaire Design                                                                                    Snap

4. Press [Enter] when you have set up your title and an
   area for a sub-title will be displayed. In this area type
   "Please help us with our questionnaire and return it to
   the manager as you leave." The default setting for Sub
   Title is Arial text with all lines of text being centred.
5. Press [Enter] when you have set up your title and sub-
   title and Snap will assist you in creating the first of your
   Multi Choice questions.



        The text of the sub-title will automatically move onto a new line as the first line is completed. If
          you want to force a new line as part of the text of the title or sub-title, click on the appropriate
          location and press [Shift] and [Enter].




                                                       31
   Snap

Multi Choice Questions
The first question that we are going to ask relates to items purchased in the restaurant. A list of items is
going to be printed, and the respondent will be able to tick/check as many as they wish. This is termed a
Multi Choice question.
1. Question 1 will be displayed and an area will be marked "Click
   here for text". In this area type "Which of the following items
   did you order today?" Notice that the toolbar shows a setting
   of Multi Choice, so a series of boxes will be created on the
   questionnaire.
2. Press the [Tab] key on your keyboard and the cursor will move
   into an area to the left of the first box. Type "Hamburgers" and
   press [Tab] to move to the next line.
3. Continue with the text for the other items and press [Tab] after
   each one:
   French fries [Tab]
   Pizza [Tab]
   Salad [Tab]
   Ice cream [Tab]
   Coffee/tea [Tab]
4. For the last code (Soft drink) type it in, but at the end, instead
   of pressing [Tab], press [Ctrl] + [Enter]. This will inform
   Snap that you want to start a new part to the question.




                                                    32
Questionnaire Design                                                                                    Snap

"Other" Questions
Many questionnaires contain Multi Choice questions with a list of codes plus an area at the end of the
question to collect "other" answers. Snap has its own style called Other to collect such text, and is designed
in such a way that it appears as part of the main question with its list of codes.
1. Using the command to add another part, [Ctrl] +
   [Enter], Snap will automatically follow a Multi Choice
   question with an Other. The layout of an Other means
   that the question number will not appear, the text of the
   question will move up below the code marked "Other"
   and the box will be replaced with a short line.




2. In the area marked "Click here for text", type "What else
   did you order?"
3. To create a line long enough to hold a response of 20-30
   characters, hold down the [Ctrl] key and press the [+]
   key on the numeric keypad to make the line longer until
   it spreads over 2-3 lines. Press [Ctrl] and [-] to make the
   line shorter.




       The adjustment of the size of the box can be achieved while the cursor is still located in the
         question text. It is not necessary to click on the box itself to alter its size.



                                                     33
   Snap

Grid Questions
We now plan to add a series of five questions relating to the speed of service, cleanliness, parking, quality
and choice of food at the restaurant. These are attitude questions and are simple tick/check boxes, with three
possible replies of "Good", "OK" and "Poor", together with a category for "Don't Know". Although these
are five separate questions, they are displayed as a grid and can be set up in Snap using the styles Grid First
and Grid Next.
1. Having pressed [Enter] after completing Question 1,
   Snap will now create the structure to set up Question 2.
2. The first step is to inform Snap that you are setting up a
   grid question, rather than another Multi Choice question
   as in Question 1. Use the      button to change the Style
   from Multi Choice to Grid First. This will allow you to
   set up the headings for the first of a series of grid
   questions.
3. Use your mouse and click on the box next to Q2 to
   highlight it. Type "How did you rate the following?"
   Press the [] key on your keyboard.
4. The cursor will now move to the list of codes across the
   top of the first grid question. Type "Good" and press
   [Tab]. Type "OK" and press [Tab]. Type "Poor" and
   since this is the last code to be set up, press [] instead
   of [Tab].
5. The cursor will move to the text of the first grid question.
   Type "Speed of service" and press [Tab]. Type
   "Cleanliness" and press [Tab]. Type "Parking" and press
   [Tab]. Type "Quality of food" and press [Tab].




                                                    34
Questionnaire Design                                          Snap

6. For the last question, type "Choice of food" but instead
   of pressing [Tab], press [Enter] to move to a new
   question.




 7. We now wish to add a fourth column to collect a
    "Don't know" response. Click on the word "Poor" and
    move the cursor to the right of the letter "r".
 8. Press [Tab] and a fourth column will be created for
    each of the five questions in the grid. Type "Don't
    Know" into the new code label.




 9. When you have completed the set-up of this question,
    click on the last box of the grid and press [Page
    Down] to move down to the new question.




                                                    35
   Snap

Open Questions
An Open question is used to collect either free format text, numbers or dates. There are three alternative
styles to use, Open First, Open Next or Open Ended. We will use the first two styles to collect a series of
numbers presented in a column on the questionnaire. We will cover an open-ended question to collect
comments on the next page.
1. Having pressed [Enter] after completing Question 2,
   Snap will now create the structure to set up Question
   3.
2. The first step is to inform Snap that you are setting up
   an Open First question, rather than a Multi Choice
   question, as is the default. Use the          button to
   change the Style from Multi Choice to Open First.
   This will allow you to set up the headings for the first
   of a series of questions, each of which can contain
   numbers or text.
3. Use your mouse and click on the box next to Q3 to
   highlight it. Type "How many people in your group
   were adults and how many were children?" Press the
   [] key or the [Tab] key on your keyboard.
4. The cursor will now move to the text of the first of the
   questions. Type "Adult." Use [Ctrl] + [+] to make
   the box slightly larger.
5. Press [Tab] and type "Children" in the next line of the
   question. The size of all subsequent boxes will be
   identical to the size of the first box in the question.




                                                   36
Questionnaire Design                                                                                   Snap

Open Ended (Literal) Questions
The third form of an Open question, set as a style called Open Ended, is used to collect free format text or
comments, numbers or dates. Unlike the Open First and Open Next which appear in a grid or column, the
Open Ended question simply appears as a new question with an associated box or line, of a size to collect
the largest number expected or the largest amount of text.
1. Press [Enter] after completing Question 3, so that Snap can
   create the structure to set up Question 4.
2. The first step is to inform Snap that you are setting up an Open
   Ended question, rather than another Multi Choice question.
   Use the       button to change the Style from Multi Choice to
   Open Ended. This will allow you to enter free format text as a
   reply.


3. Use your mouse and click on the box next to Q4 to highlight it.
   Type "Are there any other comments that you would like to
   make?"
4. We are expecting a reply of perhaps 20-30 characters and the
   single line needs to be made longer. Hold down the [Ctrl] key
   and press the [+] key to make the line longer. Press [Ctrl] and
   [-] to make the line shorter.




                                                    37
   Snap

Questionnaire Instructions
The final style to include is an Instruction, which can appear anywhere in the text and can be a note to an
interviewer or guidelines to a respondent on how to complete the next section of the questionnaire.
1. When you have organised Q4 with sufficient area to
   collect the likely comments, press [Enter] to create a
   new question.
2. After an Open Ended question, the default for the next
   question is another Open Ended. Use the      button to
   change the style from Open Ended to Instruction.
   This will allow you to enter free format text that
   appears across the entire column of the questionnaire
   and this will be displayed with no associated box or
   line.
3. Type "Thank you very much for helping us with our
   survey and we look forward to you visiting Crocodile
   restaurants again."




You have successfully created a short questionnaire. The following pages will show you how to change the
layout of your questionnaire.
The questionnaires referred to in the remaining part of this section are the Snap survey snCrocodile and the
survey created in the quickstart guide snQuick, plus the questionnaire just created.


                                                  38
Questionnaire Design                                                                                 Snap

Using the Undo/Redo Facility
 o hv t a lyo i e “no o “ d”h a at n cre uit usoni wn w
       e ci    t         e
Y u aeh f itt ehrud” rr o t l tcos a i otn h Q et na e i o .
                             e s i    rd    e   i   r   d

 u        Once you have saved the questionnaire (by clicking on      ) the undo/redo options become reset.
          This means that you will not be able to undo any changes made before saving the questionnaire.


If you have made a change to your questionnaire and now wish to
undo that last change, click on      .




 ?        Holding your mouse over the Undo button (when available) will show what the last action was.




If you wish to repeat your last action, click on   .




 ?        As with the Undo button, holding your mouse over the Redo button (when available) will show
          what the next action would be.




                                                       39
   Snap

Question Ordering
Moving Questions within the Questionnaire
Whereas the keyboard options [] and [] move the cursor between questions on the questionnaire, the use
of the [Ctrl] key on the keyboard in conjunction with [] and [] moves the current question to a new
position of either above or below.
1. Use the cursor to move within the questionnaire to display Question
   4. Any part of the question should be selected.




2. Use [Ctrl] and [] to move Question 4 up the questionnaire, above
   Question 3. As Q3 is in two parts, you will need to press [Ctrl] and
   [] twice.




3. When the move is complete, you will note that Snap has
   automatically renumbered the questionnaire. If you wish to switch
   off the Auto Renumber feature click on the renumber         button.
4. Double-click on Auto Renumber button again.
5. Again, we have made a number of alterations, so close the
   questionnaire without saving the changes, and then click          to
   reload it again in its original form.

                                                  40
Questionnaire Design                                                                                  Snap

Selecting Consecutive Questions or Codes
Any number of consecutive questions or codes can be selected at a time for copying, deleting or moving. As
an example, the following shows how to move an entire grid of questions.
1. Identify the first question of the block and click anywhere in
   it.
2. Then either drag down with the left mouse button depressed,
   or use [Shift] + [] to select the required questions.




3. Finally, select the required operation. In this case, move the
   block of questions by using [Ctrl] + [] to move the
   questions further down in the questionnaire.




4. When the move is complete, click on the renumber button
        if required.




  ?      There is an alternative to using the [Delete] key to remove codes. Click into the code you want to
         delete and select [Ctrl] + [Y]. See page 41 for information about deleting questions.




                                                     41
   Snap

Inserting and Deleting Questions
The button to insert a new question is       . The new question will be inserted before the currently selected
question. The button to delete a question is  . Snap will delete the entire question currently selected or
the collection of questions highlighted. In the event of questions being inserted or deleted, you are
recommended to renumber the questionnaire. Use the                      button, or to automatically renumber the
questionnaire double-click on the        button.

1. Move the cursor to the top of the questionnaire and select
   Question 1. Click in any part of the question.

2. Click on the     button to add a new question before Q1.
   (To add a new question after Q1, press [Enter]).
3. Enter a question text of "Are you....?" and press [Tab]




4. Type "Male" and press [Tab] followed by "Female".
5. If automatic numbering is not switched on, click on the
   button       to renumber the entire questionnaire, with Q2
   now becoming Q1. Double-click on                to switch on auto-
   numbering.
6. To delete an entire question, click in any part of the
   question, in this case, Q1 and click on the          button.

7. Click on the button               again to renumber the
   questionnaire.

 u        Selecting a code label and clicking on
          label.
                                                              will remove the entire question, not just that code


                                                        42
Questionnaire Design                                                                                      Snap

Cloning or Copying Questions
Cloning questions is achieved by selecting a question and using the toolbar button          . Snap will copy the
entire question text plus all code labels and insert the new question after the existing highlighted question.
1. Move the cursor in the questionnaire to display Question
   3 and highlight the second part of the question marked
   "Children".

2. Use the        button to copy the contents of the current
   question to a new question immediately after Q3. Snap
   will copy all of the same style settings as the highlighted
   question and calculate the next available question number
   in the sequence. In this case, it will be Q3c, although
   with this style of question, the name of the question is not
   shown.
3. You are now able to make any modifications to the new
   question. For example, you may wish to change the
   original grid label from "Children" to "Children under
   13", and the cloned grid label from "Children" to
   "Children aged 13 and over".

4. It is good practice to click on the button      to re-
   sequence the entire questionnaire after inserting or
   deleting questions. This is only required if the auto
   renumbering button is switched off. Double-click on
   to switch on Auto Renumbering.




                                                      43
    Snap

Editing Question Text and Code Labels
Simply click in the appropriate filed to enter or edit text. To insert new code labels in a question, use the
[Tab] key. It will insert a new code at the point at which you press it. Other useful keys are the
[Backspace] and [Delete] keys.
1. Move the cursor to the top of the questionnaire to
   display Question 1 and place it at the end of one of the
   code labels, such as "French fries".
2. Press [Tab] and a new code will be inserted. You are
   now able to add the text for this extra code of up to
   1 000 characters. Type "Ribs".




3. To edit any other part of the text of the question,
   simply move the cursor to the point, highlight the area
   of the question where a change is required and make
   your amendments.
4. In the event of all the text being removed from a code
   label, Snap will still retain that code label, simply with
   an empty label field. To remove the empty code label
   entirely, use [Ctrl] + [Y].




                                                    44
Questionnaire Design                                                                                Snap

Editing Commands
Various editing commands will be used to make changes to the questionnaire.           The following is a
comprehensive list of the commands that are regularly used:

Action                 Commands
Navigating around the [Page Down] to move to the question below.
questionnaire
                      [Page Up] to move to the question above.
                       [Ctrl] + [Home] to move to the beginning of a questionnaire.
                       [Ctrl] + [End] to move to the end of the questionnaire.
                       [] key to move down a line at a time.
                       [] key to move up a line at a time.
                       [] or [] key to move across a line of text, one character at a time.
                       [Ctrl] + [] to move right a word.
                       [Ctrl] + [] to move left a word.
Add a new question     Move the cursor to the required location. Press [Enter] to create a new question
                       after the current one or click    to insert a new question before the current one.
                       Alternatively, use the menu option Edit | New or simply [Ctrl] + [N].
Add a new part of a At the end of a Multi Choice, use [Ctrl] + [Enter] to add a question of style
question            Other, or to create a Grid Next after a Grid First, or Open Next after Open
                    First.
Delete a question              will delete the question currently highlighted.
Clone a question            will copy the currently highlighted question and insert it immediately after
                       the current question. Use [Ctrl]  and  to move it to the correct location and
                       click        to renumber the questionnaire.


                                                     45
   Snap

Action                  Commands
Add new codes           Move the cursor to the required location in the list of codes and press [Tab].
Delete existing codes   Use [Ctrl] + [Y] and the entire code will be removed. Alternatively use the
                        [Backspace] key or [Delete] key to remove a character at a time. Do not use
                             as this will delete the entire question.
Change box size         Use [Ctrl] + [+] on the numeric keypad to increase the size of the box and [Ctrl]
                        + [-] to decrease the size of the box for Open Ended questions
Add a new line          Move the cursor to the required place in the text. Use [Shift] + [Enter] to force a
                        new line.
Add a page break        [Ctrl] + [S] will attach a page break to the "top" of the current question. Highlight
                        a question and press [Ctrl] + [S] and a                         will appear above the
                        current question. Press [Ctrl] + [S] and the page break will be removed.
Add a column break      [Ctrl] + [A] will attach a column break to the "top" of the current question.
                        Highlight a question and press [Ctrl] + [A] and a                     will appear
                        above the current question. Press [Ctrl] + [A] again and the column break will be
                        removed.
Add a section break     [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [B] will attach a section break to the "top" of the current
                        question. A dialog of options will appear. Select numbered or lettered section
                        breaks and a Section Break will appear above the current question. Press [Ctrl] +
                        [Shift] + [B] again to remove the section break.
Selecting consecutive Either drag down with the left mouse button depressed, or use [Shift] + [] to
questions/codes       select the required questions or codes.




                                                  46
Questionnaire Design                                                                                   Snap

Right Mouse-Button Menus
Right-clicking the mouse within the Questionnaire window will give
access to a menu of commands relevant to the current mode and selection.
All of the commands that are provided can be accessed through the use of
the toolbars, the menu bar at the top of the screen or through keyboard
commands, but the right-click menu often provides a faster and easier way
of executing them.
The right-click menus are context-sensitive. That is, the menu that appears
will vary depending on the current mode (Design, Style or Data View) and
on what is selected. Each mode has its own standard menu that will appear
in most cases, but in two of the modes (Design and Style) a shortened
version will appear if one or more entire questions are highlighted.
   Entire question selected                               Question element selected




       When an entire question is selected, the selection box will enclose the whole question and the area
         inside the box will be highlighted.



Menu Item          Description

Styles             Opens the Style Picker (in Design Mode) or Style Organiser (in Style Mode).

Style Mode         Switches to Style mode.

Design Mode        Switches to Design mode.

Data View          Switches to Data View mode.

                                                     47
      Snap

Menu Item       Description

Edit            Leads to a sub-menu choice of Cut, Copy, Paste or Delete.


Cut             Cuts the current selection to the clipboard.

Copy            Copies the current selection to the clipboard.

Paste           Pastes the current selection from the clipboard.

Delete          Deletes the current selection.

Variable        Opens the Variables Properties dialog box.
Properties

Routing Rules   Displays the Routing Rules dialog box.

Background      Displays the Picture dialog box.
Image

Response        Response types can be set for the selected question(s) of either single, multiple, quantity,
                literal or date.

Character       Leads to a sub-menu choice containing the options Font…, Bold, Italic or Underline.
Format          Font leads to a dialog box, the other options apply that character format.

Insert          Leads to a sub-menu containing the items Image… , Variable Field… , Survey Field…
                and HTML Field… each of which leads to an appropriate dialog box. The dialog boxes
                contain options similar to those outlined later in this section.

Break           A Page Break, Column Break or Section Break can be applied from this menu.

Tools                                                                                e lt …
                Leads to a sub-menu containing the items Renumber, Spell Check, T mp a e ; the
                last of these commands will give a new dialog box allowing the loading or saving of a
                Questionnaire Style Template.




                                                 48
Questionnaire Design                                                                                   Snap

Dynamic Question Text
Snap has the capability to apply text substitution within a question, for example, the answer to one question
can be fed into the text of a subsequent question. This would apply to CATI, CAPI and other questionnaires
carried out using on-screen interviewing techniques.
   ne t e uso f r uso a Wht l i o
              i    t        i    s d
1. Isr anw qet na e Q et n4 “ a e ed yu
    re ”ui t
      ?  n e
   odr ,s gh Open Ended style.
2. In the area marked "Click here for text", type "How much did
                       n”
   you spend in total o ?
3. Reposition your cursor before the question mark.
4. Select the toolbar topic Font.


5. Click on the                                            ed
                               button and select Variable Fil …
   from the menu.


    e c“ 4 f
      e          o h   e
6. Sl t Q ” rm t Variable menu. Aspect and Modify case
   enable you to select how the answers will be displayed in the
   question text. The Aspect menu allows you to select either
   Reply or Name. Reply will display the answers ticked in Q4
    n a e i u so 4 e c “ el f
                 l s               e
   adN m wlj thw Q .Sl t R p ” rm Aspect andy o
   Modify case to "lower case".



7. Click on the              button.




                                                      49
   Snap

8. Snap will display {Q4} within curly brackets to
   indicate that it is a text-substituted field.
(See pages 248, 255 and 262 for further information on text
substitution)




9. To view the text, select the Case Data button         on
   the main Snap toolbar and select        Interview Mode
   to enter a test case.
10. Once data has been added, the text substitution can also
    be viewed within the Questionnaire Window by
   selecting the Data Mode button.




                                                   50
Questionnaire Design                                                                                    Snap

Using Style Picker
The Style Picker tool is an easy way of applying a question style to questions in your questionnaire. This
tool is only available in Design Mode     . Style Picker allows you to format a question by selecting a style
of your choice and viewing this style in the preview window before applying it to the questionnaire. This
window shows you how the question will look in the questionnaire with the selected style applied. Once you
have selected the style of question you would like, select the              button. The changes will then be
applied to the question on the questionnaire. It is a useful and easy tool to use as it allows you to try out
different question styles and see how they would look in a preview window without actually applying it to a
question in the questionnaire. You can select what you would like to view in the preview window by either
 e cn,Al t e’ Al r b s N m d t e’ U e Sy so ‘ nsd t e’
   ei             l , V i e,                       l ,
sl t g‘ lSy s ‘ l a al ’‘ a e Sy s ‘ sd t e’ rU ue Sy s           l                  l .


This example below explains step by step how to use the Style Picker.
    e c 2 H w f n n vr e
      e             e          a
1. Sl tQ ‘ o ot ,o ae g, do you visit this
    ea a ?
     s u n ’This question has been set up as a Multi
   rt r t
   choice question.
2. Select More Styles from the drop-down list of style
   names.




                                                     51
   Snap

3. The Style Picker dialog appears with Q2 displayed in the
   Preview Window. A list of all of the styles in the current
   questionnaire is displayed on the left of the dialog box. To
   apply Q2 with a different style, just highlight any Style
   Name in the list and the preview window will change
   accordingly.
4. You can select what you would like to view in the preview
     i w y i e sl t g ‘ lSy s Al a al ’
      d          t        ei
   wno b ehr e cn,Al t e’‘ lV r b s        l ,        i e,
    N m d t e’ U ue Sy so ‘ sd t e’r h
              l ,                 l
   ‘ a e Sy s ‘ nsd t e’ rU e Sy sf m t          l o e
   drop-down list at the top of the Styles list.
 S o i ‘ lV r b s d p y all the questions with
          g         i e sa
    hwn Al a al ’ i l s
  style name from the current questionnaire in a list. This
  can be useful if you are not really familiar with style
  names as it allows you to pick styles by variable rather
  than by style name.
 The Fit to Window tick box will fit the question inside the
  preview window. This is especially useful for previewing
  titles and subtitles which normally fit across the width of
  the whole page.
5. Once you have selected the style you wish to apply, e.g.
   Open Ended, click on the                 button.
6. Q2 has now been converted into an Open Ended style of
   question and is shown in the Questionnaire Window.




                                                      52
Questionnaire Design                                                                                       Snap

Showing and Hiding Question Elements
Each question in a Snap questionnaire has several different elements that can be shown or displayed,
including the question name, the position, values, leading dots, etc. All of these can be altered at the level of
the default style, individual styles or just at the level of individual questions. See page 151 for further
information on Show options or page 107 for more information about the different question elements.


       On most Windows-based PCs the check box will be marked with a  if it has been selected. On
         some systems it will appear as a .

1. Move the cursor to the top of the questionnaire and select
   Question 4 and set the toolbar topic to Show.
2. Change the drop-down toolbar option to the right from
   Text to Name. The Show check-box has a  to indicate
   that the name of the question will be displayed. Click on
   the Show check-box to remove the  and the question
   Name for the current style will be hidden.
3. Other elements of a question can be included or excluded.
   From the drop-down list, select the option Code Value and
   include the  in Show.
4. From the drop-down list, select the option Code Box and
   exclude the  in Show. This will now display all
   questions of the style Multi Choice to show just the value
   number of each code with no associated box.
5. The questionnaire now has quite a different appearance in
   terms of code boxes and columns, so it would be advisable
   to close the questionnaire without saving it. Then click
         to reload it in its original form for use in the next few
   worksheets or use        to undo the changes.



                                                       53
   Snap

Showing Variable Properties
Each variable has a set of individual properties that can be changed by selecting the Variable Properties
button      which is found on the Questionnaire Design Window. The list of Properties will differ
depending on the type of question style selected. Ensure you are in Design Mode        in order to access
Variable Properties.

1. Click anywhere in a question and click on   to display
   the Variable Properties dialog box for that individual
   question.
2. Name: This displays the name of the variable you currently
   have selected, for example: Q2.
3. Lock Name: If you do not want the questionnaire to be
   renumbered when you select       , select No from this drop-
   down list.




4. Response: There are five response types, but the response
   types shown will depend on the question type selected. The
   response will determine the number of replies that are
   possible and the way in which they are recorded when data
   entry is completed.
 A single response will only allow one answer to be stored.
 A multiple response will allow more than one answer.
 Quantity will allow a number.
 Date a suitable date format, i.e. dd/mm/yy.
 Literal a text answer format.
                                                 54
Questionnaire Design                                                 Snap

5. Must answer: Yes will force this question to be asked
   during data entry. No will allow the question to be kept
   blank.
6. Not Asked: Snap has the ability to skip over questions that
   are not relevant. In the snCrocodile survey, Q4 asks "What
   items did you order?" and Q4a asks "What else did you
   order?" Q4a is only relevant if the reply to Q4 was “
                                                       Other”  .
   Snap can be set up to skip over Q4a if the respondent failed
   to reply “       to
             Other” Q4, by typing UNLESS Q4=8 in the Not
   Asked box. This will ensure only respondents that ticked
     O
   “ ther”are asked Q4a. For more detailed instructions on
   routing, see page 78.
7. Ordering: This option is only available for closed question
   styles and is used for ordering codes or grids as data is being
   entered into Snap. This option is used for web and PDA
   surveys. Ordering can also be used in telephone surveys by
   clicking on the Tailor button    in the Case Data
   Window and selecting the Rotate Codes tick box. The
   following available options are:
   Inverse – question codes alternate between each case in
            the
   normal and reverse order.
   Forward –the codes appear in the same order but always
   starts forward one.
   Backward - the codes appear in the same order but always
   starts back one.
   Random – codes appear in a random order.
           the
8. Ordering Count – this allows you to specify the number of
   codes to be ordered when the code ordering option is
   selected.
                                                      55
   Snap

The following options apply to the Variable Properties of
Open questions only.
Data Length –the maximum number of characters for open
questions.
Box Length –the size of the answer area for an open question
(in characters).
Valid –the range of valid responses for open questions. For
example, typing in 0 to 99 in the valid box will only allow
entries of 0 to 99 within the answer.
Scanning Validation –   this option is only available if you have
the scanning module installed with Snap and is explained in
                              “
more detail in User guide 7 – Scanning Module”    .




        If a group of similar questions are selected, the properties of these combined questions can be
          changed within the Variable Properties dialog box. If different types of questions are selected and
          the Properties button selected, you will not be able to change their combined properties.




                                                   56
Questionnaire Design                                                                                   Snap

Changing the Question Numbers
By default, Snap will automatically number all questions from Q1 and will store these as the variable names.
However, you have complete control as to whether these numbers are displayed on the questionnaire, their
composition and the format of how they are presented. Design Mode            allows you to simply select a
different question number from a list of options as well as change the appearance of how the numbers are
presented.

 ?       See page 72 for further information on numbering in sections. Advanced numbering is explained from
         page 140 onwards.

1. Ensure that you are in Design Mode         .
2. Move the cursor to Q1 and use         to alter the toolbar
   topic to Numbering. On the right of the toolbar there
   are three controls. First, a list of alternative question
   forms can be selected by using the drop-down arrow.
   The second and third controls show the decoration of
   the question Name and Grid Name (the elements of
   the numbering system to appear on the questionnaire).
   See page 145 for how to show/hide question parts.
3. Click on    next to Q1 to select a different question
   form. Snap will display a list of the most suitable
   question numbers. Select Q1a from the list.

4. Q1a is now displayed next to the first question.




                                                      57
   Snap

Changing the Appearance of Questions
Snap has a number of features that allow you to customise the appearance of a questionnaire. A full list of
the topics available to use in Snap are explained in detail from page 118 onwards.
There are three different ways in which you can format the questionnaire. The following buttons are
available on the Questionnaire Design toolbar.




1. Use Design Mode              to apply formatting after typing in each question. Alternatively, apply
   formatting changes after the questionnaire has been completed. Highlight the text to be changed and
   select the required font settings. Multiple questions can also be selected with the mouse or keyboard and
   formatting then applied. Use the click and drag method to select questions or the [Shift] key when
   selections are made using the keyboard. See page 11 for a full list of editing commands.

2. Use Design Mode          to apply font settings before typing in the questions. See the following pages on
   how to apply font settings in Design Mode.

3. Use Style Mode         to modify question styles and make changes across all questions of the same
   styles. For example, to change all Multi Choice questions select any Multi Choice question and go into
   Style Mode. This mode can also be used to modify all questions within the questionnaire or an
   individual question. This is covered in more detail from page 95 onwards. Styles are explained in later
   sections of the manual and should be used to ensure a consistent feel to the finished questionnaire.
   However, there are times when one small part of the questionnaire needs to have a different look to it
   from the rest.
The options available include changing the font size, colour and type for individual characters and adding
graphics, dynamic text and HTML code (for Internet questionnaires). All of these options are explained
fully in the chapter titled Questionnaire Design in Detail.



                                                   58
Questionnaire Design                                                                                   Snap

Creating New Question Styles
Changes made to a whole element within a question in Design Mode         will create a new style called like
followed by the original style name. For example, if you select an Open Ended question and make changes
to that question, the question will be renamed as like Open Ended.
    e cQ et n ‘l e n ro y a ’
     e    i     a   e d s e
1. Sl t uso 1 Pes et t a'dt.
2. Format the question as follows. Select the Boxes topic
   and change the box shape to shadow box.




                         w i l sl e pn ne’
                           sa i
3. The Style Name menu no d p y ‘k O e E dd.
4. If you wish to select a different style, select the drop-
     o n eu h cn i h t e l e pn ne’
                 a       as e y i
   dw m n t t otn t s l ‘k O e E dd
   and make your choice.




                                                    59
    Snap

Applying Font Settings to Questions in Design Mode
Snap allows considerable flexibility with regard to customising the font of questions and other questionnaire
content; you can alter the font name, size, colour and appearance (bold, italic or underline). These changes
can apply to all of the text in a question or just part of it.
If you wish to change the appearance of individual words, characters or elements within a question (or
question element) then these can be made in Design mode with the toolbar topic set to Font. The toolbar
will include three buttons that can be used to change the font decoration:
                                            Bold text

                                            Italic text

                                            Underlined text



1. Ensure that the Questionnaire Window is in Design
    Mode        and that the toolbar topic is set to Font.
2. Select (highlight) the text to be altered.




                                                      60
Questionnaire Design                                                                                  Snap

3. Use the toolbar buttons and drop-down list to change
   the font as required. The changes will be reflected in
   the Questionnaire window immediately, although
   changes to the font colour will only be shown correctly
   once the current selection (highlighting) is removed. In
   this example, the text colour has been changed to Red
   and the font decoration to Italic.
4. Note that if any changes are made to an entire question
   element in Design Mode a new style will be created
   called like followed by the style name. For example, if
   you select a Multi Choice question and make changes to
   one or more entire element, the question style will be
   renamed as like Multi Choice.


       You can also use the Font setting to insert images, dynamic text or HTML code. To do this, use the
                       button. See page 62 for a full explanation of this feature




                                                      61
   Snap

Inserting Images
The toolbar topic Font allows you to insert images, dynamic text or HTML source code. Clicking the
              button will present you with a menu containing four options. The Insert option is only
available for use within Design Mode        . The table below contains a brief description of the four menu
items; the following sections provide a detailed explanation of how they can be used.




Menu Option          Description

 ma e
I g…                 Inserts an image file at the current cursor position

 a ib e il …
V ra l Fed           Inserts the response from a specific variable at the current cursor position

 u v y il …
S r e Fed            Inserts the value of one of the survey settings.

HT   il …
  MLFed              Inserts an HTML tag at the current cursor position (used for web surveys
                     only).




                                                    62
Questionnaire Design                                                                                    Snap

Inserting Images
Graphical images can be placed in any question (or note) on the questionnaire. In Style Mode, images,
including shading/patterns, can be added as a background to a question or a part of a question. If you want to
insert an image on its own, this is best done using the Font toolbar topic in Design Mode. Snap can handle
images with the file extensions .bmp, .jpg and .gif.

1. Click on the Design Mode button           and set the toolbar
   topic to Font.
2. Place the cursor at the point where you wish to insert the
   image. If it is not being included as part of a question then
   you may want to create an entirely separate question for this
   image. If so, the Title, Sub-title or Instruction question
   styles might be most suitable, as they do not require any
   response.

3. Click on the                                   ma e
                               button and select I g … from
   the menu.




                                                     63
   Snap
4. Choose the image you want to insert. Snap will then display
   the image in the Insert Image dialog box (see right).
5. Use the Zoom control to enlarge or reduce the image. This
   will affect the size of the image as it will appear in your
   Snap questionnaire. For example, setting the zoom to 50%
   will mean that the image appears at half the height and half
   the width.

6. To select a different image, click the     button. This will
   reopen the dialog box you saw at step 4, above.
7. When you are happy with the image and the size setting,
   click the             button. The image will then appear in
   the questionnaire.
8. If you wish to change the size of the image, or
   the image itself, once you have inserted it,
   double click on the image. This will open the
   Insert Image dialog box




                                                  64
Questionnaire Design                                                                                  Snap

Inserting Dynamic Text
Dynamic Text means any written content that changes depending on the context. Dynamic Text appears on
screen enclosed by braces, e.g. {Title}. In this case the braces indicate that rather than display the word
"Title", Snap will display the survey title. In Design mode, Snap splits Dynamic Text into two distinct
categories, Variable Fields and Survey Fields. The example below shows how to add a Survey Field to the
questionnaire. The same method is used to add a Variable Field.

1. Click on the        button to switch to Design Mode.
2. Set the toolbar topic to Font




3. Place the cursor at the point where the Dynamic Text should
   appear.

4. Click on the               button and select Survey Field… from
   the menu.




5. Set the Field property to "Title".
6. Set Modify case to "Normal".
7. Click on the OK button.




                                                    65
    Snap

8. Snap will display {Title} on a pale blue background to
   indicate that it is a dynamic text field.




9. To view the text as it will appear, switch to Data View
   mode.




The different options available for Survey Fields are shown in the table below, along with a brief description
of what will be displayed when the dynamic text substitution takes place.

Field      Description
Name       The name of the survey. This is the same as the name given to the survey files, and will begin with
           the letters sn, e.g. snCrocodile. The name of the survey will be displayed in the Survey Overview
           window in the column labelled Survey.
Title      The title of the survey. This is not necessarily the same as the text shown at the start of the
           questionnaire. The Survey Title is displayed when you start Snap, in the survey overview
           window. It can be changed at any time by opening the survey and then typing the new title in the
           Survey Details window that appears.
Page       The current page number in the questionnaire.
Case       The number of the current case.
Filter     Any filter that is applied to the data. If no filter is applied, this field will be blank.




                                                        66
Questionnaire Design                                                                           Snap


Inserting HTML Tags
This option is used for publishing questionnaires on the World Wide Web. It is only available if the
Internet Module is installed. See User Guide 5, "Internet Module", for details of how to use it.




                                                67
   Snap

Altering the Position of Questions and Codes
The standard setting for questions is to display the list of codes underneath the question text, with the code
boxes to the right of the code labels. The settings for the Question and Code Box can be altered with up to 8
combinations, including Above, Below, Left and Right. For example, you can display the list of codes next
to the question text and with the boxes on the left rather than the right. See page 148 for further information
on the Positions options.
1. Click in Q4 and change the toolbar topic to Column. Set the number
   of columns to 1 and the codes in Q4 will be displayed in 1 column.
2. Next, change the toolbar topic to Positions.
3. The toolbar will now show that the Question is above the codes, and
   the Code Box is to the right of the labels.

4. Alter the Question to Beside to put the text of the question on the
   left and the list of codes on the right.




5. Alter Code Box to Left and the boxes will appear to the left of the
   labels. Note that the code leaders (leading dots) have been
   automatically suppressed because the Code Label text is left
   justified.




                                                    68
Questionnaire Design                                                                             Snap

Setting Up Fields Such As Name and Address
Sometimes surveys require personal information about the respondent, such as their name and address.
Often the layout of such questions requires no visible question number. The example below demonstrates
one possible way of setting up the question(s).
1. Start a new question in the Questionnaire window,
   either by selecting [Enter] (to insert the question after
   the current one) or by clicking on    (to insert the
   question before the current one), using the Open
   Ended style.
2. In the area marked "Click here for text", type "Name:"



3. Set the toolbar topic to Numbering.
4. Change the style of numbering from Q1 to Q0a and
   click on    to renumber the questionnaire. Note that
   Q1 now remains as Q1.

5. If Auto Renumbering is set (the       button should be
   switched on) the questions will automatically renumber
   when moved around the questionnaire.

6. Change the toolbar topic to Show.
7. The drop-down toolbar option to the right currently
   shows the field where the cursor is currently located,
   Text. Use the drop-down toolbar to alter the setting to
   Name.
8. The Show setting will currently be checked. Click on
   the Show check-box to remove the check mark and the
   question number will no longer be displayed.
                                                     69
   Snap

9. To move the code box to the right of the question
   change the toolbar topic to Positions. Change the
   question Position from Above to Beside.




10. To move the question to the left, change the toolbar
    topic to Tabs and reduce the Name element percentage
    to 0%. Reduce the Text element percentage to 13%.




                                                70
Questionnaire Design                                                                                 Snap

Using Page, Column Breaks and Section Breaks
Page Break
Introduce a page break at any point in the questionnaire by selecting
the question that is to appear at the top of the page and pressing
[Ctrl] + [S]. A page break mark is placed in the questionnaire and
can be removed again by highlighting the question immediately
below the page break mark and pressing [Ctrl] + [S].




 ?       The Page Break option can also be accessed through the menu displayed by clicking the right
         button on the mouse. Select a part of the question that should immediately follow the page break,
         then click the right mouse button. From the menu, choose Break | Page Break.

Column Break
Introduce a column break in the questionnaire in a similar manner.
Select the question that is to appear at the top of the column and press
[Ctrl] + [A]. A column break mark is placed in the questionnaire and
can be removed again by highlighting the question immediately below
the page break mark and pressing [Ctrl] + [A].



 ?       The Column Break option can also be accessed through the menu displayed by clicking the right
         button on the mouse. Select a part of the question that should immediately follow the column
         break, then click the right mouse button. From the menu, choose Break | Column Break.




                                                     71
   Snap

Section Break
A section break starts a new section on the same page. They are used to divide your questionnaire into
relevant sections so a different numbering system can be displayed in each section.




1. Highlight the question that is to appear at the top of the next
   section.
2. Press [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [B] on the keyboard or select Break from
   the Topic list and tick the Section Break option.
3. Select “  Start using numbered sections”from the dialog box.
   This will divide the questionnaire into two sections placing a
   section break above the selected question and the questions will
   have a new numbering system. For example, the first question in
   the first section will be Q1.1, the second question will be Q1.2; the
   first question in the second section will be Q2.1 etc.
                     Sat s e e d et n”will start a new
                             n tr
4. The other option “ tr uigl t e sc o s    i
   numbering system beginning with letters, for example, the
   question you have selected will be renamed B1 and the section
   above will rename Q1 to A1, A2 etc.

5. Select the               button and the questionnaire is updated
   with the new sections and numbering system.
6. A section break mark is placed in the questionnaire and can be
   removed again by highlighting the question immediately below the
   section break and pressing [Ctrl] + [Shift] +[B].



                                                   72
Questionnaire Design                                                     Snap

7. Use the Variables Properties       button if you wish to customise
   your section breaks. If you wish to change your style of number,
   ensure the questionnaire is in Design Mode
   and select Specify custom section next to the Section Break
   property.
8. In the Section ID value box, type in the new number or letter you
   would like to start this section.

9. Select the              button to save the changes and update the
   questionnaire accordingly.




10. Alternatively, select the              button on the Break toolbar
    to specify your section break properties.
         U e ut    o a ”is
11. If “ s C s m N me selected, type in the number or letter
    format to be used in the section. Also ensure either a number or
                                      T p o Sc o s box.
                                               i
    letter format is selected in the “ y e f et n”

12. Click on the               button. A dialog will appear asking if
   you wish to renumber the questionnaire. If       is selected
   the questionnaire will be renumbered and the new numbering
   system displayed on the questionnaire.




                                                    73
    Snap

Adding Headers and Footers
Additional text and graphics can be added to the header and footer of the first page and, optionally, all
subsequent pages. Considerable control is available over both the content and position of this text and
graphics.

1. Click        to display the Page Setup dialog box. The
   settings for Header and Footer can be accessed by clicking
    on the                   button to display a Header/Footer
    dialog box.
2. The header/footer may contain free format text as well as
   keywords (auto text). The contents can be formatted using
   the font format buttons to set the font name, size, style and
   colour.
3. The header consists of the three areas (left, centre and right),
   as does the footer. The font justification is fixed for each of
   these areas; it cannot be altered by you.
4. Keywords can be included in the text. They can be added
   through the drop-down list in the left-most box in the dialog
    toolbar, or by clicking on the                  button and
                 u v y il …
    selecting S r e Fed ; the latter allows additional
    flexibility with regard to specifying the case.



5. An image file can be inserted by clicking on the                                      ma e
                                                                   button and selecting I g … from the
   menu. Images can be any kind of graphics file, e.g. .jpg, .gif, .bmp.
6. Click into the relevant box(es) to specify whether the headers and footers are to appear on the first
   page and/or subsequent pages.



                                                     74
Questionnaire Design                                                                             Snap

Saving the Questionnaire
The results of your questionnaire design are held in the Questionnaire window, and the   button can be
used at any time to save the questionnaire.

1. Either, use the    button (Keep Changes) to save
   the questionnaire and keep it open for further
   editing.
2. Or close the Questionnaire window, by clicking on
       in the top right corner of the window. This will
   close the Questionnaire window and you will be
   asked if you wish to save the changes to the
   questionnaire.




                                                   75
  Snap

Your Notes




             76
Questionnaire Routing                                              Snap



QUESTIONNAIRE ROUTING
This section explains how to apply routing to the questionnaire.

Contents
78        Introduction
79        Routing Rule Types
89        Modifying Routing Within Your Questionnaire
90        Routing Rules Summary Table
91        If Condition Syntax




                                                     77
   Snap

Introduction
Question routing is where respondents are only asked questions relevant to them when completing the
questionnaire. Questions that are not relevant to them are skipped. To set up routing in a Snap questionnaire
Routing Rules are used. These identify which questions are asked along with routing text; which is
displayed on the questionnaire as routing instructions.
The snActivate survey is used on the following pages
to explain routing in detail. This survey is contained
within the Snap 8 folder.
The survey asks about membership within the leisure
club. The example on the right shows the snActivate
questionnaire with routing applied.
 E ii e br ol e se 1 Q n 5
    sn            s      d
“ x t gm m e w u b akdQ , 2adQ ;
non-members who are interested in joining would be
asked Q1, Q3, Q4 and Q5, and non-members with no
 n r tn o i ol e se 1 Q n 5
  te         in         d
i e s i j n gw u b akdQ , 3adQ .                      ”
Routing rules are added to this questionnaire to ensure
respondents are asked the relevant questions.
Routing can be hidden or displayed in any of the publication types, for example, a web questionnaire
containing routing would ensure respondents only view the questions they are asked as long as Always is
selected in the visible list box. This is located in the routing rules dialog. The 3 options available are:
   Always –routing is always displayed on the questionnaire in all publication methods.
   Never –routing is not shown on the questionnaire in any form of publication method.
   Paper only –routing is shown on paper questionnaires, but not web surveys.



  ?        If questions are moved around after routing rules have been set up, the routing will automatically
           be updated with the new question numbers. Not asked conditions in the Variables window will
           also be updated automatically.

                                                    78
Questionnaire Routing                                                                                    Snap

Routing Rule Types
There are three types of routing rules that can be used in a Snap questionnaire.
1. Conditionally Ask Question
2. Goto On Answer
3. Goto After Question
A rule can either be added at the beginning of a question, within a question code or at the end of a question.
The rules have different meanings and are explained in full on the following pages.
The example below shows how SnActivate questionnaire looks before any routing is added. The following
pages explain how to set up each type of routing rule in this questionnaire.




                                                      79
   Snap

Setting up a Conditionally Ask Question Routing Rule
The Conditionally Ask Question rule is set up at the beginning of the question and is situated within the
question text. Snap will look at the contents of this rule before the question is asked. The question is asked
depending on whether the conditions are met as stated in the rule. If the conditions of the rule are not met,
Snap will skip this question and move onto the next question. One pre-condition is allowed per question and
can reference more than one question, but not the one in which it appears.
The contents of the rule can only refer to a previously asked question on the questionnaire. If you refer to a
following question, Snap will highlight the rule in red.
                                 4 Pe e i yu n me n d rs This question only needs to be
                                     a v                 ?
The snActivate survey contains, Q “ l s g e o r a a da des”
 se tr odn h tkd Y s to 3 Wo l yu ene s d n eo n a mbr ee”
          s        s      c                          r e
akd o epnetw oi e “ e” Q “ ud o b it et i bcmig me e hr?
In order to set up this scenario, a routing rule is created within Q4 to identify who needs to be asked this
question.
The routing rule example for Q4 is set up as follows:
1. The first step is to click anywhere within Q4
    Pe e i yu n me n d rs
      a v
   “ l s g e o r a a da des.           ”




                                                   80
Questionnaire Routing                                     Snap

2. Click on the right mouse button and select
   Routing Rules from the menu. Alternatively,
   click the         button on the Questionnaire
   Design toolbar.




3. Select the               button to create a new
   routing rule. The               button allows you
   to view the content of existing routing rules that
   have already been created. The example on the
   right shows that no routing rules have been set up
   for Q4 as yet.

4. Select Conditionally Ask Question from the
   Type box and click on the               button.




                                                     81
   Snap

5. The cursor is located in the If box.
    ye Q3=1” T e1r e t as e 1o Q ,
6. T p “      .h        fs
                       e r o nw r f 3
    h h s nw r ys. o fr e i r ao
      c                      h f
   w i i as e “e” F r ut r nom t n   i
   on routing conditions see page Error!
   Bookmark not defined..
                ot ‘
                  p
7. In the Text bx ye If "Yes",
                             ’

8. This text will be inserted into the contents of the
   text field within Q4.
9. The Rule Details section at the bottom of the
   Routing Rules dialog has been set up as follows:
   For respondents where the If condition is true
   (yes is ticked in Q3) the host question (Q4) will
   be asked. Where the If condition is false, the host
   question will be skipped and a response of Not
   Asked will be recorded.
10. Ensure Always is selected in the visible list box
    so the routing is displayed in all publication
    modes.



11. Select the                button. The text you
    created within the Routing rules dialog has been
    inserted within Q4 and is denoted with an arrow
    highlighted in blue. To edit this, double-click
    anywhere within the highlighted text.




                                                   82
Questionnaire Routing                                                                                  Snap

 u        If an error has been made when compiling the routing rule, Snap will keep the rule but highlight it
          in red. A rule highlighted in blue denotes the condition is correct. If questions are renumbered
          after routing rules have been set up, Snap will automatically update the routing rule with the new
          question number. If a routing rule refers to a question which is subsequently deleted, then the
          target will be shown in red. If a rule refers to a question which has been moved and so generated
          an invalid sequence, then the question number will also be shown in red.



  ?       Rich text formatting can be applied to the routing rules. Ensure that the Questionnaire Window is
          in Design Mode and that the toolbar topic is set to Font. Select the text you wish to change and
          use the toolbar buttons and drop-down list to change the font as required.




                                                    83
   Snap

 e ig p “ oo n nw r R ui R l
  t                     n
Stn u a G t o A s e” o t g ue
The Goto on answer rule is quick and easy to set up. A rule is set up within the question codes (answers) of
the question. This rule will direct a respondent to a target question within the questionnaire if they tick a
particular answer code. For example, if they tick yes to Q1 they go to Q2, if no is ticked, they go to Q3.
This routing type can only be used in question codes and should be used with questions containing a small
number of codes. Otherwise, the other two routing rules should be used to determine whether a question is
asked or not.

  ?       Go to on answer rules are normally used for single response questions only. If added to a multiple
          response question and more than one code is ticked with each code going to a different question
          number, Snap will always jump to the last question. For example, if apples and plums are ticked
          in a question, apples go to Q7 and plums go to Q8, Snap will automatically jump to Q8.


                                              A e o me e o A t aee ue l ’
                                                                   i      i      u
In the snActivate survey, Q1 asks respondents ‘ r yua mbr f c vt lsr c b. Q2 asks ‘o            Fr
 o o    n ae o en
h w l gh v yube ame e’                             Wo l o e ne s d n eo n
                                                                    r e
                                  mbr and Q3 asks ‘ udyub it et i bcmigame e                  mbr
 ee
hr’ We are going to set up a Goto On Answer routing rule on the yes and no codes of Q1 to direct the
      .
respondents to the relevant questions.
1. Click anywhere in the Yes answer code of Q1.




2. Click on the right mouse button and select Routing
   Rules from the menu. Alternatively, click the
   button on the Questionnaire design toolbar.




                                                   84
Questionnaire Routing                                     Snap

3. Select the                button to create a new
   routing rule. The              button allows you to
   view the content of existing routing rules that have
   already been created.


4. Ensure you have Goto On Answer selected in the
   Type box and select Answer 1 (Yes) from the On
   box and click the             button.




5. The next step is to select where you want the
   respondent to go if answer 1 (Yes) has been ticked.
   Select Q2 (For how long have you been a
   member?) from the Goto box.
6. The text box below this automatically displays Goto
   Q2. You can edit this text by clicking and typing
   inside the box. Q2 is highlighted in blue, which
   means you can edit this information, by double
   clicking on Q2. A menu will appear with the options
   Full Name, Display Name and Grid Name.
   Display Name is the default and will display the
   name of the question as shown on the questionnaire.
   Full Name will display the full name of the question
   even if not shown on the questionnaire. Use the
   Numbering topic to change the numbering format
   shown on your questionnaires. Grid name will
   display the full grid name as specified in the
   numbering topic.
                                                   85
    Snap

7. If the codes are placed in 2 columns, this may cause
   the go to text to be squashed together when viewed.
   If more space is required, 1 column can be selected
   from the code column box.

8. Select the                 button to create a new
   routing rule for the no code on Q1.
9. Ensure Goto On Answer is selected in the Type
   box and select Answer 2 (No) from the On box and
    click the             button.


10. Select where you want the respondent to go if
    answer 2 (No) has been ticked. Select Q3 (Would
    you be interested in becoming a member here)
    from the Goto box.
                     o t“             3
11. Change the Text bx o Continue at Q ”



12. Select the             button. The routing is shown
    on the right.

  u        Add a Goto on answer rule to every code within a question to make it clear to the respondent
           where they are going after ticking an answer. Alternatively, just add 1 or 2 Goto on answers to a
           question containing a long list of answers.




                                                  86
Questionnaire Routing                                                                                       Snap

 e ig p “ oo f r uso ” o t R l
  t           e    i      n
Stn u a G t A t Q et n R uig ue
This rule is placed at the end of a question and is used to direct respondents to the next appropriate question.
This rule could also be used to direct respondents to a new section or to the end of the questionnaire. Any
number of Goto After Question rules are allowed per question. Once a question is asked the respondents
will jump to the next relevant question as directed by the contents of the rule and the answer they have given.
In the snActivate survey, Q2 asks respondents “ how long have you been a member?”
                                              For                                After they have
answered this question we want those respondents to go straight to Q5.
To set up this example:
1. Click anywhere in Question 2.


2. Click on the right mouse button and select Routing
   Rules from the menu. Alternatively, click on the
         button on the Questionnaire Design toolbar.




3. Select the                  button to create a new
    routing rule. The              button allows you to
    view the content of existing routing rules that have
    already been created.




                                                       87
   Snap

4. Select Goto After Question from the Type box and
   select the             button.




5. The next step is to select where you want the
                             5 D o ae n
   respondent to go. Select Q “ oyu h v a y
    o     ns o o l i o k?  k
   cmmet yu w ud l et ma e” from the
   Goto box.
6. Your cursor is located in the If box: this is where
   you can type in an IF condition.
7. All of the respondents need to be directed to Q5, so
   for this example, leave the If box blank.
                o vr p G o i Continue
                   t      ” h
8. In the Text bxoe ye“ ot wt “
   at,”
9. This text will be placed in a footnote at the end of
   Q2.
10. The Rule Details section at the bottom of the
    Routing Rules dialog has been set up as follows. All
    respondents who answer Q2 will immediately go to
    Q5.

11. Select the             button. The routing is set up
    as shown in the example on the right.




                                                  88
Questionnaire Routing                                                                                 Snap

Modifying Routing Within Your Questionnaire
Using the Questionnaire Design Window for adding routing is a very easy way to add and modify routing
rules.
1. A routing rule can be moved around the
   questionnaire by clicking and dragging on the
   highlighted text. It is also denoted by an arrow.
2. Click and drag to move the rule and drop once
   positioned in the right place within the
   questionnaire.
3. To edit the rule, double-click anywhere within the
   blue shaded area.
4. The routing rules dialog is displayed and the rule
   can be edited by selecting the               button,
   deleted by selecting the               button, or a
   new rule created by selecting            .
5. If questions are moved or copied within the
   questionnaire, the routing expression that refers to
   that variable will automatically update.
To help you track the routing rules you have set up in the questionnaire, a summary of this information can
be viewed in the Variables Window. For details on this see page 206.

 u       Try to ensure a question is answered; if not, your routing may not flow as intended. Qualifying
          usosh ae e rne i t ot g u ut e nw rd r dntnw en u d s
              i
         qet n t t r rf ecd n h ru n rlm sb as ee o a o’ko b i l e a
                    a        e            e i          e                                       cd
         one of the answers to ensure your questionnaire runs smoothly. To set up a question as Must
         Answer, select the Variable Properties button    in Design Mode       and under the Must
         Answer setting, change No to Yes from the drop-down menu. This will ensure the question is
         answered during data entry.


                                                    89
    Snap

Routing Rules Summary Table
The following table explains where the rules of each type appear in a question and how they relate to other
questions in the questionnaire.
Routing Rule:               Appears in:                     Question(s) referred                  i
                                                                                       agtG t’ uso :
                                                                                      T re‘ oo q et n
                                                            o n I cn io :
                                                                  f
                                                            t i ‘ ’o dt n  i
Conditionally ask           Start of question text          Any question before the   NA
question                                                    host

Goto on answer               oe G t
                            C d ‘ oo’                       NA                        Any question after the host or
                                                                                      end of questionnaire

Goto after question         Anywhere in the footnote        Any question before the   Any question after the host or
                                                            host or the host itself   end of questionnaire or end of
                                                                                      section



If a question includes a combination of rules, each rule is treated in the order that it appears in the question.
For example, if the first rule asked is a Conditionally Asked Question, only those who meet the condition
are asked the question. If the next rule in the question is a Goto On Answer, those remaining respondents
who match this rule move to their target question. Any remaining respondents are asked the next rule and
this continues until the last rule has been asked. As each condition is met, the respondents are moved to their
target question immediately.



         An alternative way of creating routing is by setting a Not Asked condition within the individual
           Variable Details Window. Double-click on the variable you wish to add routing to in the
           Variables Window. See the Data Entry user guide for further information. You will note that when
           routing is applied to the Questionnaire Window it will automatically generate a Not Asked
           condition in the Variable Window and vice versa. Routing can be edited in either window. This
           only applies to a Conditionally Asked Question rule.




                                                       90
Questionnaire Routing                                                         Snap

If Condition Syntax
The If condition syntax examples listed in the table below
are typed directly into the If section of the rules details
dialog, as shown in the example on the right.
You only need to type in an If condition if you are setting
up a Goto After Question or Conditionally Ask
Question routing rule.




If condition syntax examples:
If Condition        Meaning
Q7=2                Code 2 is ticked in Q7
Q11>1               Code 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 is ticked in Q11
Q11<3               Code 1 or 2 is ticked in Q11
Q3>=3               Code 3 or above is ticked in Q3
Q3<=2               Code 2 or below is ticked in Q3
Q7=(1,4)            Code 1 or code 4 is ticked in Q7
Q7=(3~5)            Code 3 or code 4 or code 5 in ticked in Q7
Q8a=2               Code 2 is ticked in Q8a
Q9a=(1 or 2)        Code 1 or code 2 is ticked in Q9a
Q3>3                Any code above code 3 is ticked in Q3
Q7==2               Only code 2 is ticked in Q7 (Q7 is a multiple response)



                                                       91
  Snap

(Q2=2 OR    EITHER code 2 is ticked in Q2 or code 1 is ticked in Q4
Q4=1)
(Q2=2 AND   BOTH code 2 of Q2 is ticked AND code 1 of Q4 is ticked
Q4=1)
(Q2=2 OR    EITHER code 2 of Q2 is ticked or code 1 of Q4 is ticked, and also gave an answer of 10
Q4=1) AND   or above to Q5
Q5>=10)
Q2 NA       Q2 is not asked
Q2 OK       A valid answer has been given to Q2
Q2 NR       An answer has not been recorded to Q2
Num Q2=2    Two answers have been ticked at Q2 (Q2 would be a multi response question)




                                          92
Questionnaire Styles                                                       Snap



QUESTIONNAIRE STYLES
This section explains how to change the appearance of the questionnaire.

Contents
94        Introduction
95        Default Question Styles
97        Using Style Mode to Modify Question Styles
98        Modifying Styles
99        The Style Selection Box
103       Based on Styles
107       The Elements of a Question
109       Using the Style Organiser
112       Renaming a Style
113       Style Properties




                                                    93
   Snap

Introduction
Snap allows you to have control over your questionnaire through the use of Styles. Each question has a
Style that may be one of the ten pre-set styles, may be defined by the user or may be added to the
questionnaire through the use of the Style Templates. Styles define the appearance of the questionnaire
through the setting of Style Attributes such as background colours, fonts and margins.
When the Style Attributes of a question are changed, Style Mode allows you to specify whether you want
the changes to be reflected across the whole questionnaire, just the highlighted question or the highlighted
question plus other similar questions throughout the questionnaire. In addition, Style Attributes can be
changed for individual parts of the question without affecting the overall style of the questionnaire in Design
Mode.
To get the most out of Snap with regards to the appearance of your questionnaire, it is useful to understand
the concepts of Styles, Style Selection Box and Style Attributes (topics). This section explains how to use
Styles effectively. Individual question editing can be undertaken in Design Mode and more advanced
customisation of styles can be undertaken in Style Mode. The same Style Attributes menu is available in
both modes. Design Mode and Style Mode are explained below.

Design Mode
Design Mode is the starting point in Snap and is the mode you work in when setting up the questionnaire.
Design Mode allows you to specify the questions to be asked, the order in which they will be asked, the type
of response that can be expected and the overall layout of the questionnaire. The questionnaire will open up
in Design mode and this should be the starting point when creating a new questionnaire. Formatting of
individual questions, elements of questions and individual words can also be completed in this mode. See
page 60 for applying font changes to individual questions within Design Mode.

Style Mode
Style Mode allows you to format the questionnaire in the same way as Design Mode, but is used to make
modifications to larger parts of the questionnaire. Style Mode will allow you to modify the selected style
only, modify all styles related to the selected style or modify every style (all questions) within the
questionnaire. This mode is also used to rename styles or create new styles.

                                                    94
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                   Snap

Default Question Styles
Each question in a Snap questionnaire has a Style applied to it. The same is true of other visible
questionnaire content such as titles and interviewer notes. There are ten Styles available with Snap covering
the most commonly used content. The table below describes the 10 pre-set Styles in Snap, together with an
example of how they might appear on the finished questionnaire.

Style          Description                                   Example
Title          Notes and headings are regularly
               required in a questionnaire, and the
               default title style presents text in a bold
               format with a white background, ideal
               as the title of the questionnaire.
Sub Title      Other notes are generally required to
               separate sections in a questionnaire or
               provide instructions for completion.
Instruction    A variation on Title and Sub-title, the
               instruction style can be used anywhere
               on the questionnaire as notes for the
               respondent or the interviewer.
Multi Choice   A question with tick or check boxes,
               where the respondent can either respond
               with a single answer or a number of
               answers. This is sometimes described
               as a "closed" question.

Grid First     Grid questions are variations on Multi
               Choice questions, but are laid out in a
               different format, with headings for each
               of the boxes presented across the page.


                                                      95
   Snap

Style        Description                                 Example
Grid Next    In a series of grid questions, the
             headings across the top are suppressed
             for all subsequent questions, and just
             the boxes appear.

Open Ended   A question with an answer in the form
             of free-format text, a number or a date.




Open First   To collect series of free format text or
             numbers in a series, this style provides
             an initial question heading and then a
             list of groups, products, services etc.
Open Next    The open first questions are continued
             as Open Next, leaving out the initial
             question name and question text.
Other        Many Multi Choice questions have a
             list of codes and then an "other please
             specify".    This style provides free
             format text as an addition to an existing
             tick box question.




                                                 96
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                       Snap

Using Style Mode to Modify Question Styles
Style Mode         allows you to format the questionnaire by making modifications to the styles, whereas
Design Mode allows you to modify the individual questions. Style Mode can be used to make consistent
changes to all questions of the same style, without having to make individual question changes.
When you change a style, the changes will be reflected in all questions using that style. The extent to which
other questions will also be changed depends on the Style Selection box setting. In Style Mode, the current
Style Selection Box is shown in the first drop-down list on the Settings toolbar. In the diagram below, the
Style Selection Box is set to All Styles.




The following example refers to a Multi Choice Q2 being selected:

Style Selection Box           Description
Multi Choice                  Changes will apply to the selected question and all other questions that use the
                              same style as the selected question. In addition, any styles that are derived
                              from the style of the selected question where settings still remain the same will
                              adopt the changes. See page 99 for further information.
 l‘ l Choi s l
    t     e ys
AlMu i c’t e’                 Settings will apply to the selected question and all other questions that use the
                              same style as the selected question. In addition, the settings will apply to any
                                                                         h ur t t e o ea p , l e
                                                                          e e y.
                              questions that use styles derived from t cr n s l F r xm l “k            e i
                                  t hi ” usos i l cag.
                                   i c            i
                              mul co e qet n wla o hne    ls
All styles                    Settings will apply to all styles. The settings will be stored as the default style
                              settings.

                                                      97
   Snap

Modifying Styles
The example below demonstrates how to apply style changes to the questionnaire using Style Mode            .
The example used is based on the Multi Choice question 2.
1. Click in the question of the style you wish to
   change. For example, click in Q2, which is a Multi
   Choice question.
2. Select one of the options from the style selection
   list, as explained below.
 Modify the selected style only. For example, ‘ l
                                               Muti
   hi ’
  Coec
 Modify all styles related to the selected style. For
           Al t lSy s
               Mu i
  example, ‘ l lpe tl ’       e
 Modify every style (all questions) within the
                              Al tl ’
                                   e
  questionnaire. For example, ‘ lSy s
          Mut h i ’
             i   c
3. Select ‘ l C o efrom the style list.
4. Select one of the topics from the Style Attributes
   list. For example, select the Boxes topic. Select a
   shadow box from the list.
5. Note that Snap has changed all Multi Choice style
   questions to the shadow box style.
Style Mode allows you to quickly and easily format
styles across the whole questionnaire.



 ?        Use Design Mode to make individual question changes. Select the question you would like to
          change and the topic from the Style Attributes list. See pages 59 for more details. New styles can
          then be created within Design Mode and renamed in Style Mode.

                                                  98
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                     Snap

The Style Selection Box




                             et t n v ult e ei fr xm l ‘ r it h hne m d
                                    e di          y      tg
With the Style Selection Box sto h i i das lstn,o ea p ,G i Fr’t cags ae e     d s, e
may or may not be propagated through to other questions in the questionnaire. The following rules explain
how Snap decides whether or not to make changes to other questions:
     All questions that use the same style as the highlighted question WILL be affected, and all the
      attributes that are changed will be passed on to those questions.
     Questions whose Style is a descendent of that highlighted question's style MAY be affected,
      depending on the existing settings for the two styles involved. Other styles will only be affected if,
      before the change was made, the attribute that was changed had the same value in both styles. For
      example, Grid Next is a descendent of Grid First. A Grid First question is selected and the Style
      Selection Box is set to Grid First. The Font, Text attribute is changed from Arial 10 Bold to Times
      New Roman 11. If the Font, Text setting in Grid Next is also Arial 10 Bold (i.e. the same as that in
      Grid First), it will also be changed to Times New Roman 11. If the setting was not the same as that
      for Grid First, it will remain unaltered. To summarise, a change made to one style (we will call it
      style A) will only be made to another style (style B) if the following conditions apply:
      Style B is a child of Style A.
      The two styles initially had the same value for the Style Attribute that has been changed.
      Note that once the change has been made to Style B it may then be made to Style C if the same
      conditions apply, and so on.
     Questions that are not descendants of the Style of the highlighted question will NOT be affected at all.

                                                     99
    Snap

Modifying Styles Example
The attributes of the ten pre-set styles can be edited within a questionnaire, although the changes will not
affect other questionnaires or subsequent new questionnaires. If the same changes are needed for other
questionnaires then they can be saved using a Style Template and then applied using the Load Style button
in the Questionnaire Window. See page 114 for more details on Style Templates.
To use Styles effectively, it is useful to understand the concept of the Style Selection Box as it applies to the
style settings. See page 99 for an explanation of the Style Selection Box.
The following example shows how to change the font and background questionnaire subtitle. The same
method can be used for other Styles and Style Attributes.


1. Make sure that the questionnaire mode is set to
   Style Mode by clicking on the               button if
   necessary.
2. Click in the Sub Title within the questionnaire.
   Sub Title is displayed in the Style Selection box.
3. Ensuring that the title remains selected (it will
   have a box with a coloured border around it),
   change the setting in the attribute box to Font.




                                                    100
Questionnaire Styles                                     Snap

4. Change the font to Tahoma, Bold, Italic and
   change the colour to Blue. If Tahoma is not
   available, choose any font other than the current
   one.      The changes will appear on the
   questionnaire.




5. Now change the setting in the attribute box to
   Background.
6. Select Text from the drop-down list to the right of
   the attribute box and click on the text colour
   drop-down arrow.
7. Select pale grey from the colour palette.




                                                   101
   Snap

8. Click the                 button and the background
   colour for the title will be changed.




The same approach can be used to change other pre-set styles and other style attributes.


        Changes that are made to the Title will also be reflected in any questions using the Sub Title style.
          An explanation is given in the section on the Style Selection box, starting on page 99.




 ?        When a question or a question element is selected it will have a coloured border around it. The
          colour of the border can be set for each of the different Questionnaire Window modes. Click on
             io      urn        n o
          Talr|C re tW i d w… or T i r|Qu s in ar De i n , set the Border Colours mode
                                             alo           o
                                                       e t n ie        sg …
          to Style and then select a colour.




                                                   102
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                        Snap

Based on Styles
Not all the Styles will behave in the same way when changes are made; some Styles are based on others.
For example, Grid Next is, to some degree, based on Grid First since it is likely certain aspects of the two
styles will be identical. In this case Grid First can be considered the parent style and Grid Next the child.
In addition to the ten pre-set styles, there is a Default style that is considered the parent style for several of
the pre-set styles.


        The ten pre-set styles are Grid First, Grid Next, Instruction, Multi Choice, Open Ended, Open
          First, Open Next, Other, Sub Title, and Title.


All Styles are derived from the default, either directly or through other styles. The diagram below shows
how each style is derived.




Every Snap questionnaire will have all of the above styles at least. The default settings are defined in the
default.qsf template. There are many more templates available to you as part of the Snap software, allowing


                                                       103
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you to try different layouts, backgrounds, fonts, etc., as well as the ability to create your own customised
templates (see page 114 for further details on Questionnaire Templates).
Five of the pre-set styles are derived directly from the Default style: Multi Choice, Grid First, Open
Ended, Open First, Title and Instruction. In this situation Default is the parent style and each of the other
four is a child of the Default style. In the same way, Title is the parent style for Sub Title, which in turn is
the parent style for Instruction.


        The settings for the default style are stored in the file default.qsf and cannot be altered. It is
          possible to edit these styles within a questionnaire, although a new questionnaire will always start
          with the built-in style settings. Additional style names can be created that are based on any of
          these 10 styles. (See page 109).



 ?        To set up a custom default style, set all the style attributes as required and save the style as a new
          template. The new settings can then be used on another survey by applying that template to the
          new questionnaire.




        Any changes made to a question in Design Mode
          b te te a e. example, if you select a Multi Choice question and make changes to that
           y h s l n m ” For
                   y
                                                                 wlceta e s lcld like followed
                                                                    l
                                                                   i ra nw te a e “
                                                                          e         y      l

           uso,h uso i e ea e s le l C o e.If
               i      e
          qet n t qet nwlb rnm da “i Mu i hi ” you are going to use the same
                             i      l                   k      t      c
          layout/format on another question you should give the style a name by clicking on the Style
          Properties button on the questionnaire design toolbar. See page 112 for further details..




                                                    104
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                         Snap

Style Attributes
Each Snap Style has Style Attributes which affects a number of different question elements. You can either
set the value of each attribute, or it can inherit its value from other styles. The table below shows the full list
of Style Attributes.


Attribute         es
                 fc…
                Af t

Alignment       Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label, Position, Code Label, Code Value, Data, Code Box,
                Code Go To, Footnote
Background      Question Area, Answer Area, Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label, Position, Code Label,
                Code Value, Code Box, Box Area, Code Offset, Code Gutter, Code Verge, Code Go To,
                Footnote
Boxes           Box Style, Check Mark, Force Square, Drop-down
Break           Column Break, Page Break, Section Break
Columns         Number, Arrangement, Full width
Find            Find, Next, Previous, Find and Replace
Font            Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label, Position, Code Label, Code Value, Data, Check Mark,
                Code Go To, Footnote
Margins         Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label, Position, Code Label, Code Value, Data, Check mark,
                Code Go To, Footnote (each attribute has a top, bottom, left and right margin)
Numbering       Number Format
Positions       Question, Code Box
Response        Response Type
Show            Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label, Position, Code Label, Code Box, Code Leaders, Code
                Value, Space Before, Code Go To, Footnote, Line Before, Semantic Scale, Grid Leaders, As

                                                       105
   Snap

Attribute     es
             fc…
            Af t

            Drop-down.
Tabs        Name, Text, Grid Label, Code Offset, Code Gutter, Code Verge, Code Values, Code Go To,
            Open Label




                                            106
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                    Snap

The Elements of a Question
The Style of a question defines its appearance in the questionnaire for each of its different Elements (see
table below) including question name, text and code labels. Each of the Elements can be altered
individually in terms of their location on the questionnaire and their individual format.
The examples below show most of the main Question Elements.
In the diagram on the right, the elements shown are:
Position (237), Text ("How old are you?"), Name (Q9), Code Labels
("Under 18", "18-24", etc.), Code Leaders (the rows of dots), Code
Boxes (in a column on the right hand side), Code Values (1, 2, 3, 4
and 5) and Footnote (text box below question).



The second diagram provides an example of these elements:
Name (Q6), Text ("How do you rate the following?"), Code Labels
("Very Good", "Good", etc.), Grid Names (Q6a, Q6b, etc.), Grid
Labels ("Speed of service", "Cleanliness", etc.), Grid Leaders (the
rows of dots) and Code Boxes (the array of 20 boxes).

Groups of questions that appear as grids have more elements.
The Grid Name that is the equivalent of the question name, the
Grid Label and the Grid Leaders that are the equivalent of the
Code Leaders.
The Question Elements along with a brief description are shown in the table below:

Element           Description
Answer Area       The background area around the answer box and label. For use with the Background topic.
Box Area          The area around the answer code box. For use with the Background topic.
Code Box          The box in which a response will be entered either as a tick for a multi- or single-response
                  closed question or as text for an open-ended question.
                                                        107
   Snap

Element         Description
Code GoTo       Instructions concerning questionnaire routing based on response to a particular question.
Code Gutter     The spacing between columns. For use with Tabs and Background topics.
Code Label      The text applicable to a particular potential response for a question.
Code Leader     Markings between the Code Label and the Code Box to help show which label is associated
                with which box.
Code Offset     The space to the left of the answer code. For use with Tabs and Background topics.
Code Value      The numerical value assigned to a particular response. This is the value that will be entered
                at the data entry phase of the survey if the interviewee gives the response associated with it.
Code Verge      The space to the right of the answer code box. For use with Tabs and Background topics.
Footnote        A box located below each question, which can be used to display additional text.
Grid Label      The text applicable to a sub-question in a series of grid questions.
Grid Leader     Markings between the Grid Label and the Grid Box to help show which label is associated
                with which box.
Grid Name       The number of the sub-question in a series of grid questions.
Line Before     A line is inserted before a question. For use with the Show topic.
Name            The number of the question within the questionnaire.
Open Label      The space used for the code label on open questions. For use with the Show topic.
Position        The position in the data stream where the response to this question will be stored (see page
                266). There is rarely any reason to show this value on the questionnaire.
Question Area   The background area around the question text. For use with the Background topic.
Space Before    Space can be added before a question. For use with the Show topic.
Text            The question wording that the interviewer will read out to the respondent.



                                                  108
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                    Snap

Using the Style Organiser
The Style Organiser tool allows you to view the styles you have used within the questionnaire. Style
Organiser is only available in Style Mode          and can be used to sort styles, as well as rename and make
copies of styles. Other views of styles are also available in the organiser.
This example below explains step by step how to use the Style Organiser.

1. Click on the Style Organiser button            which is
   found on the questionnaire design toolbar.
2. The Style Organiser will be displayed as shown on the
   right.
3. The options available are detailed below.



4. You can select how you would like to view the styles in
    h r e i w y i e sl t g ‘ lSy s
     e vw          d        t
   t pei wno b ehr e cn,Al t e’     ei               l ,
    N m d t e’ U e Sy s Unused Styles’orAl
                l ,
   ‘ a e Sy s ‘ sd t e’‘   l ,                   , ‘l
     a al ’ r h rp
       i e o         e
   V r b s f m t do-down list at the top of the
   Styles list.




                                                    109
   Snap

     hwn Al a al ’ i i l l h usos
           g           i e        l sa l e
5. S o i ‘ lV r b s wld p ya t qet n                     i
   in the current questionnaire in a list. This can be useful
   if you are not really familiar with style names.
6. The Fit to Window tick box will fit the question inside
   the preview window. This is especially useful when
   previewing titles and subtitles, which normally fit
   across the width of the whole page.

7. The                button will bring up the Style
   Properties dialog box. If a new style is selected whilst
   working in Style Mode           and the Properties button
   is selected, the style can be renamed by typing in a new
   name in the top of the dialog box.




8. The               button makes a copy of the selected
   style and allows you to give it a new name. This option
   is only available to named styles. This style is then
   available for you to pick from in the Style Selection
   box when required.



9. The               button is available to use when any
   non-standard style is selected. This button is used to re-

                                                   110
Questionnaire Styles                                            Snap

   apply a style back to its original style name.
10. There are two options within the dialog box and the
    contents depend on what style is selected in the Style
                n h ea p , 1 l e pn ne’
                    i        e        i
    Organiser. I t s xm l Q ‘k O e E dd is
    selected.
11. This dialog asks you if you want to:
      k a O e E dd vr b so l e a al 1
           l               i e o k i e
   Mae l“ pn ne” a al l k i vr b Q
   All other Open Ended questions will change to look
   like Q1.
    s g h t e O e ne” o l l e pn
      i     e y
   A s n t s l “ pn E dd t a “k O e   l i
    ne” a al .i e
   E dd vr b s All versions of the “ k    i
                                         l eOpen
   Ended”questions will be reapplied with the Open
   Ended style.



12. The                button can be used to delete new
    styles that have been created. The ten standard styles
    cannot be deleted. The message box on the right will
    appear when the delete button is selected.


The Sorting option is used to order styles in the style list.
There are three choices:
By Name lists the styles in alphabetical order.
Most Recently Used lists the styles in most recently used
order.
By family lists the styles in the family they belong to. The
style families are sorted in alphabetical order.


                                                     111
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Renaming a Style
If you make changes to elements within an individual question and are working within Design Mode             ,
the new changes will be saved as a new style called (like Grid First). If you have several questions that will
be using the same layout as the (like Grid First) one, then you could choose to rename the style.
1. To rename any of your own styles, switch to Style
   Mode

2. Select the Style Properties button.      .




3. Click in the Name box at the top of the Style
   Properties dialog box.

4. Type in a new name and click on                       to
   save the style name within the current survey




                                                   112
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                    Snap

Style Properties
With the mode set to Style Mode            and the Style Properties button      is selected, Style Properties
will be displayed for the currently selected style.
There are four main areas of the dialog box:
The Name of the style for which a summary is displayed and
the name of the style on which it is based.
The Next Object (question) to be created once the current
question is completed.
The Next Part of a question, if appropriate. Applicable for
Grid First and Grid Next, Open First and Open Next, and
Multi Choice.
The Previous Question.
In the example shown for Grid First, then the next part is Grid Next and the Code Labels/Question from the
Grid First will be copied to the Code Labels/Question for the Grid Next question. When the grid is finally
ended and the [Enter] key is pressed, the Next Object (question) will be a Multi Choice. The Previous
question is a Multi Choice.
Use the     button to change any of the settings in terms of Next Object, Next Part or Previous. Any
changes that are made to individual style properties remain with that style for the current survey. The
changes are not transferred to other surveys created with Snap.
To alter any of the settings in the copy fields, ensure that the appropriate Clone Next Object, Clone Next
Part or Clone Previous is set with a  or , at which point the various elements of a question will be
highlighted. At this point, the cursor or the space bar can be used to identify which element is to be copied.




                                                     113
   Snap

Questionnaire Templates
The Style Templates option in Snap allows you to design a questionnaire using existing styles and then
apply a Template that represents a particular "housestyle" in terms of page set-up, colours and layout. The
result is that professional questionnaires can be produced easily and quickly.
A number of pre-set Templates are supplied with the software, to provide a range of alternative layouts and
colour schemes. Further Templates can be created by yourself and saved for future use with other
questionnaires.

Loading a Style Template
1. With the Questionnaire window open, click on the        button
   to display the Template dialog box. Use the
   button to display the Open dialog box displaying the list of
   .qsf files that contain the available Templates.




2. Highlight one of the .qsf from the list and press
   to load the file name into the Template dialog box.
3. The three Options fields relate to Page Setup
   (portrait/landscape etc.), Colours (the individual colours for
   the background of the questionnaire and the colour of all the
   fonts used in the text of the question and the code labels) and
   Layout (the arrangement and format of individual styles of
   questions). If all three options are selected, then the entire
   format of the template will be loaded.
                                                  114
Questionnaire Styles                                                                                    Snap

4. Press              to load the template over the current
   questionnaire. The questions will be redrawn using the
   new Style settings. Once the template has been loaded,
   when you save the questionnaire the new layout/colours
   will be saved as well.




Saving a Template
To save a Template, it is first necessary to lay out a questionnaire with the chosen format in terms of the
toolbar topics such as Position, Font, Boxes, Background, etc. With a finished questionnaire presented in
the Questionnaire window, click the    button to display the Template dialog box. Select the options
(Page Setup, Colours and Layout) that you wish to save. If you want to save all aspects, leave all three
selected.
Specify the name of the file to store the information, remembering that template files have a suffix of .qsf.
Press              to store the template.


 ?       As an alternative, use the                 button to display the Open dialog box displaying the
         current list of .qsf files, enter the file name in that dialog box and press               and then
                       to store the template.



 u       It should be remembered that the details of the individual questions, in terms of the question text
         and codes labels remain with the survey and are not stored with the template.



 u       You cannot save changes to one of the standard Snap templates.

                                                    115
  Snap

Your Notes




             116
Questionnaire Design Topics                                                             Snap



QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN TOPICS
This section gives you more details of the technical aspects of questionnaire styles.

Contents
118        Toolbar Topics
119        Alignment
120        Background
124        Boxes
126        Break
129        Columns
133        Find
136        Font
139        Margins
140        Numbering
148        Positions
150        Response
151        Show
153        Tabs




                                                      117
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Toolbar Topics
In Design and Style mode the questionnaire window has (at least) two drop-down lists. The first sets the
Style Selection Box (see page 99) and the second sets the Style Attribute or Toolbar Topic. The other
controls that appear on the toolbar depend on the Style Attribute that is currently selected. In the diagram
below, the Style Selection Box is set to Current Style and the Style Attribute is Alignment.




The table below shows the topics available from the toolbar in Style mode. Subsequent sections of this
chapter give more detail on each of the topics.

 Topic          Description

 Alignment      Sets the left, centre or right alignment for each element within a question.
 Background     Colours, patterns and pictures for the background of each element in a question.
 Boxes          The shape and size of the boxes for the question codes.
 Break          Inserts a page break, column break or section break, which forces the next question to
                appear onto a new page, in a new column or into a new section as appropriate.
 Columns        The number of columns to present the question codes.
 Find           Search facility for quickly finding a particular piece of text in a questionnaire.
 Font           The font type and size, with settings for bold, italics, underline, capitals and colours.
 Margins        The setting of left, right, top and bottom margins for each aspect of a question.
 Numbering      The method of question numbering used for each question.

 Positions      The position of question text and code boxes, relative to each other.
 Response       How the answers are to be recorded: single, multiple, literal, quantity or date.

 Show           The Show option sets which elements are displayed on the questionnaire.

 Tabs           Specification of the relative spaces apportioned to individual elements within a question.



                                                   118
Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                              Snap

Alignment




The Alignment controls the justification of each of the elements of a question. The options are either Left,
Centre or Right and can be applied to (All) elements, Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label, Position, Codes,
Code Value, Data, Code Box and Code GoTo.
Changing from Left to Centre to Right is achieved by highlighting the control field on the right of the screen
and using the cursor to drag the word to the correct position. As it moves, the word changes from Left to
Centre to Right.
The default setting is left for all elements except the Code Box, which is right. However each element can
be set individually as left, centre or right. This is achieved by clicking in centre or right of the box, or by
using the mouse to drag the word left to the centre or right. As it is moved, the word changes appropriately.


Example of all elements left-aligned                    Example of all elements right-aligned




                                                     119
   Snap

Background



The Background style attribute controls the appearance of the background on which the text of each element
appears. The initial background setting for most of the question elements is Transparent meaning that
underlying backgrounds will show through.
Most elements of a questionnaire can be adjusted for the background colour and patterns, although individual
elements can be selected. The elements that can be adjusted are (All), Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label,
Position, Code Label, Code Value, Data, Check Mark, Code GoTo and Footnote.
Care should be taken when using background variations, either
               or              , particularly if a black and white
printer is used. Having a coloured or patterned background with a
black font for the text can sometimes prove difficult to read.


                 hw e a a fe R vne ae s h
                           e           f’
The example so nhr hs Wa l s eeg ptr a t         tn       e
background of the headings. On the screen, it is reasonably
legible but this can get lost when printed.




The Background topic can be used to add graphical images to any area of the questionnaire. Although the
graphical image can appear behind any of the 10 styles available with Snap, the best effects are achieved
when the graphics are used in conjunction with the styles Sub Title, Title and Instruction. Within these
styles there is little or no text and the graphics can be manipulated more easily. With the other 7 styles, the
graphics will alter in appearance as more codes are added to the question, and desired effect may be lost.
                                                   120
Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                             Snap


        It is recommended that the Style Selection Box be changed to Current Question rather than
          Current Style. This will ensure that the graphical image only appears in the location required and
          is not duplicated through all other questions of the same style.
The area assigned for the selected question determines the size of the
graphics. If two lines of text have been entered, then the graphics will
be resized to fit the two lines. If a third line is added, then the graphics
will be resized. To add graphics with no associated text will result in an
image equivalent to a height of one line. To increase the height of the
graphics, you should use decrease the top and/or bottom Margin setting
(see page 139 for further details).




Select the                button to display the Picture dialog box. To
locate a graphical image, select the               button to search the
directories for a suitable image. The folder \Snap 8\images is likely to
contain a number of images although you may wish to search other
directories on your computer.
Once selected, the image can be formatted for both horizontal and
vertical settings, and can be made to either Stretch into the space
allocated or Fit into the space allocated keeping the proportions of the
image unaltered.
Graphical images can be loaded as a background to any question or note on the questionnaire. If no text is
associated with the note then the graphical image will appear as the only image in that particular area of the
questionnaire. Snap can handle images will the file extensions .bmp, .jpg and .gif.




                                                       121
   Snap

Inserting a Picture
1. Move the cursor to the top of the questionnaire, showing the Sub
   Title. Use Design Mode         if you wish to only insert a picture
   in the question you have selected.
2. Alter the setting to Background.




3. Click on               to display the Picture dialog box.

4. Click on the             button to display a list of the graphical
   images stored in the Images folder. Select tick_icon.gif from the
   Icons sub-folder and press              .
5. Set the horizontal alignment to Left so that the image of the
   peach appears on the left-hand side of the title.




                                                  122
Questionnaire Design Topics                                            Snap

6. If you wish to colour the image, click on the drop down arrow
   next to Colourize Gif to select a colour from the palette.

7.   Press             and the graphical image will be put in place.




8. To remove the graphical image, repeat the process to display the
     Picture dialog box and select                and the graphical
     image will no longer appear.




                                                    123
    Snap

Boxes



The Boxes option on the toolbar controls the box shape in Multi Choice and Open questions.

The choice of boxes for Multi Choice and Grid questions are                                                 and
         with    being the default setting. To adjust the size of these boxes, highlight the question and select
the toolbar option Font. Select Data and the standard size of 10 will be shown. Alter this value and the size
of all the boxes for the question will be adjusted.
The Check box selects the mark that appears on the questionnaire when the toolbar option View | Case
Data is selected. It appears against the codes that have been selected on a Multi Choice, Grid First or Grid
Next question. The choice of boxes for open-ended questions are
                                    .
There are two aspects of size in respect of open-ended boxes: the physical size of the box and the number of
characters that are allocated for the length field:
     The physical size of the box that appears on the questionnaire can be altered in the same way as the
      Multi Choice questions, mentioned above, i.e. by altering the setting of Data in the toolbar option
      Font.
     The more important aspect of box size is the amount of space allocated to record an open-ended
      response. The default setting is one line. To increase the number of characters the keyboard controls
      of [Ctrl] and [+] are used. This will progressively increase the number of characters up to a maximum
      of 9999.
As the size of open-ended boxes is increased beyond 1 line, each depression of the [+] key will increase the
size of the box by one full line.
If the questionnaire is set to 2 columns in Page Setup, then a box consisting of a full line will allocate a
length of 24 characters of literal text, when the Font is set to Arial 10 for the Data element. If the font is
reduced to Arial 6, the length per line is increased to 40.


                                                   124
Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                              Snap

Altering the Boxes for the Question Codes
The standard box used in a questionnaire designed in Snap is a     for both Multi Choice question and open-
ended questions. These can be easily changed at the level of the entire questionnaire, at the level of question
styles, or at the level of individual questions. The range of boxes includes                               and
        . See page 124 for further information on boxes.
1. Move the cursor to Q2 at the top of the questionnaire and
   use   to alter the toolbar topic to Boxes.
2. Use      to display other box shapes other than    and try
   selecting one of your own choice. As the Style Selection
   Box is set to Multi Choice, all questions set to the same
   style (Multi Choice) will now have the same boxes.




3. With the cursor on the text of Q2, we will now alter other
   question boxes. Use [Page Down] and locate the second
   part of Q4, starting “Other please specify?”Alter the current
   setting from a box to a line, or if you want to suppress the
   box entirely, select <none>.




 u       Remember that any changes to boxes will have the same effect on all questions of the same Style.
         To alter just one question, you will need to alter the Style Selection Box from Current Style to
         Current Question. Also note that scanning requires the     box shape.



                                                     125
   Snap

Break
Page Break
Introducing a page break at any point in the questionnaire is
achieved by highlighting the question that is to appear at the top of
the next page and pressing [Ctrl] + [S]. A page break mark is
placed in the questionnaire and can be removed again by
highlighting the question immediately below the page break mark
and pressing [Ctrl] + [S].




 ?        The Page Break option can also be accessed through the menu displayed by clicking the right
          button on the mouse. Select a part of the question that should immediately follow the page break,
          then click the right mouse button. From the menu, choose Break | Page Break.

Column Break
Introducing a column break in the questionnaire is achieved in a
similar manner to the page break. Highlight the question that is to
appear at the top of the next column and press [Ctrl] + [A]. A column
break mark is placed in the questionnaire and can be removed again by
highlighting the question immediately below the page break mark and
pressing [Ctrl] + [A].



 ?        The Column Break option can also be accessed through the menu displayed by clicking the right
          button on the mouse. Select a part of the question that should immediately follow the column
          break, then click the right mouse button. From the menu, choose Break | Column Break.




                                                   126
Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                      Snap

Section Breaks
A section break starts a new section on the same page. They are used to divide your questionnaire into
relevant sections so a different numbering system can be displayed in each section.




1. Highlight the question that is to appear at the top of the next
   section.
2. Press [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [B] on the keyboard or select Break from
   the Topic list and tick the Section Break option.
             Sat s    n u ee et n”        i
3. Select “ tr uign mbrd sc o s from the dialog box.
   This will divide the questionnaire into two sections placing a
   section break above the selected question and the questions will
   have a new numbering system. For example, the first question in
   the first section will start with Q1.1, the second question will be
   Q1.2; the first question in the second section will start with Q2.1
   etc.
4. The other option “Start using lettered sections”will start a new
   numbering system in the form of letters, for example, the question
   you have selected will be renamed B1 and the section above will
   rename Q1 to A1, A2 etc.

5. Select the               button and the questionnaire is updated
   with the new sections and numbering system.
6. A section break mark is placed in the questionnaire and can be
   removed again by highlighting the question immediately below the
   section break and pressing [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [B].


                                                   127
   Snap

7. Use the Variables Properties      button if you wish to customise
   your section breaks. If you wish to change your style of number
   ensure the questionnaire is in Design Mode
   and select Specify custom number next to the Section Break
   property.
8. In the Section ID value box, type in the new number or letter you
   would like to start this section.

9. Select the              button to save the changes and update the
   questionnaire accordingly.




10. Alternatively, select the              button on the Break toolbar
    to specify your section break properties.
         U e ut    o a ”is
11. If “ s C s m N me selected, type in the number or letter
    prefix to be used in the section. Also ensure either a number or
                                      T p o Sc o s box.
                                               i
    letter format is selected in the “ y e f et n”

12. Click on the               button. A dialog will appear asking if
   you wish to renumber the questionnaire. If       is selected
   the questionnaire will be renumbered and the new numbering
   system displayed on the questionnaire.




 ?        The Section Break option can also be accessed through the menu displayed by clicking the right
          button on the mouse. Select a part of the question that should immediately follow the section
          break, then click the right mouse button. From the menu, choose Break | Section Break.

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Columns




The Columns option controls the presentation of the code list of answers to a question in the following
areas:
               The number of columns used to present the answer list, with a minimum of 1 column and a
               maximum of 20 columns.
               The presentation of the codes as a single line across the page, (the number of columns will
               always be set to the number of codes).
               The presentation of the answer list either in column format as defined in the Page Setup
               dialog box (default of 2 columns) or using the full page width, i.e. only 1 column width.
               The sequence of presenting the answer list, either starting of the top of the list and listing
               down each of the columns, or starting at the top of the list and listing across each of the
               rows.




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Column Setting
A column setting of 1 which produces the following
effect:




Increasing the column setting to 2 produces the same
answer list split into 2 columns:


The maximum setting is 20.

Grid
Selecting the                  option has the effect of
setting the number of columns equal to the number of
codes in the question. When the number of codes is
high, perhaps above 8-10, Snap will no longer be able to
present all of the boxes and all of the text, and will
consequently remove the text of the code labels from
display. At this point, you will need to consider going
to Full Page, reduce the length of text in the code labels,
or organise the question into a number of columns.

The position of the code labels in respect of the boxes
will remain unchanged, but you should be aware that if
you have many codes, you may not be able to see the
code labels. If this is the case, you should select Full
Page, or choose the toolbar topic Position and
reposition the code box to Below so that the box will
appear below the code labels.


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Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                                Snap

Full page
If the Full Page button               is selected, the layout of the question will be organised across the entire
width of the page, and will ignore the columns settings as specified in the Page Setup dialog box.
The result of selecting Full Page would appear as follows with both the question text and answer list spread
across the full width of the page.




Down/Across
If the list of codes is displayed in columns, the order can be determined by the use of the                   or
              buttons. The default is                and the order is to present the first code at the top of the
first column, the second code underneath it. This is continued until the column is broken and the next code
is displayed at the top of the next column. This is shown in the example below:




If, however, the                button is selected, the order of the codes is changed - the first code appears at
the top of the first column, the second code at the top of the second column. This continues to the maximum
number of columns and then the next code is displayed second in the list of the first column. The example
below shows this:




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Adjusting Columns on a Question
1. Move the cursor to the top of the questionnaire to display
   Question 9 and set the toolbar topic to Columns. The toolbar
   will now present the number of columns (1) being used for the
   current style, together with buttons for Grid, Full Page, Down
   and Across.




2. Change the setting from 2 to 1 and the codes for Q9 will be
   displayed in one column. Change the setting back to 2
   columns. As the Style Selection Box is set to Multi Choice, all
   Multi Choice questions will automatically be updated. If
   working in Design Mode           the selected question only will
   change.

3. Click             and the sequence of codes will alter. The
   second code of 18 –24 now appears at the top of the second
   column. Click on                 and the sequencing will revert
   to down the columns.

4. Click              and instead of presenting Q9 in a 2-column
   mode as defined by the Page Setup dialog box using the
   button, it will represent the question across the entire page.
   Click on               again and the layout will revert back into
   columns.




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Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                            Snap

Find
With the Questionnaire Window open, Snap offers a search facility to allow you to find specific words,
groups of words or individual characters.
1. To use Find, type in the text that you want to look
   for in the empty box to the right.
2. Press [Enter]. Snap will search the questionnaire,
   from the current cursor position to the end of the
   questionnaire, highlighting the first example of the
   text being searched for.
3. Press [Enter] again and it will search for the next
   example.



4. At the end of the questionnaire, Snap will ask you
   if you wish to continue the search from the
   beginning of the questionnaire.


5. If the text does not appear anywhere in the
   questionnaire, Snap will display a message
   confirming that it has searched the entire
   questionnaire.



       The box containing the search text will store any previous searches in a drop-down list, so you can
         repeat searches without retyping the text. This list will be cleared when the Questionnaire Window
         is closed




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Find Next
Clicking on the Find Next button has the same effect as pressing the Enter button. The questionnaire will be
searched for the text currently displayed, starting from the current cursor position. The search will continue
through the questionnaire to the end and will then prompt you if you wish to continue the search from the
beginning.

Find Previous
Clicking on the Find Previous button will also
search through the questionnaire, but in this case the
search direction will be reversed. Snap will search
from the current cursor position towards the start of
the questionnaire. Once the search has reached the
start, you will be prompted to continue the search
from the end of the questionnaire.

Find/Replace Dialog
Clicking on the Find/Replace button will open up a
separate dialog box as shown on the right. This
offers the same functionality as Find, Find Next and
Find Previous, as well as some additional options.
The "Replace" box allows you to enter the text that
you would like to use instead of the text in the "Find"
box.


 ?         The "Replace" facility can be used to save time when typing a questionnaire. For example, if a
                                                                               ,
           particularly long word or phrase, e.g. "Mercator Research Group” appears in the questionnaire
           in several places, it may be easier to simply type "MRG" instead. Then set "Find" to "MRG" and
           set "Replace" to "Mercator Research Group" and click on Replace All. You can use the other
           options in the dialog to ensure that Snap does not change instances where those three letters might
           happen to appear in the middle of a word and should not be changed.


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Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                              Snap

The option to Match whole words only will stop Snap from finding examples where the particular text
appears within a longer word. For example, if the search string is set to "week", and the option to Match
whole words only is selected, Snap will not highlight words such as "weekly" or "weekend".
The option to Match case forces Snap to ensure that the text exactly matches the search text with regard to
upper- and lower-case letters. For example, if the search string is set to "daily" and the option to Match case
is selected, Snap will highlight any instance of the word "daily" but not the word "Daily".
The Search Direction, up or down, specifies which direction Snap will move through the questionnaire.
Down will move from the current cursor position towards the end; up will move towards the beginning.




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Font
The Font toolbar topic controls the choice of font, size and colour of the text of the questionnaire. This
option should be considered in conjunction with Background, to avoid the possibility of designing a
questionnaire with the same colour as background and the foreground text, in which case the questionnaire
would appear totally blank.
The font toolbar topic has slightly different options depending on whether you are in Design Mode or Style
Mode. The different toolbars are explained on the following pages.
Style Mode Toolbar




All elements of a questionnaire can be adjusted for font colour, character font, point size and font decoration.
The following font decoration options are available:
                             Bold text                    Italic text

                             Underlined text              CAPITAL TEXT

Note if     is selected then, although shown in capitals, the underlying text will still be recorded in the
mixture of upper and lower case it was originally entered in.
Font can be applied to one or more of the following question elements: (All), Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid
Label, Position, Codes, Code Value, Data, Check Mark, Code GoTo.
The initial settings of Font for all elements of the question are displayed in a table in this section on how
styles are developed (see page 93 onwards). The standard font for all questions is Arial, but you are free to
make alterations to your own requirements.
There is also an option to enable specification of upper-case only text. This enables a standard method of
presentation to be adopted such as instructions to the interviewer (and not read to the respondent) to be
shown underlined but text to be read to the respondent to be shown in CAPITALS.



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Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                           Snap

Design Mode Toolbar




The Design Mode toolbar has the same settings as the Style Mode toolbar as explained on the previous
page, but also has an Insert and Reset button.

Clicking the             button will present you with a menu containing four options. The Insert option is
only available for use within Design Mode        . The table below contains a brief description of the four
menu items.


Menu Option         Description

 ma e
I g…                Inserts an image file at the current cursor position

 a ib e il …
V ra l Fed          Inserts the response from a specific variable at the current cursor position

 u v y il …
S r e Fed           Inserts the value of one of the survey settings.

HT   il …
  MLFed             Inserts an HTML tag at the current cursor position (used for web surveys
                    only).




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Font Example
1. Use [Ctrl] and [Home] to move to the beginning of the
   questionnaire. Click in the text of Q4.
2. Use      to change the toolbar topic to Font. The toolbar will
   alter to show the current settings for Question 4, namely bold
   Arial 10 point in black.
3. Click     and the question text will be displayed as bold italics
   Arial 10. Note that the toolbar is set to Current Style, so all
   questions of the same style will also have the question text
   displayed as italics.


        An alternative way of moving between questions is the [ Page Up] key to move up one question at a
          time and [Page Down] key to move down one question at a time.

4. Select any of the codes, such as Hamburger or French fries,
   and the setting on the toolbar will change form from Text to
   Codes. Click        and all of the codes of Q4 will now be
   displayed in CAPS.
5. Changing colours is just as simple. Click     to the right of
   current setting of Black, and select another colour such as
   Navy.
6. Click      to the right of current setting of Code Label, and
   select (All). Change the colour again and all elements of the
   question will be displayed in the new colour.


        To change the appearance of words, characters or elements within an individual question (or
          question element) ensure you are in Design mode         with the toolbar topic set to Font. See page
          59 for further information.




                                                   138
Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                             Snap

Margins



The Margins determine the amount of space left around individual elements of a question. The elements of
the question that can be altered within Margins are (All), Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label, Position,
Codes, Code Value, Data, Check Mark and Code GoTo.
The left, right, top and bottom margins are all pre-set to either 0.00cm for left and right, or 0.05cm for top
and bottom. These can be altered by either using the up and down buttons, or typing in new values.
If (All) is selected, you are able to move the entire question - the name, the text and all of the codes with
their labels. For example, by adjusting the left margin, the entire question will move to the right. If you
increase the top margin, the spacing between the text and codes will increase as will the spacing between the
codes. The effect is to space out the entire question.




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   Snap

Numbering
     Style Mode Numbering Toolbar




Each of the standard 10 styles has a default numbering style.
For example, a Multi Choice question will automatically be displayed as Q1, Q2, etc; a Grid First will be
Q3a (but the number displayed on the questionnaire will be Q3); a Grid Next will be Q3b, Q3c, etc. (but no
number is displayed).
These are controlled by the Numbering topic.
The Numbering topic displays different options depending on what mode you are working in. Style Mode
     allows you to do advanced customisation of numbering styles and the toolbar in this mode is shown
above. The Numbering topic is also available within Design Mode          and most numbering changes can
be completed within here. See page 57 onwards for more details.



     Design Mode Numbering Toolbar



Using Section Breaks in your document can also be an easy way of implementing a numbering system. See
page 72 for details on this.




                                                   140
Questionnaire Design Topics                                    Snap



To view the advanced features within the Numbering
topic, click on the            button.
The dialog box as shown on the right is displayed. The
various options contained in this dialog are explained on
the following pages.
To alter the number of a particular question style, click in
the question you wish to change and ensure the question
style name is shown in the style selection box, for example,
  Mu i hi ”B df l i v ult e ae ie n
      t      c           at di
“ l C o e. y e u ,ni das l hv d f et      ys          fr
number formats, so it is easier to make a change to
                          ai All
                             n
individual styles thanhv g“ Styles”s          elected in the
list and changing all the styles at once.




                                                   141
   Snap

Questionnaire Settings
Prefix
This setting allows you to change the prefix for your
numbering scheme. Type in any number or letter and the
prefix and scheme will be automatically updated. Words of 4
characters or less can also be used.

The Numbering Scheme
The scheme is the arrangement of numbers and letters. Select
the style you would like to apply to the question style by
selecting a number format from the list as shown on the right.
Each number style has up to 4 levels of numbering that can be
shown on the questionnaire. Use the Levels Used option to
display more than 1 level on the questionnaire.




Sections
This drop down box will display Numbers or Letters if
sections have already been inserted into the questionnaire. If
there are no sections in the questionnaire, No sections will be
displayed in this drop-down box. Numbers or Letters can be
selected at this point and section breaks be inserted. The
number scheme in the drop-down above will also change in
accordance with these settings.

                                                  142
Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                            Snap

Style Renumber Method
The following settings allow us to display more of the numbering scheme by increasing the number of levels
shown on the questionnaire. The Increment level and Overall settings work together and by changing one
option the other options will automatically change. The sequence of numbers and letters can also be changed.
The following settings allow us to do this.
Levels Used
The number of levels shown within the question scheme
can be changed here. The maximum number of levels for
non sections and lettered sections are 3 and 4 for numbered
sections.


Increment Level
This works in conjunction with the Overall drop-down box Overall
and calculates which number or letter in the number
scheme should be incremented. If increment level is set to
2, the 2nd number or letter in the number scheme will be
incremented and the Overall drop-down will change to
reflect this. The + will be placed in the 2nd
number/character position and will be shown in the Overall
box.
The _ underscore will keep the same number as used in the
previous question number format.
The + will increment the number format by one.




                                                    143
     Snap



The table below demonstrates different style renumber examples.

Previous            Number scheme              Levels used      Increment level             Question number
question number     applied to following
                                                                overall
                    question

Q6                  Q.1.a.1.                   2                Increment level 2           Q6a
                                                                Q._.+


Q6                  Q.1.a.1                    3                Increment level 2           Q6a1
                                                                Q._.+. 1


Q2g1                Q.1.a.1                    3                Increment level 3           Q2g2
                                                                Q _._.+



Show Parts




Below the number settings in the advanced dialog, there are two further control boxes, Name and Grid
Name, which govern the decoration of the question number (Name and/or Grid Name). All characters in
the control box can be turned on or off. If they are greyed out, they are not displayed, if they are in bold then
they are displayed.
~    To turn a character on or off, simply click on it.
~    To reverse the procedure, simply click again on the same character.


                                                      144
Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                        Snap

This allows you to have various combinations, e.g. Q4), 4., 4). Normally the Grid Name control box would
only be used in conjunction with the Grid First, Grid Next, Open First, Open Next styles or styles based
upon them, but the same principles apply to both boxes.

Displaying Question Numbers
 f o o’ w n t hw h uso u br
I yudnt atoso t qet nnm e     e      i
(Name and/or Grid Name) you can turn it off by
choosing Show from the toolbar topic menu,
selecting either Name or Grid Name from the
settings and then de-selecting the Show control
box.




                                                  145
   Snap

Adjusting Question Numbering
By default, Snap will automatically number all questions from Q1 and will store these as the variable names
associated with the questionnaire. However, you have complete control as to whether these numbers are
displayed on the questionnaire, as well as the format of how they are presented. You could, for example,
display Q1 as 1).

 ?        See page 72 for further information on numbering and numbering in sections.


1. Move the cursor to Q1 and use    to alter the toolbar
   topic to Numbering. On the right of the toolbar there
   are three controls. First, the                  button
   where the number scheme and settings are applied.
   The second and third controls show the decoration of
   the question Name and Grid Name (the elements of
   the numbering system to appear on the
   questionnaire). Currently this is showing Q and 1,
   with the brackets and full-stop showing in grey.



2. In the Name control, click on Q and it will change in
   colour from black to grey. On the questionnaire, Q1
   will change to 1, with the Q being suppressed.
   Similarly, click on ) and Q1 will appear as 1). Click
   on Q again and Q1 will reappear.




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Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                            Snap

 u      Control over the presentation of the numbering of question names does not imply that the names
        will be stored differently on the survey. If the Q of Q1 has been suppressed on the questionnaire, it
        will still be stored as Q1 in the list of variables.




      The left-hand control box currently shows Q.1 and control the selection of possible number forms
        (schemes) that can be used. For example, questions can be presented as Q1.1, Q1.2, or Q1.A,
        Q1.B etc. These features are explained in detail on page 140. If you want to try altering the
        numbering of the questions, select any of the options, but be sure to click      to instruct Snap to
        carry out a renumbering of the questionnaire.




                                                   147
   Snap

Positions



Position determines the relative position of the
question text and its associated list of codes. Two
settings are available, Question and Code Box.
The Question (text) setting specifies where the text of
the question will appear relative to the list of codes.
The default setting is for the question text to appear
above the list of codes.
If the setting is changed to Beside then the list of
codes is moved up alongside the text of the question
and each is allocated a smaller area.

The Code Box settings for Position can be either
Right, Left, Above or Below and represent the location
of the code boxes in relation to the code label. The
examples above show settings of Right. The example
to the right shows a setting of Left.




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Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                          Snap

Two further settings are Above and Below. The following example is set to Above, and may not be
generally applicable for Multi Choice questions.




A better example of the use of Above and Below is to be found in the style of Grid First questions, as in
question 6 of the snCrocodile questionnaire. Here the setting for the codes is Below to place the code box
immediately below its associated code label.




Notice that the labels are aligned centrally above each of the code boxes. This is achieved by setting
Alignment on Code Label to Centre.




                                                   149
   Snap

Response
You can change the response type for a particular question by selecting that question (or a part of it) and
setting the toolbar topic to Response.

1. Click on the Design Mode button          and set the toolbar topics to Response. Note that the
   exact appearance of the toolbar will depend on the question currently selected. Selecting a
   different question will change the toolbar as appropriate.




2. Select the question required, or a part of the
   question required. The toolbar will display the
   response types appropriate to that type of
   question.
3. Select the response type required by clicking on
   the appropriate text or button.
4. If you wish to change the response type for all
   questions using the current style, then click the
                 button. This will also set the
   underlying response type for that particular style
   so any new questions created with that style
   would have the same response type.
For more detailed information about response types see page 251.




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Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                           Snap

Show



The Show topic allows individual elements of a question to be displayed on the questionnaire. All elements
are controlled by a simple  in the Show box.
The elements that can be shown on the questionnaire are Name, Text, Grid Name, Grid Label, Position,
Code Label, Code Box, Code Leaders, Code Value, Space Before, Code GoTo, Line Before, Semantic Scale
and Grid Leaders.
It should be appreciated that although certain elements of a question may be excluded from a questionnaire,
such as the question name, these aspects are not totally lost, and can always be displayed at a later time.
The example on the right shows a standard setting
for a multiple-choice question, displaying the Name,
Text, Code Labels, Code Boxes and Code Leaders.



Each of these elements of the question can be
suppressed and the following example now shows
the Text, Code Labels, Code Leaders and Code
Values. The name and code boxes have been
suppressed.



The Code Leaders consist of a line of dots between
the end of the code and the box. This generally
makes completion of the questionnaire easier, but
can be removed, as shown in the example on the
right.


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   Snap

Grid Leaders perform a similar function to the code
leaders, consisting of a line of dots between the end
of the grid label and the box.



Routing instructions/skip patterns can be added to
the questionnaire, by setting a  in the Code GoTo
setting. This will result in the space for the code
labels being reduced and extra space (in a smaller
font) being allocated to the right of the code box.
Free format text can be added that will be printed on
the questionnaire.
There is a limit of 100 characters on a Code GoTo,
but it is recommended that these instructions should
be kept brief.



 u        It should be remembered that these instructions do not alter the Not Asked conditions set for
          each question. These conditions affect both the data entry and analysis and should be set in the
          Variable window, by displaying the Variable Details for the individual variables.




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Questionnaire Design Topics                                                                                                   Snap

Tabs



Individual elements of a question are allocated a percentage of        Name

the area of a question in which the information for that question
is presented. As a default, the settings are Name (10%), Text
(55%), Grid label (25%), Code Offset (10%,) Code Gutter (5%),
Code value (10%), Code GoTo (50%).

                                                                                                            Code
                                                                                   Grid label
                                                                                                            gutter



If, for example, the value for Name is increased from 10% to           Name
20%, all other elements of the question will be moved to the
right. Increasing the Code Offset from 0% to 30% will move
the list of codes to the right but leave the text of the question in
its original position. It should be noted that the Tabs settings
are influenced by other toolbar topics.
                                                                                                Text



In the examples above, the text of Q9 is set alongside the two
codes of Male and Female. (This has been achieved by setting
the toolbar topic of Position to Question | Beside). Altering
the setting of 55% for Text will reallocate the space allocated
for the question text. However, in the next example of Q3, the
toolbar topic of Position has been set to Question | Above.                   Code                 Code               Code
                                                                              offset               gutter            values
Altering the value of Text from 55% will not affect the layout
of the question, as it is automatically allocated as much space
as possible.



                                                       153
  Snap

Your Notes




             154
Reference Window                                                                      Snap



REFERENCE WINDOW
This section takes you through use of the reference window in questionnaire design.

Contents
156       Reference Window Introduction
157       Reference Window Buttons and Menu Options
158       Opening the Reference Window
159       Opening SurveyPaks
161       Browsing SurveyPaks
162       Using a SurveyPak to Construct a Questionnaire
163       Dragging Whole Topics
164       Using SurveyPak Code Frames
165       Searching for Questions in SurveyPaks
166       Search Expressions
167       Referencing Other Surveys
168       Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak




                                                    155
    Snap

Reference Window Introduction
The Reference Window is designed to simplify the process of creating new questionnaires by offering
facilities to copy questions from two other sources:
     From Snap SurveyPaks. These are pre-assembled collections of questions, headings and code frames
      (lists of possible answers to be used in conjunction with multi choice questions), which focus on a
      particular subject area. Included, as standard, with every edition of Snap is a copy of the
      Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak. The questions, headings and code frames available in a
      SurveyPak are indexed by sub-topic within topic and a keyword search facility is also built in. Snap
      SurveyPaks have the file extension of .wdf, e.g. the file name for the Demographics and Lifestyles
      SurveyPak is snDem&Lifestyles.wdf.
     From other surveys that you have already created. You can use the Reference window to copy
      individual questions and headings from those surveys into the questionnaire for your current project.
      You may also copy individual variables from previous surveys into the Variables (or Questionnaire)
      window of your current survey and individual weights from previous surveys into the Weights
      window of your new survey.
The following pages describe how to copy items from SurveyPaks and other surveys when constructing a
new questionnaire. The contents of the Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak are documented at the
end of this section.




                                                 156
Reference Window                                                                                Snap

Reference Window Buttons and Menu Options
The table below shows all of the menu options relevant to the Reference window.

 Button        Menu Option          Description

               File | Reference     Open the Reference window.

               View | Zoom Out      Move a layer further out of the survey/SurveyPak.

                                    Show/hide details of the selected object.

                                    Tailor Reference List to include surveys and/or SurveyPaks in the
                                    reference list..

                                    Copy question/variable/weight to the Clipboard.

               Edit | Filter        Browse through questions for key word(s).




                                                   157
   Snap

Opening the Reference Window
The Reference Window is accessed by clicking on the          button on the main program toolbar.
1. The window consists of a control panel which includes control
   buttons and, initially, the folder and drive being referenced.
2. Below that is a list of available SurveyPaks and/or surveys.
   Below that is a description of the highlighted item in the list.
3. You can adjust the amount of space allocated to the list and
   description parts by clicking on the dividing bar and dragging it up
   or down.

4. The Tailor button         is used to view a list of SurveyPaks only,
   a list of surveys only, or a list of both.




5. Here, both surveys and SurveyPaks are included in the list. They
   can be distinguished by the entry in the Type column of the table.
6. All items included are arranged in alphabetical order by name.




 ?        If you cannot see the description of the SurveyPak or survey highlighted, click on
          details.
                                                                                               to reveal the




                                                   158
Reference Window                                                         Snap

Opening SurveyPaks
1. To open a SurveyPak, highlight it in the list and then either use
   the Open button       or double click on it with the mouse.
2. Within the SurveyPak there are two levels of topics. For details
   of the precise contents refer to the documentation for the specific
   SurveyPak.
3. As an example, the Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak has
   at its first level topics such as Personal Information; Household
   Information; Socio-economics and so on.             The Personal
   Information topic, in turn, contains sub-topics of Gender, Age,
   Marital status, etc. The questions are contained within each of
   these sub-topics.


4. To browse around the topics and sub-topics, select the required
   topic/sub-topic and then either use the Open button      or double
   click with the mouse.
5. To move back out to a list of sub-topics or to a list of topics or
   back even to the list of surveys and SurveyPaks, use the Up
   button      .




                                                    159
   Snap

6. When questions are being browsed, the selected question
   will be shown at the bottom of the window appearing the
   same as it would if transferred to a questionnaire. The list in
   the upper part of the window shows the response category of
   the question.




 ?        If you cannot see the description of the topic or question highlighted, click on
          details.
                                                                                             to reveal the


7. An alternative method of browsing around
   SurveyPaks is to click on the drop-down control to
   see a map of the topics and sub-topics within the
   SurveyPak. Click on other topics or sub-topics to
   change location.




                                                   160
Reference Window                                                                                       Snap

Browsing SurveyPaks
Questions and headings in SurveyPaks, when viewed, are shown in the bottom section of the Reference
window. They will be displayed in the style of all questions of that type, as determined by the current
Questionnaire window. Occasionally, space is such that the question or heading is difficult to read. In these
circumstances the zoom control can be used to compensate and adjust the view.
1. View the selected question in the Reference Window.




2. With the mouse pointer over the question view at the bottom of the
   window, click on the right mouse button and the zoom control will
   appear.
3. Drag the mouse up or down the zoom arrow to select another zoom
   setting.
4. When the required setting is reached, release the right mouse button and
   the question will be increased in size (if the zoom setting is left greater
   than it started) or reduced in size (if the zoom setting is left less than it
   started). Once set, the zoom setting will remain in effect.




                                                       161
   Snap

Using a SurveyPak to Construct a Questionnaire
The following instructions show how to use questions from a SurveyPak in a new questionnaire.
1. It is recommended that the Snap window is maximised on
   screen and, within it, the Questionnaire window is
   arranged to the right and the Reference window is
   arranged to the left.
2. Browse around the SurveyPak to identify the required
   question


3. Drag the question from the SurveyPak by clicking on the
   image of the question and, keeping the left mouse button
   depressed, moving the mouse towards the questionnaire.
4. As an alternative, drag from the entry in the list above.
5. Identify the correct location for the question in the
   questionnaire.
6. As the mouse pointer is dragged over the questionnaire it

   will change from          to one of these three alternatives:

      means: Insert the new question before this question.

      means: Replace this question with the new one.

      means: Insert the new question after this question.
7. When the mouse button is released the new question will
   be dropped in the position indicated.



                                                    162
Reference Window                                                                                      Snap

Dragging Whole Topics
The contents of entire topics or sub-topics can be dragged onto the questionnaire if required. For example,
the Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak includes 29 questions relating to the newspapers and
magazines that the respondent buys and reads.
1. Browse around the SurveyPak until the required topic
   or sub-topic has been identified.
2. Click on the entry in the list part and drag the mouse
   towards the questionnaire.




3. When the correct position is identified release the
   mouse button and the questions and notes within the
   topic or sub-topic will all be dropped in place.
4. Note that the cursor will change appearance, as before,
   to indicate where the contents of the topic or sub-topic
   will be placed.




                                                   163
   Snap

Using SurveyPak Code Frames
In addition to questions and notes (in the form of headings, sub-headings and instructions), most
SurveyPaks also include sample code frames. These are pre-prepared lists of answers which can be attached
to existing questions.
1. In the questionnaire, identify which question is to have a new (or
   replacement) code frame. For example the question here has a 4-
   point scale going from "Excellent" to "Very Poor".




2. In the SurveyPak, identify the required scale.
3. Use the same drag method used to transfer individual questions
   to transfer the selected code frame across to the questionnaire.
4. When over the required question, that is when the cursor appears

   as       , release the mouse button and the identified question
   will have its code frame replaced by the new one.




 ?        The same technique may also be applied to grids of questions. In that case all questions in the grid
          will have their code frames replaced by the new one.




                                                    164
Reference Window                                                                                   Snap

Searching for Questions in SurveyPaks
In addition to browsing for questions by topic and sub-topic, searches can be made to find all questions
which mention certain words or combinations of words.
1. Identify the topic or topics to which the search is to be
   restricted. The search is restricted to the topic shown in the
   drop-down control at the top of the Reference window.
2. In the example shown on the right the search will be applied to
   the entire Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak.




3. Click on the Filter button,   and specify the word or words
   to be searched for. The example specifies that questions
    otn g h od s p o ‘ pi ’ r o e e i e.
       ai e                h      h n
   cn i n t w r ‘ o’ r sop g a t b r r vd     e        te
   The case of letters is ignored but whole words must be
   specified.
4. For example, the search specified here will find questions,
    h h otn S o’ bt t i o i
      c     a                      l      n
   w i cn i ‘hp, u i wl ntf dquestions which
    otn s pe .
       a h
   cn i‘ opr      ’
5. When the questions matching the criteria have been retrieved
   they are presented in the list and the heading changes to reflect
   the filter. The example on the right illustrates a wildcard
   search on the letters shop (shop*), which will find references to
   shop, shops and shopping.

6. To switch the filter off, click on the Filter button,     again.




                                                       165
   Snap

Search Expressions
Complex searches can be applied to find questions containing specific combinations of words.   The
following table outlines the possibilities:

Specification         Searches for ...                     For example ...
Word                  Questions which contain word “shop”would find all questions which included
                      regardless of case.            e        h
                                                    h od s p ( i e t uso t o t
                                                                     n t
                                                   t w r ‘ o’i ehrh qet n et rhe      i x      e
                                                                                       g s pi ’
                                                                                         h n
                                                   answer text) but not those containin ‘ op g
                                                    rs pe .
                                                       h
                                                   o ‘ opr    ’
Word1 OR word2        Questions which include either, "Shop OR worker" would find all questions
                      or both, of the two words.          ai    e        h
                                                       otn g h od s p r otn g h
                                                      cn i n t w r ‘ o’o cn i n t    ai       e
                                                        od w re r otn g o .
                                                                ’      ai
                                                      w r ‘ okro cn i n bt      h
Word1 AND word2       Questions which include both "Shop AND worker" would find all questions,
                      of   the   specified  words, which contained both words, somewhere.
                      somewhere.
Word1 NEAR word2      Questions which include both         "Shop NEAR worker" would find questions,
                      words, in the same piece of text        c           e         e
                                                             h h ae cur cs f h od s p
                                                           w i hv ocr ne o t w r ‘ o’         h
                      (that is both in the question text      h
                                                             ii              e
                                                                    od f h od w re . o
                                                           wt n 5 w rso t w r ‘ okr F r    ’
                      or both in the same answer                 e     d n h
                                                            xm l t ol i s p okr s e s
                                                           ea p iw u f d‘ o w re a w la ’      l
                      possibility) and within 5 words       w re ia hp.
                                                           ‘ okrn so’
                      of each other.
Word*                 Use an asterisk, *, to stand for "Shop*" would find questions containing any
                                                         od h h ea
                                                                c
                      any number of unspecified w r w i bgn wt ‘ o’ sc a      h h
                                                                             i s p uh s
                      letters.                           h    ’ h n             l h
                                                        s pe ,s pi ’ s e ss p ie .
                                                       ‘ opr ‘ op g, a w la ‘ o’t l         sf




                                                166
Reference Window                                                                                   Snap

Referencing Other Surveys
The Snap Reference window can be used to transfer questions and variables from existing surveys.
1. From the overview level, identify the survey to be used to donate
   questions to the one you are working on.

2. If no surveys are visible, use the tailoring option,      to make them
   available.
3. Open the survey as you would a SurveyPak by either double clicking
   on it or by selecting the Open button     .
4. Within the survey will be a list of the survey variables, weights and the
   survey questionnaire (if the survey contains all these); unlike
   SurveyPaks, surveys do not contain any topic or sub-topic information.




5. Open up the list of variables, again by double clicking or by using the
   Open button         , and identify the required question, variable or
   weight.
6. To transfer the question to the current survey, proceed exactly as if
   transferring questions from a SurveyPak.



       Variables and questions from the questionnaire may be dragged into either the Variables or the
         Questionnaire window. Weights may only be transferred into the Weights window.




                                                    167
    Snap

Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak
A separate Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak disk is included.                 It contains the following
components:
     The Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak, which includes over 600 standard demographic and
      lifestyle questions, organised into 9 topics and 75 sub-topics. A copy of this is automatically installed
      when the Snap software is installed.
     A sample questionnaire for determining the European Society of Market Researchers (ESOMAR)
      standard demographic profile of a respondent.
     Useful lists of contact information for societies and organisations involved with the development of
      standards and ethics for conducting survey research work.
     Standard Template Surveys for use with the Survey Constructor Wizard (see page 20).
The Demographics and Lifestyles SurveyPak contains more than 600 questionnaire items ordered into
                                                            s
topic and sub-topic areas designed to be used with Snap’ Reference Window. There are 9 topic areas:
these topics are then split into a number of related sub-topics. The following pages give a brief description
of the contents of this SurveyPak.
Most of the sub-topics contain several different examples of questions on the same theme. For example, the
Age sub-topic contains questions covering age but the questions will be asked slightly differently or the
response categories will vary. This allows you to choose the exact wording and response categories that you
require.
Once the questions have been added to a questionnaire, you can customise them to meet your exact
requirements. This might include changing the question wording or the response categories or deleting the
question altogether.




                                                   168
Reference Window                                                                                       Snap

Topic 1: Personal Information
Gender                               Direct and indirect questions on the gender of the respondent and the
                                     e odn s h de
                                      s        ’ l n
                                     r pnet ci r
Age                                  Open and closed questions on the age of the respondent, their date of
                                      ih n t e fh e odn s h de
                                      r        o       e s
                                     b t ad hs o t r pnet ci r      ’ l n
Marital Status                            i    e s
                                      usos n h e odn s a t tu n tt e o r
                                                     ’
                                     Q et n o t r pnet m ra s t ad ai dst a
                                                         il a s     tu   w d
                                     marriage
Household Status                     Questions on the role the respondent holds in the household and his or
                                     her relationship to the head of the household
Education                            The terminal education age of the respondents, the types of school
                                     attended and the qualifications attained
Religion and Ethnicity               The ethnic background and religious beliefs of the respondent and
                                     their regularity of worship
Name and Address Details             These questions give the respondent an opportunity to record details of
                                     their name and place of residence

Topic 2: Household Information
Accommodation            Questions such as the age and type of housing, number of rooms in the
                         e odn s os adh e t fi t e odn hsi d h e
                          s        ’           e nh m e s
                         r pnet hue n t l g o t eh r pnet a l e t r          v e.
Ownership                Questions related to whether the respondent pays rent, owns their property outright
                         or has a mortgage
Household                Questions about how much money the respondent pays out for household-related
Expenditure              costs
Size and Composition Questions on the number of people in the household, the ages of household
of Household         members and the number of family units
Second Home              Questions on the ownership of a second place of residence

                                                    169
   Snap

Demographics     and Gender, age, marital status, household status, religion and socio-economic group
Household Status     for an adult respondent
Household Details        Type of housing, home ownership, value and age of property, make up of
                         household, number in household and monthly mortgage payments.

Topic 3: Socio-Economics
Classifications             Official codes for property areas and lifestyle types
Social Status               Questions on which social grouping the respondent belongs to and their status-
                            related possessions
Income and Investments      Questions on salary, investments and provisions made for retirement
Expenditure                 Questions on credit and debit card ownership as well as money given to charity
                            and spent on the National Lottery

Topic 4: Employment and Related Issues
Occupation               Questions on such areas as the types of job the respondent does, their occupation,
                         hours worked per week, length of service and degree of responsibility
 m l e s ui
   o ’
E p yr B sness           Questions on the type of industry, group and number of employees
Finance                  Questions related to the income the respondent receives
Other Work Issues        Questions about other issues related to the work sphere
Employment Details       Employment status, occupation status, professional status, employer's business and
                         salary.

Topic 5: Goods and Services
Newspapers and Magazines       Questions on which Sunday and daily newspapers the respondent buys in
                               addition to which magazines they buy and how often
Shops and Shopping             Questions on which shops the respondent buys products from, frequency of
                               shopping trips and shopping by mail and the Internet

                                                   170
Reference Window                                                                                           Snap

Private Transport             Questions on car and bike ownership, the car manufacturer, mileage and type
                              of fuel used, among other questions
Public Transport                   i              e e         s ’ tu  w d e
                                usos uh sh r uny f s ad e odn s tt eo r t
                              Q et n sc a t f qec o ue n r pnet ai d t a sh
                              convenience of public transport
Communication                 Questions on such areas as portable phone and facsimile ownership, use of
                              email and telebanking
Radio and Television          Questions and details concerning the radio and television media
Computers and the Internet    Questions and details concerning computers and the Internet

Topic 6: Leisure Activities
Sports                            Questions about the sport activities which the respondent enjoys
Frequency of Leisure Activities   Questions about how often the respondent carries out different leisure
                                  activities
Enjoyment of Leisure Activities   Questions about how much the respondent enjoys different leisure
                                  activities
Holidays and Weekends Away        Questions about the holidays and short breaks that the respondent takes
Music Activities                  Questions about activities related to music that the respondent enjoys
Other Leisure Activities          Questions about other hobbies and pastimes of the respondent

Topic 7: Regions
UK        Lists of cities, Unitary and District Councils and other regions in the UK, among others
Europe    Lists of European countries, EC Countries and currencies, among others
US        Lists of US states and US time zones
World     Lists of world time zones and currencies



                                                     171
    Snap

Topic 8: Scales, Measures and Open Questions
Ratings of Agreement             Measurements based on the degree of agreement
Ratings of Clarity               Ratings based on how clear an understanding the respondent has of
                                 something
Ratings of Effectiveness         Ratings based on how effective the respondent considers something to
                                 be
Ratings of Goodness              Measurements based on the level of goodness
Ratings of Importance            Measurements based on the level of importance
Ratings of Interest              Measurements based on the level of interest
Ratings of Likelihood            Measurements based on the level of likelihood
Ratings of Satisfaction          Measurements based on the level of satisfaction
Ratings of Value                 Measurements based on how valuable the respondent considers
                                 something to be
Degrees of Affirmation           Measurements based on the level of affirmation
Measures of Absolute Frequency   Measurements based on the absolute amount involved
Measures of Distance             Measurements based on the distance travelled
Measures of Relative Frequency   Measurements based on the relative frequency involved
Measures of Time                 Measurements based on time, from minutes up to years
Measurements                     Question responses which require specification of the units of a measure
Open Ended Styles                Question responses with open ended variations




                                               172
Reference Window                                                                             Snap

Topic 9: Headings, Instructions and Messages
Headings                         Possible headings for a questionnaire
Introductions                    Preliminary statements for inclusion in the questionnaire
Completion Instructions          Instructions on how to fill out the questionnaire
Interview Termination Messages   Phrases to place at the end of a questionnaire




                                                 173
  Snap

Your Notes




             174
Other Features                                                                                  Snap



OTHER FEATURES
This section explains some other features relating to the creation of a survey questionnaire.

Contents
176        Zoom
177        Page Setup
181        Printing Questionnaires
184        Spell Check
187        Scanning
188        Exporting a Questionnaire




                                                      175
   Snap

Zoom
In all three modes of the Questionnaire window the size of the questionnaire can be changed by using the
Zoom button on the toolbar. This will only affect the appearance on the screen; it will not alter the way that
the questionnaire is rendered when printed. The Zoom setting will be stored when the Questionnaire
Window is closed; when it is next opened it will appear as it did when it was closed.

      To change the setting, click on the Zoom button       on the toolbar; a drop-down list of options, from
      25% up to 400%, will appear. Select an appropriate value; the current Zoom setting will be
      highlighted. Values smaller than this will shrink the questionnaire, making more questions visible on
      screen. Larger values will reduce the amount of content on the screen, but what is there will appear
      much larger.
Alternatively, after clicking on the Zoom button, you can type in any value between 25% and 400% and
Snap will zoom in or out to give the view that you have requested.
Zoom operates across the entire questionnaire; it is not possible to increase the size of a single question or a
single style. The standard setting is 100% and it can be adjusted down to 25% of the full size and extended
to 400% of full size.




                                                    176
Other Features                                               Snap

Page Setup
Within Snap, the questionnaire page size, orientation,
margins, column and spacing should be adjusted here
                         i e     rn e      eu …
rather than accessing Fl | P i t r S t p which
controls the overall printer definition for areas such as
table and chart production. The example dialog box
shows the standard settings for portrait, but individual
fields can be adjusted.
The most dramatic changes are encountered if the
orientation is set from Portrait to Landscape when the
entire questionnaire will be resized. To create a tri-fold
questionnaire, the page setting should be set to
Landscape and the number of columns should be set to
3. Similarly, changing from 2 columns to 1 will have
the effect of displaying the entire questionnaire in just
one column and this will cause the individual questions
to be stretched across the width of the page.
It should be stressed that within the Questionnaire
window, individual questions can still be displayed in
more than one column, under the toolbar topic of
Columns, but the entire question will fill the width of
the page.




                                                     177
    Snap

The change from two columns to one can be seen in this example, produced with the print option                                                                                                                                    to
produce a preview of the questionnaire.

                                                                                            Satisfaction Survey
                                      Please help us to continue improving the standards in our restaurant by answering a few simple questions.

                                      Q1        Which of the following did you order today?
                                                        Hamburgers ......................................................................................................................................................
                                                        French Fries ......................................................................................................................................................
                                                        Pizza .................................................................................................................................................................
                                                        Salad00 .............................................................................................................................................................
                                                        Ice Cream .........................................................................................................................................................
                                                        Coffee/tea .........................................................................................................................................................
                                                        Soft drink ...........................................................................................................................................................
                                                         Please specify



                                      Q2        How did you rate the following...
                                                                                                                             Good                                       OK                                       Poor

                                                Service
                                                Quality
                                                Price


                                      Q3        Do you have any other comments?




                                      Q4        Are you...?
                                                        Male .................................................................................................................................................................
                                                        Female ..............................................................................................................................................................


                                      Q5        What is your age?
                                                        Under 25 ...........................................................................................................................................................
                                                        25 to 34 .............................................................................................................................................................
                                                        35 to 44 .............................................................................................................................................................
                                                        45 to 54 .............................................................................................................................................................
                                                        55 to 64 .............................................................................................................................................................
                                                        65 or older .........................................................................................................................................................




The Page Size options automatically change depending on what page size
setting is selected from the page size drop-down list, for example, A4,
Letter, Legal, etc. Whatever is selected will have the effect of resetting the
width and height of the page size of the questionnaire. It does not alter
any of the other settings such as Margin, Columns or Spacing.
The Print as booklet option will arrange the layout of the questionnaire
into a booklet format. This option is normally used with a duplex printer.
The Show field borders option will highlight each of the elements of a
question and this can prove useful when editing.



                                                                                                          178
Other Features                                                                                       Snap

Hide boxes in data/counts suppresses the box used on the blank questionnaire being placed around each of
the values, and this is generally more readable in this form.
Two further dialog boxes, Separating Lines and Headers/Footers, can be accessed from the Page Set-up
dialog box to incorporate dividing lines on the questionnaire and text/graphics in the header and footers.

The                        button displays the Separating Lines
dialog box. The Style of Column Separators is set to None as
standard, resulting in no vertical lines appearing between the
columns of a printed questionnaire. The style of the line can be
altered to a solid or broken line and the width of that line can be
altered from fine to very thick.
The result of adding separating lines on the columns is only
visible when the Print Preview option is selected.
The Object Separator controls the colour and line styles
displayed when the option Line Before under the Show topic is
turned on.
A header and/or footer can be added to the questionnaire. See
page 74 for further details.




                                                      179
   Snap

Background Images
Bitmap images can be used as a background for the entire questionnaire:

1. Click on the Page Set-up button             of the questionnaire
    toolbar, then choose the           button on the Page Set-up
    dialog box. This will cause the Picture dialog box, right, to
    appear.
2. To specify a bitmap image file for the questionnaire
    background, choose               or type the file name.
3. Use the Horizontal and Vertical settings to orientate the bitmap
   image. To get one copy of the image occupying the entire
   questionnaire background, specify both Horizontal and Vertical
   settings as Centre and Stretch. To have a complete background
   consisting of the image repeated, set both to Centre and Tile.


4. When complete click on                  in the Picture and Page
   Set-up dialog boxes to load the image into the questionnaire.

Alternatively, you can use               or              to add colour to the background of the questionnaire:
                         Solid options        Pattern options




                                                   180
Other Features                                                                        Snap

Printing Questionnaires
The       button produces a preview of the questionnaire and the option to commit a
copy to print. Individual pages can be viewed and the total number of pages will be
displayed in the dialog box.
The option All Pages will be highlighted as the default, but Current Page can be
selected to print just the page currently shown on the screen. Clicking        will
send your questionnaire to the printer.

If you want to return to the questionnaire without printing, simply press      .




Multiple copies of the questionnaire can be printed by
clicking on                    , and if a value greater than
1 is entered, the options to Collate the copies together or
keep them as Separate print jobs.




                                                     181
   Snap

The output of the report will depend on the current mode.
In Design or Style modes, a blank questionnaire will be
printed. In Data View mode a questionnaire will be
produced showing either Absolute or Percentages for each
question on the questionnaire.
If the current mode is Data View then the report will be for
each selected data case in the survey.

Should this be a multiple page questionnaire, then all pages of the questionnaire for the first selected case
will be printed before the pages for the second selected case. Selecting the Current Page will print the page
for all selected cases. This can allow double-sided printing to be achieved by reversing the printed pages and
printing on the other side.
A Filter option is available when selecting View |
Case Data to limit the cases that will appear in the
report. Once              is selected, a count will
appear on the screen of the number of cases that
match the filter criteria. Click      to preview and
then print the report.




                                                   182
Other Features                                                                                      Snap

Preview and Print a Questionnaire
Snap produces paper copies of your questionnaire by simply pressing the             button. Before any
questionnaire is sent to the printer, a preview image is produced on screen to ensure that your layout is
correct.

1. Click      to see a preview of the questionnaire on the
   screen. The appearance will be exactly the same as
   would be produced as a printed copy since the preview
   window is controlled by the printer driver.




2. The All Pages option will be highlighted as the default, but the Current Page option
   can be selected to print just the page currently shown on the screen.

3. Multiple copies of the questionnaire can be printed using                      .
   Headers and footers are specified in the Page Setup dialog box (see the previous
   two pages for details).

4. The               option will produce a paper version of your questionnaire and the
                 option will return to the Questionnaire window.




                                                    183
    Snap

Spell Check
The Spell Check option can be applied to the text of the entire questionnaire, the text of the variables and the
text of all literal responses in data entry. It is activated by use of the   button and the dictionaries used are
specified under the Tailor | Spelling option.
Snap is supplied with 12 standard dictionaries; Each is
held in a separate file with the extension of .lex. The
standard dictionary is selected under the Main
Dictionary File option in the Spell Checker Options
dialog box. In addition, a further dictionary is provided to
store the user's own library of regularly used words that
may not appear in the standard dictionaries. The supplied
dictionary is called custom.dic and further specialist
dictionaries can be created if it is necessary to keep
regularly used and perhaps industry specific words in
their own dictionary.
Snap is configured so that your preferred dictionary is
loaded together with the custom dictionary. If a word is
not located in the standard dictionary, the custom
dictionary is searched. If the word is not located at all but
is valid, then it can be stored in the custom dictionary for
future use. You can change the custom dictionary by
selecting Tailor | Spelling and clicking on          . This
produces the Browse Custom Dictionaries dialog box
illustrated on the right.




                                                       184
Other Features                                                                                       Snap

Using Spell Check
1. With the Questionnaire window open, click         to initiate the
   spell checking option. Snap will search the entire questionnaire
   from the current editing position of the cursor.
2. Each word with a perceived spelling mistake is displayed in the
   dialog box and a list of alternative spellings is provided.
3. Select Ignore to leave a word unaltered, or Change to place the
   highlighted alternative into the text of the questionnaire.
4. An "all" option is available on both Ignore and Change to carry
   out the same action to all other words of the same spelling.
5. At the end of the questionnaire, Snap will automatically restart
   at the beginning and only stop when it has checked the entire
   questionnaire. It will then display a message of the number of
   words checked and replaced




       The spell checking is configured to ignore both numbers and partial numbers, so that numbers that
         appear in questionnaire, such as Q1, Q2A, 100, 1997 will be ignored. The
         allows for modifications to be made in the operation of the checking.
                                                                                                   button




                                                   185
   Snap

Spell Check Options
The spell checking options are pre-flagged and fall into two groups, Ignore and Suggest.

Ignore
Words in UPPERCASE. When this option is flagged, any word
in the text that is in all capitals, e.g. IBM, NEC, HAZARD, will
be ignored.
Words with numbers. When this option is flagged, words such
as Q1, Q6B, 12, 99C are all regarded as valid.
Suggest
Always suggest. This option provides a list of alternative words
in the event of an error in spelling being located.
These settings can be deselected or selected.
When a possible error in spelling is detected the Spelling dialog box appears. The buttons have the
following meaning.

Ignore: skip over the word
Ignore All: skip over all instances of the word
Change: replace the word with the one in the Change
To field
Change All: replace all instances of the word with
the one in the Change To field
Add: add the word to the custom dictionary
Suggest: provide a list of suggestions
Options: change the settings listed above
Close: terminate the spell checking process


        The
          field.
                             button only becomes active if you type your own alternative in the Change To


                                                  186
Other Features                                                                                  Snap

Scanning
Scanning facilities are available as a separate Snap module.   For details of how to use scanning for
questionnaire design see User Guide 7, "Scanning Module".




                                                 187
   Snap

Exporting a Questionnaire
Rich Text Format
Although Snap has the ability to produce "camera ready" copies of questionnaires, users sometimes need to
export a questionnaire from Snap for access in a word processing package. Snap has the ability to export the
questionnaire in Rich Text Format. This can be accessed by the word processing package for any necessary
editing.
1. Select the menu option File | Export.
2. The Questionnaire Export dialog box will appear. Specify
   the Format as Rich Text Format (.RTF).




3. Specify the Destination as File. Specify a file name with
   the .rtf extension if you wish to export to the Snap folder.
   Alternative file names and locations can be selected using
                .

4. Click                  and Snap will export the questionnaire
   to the specified file.




                                                   188
Other Features                                                                                       Snap

5. Switch to the word processing software.
6. Select File | Open and locate the file snsurvey.rtf.
7. The questionnaire is held in Rich Text Format, allowing
   changes to be made to individual questions or globally.




 u       Note that a Rich Text Format file needs the same page layout throughout the questionnaire, so you
         cannot have two columns selected on Page Setup and then set individual questions on Full Page.




                                                    189
   Snap

Windows Metafile Format
You may wish to include a "scaled down" copy of the questionnaire as part of your reports. To do this you
will need to export the questionnaire as a picture (.wmf file).
1. Select the menu option File | Export.
2. The Questionnaire Export dialog box will appear; specify
   the Format as Windows Metafile (.WMF).




3. Specify the Destination as File. Specify a file name with
   the .wmf extension if you wish to export to the Snap folder.
   Alternative file names and locations can be selected using
                .

4. Click               and Snap will export the questionnaire to
   the specified file.




                                                  190
Other Features                                                       Snap

5. If your questionnaire has more than one page, Snap will
   create a separate file for each page, automatically inserting a
   number at the end of the file name you have selected.
6. You may now insert the image(s) of the questionnaire into
   your report (created in a word processing package) by using
   the Insert | Picture | From File menu option (or similar).




                                                     191
   Snap

Snap Interchange Format (SnIF)
If you wish to transfer your questionnaire contents and layout from an existing Snap survey into a new
survey, then you need to export the questionnaire using the SnIF option.
1. Select the menu option File | Export.
2. The Questionnaire Export dialog box will appear. Specify
   the Format as SNAP Interchange Format (SnIF).
3. Specify the Destination as Clipboard or File. Specify a file
   name with the .sif extension if you wish to export to the
   Snap folder. Alternative file names can be entered and
   locations can be selected using              .



         The Include source variables option allows you to export dependants of the questionnaire (e.g.
           derived variables).

4. Click                 and Snap will export the questionnaire to
   the specified file or the Windows Clipboard if selected.
5. Close the original survey and start a new survey in the
   Survey Overview by clicking on         . Click          to display
   the Questionnaire window.
6. Select the menu option File | Import. The Questionnaire
   Import dialog box will appear. Specify the Format as SNAP
   Interchange Format (SnIF). If the destination previously
   specified was Clipboard then select it again. If File was
   chosen originally, then click on                 to locate the file.

7. Click                and Snap will import the questionnaire
   into the new survey. Click on       to save the questionnaire.


                                                     192
Variables                                                                       Snap



VARIABLES
This section takes you through working with variables and variable types.

Contents
195         Why Two Windows, Questionnaire and Variables?
196         Toolbar Buttons
198         Creating New Variables
199         Editing Variables
200         Cloning/Copying Variables and Variable Codes
201         Deleting Variables and Variable Codes
206         Routing in the Variables Window
206         Viewing Routing
207         Source and Dependents
208         Including Calculations Within the Questionnaire
210         Tailoring Variables
212         Reporting on Variables
213         Moving Variables/Questions Between Snap Surveys
215         Transferring a Partial Survey from Snap to Another Survey Package
217         Transferring a Partial Survey from Snap to SPSS
219         Question Variables
226         Date Formats


                                                    193
      Snap

228          Note Variable
229          Derived and Compound Variables
234          Numeric Variables
239          Pre-coded Variables
242          Alphanumeric Variables




                                              194
Variables                                                                                                   Snap

Why Two Windows, Questionnaire and Variables?
A question viewed in the Questionnaire window and a question viewed in the Variables window both have
some common information: question text, the list of codes and the type of response expected. However, in
each of the windows a lot of other information is held.
In the Questionnaire window, information is held in styles of nearly 40 elements of the question, including
the font, colour, box shape, background and layout.
In the Variable window, information is held on the physical location of the data, how the data is stored, the
order and conditions under which a question is asked. Much of this information does not need to be accessed
by many users, and Snap will automatically generate it. However, other users who are importing data files
from other systems will find this area of the software important to allow them to set up the necessary
specifications.
Essentially all questions in a questionnaire are a form of variable. Whenever a questionnaire is saved, the
questions are accessible via the Variables window. Certain types of variable can only be edited in the
Variables window. All aspects of questions can be edited in the Questionnaire Design Window.


          A variable in Snap is equivalent to a question on the questionnaire or a field in a database.




                                                        195
   Snap

Toolbar Buttons
Buttons Used in Variables Window
Button    Menu Option              Alternative              Description

          Edit | New               [Ctrl] + [N]             Create new variable and show variable details.

          Edit | Clone             [Ctrl] + [O]             Clone variable and show variable details.

          Edit | Delete            [Delete]                 Confirm then delete current variable.

          Edit | Modify            [Ctrl] + [M]             Show current variable details.

          Tailor | Variables                                Show "Variable Tailoring" dialog box.

          Edit | Copy              [Ctrl] + [C]             Place variable information on the Clipboard.

          Edit | Paste             [Ctrl] + [V]             Create a variable from information on the
                                                            Clipboard.

          File | Print Report      [Ctrl] + [Shift] +       Display "Variable Report" dialog box.
                                   [F12]

          View | Sources                                    Show "Variable Sources" dialog box.

          View | Dependents                                 Show "Variable Dependents" dialog box.

Buttons Used in Variable Details Windows
Button    Menu Option           Alternative       Description

          Edit | New            [Ctrl] + [N]      Create a new code in the variable.

          Edit | Clone          [Ctrl] + [O]      Clone the current code in the variable.



                                                 196
Variables                                                                                         Snap

Button      Menu Option          Alternative   Description

            Edit | Delete        [Delete]      Delete the current code in the variable.

            View | Zoom Out                    View the Variables window.

                                 [Enter]       Keep any changes to the variable and close the window.

                                 [Esc]         Abandon any changes to the variable and close the
                                               window.
                                               Show or hide question text. Behind the text are the
                                               fields for Source, Length, Sequence and Coding method.

            Tailor | Variables                 Show "Variable Tailoring" dialog box.

            Edit | Run                         Count the responses for this variable and show the count
                                               on the variable details.

            Edit | Spell Check   [F9]          Spell check the variable details.




                                               197
   Snap

Creating New Variables
Creating new variables is achieved with the        button to display the Variable Details window.

1. Either click   to display the Variables window, or use the
   menu option View | Variables, or the shortcut option of
   [Ctrl] + [R].

2. Click         to open the Variable Details window for the new
   variable.
3. Snap will prompt you for the next variable name and by
   default will create a question multiple variable. Details of the
   various fields are explained in the forthcoming pages of this
   section.

4. When you have completed the amendments, click on          to
   save them and return to the Variables window. Alternatively,
   click       to abandon any changes.




         If you need to see the fields for Source, Sequence, Coding, Length and Must Answer, click
           hide the question text. Click      again to display the question text.
                                                                                                       to




                                                     198
Variables                                                                                              Snap

Editing Variables
Once a variable has been created, it is always possible to amend it. Care should be taken to ensure that any
case data already entered does not become "invalidated" by changing fields such as Source and Length.
1. Highlight the variable that you wish to amend and either press [Enter]
   or click      to show Variable Details.




2. If the survey has many variables, it may be faster to select View | Go
   To to display the Select Variable dialog box. Specify a variable name
   or a letter and Snap will locate it in the variable list.


3. To see the Source, Sequence and Length behind the text of the
   variable, click    .
4. To create new codes, place the cursor in either the Label or Values
   field and click     . A new code will be inserted after the code that is
   currently highlighted.
5. As you change the variable, the counts will disappear. To save the
   variable at this point, and reload the counts, click    , and Snap will
   automatically update this variable.

6. When you have completed the amendments, click              to save and
   return to the Variables window. Alternatively, click        to abandon
   any changes (if you have not reloaded the counts).




                                                     199
   Snap

Cloning/Copying Variables and Variable Codes
In any questionnaire there are often questions that are very similar or apparently identical to many other
questions. This is particularly true for attitude questions, where views are being sought on a number of
topics, and the range of possible answers or codes is the same for all questions.
Snap has the ability to copy the contents of one variable to a new variable and change key items of
 n r ao sc a vr b a esqec ad or T ee n u ir e e t a “l i ”
  f    i
i om t n uh s a alnm ,eune n suc. h t hi ese r d o s c n g.
                      i e                         e         c q        fr           on

1. Highlight the variable that you wish to copy and click        .
   Alternatively, use the menu option Edit | Clone or the shortcut
   option of [Ctrl] + [O].




2. A new variable will be created with a new variable name. If the
   original variable had a name such as Q6e, the new one will be
   Q6f. If it was simply Q6, the new one will be Q7 (if that name is
   available and has not already been used).
3. Snap will increment both the sequence number and the source,
   based on the information held in the variable being cloned. Be
   sure to check that the new settings are correct, otherwise just
   overtype them.
4. Change any question text or variable label information, and when
   complete, click on      to store the new variable and return to the
   Variables window.




                                                 200
Variables                                                                                                 Snap

Deleting Variables and Variable Codes
From within any survey you are able to delete unwanted variables, and the effects of this action depend upon
whether any raw data has been entered against that variable:
If raw data has already been entered against that variable, it will have been stored on the raw data case in a
specific source and will not itself be deleted. You will have only lost the ability to retrieve and analyse it.
Having deleted a variable, you are always able to add it again, and so long as you refer to the same source
and length as the original variable, the original raw data will be accessed and allocated to the relevant codes.

 u          If you create another variable/question, having deleted one whilst there is data in the survey, Snap
            will re-use the currently unallocated positions (source). This means that any existing data in those
            positions will be picked up by the new variable.


1. Select the variable to be deleted, by highlighting it in the Variables
   window.

2. Delete the variable by clicking    or by selecting the menu
   option Edit | Delete. Alternatively you can just press the
   [Delete] key.



3. The Snap Variables dialog box will appear, giving you an
   opportunity to confirm that you wish to delete the variable from the
   survey.




                                                       201
   Snap

4. Select the code to be deleted, by highlighting it in the Variable
   Details window.

5. Delete the code by clicking           or by selecting the menu
   option Edit | Delete. Click on         to save the changes.




 u        If you create another code, having deleted one whilst there is data in the survey, Snap will assign a
          new value to that code. On the above example, if code 5 was deleted and then added again it
          would have a value of 7, to ensure the integrity of the previously entered data.




                                                   202
Variables                                                                                              Snap

Routing in the Variables Window
Routing is normally set up using the Routing Rules dialog within the Questionnaire window. See page 79
onwards for further information. Routing can also be set up in the Variables Window by typing directly into
the Not Asked Value box found within the Variables Details window of a particular question.
There are two methods of specifying the Not Asked condition when setting up routing within the Variables
window:
1. The condition, under which a question is NOT to be asked, is specified in the format of the question name
   and the value. If, for example, Q6a is NOT to be asked if the response to Q5 is greater than 55, the Not
   Asked value for Q6a would be set to Q5>55. During data entry, Snap checks the value of Q5 and if it is
   greater than 55, it will skip on to the next question based on the order of sequence number.
2. An alternative, and often simpler method of defining Not Asked codes is to use the logical operator
   UNLESS, and specify the conditions under which a question IS to be asked. If the example above is
   used, the Not Asked code of Q6a would be set to UNLESS Q5<=55.
If the same Not Asked code is to be used for a series of questions, for example Q22, Q23, Q24, it is not
necessary to repeat the exact expression in each variable. Instead, the Not Asked code in both Q23 and Q24
can be set to Q22 NA.


1. Highlight the variable that requires a change to the Not Asked code,
   and click      to display the Variable Details window.
2. Select the Not Asked code and overtype the Value field with the
   required logical expression, e.g., UNLESS Q4=8. As the expression is
   entered, Snap will check the values, and warn you if any invalid
   variable names have been specified.




                                                    203
    Snap

Routing Rules
     Before you type routing in, think carefully about what you actually want the routing to do. Do you
      want either statement to be true (Q2=1 or Q5<4) or do you want the total combination to be true
      (Q2=1 and Q5<4)?
     If you want to skip a whole section, there needs to be routing in every single question (e.g. UNLESS
      Q5=1), but if other routing needs to be applied you do not need to repeat the original as the respondent
      would not have got that far otherwise.
     If you are using OR or AND you will need brackets around everything except the unless part of the
      routing, e.g. UNLESS (Q2=1 or Q5<4).
     UNLESS means only ask this question if this statement is true (e.g. UNLESS Q2=1), whereas not
                        m as o’ak h qet n fh s t n it btf
                                            i       i       i am             u
      using it (Q2=1) en dnts t s uso it s te etsre u ithere is no reply to Q2 the
      question will still be asked. It is therefore always preferable to use UNLESS statements.
     In some circumstances it may be necessary to set up a derived variable to identify routing conditions.
                                             noe h a e c d P o” r V r or ay hr n
                                                              ee           ,
      For example, if we wanted to route ayn w ohdsl t “or o “ e P o” nw e i a      y                 e
      grid of questions, the "Very goods" and "Goods" of Q6 would be a derived multiple (V1) with 5
      codes: code 1 would have a value of Q6a=(1,2); code 2 would have a value of Q6b=(1,2), etc.
      Use the derived variable in your routing (e.g. UNLESS V1 OK).

Routing Examples
Snap routing                         What this means
UNLESS Q2=1                          Only ask this question if the respondent answered code 1 to Q2
UNLESS Q2=(1,4)                      Only ask this question if the respondent answered code 1 or code 4 to
                                     Q2
UNLESS Q2=(1~4)                      Only ask this question if the respondent answered either code 1 or code
                                     2 or code 3 or code 4 to Q2
UNLESS Q2 OK                         Same as above, assuming Q2 only has 4 codes (OK means any valid
                                     answer)

                                                  204
Variables                                                                                          Snap

Snap routing                   What this means
UNLESS Q2 NR                   Only ask this question if the respondent did not answer Q2
Q2 MISSING                     Do not ask this question if there is an error, not asked or no reply count
                               in Q2 for this case
Q2 NA                          Do not ask this question if Q2 was not asked
UNLESS Q3>3                    Only ask this question if the respondent has given an answer of greater
                               than 3 to Q3
UNLESS Q4==3                   Only ask this question if the respondent only answered code 3 of Q4.
                               If question 4 is a multiple response question the respondent will have
                               given no other answer in addition to code 3.
UNLESS (Q2=2 OR Q4=1)          Only ask this question if the respondent answered either code 2 of Q2
                               or code 1 of Q4
UNLESS (Q2=2 AND Q4=1)         Only ask this question if the respondent answered both code 2 of Q2
                               and code 1 of Q4
UNLESS ((Q2=2 OR Q4=1) Only ask this question if the respondent answered either code 2 of Q2
AND Q5>=10)            or code 1 of Q4, and gave an answer of 10 or above to Q5




                                              205
   Snap

Viewing Routing
The procedure described below will give you an overview of which variables contain routing. If you set up a
Conditionally Ask Question routing rule in the Questionnaire window, a Not ask Value is also created. If Go
To On Answer and Go To After Question routing rules are set up, relative information is automatically set
up in the Goto and Skipped by columns.



1. In the Variables window click on       to access the
   Variable Tailoring dialog box.




2. Change the Show Counts option from Always to
   Never and click on               or            .




3. Maximise the Variables window by selecting         .
4. The Valid, No Reply and Errors columns are not
   displayed and the Not Asked column reveals any
   routing in variables. The Goto column displays the
   target questions and the Skipped by column
   displays the question where the routing originates.




                                                 206
Variables                                                                                              Snap

Source and Dependents
If a variable contains a mention of another variable within its definition, then Snap will not allow that
variable to be deleted while that dependency remains. These situations arise when a variable is mentioned in
a Not Asked statement, or in a derived variable. Sources (variables used in Not Asked values/a derived
variable) can be viewed with      and Dependents can be viewed with          .
1. With the variable window open, highlight the variable Q4a and click
        .




2. A Sources/Dependents window will show Q4a together with any
   variables that are sources of Q4a, namely Q4 which is linked by
   means of its Not Asked category. Q4a is only asked if the respondent
   answers "Other", code 8, to Q4.




3. To check the variable details of Q4a, simply click            to view.
   Notice that the name of the source variable (Q4) is inaccessible and it
   is not possible to delete Q4 until the Not Asked condition in Q4a is
   removed.




                                                    207
   Snap

Including Calculations Within the Questionnaire
It can be useful in a questionnaire to include calculations to assist in the area of data collection or data
editing. For example, questionnaires regularly ask for levels of involvement in particular areas and expect
the answer to add up to 100%. Snap can be set up to automatically add up the values and show the result
during data entry.

  ?       If you do not want to display the total in the questionnaire you can use a derived quantity variable
          instead of a question quantity and put the calculation in the Valid Value field.

1. In the snCrocodile survey you might want to know the
   total number in the party (Adults from Q3a plus
   Children from Q3b). Using a calculation within a
   variable you could then display the total party number.

2. Click       in the Variables window and Snap will
   open the Variable Details window for the new
   variable. Check that the type is set to Question and
   change the response to Quantity. Change the name to
   Q3c and enter a label of "Total in party".

3. Click on       to access the source field.
4. Delete the current source and replace it with the
   calculation, Q3a+Q3b.
5. As the cases are entered in the Data window, the
   values of Q3a and Q3b will be added together and
   displayed in Q3c.




                                                   208
Variables                                                                Snap

6. You can also set an acceptable range or a single figure in a
   question quantity, which is useful if you were totalling
   percentages. In a questionnaire that asks for the level of business
   in the home market (Q1) as distinct from the export market (Q2)
   you might wish to check that the percentages add to 100.




7. This would display the total if it matched the
   range/figure, but if the total falls outside the
   range/figure then it would be displayed as an error.
8. This can be a useful method of adding up figures
   during an interview, particularly when respondents
   are asked to split a value or total into a number of
   constituent parts.




                                                    209
    Snap

Tailoring Variables
Although the option Tailor | Variables can be inspected
and modified throughout the program, any changes made
will only be effective when the Variables window is next
opened. To implement alterations to the Variable
Tailoring within the current window, use        , or Tailor
| Current Window.

Variable Order
Affects the order that variables are presented in the overview window.

Option        Description
Name          Variables are arranged in alphanumeric order by name.
Sequence      Variables are arranged in ascending order of sequence number. Setting the order to be by
              sequence enables a check to be made on sequence numbers allocated by the software, or
              updated by the user.

Show Counts
Changes the contents of the list of codes for a variable. If there are many cases or the program is running on
a very slow computer these counts may take some time to calculate.

Option                  Description
Never                   Counts are not calculated. The best option for large surveys or slow computers. The
                        routing is displayed in the Not Asked column when this option is selected.
If variable is active   Counts will be calculated if the selected variable is already active (showing counts).
                        Typically, Snap can produce counts 10 times faster if the variable is active.
Always                  Whenever a list of codes is generated, a count of data cases for each code will be
                        produced.



                                                   210
Variables                                                                                           Snap


 ?          You are advised to set your Variable Tailoring in sequence order as the Questionnaire window,
            Data Entry window (all modes except fast mode) and Results Analysis windows display the
            questions in that order.




                                                    211
   Snap

Reporting on Variables
Summary and full reports can be produced of all variables in a survey or from a specified list.

1. Click        to display the Variable Report dialog box.
   Alternatively, use either the menu option File | Print
   Report, or the shortcut option of [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [F12].

2. The default setting for variable reports is a Summary report of
   All (variables).


3. Selective lists of variables are available for a full report (list
                           d y o m s r s g h od t )
   each variable, separate b cm a o ui t w r ‘ ’n e             o,
   and Counts will be set according to the Variable Tailoring
   dialog box. They will show as None if the Tailor setting is
   Never.

4. The                 button allows access to the Page Setup
   dialog box to specify the layout of your report.

5. When selection is complete, press                                        to output the
   required report.
                                                                                                                       No      Not
           Nam e   Label                   Type       Response   Codes   Sequence   Source            Length   Valid                   Errors
                                                                                                                       Reply   Asked

              Q5                         in total?
                   How much did you spendQuestion Quantity       1       5000       at (68 to 75)     8        204     0       0       0

             Q6a   Speed of service        Question Single       5       6001       at 76             1        204     0       0       0

             Q6b   Cleanliness             Question Single       5       6002       at 77             1        204     0       0       0

             Q6c   Parking                 Question Single       5       6003       at 78             1        204     0       0       0

             Q6d   Quality of food         Question Single       5       6004       at 79             1        204     0       0       0

             Q6e   Choice of food          Question Single       5       6005       at 80             1        204     0       0       0

              Q7                           Question Quantity
                   How do you rate the overall p...              1       7000       at (81 to 82)     2        --      --      --      --

              Q8                           Question Literal
                   Are there any other comments ...              1       8000       at (83 to 185)    103      --      --      --      --

              Q9   Age                     Question Single       5       9000       at 186            1        204     0       0       0

             Q10   Gender                  Question Single       2       10000      at 187            1        --      --      --      --

             Q11                            Question Literal
                   Please enter your zipcode/pos...              1       11000      at (188 to 197)   10       --      --      --      --



                                                                         212
Variables                                                                                                 Snap

Moving Variables/Questions Between Snap Surveys
Snap Interchange Format (SnIF) is used to transfer Snap objects (variables) between surveys. For example
if a number of surveys were required to all use the same demographic questions (age, gender etc.), these
could be created in one survey, exported from it into a SnIF format file and subsequently imported into
another Snap survey.
The following example is based on the exporting of a selection of variables from the survey snCrocodile.
The data is exported via the Clipboard, although for large surveys, export via a file may be more appropriate.
1. Select the menu option File | Export to display the Variable
   Export dialog box. Specify the Format as Snap Interchange
   Format (SnIF).
2. Set the Destination as Clipboard.
3. In the Filter field, specify the names of the variables to be
   exported, for example, N4, Q9 to Q10.

4. Click                 to export the selected variables.



          If you select the Include source variables option, variables which are associated with those listed
            in the Filter field are exported as well. For example, if you exported a derived variable and
            selected Include source variables, then the original variable(s) that form the basis of the derived
            variable would be exported as well. The same applies to variables containing routing.
5. Select the menu option File | New Survey to close the current
   survey and create a new one to receive the selected variables.
   Alternatively, open the survey to which you wish to add the
   variables.
6. With the Variables window open in the new survey, select the
   menu option File | Import to display the Variable Import dialog
   box.



                                                       213
   Snap


 ?        Whether you are adding variables to an existing survey or starting a new survey you will probably
          need to use the Generate new variable names option (which re-numbers the imported variables to
          the next available question number in the survey) and the Generate new variable positions option
          (which changes the source of the imported variables to the next available positions). This avoids
          any conflict with existing questions relating to numbering and the source.

7. Set the Source to Clipboard and click               to
   import the selected variables. The new variables will
   be added to the survey with the original label, length
   and sequence (and the name and source if the two
   generate options are not selected).




                                                 214
Variables                                                                                                 Snap

Transferring a Partial Survey from Snap to Another Survey Package
Snap is able to export the contents of a survey in a format that other survey analysis packages can import and
read. The format is triple-s and has been developed as a standard interchange format. Snap will also import
triple-s format files from other survey analysis packages.

 u          Some survey packages do not yet support the triple-s XML version, in which case you should use
            triple-s 1.0 or 1.1, depending on your survey package.

                           ie     x ot
1. Select the menu option Fl |E p r… to display the Variable Export dialog
   box. Specify the Format as triple-s XML (SSS) v1.2. Specify the destination
   as File.




          If you select the Include source variables option, variables which are associated with those listed
            in the Filter field are exported as well. For example, if you exported a derived variable and
            selected Include source variables, then the original variable(s) that form the basis of the derived
            variable would be exported as well. The same applies to variables containing routing.

2. Enter the file name or click on                        to select the
   destination and file name. In the Filter field, specify the names of
   the variables to be exported, for example, Q1 to Q5.




                                                      215
   Snap

3. Click              and the survey details will be exported. If the
   survey includes data, you will be asked if you wish to transfer the
   data as well.



4. If you click on Yes, a confirmation dialog box will appear,
   indicating that the data will be exported to a file with the same
   file name as the SSS file but an .asc extension.




        Although you export the partial survey from Variables window, if you were to re-import it into
          Snap you would do so from the Survey Overview window.




                                                    216
Variables                                                                                      Snap

Transferring a Partial Survey from Snap to SPSS
The surveys created in Snap can be exported in a format that can be accessed by SPSS. This format is
exclusively for use with SPSS version 6.1 and above.
           ie  x ot
1. Select Fl |E p r… to display the Variable Export dialog box.




2. Set the Format to SPSS Data Format (.sav).
3. The destination is File. Either browse to specify the file name and
   path or type the details into the field.
4. In the Filter field, specify the names of the variables to be exported,
   for example, Q1 to Q5.



5. Click              and Snap will export the variables to the specified file,
   which can then be opened in SPSS.




                                                     217
   Snap


        If you select the Include Source Variables option, variables, which are associated with those listed
          in the Filter field, are exported as well. For example, if you exported a derived variable and
          selected Include Source Variables , then the original variable(s) that form the basis of the derived
          variable would be exported as well. The same applies to variables containing routing.
6. If the survey contains data you will be asked if you wish to
   transfer the data as well.




 u        When Snap exports its codes, the .sav export does not deal with No Replies, therefore SPSS is left
          with a value of zero and a blank code label. SPSS does have missing values, so you will currently
          need to go through every single variable and specify 0 as a No Reply.



 u        If you export a survey from Snap to SPSS and then import it back into Snap, it will not appear in
          the same format as the original due to the different ways Snap and SPSS operate.




        SPSS does not deal with multi choice questions in the same way as Snap. Each element of the
          question is set up as a single response. The conversion therefore provides a variable set
          containing the grouping (e.g. Q4 in the survey snCrocodile would become Q4_1, Q4_2, etc. after
          the conversion) and you will need to specify the grouping in SPSS.




        Although you export the partial survey from the Variables window, if you were to re-import it into
          Snap you would do so from the Survey Overview window.




                                                   218
Variables                                                                                                 Snap

Question Variables
Question Multiple Variable
Question Multiple Variables are used when the information
has been derived from a questionnaire, the possible replies to
the question are in the form of a list, and when more than one
answer can be given, e.g.
Which of the following items did you order? (Check all that
apply)
Hamburger 
French fries 
Pizza          


A Question Multiple Variable can capture raw data coded in any of 3 coding methods with the first method
being the default:

Format             Description
Field format       Data is stored in comma separated format. The above example has 3 possible answers and
                   to allow the maximum responses, a length of 5 characters is allocated for the 3 answers plus
                   a comma separating each answer. If the question has 8 answers, the length increases to 15,
                   and when the number of answers extends to 12, the length extends to 35, to allow for 12
                   codes of two characters each (01, 05, 12 etc.), plus 11 commas. See page 270.
Single format      Data comprises a series of 1's and 0's, as many as there are codes for the variable. Data for
                   the example question (above) would occupy 3 positions and a respondent selecting
                   Hamburger and Pizza would be coded as, 101.




                                                      219
   Snap

Format          Description
Multi format    Data can be accepted in the Snap multi punch format. In this method, up to six codes can
                be recorded in each position of the source field. Data would be entered against the format
                mask, with the code M used to represent up to 6 codes in 1 position, D to represent up to 12
                codes in 2 positions, T to represent up to 18 codes in 3 positions, or Q to represent up to 24
                codes in 4 positions. This format can only be used with data keyed in Snap.

Each code label can be up to 1000 characters and the values will be stored in whichever method as shown in
the coding field.




                                                  220
Variables                                                                                                   Snap

Question Single Variable
Question single variables are used when only ONE answer
can be given and the possible replies to the question are in
the form of a list. All variables created within the
Questionnaire window are of a type Question. Up to 2000
individual codes can be created for a question single variable
and the question text can be up to 1000 characters, e.g.
Are you male or female?
Male         
Female       
The fields for a Question Single Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this
section, with the exception of the following:
Length      A number between 1 and 3 represents the length of the field being captured. The default setting is
            1 and this will allow for up to 9 codes to be created. As the code list extends to 10, the length will
            be reset to 2, and when the code list extends beyond 99, it will be set to 3.
Code        Pre-defined values are generated from 1 to "n" to represent the valid value associated with the
values      code label. In the above example, a respondent reply of "Male" will be recorded in the data as a
            "1" and a "Female" as a "2". Once the list extends to 10, the length is increased to 2 and valid
            answers now become "01", "02" etc.
            In the event of the Length field being set to 1, Snap will accept values from 1 to 9 and A to Z as
            valid codes in Fast mode of data entry. This results in 35 valid codes being available in one
            character position and is how Snap records data in compressed format. An "A" represents the
            10th code, a "B" represents the 11th code etc.
Each code label can be up to 1000 characters and the values will be stored in whichever method as shown in
the coding field.




                                                       221
   Snap

Question Literal Variable
Question Literal Variables are used when the information has
been derived from a questionnaire, and the possible replies
contain combinations of letters and numbers. This may range
from the name of a city or country to a full open-ended
comment, e.g.
What else did you order?
_________________________________


The fields for a Question Literal Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this
section, with the exception of the following:
Length     The minimum length is 1 and the maximum is 999 characters. When set up within a
           questionnaire, the length is determined by the size of the box allocated to the question (increased
           by using [Ctrl] and [+] key, and decreased by using [Ctrl] and [-]). When set up from the
           Variables window, the default length is set to 100.
           If respondent data has already been entered, increasing the length field will result in the source
           field being extended to include a new location at the end of the case data record. For example, if
           the question literal variable shown above was extended to a length of 150 characters, the source
           field might now appear as at (41 to 70, 401 to 520).

 u        Note that if respondent data has already been entered, you cannot reduce the length.

Number of Codes          One valid code only, OK
Valid label and value    Only one code is created for a question literal variable. The valid label is pre-set to
                         Valid. (To change the word Valid, access Tailor | Analysis and make any
                         necessary changes). The value can be either blank to denote that all values are
                          ad o a a l au e c i (
                            i             p         i s e is n sr u e , I r ut n o
                                                                    t
                         vl , r s na hnm r ltseLs i ue gi 1 “ t dco t Snap         d      no i
                          uvy” . " A 1 t " Z 9. h value can be up to 100 characters in length.
                                  ,g
                         sres)e .B 0"o B 9" T e
                         Any value outside this range will be excluded and will be treated as an error.

                                                   222
Variables                                                                                               Snap

Question Quantity Variable
Question Quantity Variables are used when the
information has been derived from a questionnaire and
the possible replies to the question are in the form of
numeric characters i.e. digits, plus/minus sign and/or a
decimal point, e.g.
How much did you spend? .
Question Quantity Variables are used to capture
numeric data without classification. A single code will
be created containing all valid responses. Other variable
types, such as derived quantity variables, can be used to
perform calculations on any question quantity variable.
The fields for a Question Quantity Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this
section, with the exception of the following:
Length                 A number between 1 and 8 to represent the length of the field being captured. The
                       default value is set to 8. In the example on the previous page, the length could be set
                       to 5 although the variable would still operate at a length of 8. The source field is
                       automatically updated after moving out of the length field, the format of which will,
                       for example, be at (68 to 75) for a variable with a length of 8 characters.
Decimal places         A number between 1 and 7 specifying that the data will be stored to that number of
                       decimal places, even though the valid value might specify a value with more digits
                       after the decimal place. The default value is 0.
Number of Codes        Only one valid code only, OK




                                                     223
   Snap

Valid label and value The valid label is pre-set to Valid. (To change the word Valid, access Tailor |
                      Analysis and make any necessary changes). The value should be a numeric list
                      comprising up to one hundred characters which specifies valid numeric data as either
                      single items, ranges of items or a combination of both, e.g.: 1 to 25.00. This number
                      represents the valid range and any value outside this range will be excluded and will
                      be treated as an error.




                                                 224
Variables                                                                                                 Snap

Question Date Variable
Question Date Variables are used to collect date information from
a questionnaire. There is a wide range of valid date formats as
shown on the following page, e.g.
Please enter today's date
_________________________________




The fields for a Question Date Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this section,
with the exception of the following:
Length               The length is pre-set to 20 characters when created in the Questionnaire window. This
                     provides sufficient space to record a date in any format, including the month and year
                     recorded in full.
Number of Codes      Only one valid code only, OK
Valid label and Only one code is created for a Quantity Date variable. The valid label is pre-set to
value           Valid. (To change the word Valid, access Tailor | Analysis and make any necessary
                changes). The Value can be left blank in which case any date that is accepted as valid,
                can be entered. Snap will check the format of any date to ensure that it meets the criteria
                as described on the next page.
                     If only a certain range of dates is valid, this can be set up in the Values field of the OK
                     code. Snap will check the dates as they are entered in the Data window to ensure that
                     each one is of a valid format and each one is within the range specified. The example
                     shows a valid range of dates between November 6, 2002 and February 2, 2003.




                                                      225
    Snap

Date Formats
Snap will support a wide range of date formats and it is perhaps best to describe the rules for each of the
components of a date, namely the day, the month and the year. Note also that:
     All dates are based on the Gregorian calendar. Accordingly, the year 2000 was a leap year.
     Any calculations of time between two dates that straddle the millennium, e.g. Dec 14 99 to Jan 13 00,
      will operate correctly.

Day
The day number must appear in the range 1 to 31, with optional leading zeros. For example, 01,02 etc. are
acceptable. The validity of a day number will be checked in conjunction with the month. For example, 31
September will be invalid. In the case of February, the year will also be checked for the occurrence of a leap
year.
The day number can appear before the month, e.g. 1 Jan, or after the month, e.g. Jan 1.
Day suffixes such st, nd, rd, th are not necessary but are accepted.
Local rules for date, such as the US standard of Month/Day/Year, will be recognised. Consequently,
01/05/97 will be calculated as January 5, 1997 in the US and May 1, 1997 in the UK. The computer date
settings control these formats.
The day number must be separated from the month by either a full stop (.), a hyphen (-) or a slash (/) or, if
the month is expressed as a word, by a space.
In the special case where the month name is given before the day number, a comma can be used to separate
the day and year, e.g. January 5,1997

Month
The month can appear in full, e.g. January, or abbreviated to the first 3 characters, e.g. Jan, or as a number,
e.g. 01.
The only exceptions to the 3-character abbreviation rule are July which can be Jul or Jly, and September
which can be Sep or Sept.

                                                    226
Variables                                                                                                    Snap

The month must be separated from the day and the year by either a full stop (.), a hyphen (-) or a slash (/) or,
if the month is expressed as a word, by a space.

Year
The year number can either be the last 2 digits, e.g. 97, or the full year, e.g. 1997. If the two digit number is
used, it is assumed that the year is 1930 or after. Then 97 will represent 1997, 00 will represent 2000, 29
will represent 2029. To represent any year before 1930 or any date after 2029, you should include all digits,
e.g. 1929.
The year must be separated from the month by either a space, a full stop (.), a hyphen (-) or a slash (/).
      All dates are based on the Gregorian calendar. Accordingly, the year 2000 was a leap year.
      Any calculations of time between two dates that straddle the millennium, e.g. Dec 14 99 to Jan 13 00,
       will operate correctly.

 ?          The date is set by the Regional Settings option in Start | Settings | Control Panel. However,
            sometimes these settings do not get stored properly so it is necessary to edit the win.ini file (found
            in the Windows or Winnt folder on the PC). Locate and open the win.ini file via Windows
            Explorer, search for the section headed [Intl] and then edit the long/short date format as required.




                                                        227
   Snap

Note Variable
Note variables are used to create titles, sub-titles and
instructions in a questionnaire with up to 1,000 characters in
the text field of each note variable.
They can be used anywhere in the questionnaire and their
appearance can be changed within the questionnaire to suit
individual needs.




They differ from all other variable types in that a Note does
not have an associated response, source or length field. It
does have a label and a text field.
The sequence number determines the location of a Note
variable in the questionnaire.




                                                   228
Variables                                                                                                 Snap

Derived and Compound Variables
Derived and Compound Single Variable
Derived and Compound Single Variables are used to combine other variables in the survey to generate
new results. These new results might be required for three reasons:
To create complex tables axes: the survey being analysed
may have asked for the respondent's sex and age and you
want to combine both of these to show on a table and have
categories of:
   Males under 25
   Males over 25
   Females under 25, etc.




To create complex filters: if analyses have to be repeated regularly and involve complicated filters, then it is
advisable to have a derived or compound variable to store each filter, e.g.: regular tables of female car
drivers in region 3, set up a derived variable (V1) which has the required filter as one of its codes:
   SEX=2 AND DRIVER=1 AND REGION=3
Then simply specify the filter as that code of the variable: V1=1
To create new values: these values are themselves used in the specification of more complex derived
variables. There is no limit to the complexity of such variables.
There is no functional difference between derived and compound variables.
The fields for a derived single variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this section,
with the exception of the following:


                                                      229
   Snap

Source & There is no source field or length field as the variables refer to other variables that have their
length   own source and length.
Value(s)      A logical formula comprising up to 100 characters (see Formulae in User Guide 1,
               I r ut no
               no i              uvy” n fr u s n r o ec cd.
                                         .         a
              “ t dco t Snap sres) O eom liet e frah oe  ed

 ?         With a single response variable a case/respondent can only fall into one of the categories/codes.
           With each case Snap looks at the value for the first code. If the value formula is met by the case
           then Snap moves on to a new case; if the value formula is not met by the case then Snap moves onto
            h etoe n l oso dent i a a eo u h ts p i h ae
             e             it                   )n
           t nxcd ut ide (r os’ f d vl f m l t ti u wtt cs.u r a a e                 h e



 ?         If more than one formula could be true for any case, use a compound or derived multiple variable.




 u         This type of variable is not visible in the Questionnaire, Interview or Prompted mode of data
           entry.




                                                   230
Variables                                                                                                     Snap

Derived and Compound Multiple Variable
Derived and Compound Multiple Variables are widely
used to combine values of one variable with the values of
another variable. Whereas data can only appear in one
code in a derived single or compound single variable, it
can appear in any number of codes within a Derived or
Compound Multiple Variable. For example:
   "Males under 18"
   "Males under 24"
   "Males under 44"
   "All males"
Derived and Compound Multiple Variables can also be used for building complex filters, search criteria
and table axis specifications.
The fields for a Derived Multiple Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this
section, with the exception of the following:
Source and length       There is no source field or length field as the variable refers to other variables that have
                        their own source and length.
Value(s)                A logical formula comprising up to 100 characters (see Formulae in User Guide 1,
                         I r ut no
                         no i                uvy” n fr u s n r o ec cd.
                                                     .
                        “ t dco t Snap sres) O eom liet e frah oea      ed

 ?          Snap checks the case/respondent against each code of the multiple response variable to see if it
            corresponds to the value formula.



 u          This type of variable is not visible in the Questionnaire, Interview or Prompted mode of data entry.




                                                        231
    Snap

Derived Quantity Variable
Derived Quantity Variables have a single valid code and are
used to perform numeric calculations on other variables. In the
example shown, a Derived Quantity Variable is used to add
the values recorded in two other variables. (The example is not
taken from the Crocodile Customer Satisfaction survey, but
details of using calculations are to be found in the worksheet on
Including calculations in a questionnaire). This example adds
Q1, which asked for the percentage of business in the home
market, and Q2, which asked for the percentage of export
business. In theory the two values should add up to 100%. To
check this, the variable TOTAL is created and the result of the
calculation can be displayed in a statistics table for verification
purposes.
The fields for a Derived Quantity Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this
section, with the exception of the following:
There is no source or length field as the variable refers to other variables with their own source and length.
Decimal places     A number between 1 and 7 specifying the accuracy of the data
Valid value        A numeric formula comprising up to 100 characters (see Formulae in User Guide 1,
                    I r ut no
                    no i               uvy” o ea p :
                                              .
                   “ t dco t Snap sres) F rxm l           e
                   NUM Q4 to count the number of individual responses given in a Multiple Response
                   question
                   Q2+Q3 to add the value of two other variables together.
                   Q4*Q5 to multiply the value of two other variables
                   Q4*1.4355 to multiply the contents of another variable by a constant value

 u         This type of variable is not visible in the Questionnaire, Interview or Prompted mode of data
           entry.

                                                    232
Variables                                                                                               Snap

Derived Date Variable
Derived Date Variables are used to perform calculations on
other variables, the result of which will be stored as a date.
For example, if Q1 was "When did you start your holiday?" and
Q2 was "How many days did you stay?, a Derived Date
Variable could be created to calculate the date of leaving.
The variable shown here is called DLEAVE and the single OK
value is set to Q1+Q2, resulting in a date being stored.
Q1 was set as a question date to record the start; Q2 was set as a
question quantity to record a number of days.
The fields for a Derived Date Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this section,
with the exception of the following:
There is no source or length field as the variable refers to other variables that have their own source and
length.
Valid value      A logical formula comprising up to 100 characters (see Formulae in User Guide 1,
                  I r ut no
                  no i
                 “ t dco t Snap sres)uvy”    .
                 At least one of the variables described in the logical formula must have a response of date,
                 otherwise Snap will be unable to compile the variable and save it with the survey.
                 Valid values include:
                 Q1+Q2 where Q1 is a date and Q2 is a quantity
                 Q1+100 where Q1 is a date and 100 days is added.
                 today-Q2 where the number of days in Q2 is subtracted from today's date (taken from the
                 PC settings) to generate a date.

 u          This type of variable is not visible in the Questionnaire, Interview or Prompted mode of data
            entry.


                                                     233
   Snap

Numeric Variables
Numeric Single Variable
Numeric Single Variables are used in the analysis of
replies to questions where the data is coded using digits,
plus/minus sign and/or a decimal point. This variable type
could be used to band a question quantity (with the name
of the question quantity as the source) or for analysing data
from external sources. As a single response variable is
defined, the respondent can choose only one answer, e.g.
What is your age?         
Unlike a Question Quantity Variable, which has a single
valid code, a Numeric Single Variable has up to 2 000
valid codes. However, a Numeric Single Variable will
not appear in a printed questionnaire, or on a data entry
screen in Questionnaire, Interview or Prompted mode.
The fields for a numeric single variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this section,
with the exception of the following:
Length         A number between 1 and 8 to represent the length of the field being captured. The source
               field is automatically updated after moving out of the length field, the format of which will,
               for example, be at (30 to 31) for a variable with a length of 2 characters.




                                                   234
Variables                                                                                                 Snap

Code labels Each code label can be up to 100 characters in length. Each code value can be up to 100
and values  characters to represent the valid numeric data as single items, ranges of items or a
            combination of both. For example:
                 Code         Label       Value
                 1            Under 18    1 to 17
                 2            18-25       18 to 25
                 3            Over 25     26 to 110
                 When lists of numbers are specified, use commas, e.g. 18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25.
                 When ranges of numbers are specified, either the word "to" or the tilde sign (~) is used, e.g.
                 1~17, 18 to 25.

 u          Although the minus sign can be used in the code label, e.g. 18-25, it must not be used in the code
            value to represent "to" as it will be regarded as a calculation, subtracting 25 from 18.




                                                      235
   Snap

Numeric Multiple Variable
Numeric Multiple Variables are similar to numeric single
variables, except that data can fall into more than one
group. When collecting continuous numeric values it is
sometimes difficult to predefine the data into ranges. By
using a Numeric Multiple Variable it is possible to test
out a number of different range specifications and more
quickly identify a possible solution, e.g.
What is your age?       




Although each respondent can only give a single response for his/her age, the analysis could be organised
into a number of overlapping groups. For example: "Under 18", "16 to 21", "18 to 25" and "25 and over".
The fields for a Numeric Multiple Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this
section, with the exception of the following:
Length       A number between 1 and 8 to represent the length of the field being captured. The default
             value is set to 8. In the example above, the length should be set to 3. The source field is
             automatically updated after moving out of the length field, the format of which will, for
             example, be at (30 to 31) for a variable with a length of 2 characters.




                                                236
Variables                                                                                                Snap

Code            Each code label can be up to 100 characters in length. Each code value can be up to 100
values          characters to represent the valid numeric data as either single items, ranges of items or a
                combination of both. For example:
                Code        Label        Value
                1           Under 18     1 to 17
                2           16-21        16 to 21
                3           18-25        18 to 25
                4           Over 25      25 to 99
                When lists of numbers are specified, use commas, e.g. 18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25.
                When ranges of numbers are specified, either the word "to" or the tilde sign (~) is used, e.g.
                1~17, 18 to 25

 u          Although the minus sign can be used in the code label, e.g. 18-25, it must not be used in the code
            value to represent "to". It will be regarded as a calculation, subtracting 25 from 18.



 u          This type of variable is not visible in the Questionnaire, Interview or Prompted mode of data
            entry.




                                                      237
   Snap

Numeric Quantity Variable
Numeric Quantity Variables are used to capture numeric
data without classification. A single code will be created
containing all valid responses. In format, it is similar to a
Question Quantity Variable, but cannot be incorporated
into a printed questionnaire or used in Questionnaire,
Interview or Prompted mode of data entry. This type of
variable can be used in analysing data from external sources,
e.g.
What was the weight of the package?
Other variable types, such as Derived Quantity Variables,
can be used to perform calculations on any Numeric
Quantity Variable.
The fields for a Numeric Quantity Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this
section, with the exception of the following:
Length        A number between 1 and 8 to represent the length of the field being captured. The default
              value is set to 8. In the example above, the length is set to 7 because there are a total number
              of 7 digits that can be accepted, including the decimal place. The source field is automatically
              updated after moving out of the length field, the format of which will, for example, be at (22
              to 28) for a variable with a length of 7 characters.
Decimal       A number between 1 and 7 specifying that the data will be stored to that number of decimal
places        places, even though the valid value might specify a value with more digits after the decimal
              place. The default value is 0 and in the above example, it is set to 4.
Valid label The valid label is pre-set to Valid. (To change the word Valid, access Tailor | Analysis and
and value   make any necessary changes). Only one code exists for a numeric quantity variable. The
            value should be a numeric list comprising up to 100 characters which specifies valid numeric
            data as either single items, ranges of items or a combination of both, e.g. 0.01 to 23.9999.
            This number represents the valid range and any value outside this range will be excluded and
            will be treated as an error.
                                                  238
Variables                                                                                                   Snap

Pre-coded Variables
Precoded Single Variable
Precoded Single Variables are used in the analysis of
replies to questions with a predefined list of coded answers
and where the respondent can choose only one. They
operate in a similar fashion to question single variables,
except that it is not possible to included pre-coded variables
in a printed questionnaire or in Questionnaire, Interview or
Prompted mode of data entry. This type of variable can be
used in analysing data from external sources, e.g.
Are you male or female?
Male         
Female       
The fields for a Precoded Single variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in this
section, with the exception of the following:
Length      A number between 1 and 3 represents the length of the field being captured. The default setting is
            1 and this will allow for up to 9 codes to be created. As the code list extends to 10, the length will
            be reset to 2, and when the code list extends beyond 99, it will be set to 3.
Code        Pre-defined values are generated from 1 to "n" to represent the valid value associated with the
values      code label. In the above example, a respondent reply of "Male" will be recorded in the data as a
            "1" and a "Female" as a "2". Once the list extends to 10, the length is increased to 2 and valid
            answers now become "01", "02" etc.
            In the event of the length field being set to 1, Snap will accept values from 1 to 9 and A to Z as
            valid codes. This results in 35 valid codes being available in one character position and is how
            Snap records data in compressed format. An "A" represents the 10th code, a "B" represents the
            11th code etc.


                                                       239
   Snap

Precoded Multiple Variable
Precoded Multiple Variables are used to analyse data from
questions with a pre-defined list of coded answers, where the
respondent can choose any, all, or none of those answers, e.g.
Which countries have you visited?
   Australia      
   Japan          
   UK             
   USA            
A Precoded Multiple Variable can capture raw data coded in any of 3 coding methods with the first method
being the default:

Format          Description
Field format    Data is stored in comma separated format. The above example has 4 possible answers and
                to allow the maximum responses, a length of 7 characters is allocated for the 4 answers plus
                a comma separating each answer. If the question has 6 answers, the length increases to 11,
                and when the number of answers extends to 10, the length extends to 29, to allow for 10
                codes of two characters (01, 02, 05 etc.) each plus nine commas. See page 270.
Single format   Data comprises a series of 1's and 0's (binary format) - as many as there are codes for the
                variable. Data for the example question (above) would occupy 4 positions and a respondent
                visiting the USA and the UK would be coded as 0011.
Multi format    Data can be accepted in the Snap multi punch format. In this method, up to six codes can
                be recorded in each position of the source field. Data would be entered against the format
                mask, with the code M used to represent up to 6 codes in 1 position, D to represent up to 12
                codes in 2 positions, T to represent up to 18 codes in 3 positions, or Q to represent up to 24
                codes in 4 positions.



                                                  240
Variables                                                                                            Snap

 u          This format can only be used with data keyed in Snap.



Each code label can be up to 1000 characters and the values will be stored in whichever method as shown in
the coding field.




                                                      241
    Snap

Alphanumeric Variables
Alphanumeric Single Variable
Alphanumeric Single Variables are widely used in
analysing data from external sources, particularly when
the replies are held as characters and/or numbers and then
coded in the variable in up to 2000 groups or codes. The
response of single indicates that the respondent can only
select one answer from the list, e.g.
Which airport did you fly from?        
(Enter the 3 character International Airport code, e.g.
Heathrow=LHR)



This type of variable may be used to capture data where the coding method used is not compatible with the
pre-defined codes used by a Precoded Single Variable. The data is usually easier to recognise in its raw
state of letters and numbers. For instance, in the above example, the responses could be coded using the
three letter codes for each airport, i.e. LHR, for London Heathrow, JFK for New York etc.
The majority of fields for this variable are of a form as previously described, with the exception of:
Length       A number between 1 and 999 to represent the length of the field being captured. The source
             field is automatically updated after moving out of the length field, the format of which will, for
             example, be at (10 to 12) for a variable with a length of 3 characters.




                                                    242
Variables                                                                                               Snap

Code           A minimum of 1 code and a maximum of 2000 codes are permissible. Each code can have a
values         label of up to 100 characters and a value of up to 100 characters, e.g. LHR
               If lower and upper case values are both expected, then both values would need to be recorded.
               For example: LHR,lhr
               If two or more values are to be grouped together into one code, for example Heathrow and
               Gatwick to form "London", the label would be set to London and the value would be set to the
               values expected, namely LHR,LGW
               If the values might be right justified, the values should be set in quotes, for example " LH".
               The space is required to indicate the location of the characters.

 u          This type of variable is not visible in the Questionnaire, Interview or Prompted mode of data
            entry.

Alphanumeric Multiple Variable
Alphanumeric Multiple Variables are used in the analysis
of replies to questions where the respondent can choose more
than one answer and where the data is coded using
combinations of letters and numbers, e.g.
Which airport(s) would you have preferred?
                                        
(Enter 3 character International Airport Code for each airport,
e.g. Heathrow=LHR)


LHRHKGJFK followed by 3 blank characters to make up the total of 12.
The fields for an Alphanumeric Multiple Variable generally follow the same rules as described earlier in
this section, with the exception of the following:




                                                     243
   Snap

Length         A number between 1 and 999 to represent the total length of the field being captured. The
               length must be divisible by the item length. The source field is automatically updated after
               moving out of the length field, the format of which will, for example, be at (30 to 41) for a
               variable with a length of 12 and an item length of 3 characters.
Item length    The length of the raw data to be referenced for each possible response expressed as a number
               between 1 and 16. The item length must produce a whole number when the length is divided
               by it (see above).
Value(s)       An alphanumeric list comprising up to 100 characters. Upper and lower case letters will form
               different values. If the data is left justified, then answers that do not use the full item length
               will be assumed to have blanks for the remainder of the length. However, if the data is to be
               right justified then leading spaces will be necessary and the entire value must be specified in
               quotation marks. For example:
               LONDON                    left-justified data
               "   LONDON"               right-justified data
               LONDON, london            upper & lower case

 u         This type of variable is not visible in the Questionnaire, Interview or Prompted mode of data
           entry.




                                                    244
Variables In Detail                                                              Snap



VARIABLES IN DETAIL
This section gives you more details of the technical aspects of the variables.
Contents
246        Name
248        Label
249        Type
251        Response
255        Text
257        Codes
258        Code List
259        Errors
260        Not Asked
261        No Reply
262        Code Label
264        Value
265        Counts
266        Source
269        Sequence
270        Length
271        Coding
272        Must Answer

                                                      245
   Snap

Name


The Name of the variable is used throughout Snap to reference a
particular question on the questionnaire. It should have a letter as
the first character and be no longer than 16 characters in length.
The letter Q is reserved as the first letter of variables of type
Question. The other 7 characters can be any number, letter or
other valid character, including the full stop (.).




Examples of valid names        Q1, Q1A, Q1.1, Q1.b, QA, AGE, age.grp
                               COUNTRY, V1, V100.1, V1_2,
                               QUALIFICATION
Examples of invalid names      1 or 1.1 (neither start with a letter A-Z),
                               QUALIFICATION
                               AGE/GRP (invalid / character used)
The default naming convention for all variables other than those of type Question is to start with the letter V.
For example V1, V100, but this can be overwritten.




                                                    246
Variables In Detail                                                    Snap

Each variable name must be unique. If an attempt is made to save a
variable with the same name as an existing variable, Snap will first
highlight the variable name in red and a warning message will
appear. The variable will not be saved.
Upper case or lower case letters may be used in names but they are
considered equivalent, for example, AGE, Age and age will be
treated as the same variable name.




                                                    247
    Snap

Label


The Label is a full description of the variable that will appear in the data window and on all analysis reports.
This is not to be confused with the question text, which will appear on a printed questionnaire and on the
screen when interviewing.
The maximum limit on the number of characters in the variable label is 1000, but care should be taken to set
up labels of a sensible size. Using long labels as the column of a table will be okay, but may appear cramped
if used as the row of a table.
The text of the variable label is automatically set up when creating the question text in the Questionnaire
window. A copy of the full question text is copied to the variable label field and truncated to 45 characters.
It can therefore be taken as a short form of the full question text.
The text of the variable label is automatically
introduced into the Label field of the Results
Definition dialog box, when a variable is specified in
the analysis field or the break field. Snap has the
capability to apply substitution within a variable
label, i.e. the label of one variable can be fed into the
label of a subsequent variable. Simply type the
reference into the label field, e.g. Amount spent on
{Q1}. Note that you must use the braces (curly
brackets) and the reference must be to the name of a
variable that precedes the current one.
When a variable containing a text substitution
reference is used in results, such as charts and tables
or the Data View mode of the questionnaire window,
it displays the referenced variable's label, e.g.
Amount spent on items ordered.


                                                     248
Variables In Detail                                                                                    Snap

Type


There are a total of 7 Types of variable within Snap and the most
widely used variable type is a Question Type. It is the only variable
type that can be presented in any questionnaire layout.




The full list of Question Types is:

 Type           Description
 Question       The most commonly used (and the default) variable type in Snap, allowing for a full range of
                questions from single or multiple response, literals, quantities/numbers or dates.
                This is the only variable type that can be included in a printed questionnaire, or in
                Questionnaire, Prompted or Interview mode of data entry, other than a Note type, which
                is used for Titles, Sub-titles and Instructions.
 Derived        Deriving combinations of codes, or performing calculations on other variables to generate
                new values. For example, a category of "Male Under 25" would be a combination of the
                value for "Male" in one variable and "Under 25" in another variable.
 Note           Headings and notes can be prepared within the questionnaire and are stored as variables.
 Precoded       Defining questions with only coded responses, either single or multiple. Widely used with
                the fast mode of data entry, or for defining survey files being imported from other systems.
 Numeric        Defining numeric data fields of up to 8 digits in length. Widely used with the fast mode of
                data entry, or for defining survey files being imported from other systems.


                                                    249
  Snap

Type       Description
Alpha-     Both alphabetic and numeric data being grouped into as many as 2000 categories or codes.
numeric    Widely used with the fast mode of data entry, or for defining survey files being imported
           from other systems.
Compound   Combining together the values of other types of variables, in a similar manner to a derived
           variable.




                                            250
Variables In Detail                                                                               Snap

Response


Each type of variable has an associated response, and it is the categorisation of data that defines the
particular usage of each variable type:

 Response     Contents                                        Example
 Single       A question with a pre-set list of possible Are you male or female? Single reply
              answers (maximum of 2000), only one of which given, either Male or Female.
              can be given or ticked.
                                                           How do you rate the quality of service?
                                                           Possible replies given in the range "Very
                                                           good" to "Very poor".
 Multiple     A question with a pre-set list of possible Which of the following items did you order
              answers (maximum of 2000), any number of today?
              which can be given.
 Quantity     A question designed to collect numeric How much did you spend in total?
              information in the form of digits, + or - signs
              and decimal points.
 Literal      A question designed to collect any character What else did you order?
              information, including both letters and numbers
                                                              Are there any other comments that you
              of up to 999 characters.
                                                              would like to make?
 Date         A question designed to capture dates in a wide Please enter today's date.
              range of formats, entering the day, month and
              year.    Allowances are made for different
              international standards. Up to 20 characters are
              allocated to store the date.




                                                  251
   Snap

 Response     Contents                                            Example
 None         If a heading is created in the questionnaire, then Customer Satisfaction Survey
              the Type will be set to Note and the Response
                                                                 Dear customer ........
              will be set to None. No other variable type can
              use the response of None.

Most questions fall clearly into one of the above responses. However, in our experience, questions set up to
be single response are often regarded as multiple response when the questionnaire is actually completed.
Instead of selecting one category, the respondent ticks more than one. If you feel that this situation may arise
with any particular question, you would be advised to set it up as multiple. Changing from single to multiple
at a later stage is possible, but is best avoided.


The two question types of Multi Choice/Grid and open-ended each have an associated Response topic, to
specify the number and format of possible replies.




                                                    252
Variables In Detail                                                                                     Snap

Multi Choice (Grid): Single or Multiple




Multi Choice questions provide a list of up to 2000 possible answers and the response can be set to Single
(to allow for one and only one answer to be given) or Multiple (to allow for any number of answers to be
given).
The default setting for Multi Choice questions is Multiple ensuring that in all situations the replies can be
entered and analysed. Questions are often designed with an expectation that only one answer will be given,
and a single response is anticipated. However, when the questionnaires are completed, a different
interpretation might arise from the question and more than one answer is given.
In the event of changing between Single and Multiple, Snap will reorganise the space allowed for each
answer. If no data has been entered from completed questionnaires, Snap will reallocate the space
(represented as Source in the Variable Details window, see page 266) of all questions in the questionnaire.
In the event of data already existing from completed questionnaires, Snap will allocate any extra space
required, at the end of each data record.
When making changes to the response options, the Style Selection Box setting on the questionnaire is
irrelevant. If you wish to change an individual question, simply click on the response required. If you wish
to change the response of all questions of that style, then select the response required and click on
           . This button also changes all questions using a style based upon the one being amended, e.g.
unnamed and renamed styles.


       The default setting for Grid First and Grid Next is Single response.




                                                    253
    Snap

Open Ended/Other: Quantity, Literal or Date




Open Ended questions provide a single box or line(s) to gather either text or numbers. The Response can
be set to Literal (to gather any free format text including characters or numbers), or Quantity to gather just
numeric data, which includes digits together with the symbols for positive (+), negative (-) and decimal
places (.). No currency characters can be entered in a quantity response. The third alternative is a Response
of Date, which allows you to collect a date value in a range of different formats (see page 226 for further
details on Dates).
In the event of changing between Quantity, Literal and Date, Snap will reorganise the space allowed for
each answer, in one of two ways:
If no data has been entered from completed questionnaires, Snap will reallocate the space (represented as
Source in the Variable Details window; see page 266) of all questions in the questionnaire.
In the event of data already existing from completed questionnaires, Snap will allocate any extra space
required, at the end of each data record.
Snap automatically allocates 8 characters (i.e. a length of 8) for a quantity response, 20 characters for a Date
Response and allocates a number of characters equivalent to the size of the box/area created for a literal
response question (up to 9999 characters). The number of characters allocated for a Literal is determined by
the size of the box/line and the font setting for the Data element of the question. For example, a full line/box
in Arial 10 font will allocate 24 characters for the variable. If the font is reduced to Arial 6, 40 characters are
allocated, and for Arial 4, it represents 59 characters.
When making changes to the response options, the Style Selection Box setting on the questionnaire is
irrelevant. If you wish to change an individual question, simply click on the response required. If you wish
to change the response of all questions of that style then select the response required and click on
           . This button also changes all questions using a Style based upon the one being amended, e.g.
unnamed and renamed Styles.



                                                     254
Variables In Detail                                            Snap

Text




Up to 9999 characters of text can be placed in the
text field of a variable. This text will appear as
the question in the questionnaire window, and
also in the data window when in questionnaire or
interview mode.




Snap has the capability to apply substitution
within the text field of a variable, i.e. the response
of one variable can be fed into the text of a
subsequent variable. Simply type the reference
into the text field, e.g. "How much did you spend
in total on {Q1}?" Note that you must use braces
(curly brackets) and the reference must be to the
name of a variable that precedes the current one.
The result of the text substitution will be visible
in the questionnaire and interview modes of data
entry and in the Data View mode of
questionnaire design.




                                                         255
    Snap



Source (substituted) question type     Result of substitution
Single                                 The code label of the selected response.
Multiple                               The code labels separated by "," or "and". For example, "A, B and
                                       C".    The separator can be changed by selecting Tailor |
                                         d a cd
                                       A v n e … , clicking on the tab marked General and setting the
                                       separating character or text in the section marked Multi response
                                       variables.
Quantity                               The reply given by the respondent.
Date
Literal



 ?         The 'and' inserted when the referenced variable is a multiple response can be changed if the survey
           is to be conducted in a language other than English. The settings for this option are stored in the
           Snap8.ini file (to be found in the Windows folder on your PC). To change the separating
                               al o        vne…
           character, select T i r|Ad a c d , click on the tab marked General and set the separating
           character or text in the section marked Multi response variables.



 u         Note that once you have used text substitution, you will be unable to renumber/rename the
           referenced variable.




                                                   256
Variables In Detail                                                                                    Snap

Codes


This field shows the number of Codes that have currently been created, up to the maximum of 2000 for a
Single or Multiple response. It is possible to overwrite the value/number of codes for a Single and Multiple
response variable and, when the variable is saved, then Snap will either add or delete codes at the bottom of
the code list to match the number set within this field. In the event of this number being beyond the
maximum of 2000 codes, then Snap will save the variable with the original setting for this field.
For variables with a response of Quantity, Literal or Date, the maximum number of codes is 1.




                                                    257
    Snap

Code List
The Code List shows up to 2000 codes (the counts
for which are defined as Valid in the Variables
window) that have been set up for an individual
variable. There will be as many codes in the Code
List as there are known answers. For example, a
question, such as Q10 on gender will have a Code
List of 2 codes representing Male, Female. The
variable Q9 has 5 codes covering from Under 18 to
Over 60.
For variables with a response setting of Literal, Quantity or Date, a single Valid code will be set up. The
details of valid code values will be discussed in more detail later in this section under each combination of
Type and Response.
In addition to the valid codes, there are 3 codes to cover missing values, each of which is covered in detail:

 Code           Description
 No Reply       When the respondent failed to answer. This code is intended to signify a non-response, but
                can also be used to identify one response which must be exclusive of all others in a Multi
                Choice question e.g. "None of the above".
 Not Asked      When the respondent was not asked the question. This code encompasses a conditional
                statement, which determines whether or not the data is relevant and hence whether it is to be
                inspected. As the name implies, this code can be used to indicate routing on a questionnaire
                in questionnaire, interview or prompted mode of data entry. It can also be thought of as Not
                Applicable and used, for example, to filter out unwanted data when using compound and
                derived variables.
 Errors         To record any values that fall outside the range of valid answers. This code does not need to
                be set up by the user, since an error response will occur if the data is not captured by any of
                the other codes (either missing or the valid codes).


                                                    258
Variables In Detail                                                                                        Snap

Errors
The Errors category appears first in the Variable
Details window, above Not Asked, No Reply and
the valid code list.
The Errors category is intended to "catch" all data
that does not correspond to any of the other
categories. For example, if Q2 has been set up as 1
for Yes and 2 for No, and the data appears in the raw
data file as any value other than 1 or 2, then it will be
classified as an error.
If Snap is used to capture the data, then the likelihood of recording such errors is minimised, as the data entry
stage will flag errors as they are entered, and the user will be provided with a warning. The concept of errors
is most relevant when files of data are imported from other sources and may contain data outside the
specified range.
For Question Literals, if no value has been specified as a value in the OK code, then there will never be any
errors recorded, as any reply will be accepted as valid.
For Question Date Variables, any data that is an invalid date, such February 30th 1998, will be coded as
error, as will any dates keyed in a different format to the default set on the PC.
For Question Quantity Variables, any data that contains characters that are not numbers or a + or - sign, or
a full stop (.) will be coded as Error. If valid numbers are located, they must be in the correct sequence. A
value of 23-3.8 has valid characters but in the wrong sequence and will coded as an error.
For a Derived Variable, where reference is made to other variables, the occurrence of a value in the Errors
code will indicate that the variables that are referenced do themselves contain errors.
The Errors code can be used to locate data in error, by using a filter specification as the name of the variable
together with the keyword ER, for example, Q2 ER.




                                                        259
   Snap

Not Asked
Not Asked conditions are set to assist with the
routing in a questionnaire and with survey analysis,
by excluding certain categories of respondents.

In data entry, all questions are asked in the order of the sequence number, but Snap has the ability to skip
over questions that are not relevant. For example:
In the Crocodile Customer Satisfaction survey, Q4 asks "What items did you order?" and Q4a asks "What
other items did you order?" Q4a is only relevant if the answer to Q4 was not on the predefined list, and the
reply was Other.
Snap can be set up to skip over Q4a if the respondent failed to reply Other to Q4, based on the contents of
the Not Asked field. The setting of the Not Asked code in variable Q4a will be UNLESS Q4=8.
The format of Not Asked codes is varied. The word UNLESS can be included as with the above example
UNLESS Q4=8 or the format can be reversed, e.g. Q4=(1 to 7). See Logical Operators in User Guide
 ,I r ut no
    no i              uvy” o dtl f os l ha n o pg 78
                                      as       ie s g
1“ t dco t Snap sres fr e i o ps b pr i ,r ae onwards in this user guide.
It is not necessary to set a Not Asked category on every variable, and if this is the case, then the default is
simply to ask that question. It is not essential to set up the Not Asked code before the survey is under way
as they can always be set up later.
A sensible rule would be:
          1.   Set up the questionnaire first.
          2.   Print the questionnaire and check that all the possible questions have been asked
               in the right order.
          3.   Allocate the Not Asked categories only when the questionnaire has been
               finalised.

 u        Note that once you have used Not Asked values, you will be unable to renumber/rename the
          referenced variable.


                                                   260
Variables In Detail                                                                                      Snap

No Reply
The No Reply category covers the situation where a
response to a question is not given.


In the case of single response variables, a zero or blank entered during the data entry stage is automatically
assumed to be a No Reply value.
For Literal, Date and Quantity response variables, the No Reply code can be set up so that a specific value
must be entered during data entry to record a No Reply value. For Quantity response variables, a code 9 or
a code 99 is often allocated as the No Reply value.
In the situation of Derived and Compound Variables, the No Reply category should be a logical formula
(such as Q1 NR, which means that a No Reply is recorded if a No Reply was also recorded in Q1).




                                                     261
   Snap

Code Label
For each of the 2000 codes available, a Code Label can be set up by the user. Each label can be up to 1 000
characters in length. If no Code Label is supplied, then a default label of Code Label is created.
In the case of Not Asked and No Reply labels,
these are pre-set by the software, but can be
altered by accessing Tailor | Analysis, where
the default settings for these can be altered.
The next time a variable is accessed, these
amended labels will be incorporated in the
Variable Details window.
All variables with a response of Literal, Quantity or Date will only have a single code and the label for that
code will be Valid. To alter this label, Tailor | Analysis should be accessed to make any required
amendments.
Snap has the capability to apply substitution within a code label, i.e.
code labels from one variable can be fed into the code label of a
subsequent variable. Simply type the reference into the code label
field(s), e.g. {Q1} were good. Note that you must use the braces (curly
brackets) and the reference must be to the name of a variable that
precedes the current one.




                                                   262
Variables In Detail                                                    Snap

When a variable containing a text substitution reference is used in
results, such as charts and tables or in Data View mode, it displays
the referenced variable's label, e.g. "Items ordered were good".
 e U e G i 3 “ a n y frn r ao o t f co t
              d           a r            f
Se sr u e ,D tet ” o i om t n n h e et fet      i        e f x
substitution in the label field with regard to data entry.




                                                    263
   Snap

Value
For each of the maximum of 2000 codes,
there is a Value associated with each label.
Whereas the Label is text that may appear in
the questionnaire and will appear in any
analyses, the Value represents the valid data
value associated with the label for that code.
The Value can not exceed more than 100
characters in length.




For many tick/check box questions, the valid values start at 1 and increment by one for each code. In the
example shown, a Value of 1 is recorded in the raw data file if "Hamburger" was selected, and a Value of 2
is recorded for "French fries".
For variables with a response of Quantity, Literal or Date, only 1 valid code is available and therefore only
1 associated Value. This is often left blank to denote that any value can be accepted as valid, but it is
possible to include range checks where necessary. For example, a check on the age range of a respondent,
which for a survey of adults might be 18 to 110. If the variable is a derived variable the Value must make
reference to another existing variable, e.g. Q4>5.




                                                  264
Variables In Detail                                                                                     Snap

Counts
The value in Counts represents the number of
respondents that fall into each particular
category as represented by the individual code
value.


When a variable is first created, no values will appear in the Counts field. If data does already exist, then
the value under Counts will be shown when the variable is next accessed either in the Variables window or
as part of the definition of a table or chart.
If data does already exist and a new variable is created, the value of counts can be shown without the need
for closing the Variable Details window. Click         in the Variable Details window and the count will
automatically be calculated and displayed. The time taken to calculate the count will depend upon the
volume of data to be processed and the complexity of the variable being created.




                                                    265
   Snap

Source
The Source is the physical location on the raw data record where the reply to the
question/variable is stored. In its simplest form, it is a value between 1 and the
length of the entire data record. For example at (12 to 61) would refer to
character positions 12 to 61 inclusive, a total of 50 characters. As an alternative
to specifying the start and finish positions, it is quite acceptable to specify the
start position and the length, e.g. at (12 for 50).
It should also be remembered that the Source can refer to the
names of other variables in the survey: for example, a
question quantity could be the source of a numeric variable
(see example right).




 u        Be careful when changing the source manually, particularly if you have already entered any case
          data/replies, as it may invalidate those replies already entered. Wherever possible, allow Snap to
          change the contents of the source field in the Questionnaire window.




                                                   266
Variables In Detail                                                                                           Snap

Reference to Raw Data
The Source field relates to the physical location of the answer to a question on the raw data record. It is
calculated by determining the number of characters allocated for answering each question. Snap will attempt
to calculate both the source and the length, but it is important to understand the principle. In an example
survey of three questions:
 Q1     Monthly member            has a Yes/No answer and requires a single character to record a 1 for Yes or a 2
                                  for No.
 Q2     Units used                an answer in the range 0 to 9999 is expected and 4 characters are allocated for
                                  the reply.
 Q3     Job grade                 a maximum of 7 characters is allocated to store the possible range of replies
The information for Q1, Q2 and Q3 are stored on the raw data record as follows:
                      1       2       3     4    5      6    7     8       9   10   11    12
                      Q1      Q2                     Q3                           


                                   Variable      Source                Length
                                   Q1            at 1                  1
                                   Q2            at (2 to 5)           4
                                   Q3            at (6 for 7)          7

Conventions Used in Defining Raw Data
The conventions used to define raw data include:
"at" which is synonymous with "@".
"to" is equivalent to "~".
"for" is equivalent to "#".
Brackets are required when more than one source value is specified.
                                                   267
   Snap

The example used above mentions Q2. There are a number of ways of defining the source of this variable,
all of which have the same result:
               at (2 to 5)          at (2,3,4,5)           @ (2 to 5)         @ (2,3,4,5)
               at (2~5)             at (2 for 4)           @(2~5)             @(2#4)

Reference to Other Variables
The source of a variable can also be the name of another variable. This can be used to carry out calculations.
For example, a survey might ask for the percentage of business taken up by particular aspects and a check
can then be made to see if the result is 100%. The questions might be: Q1 "What percentage of your
business is in your home market?" followed by Q2 "What percentage of your business is export?" The
answers to the two questions could be added together, set up in the source of another variable as Q1+Q2 and
displayed as a question on the questionnaire. See page 208 for further details.

Including Case Numbers on the Questionnaire
The word CASE can be used as the source of a question quantity, and in this situation the current case
number will appear in the variable. This is of particular use in the questionnaire, where the next case number
or questionnaire number can automatically appear in the questionnaire.


        The source field is only applicable for variables with a type Question, Precoded, Alphanumeric or
          Numeric, i.e. those variables that reference raw data. It is not relevant for variables with a type of
          Derived, Compound or Note.




                                                    268
Variables In Detail                                                                                 Snap

Sequence
The Sequence field determines the order in which questions appear on the
questionnaire and in a table using to in the Analysis or Break fields. Snap will
select variables to appear in ascending sequence number order.
The order in which questions are asked in Questionnaire, Interview and Prompted mode of data entry is
primarily determined by the sequence number. However, if there are any questions on which a particular
question is dependent, then that question will be asked first.
Should Snap locate more than one variable with the same Sequence Number, it will ask the questions in the
order in which they were first entered.
Variables can be moved around in the Variables Window by clicking and dragging a variable. This will
change the sequence number accordingly. Ensure the Questionnaire Window is closed and click on the
Tailor button         which will open the Variable Tailoring dialog box. Ensure Variable Order is set to
Sequence and click on                . You can now click and drag a variable to a new position within the
Variable Window.




       Remember that the Sequence Number is simply a number to denote an order, the precise value
         does not have a specific meaning, and it should not get confused with the source number.




                                                   269
   Snap

Length
The maximum number of characters allocated to store the reply. For a question with a
Yes/No answer, the Length would be 1. For a question such as income requiring a numeric
response, the Length might be 6 or 8.
This field is only applicable for variables with a type Question, Precoded, Alphanumeric or Numeric, i.e.
those variables which reference raw data. It indicates the length of the required data, that is the number of
columns taken up within a raw data case.
The minimum Length is 1 and the maximum is 9999.
In the case of an Alphanumeric Multiple the Length must be an integer multiple of the item length i.e. the
length divided by the item length must produce a whole number (see below).
The Length of a variable denotes the maximum number of characters required to store the largest/longest
possible value. For example, if an answer in the range of 1-4 were expected, a Length of 1 would be
sufficient. If an answer of up to 999 were expected, a Length of 3 would be required. If a company name
were to be collected, a Length of perhaps 30 would be more suitable.
Multiple Response questions are slightly different when it comes to working out the length, because Snap
needs to be able to store more than one answer to a question. The respondent may have ticked just one
answer, they may have ticked more than one, or they may have ticked all of the answers. The precise
method used to store Multiple Response data varies as a function of the Length and the number of codes.
Snap will use the field method as a default (see page 271), but if the length field of the variable is altered
manually then the method of storage may need to change.




                                                   270
Variables In Detail                                                                                   Snap

Coding
The Coding is an indication of the method used to store respondent data in the raw data
file and is particularly relevant to variables with a response of multiple. The method
used will be determined by the response and length set for the variable. Although, Snap
will set the Coding automatically, and use Field for question and pre-coded type
variables, the Coding will change if fields such as response and length are changed
manually in the Variable Details window.
The four methods are:
Field: This is the default method used. Data is stored in comma separated format and sufficient space is
allocated to hold a response for every possible code or answer. For example, a variable with 6 codes would
occupy a length of 11 characters to allow for a comma between each reply, and the data for a respondent
ticking boxes 1, 4 and 5 would be held as "1,4,5". When the number of codes exceeds 9, two digits are then
allowed for each answer. Consequently, a variable with 18 codes would occupy 53 characters (18 x 2, plus
17 commas).
Multi: This is the traditional method used by Snap to compress data as much as possible and up to 6 answers
are stored in each character. Consequently, a variable with 18 possible answers would take up 3 characters.
Single: The extended format of storing data with 1 column for each possible answer (binary format).
Consequently, a question with 5 possible answers will occupy 5 characters and will store the answer as a
series of 0's and 1's. Data that was stored as 00101 would represent a valid or "Yes" response to codes 3
and 5. Although 0's and 1's are generally used, Y's and N's would generate the same result.
Item Length: Data is recorded in space delimited format as a string of numbers. This method is only used
for alphanumeric multiple variables. A variable with 6 single character values would occupy a length of 6
characters. A variable of 6 codes, each with a 3-character reply, would occupy 18 characters.




                                                   271
   Snap

Must Answer
The Must Answer option is available on all variables of the type Question. This option
would apply to CATI, CAPI and other questionnaires carried out using on-screen
interviewing techniques.
When Must Answer is chosen, the setting for Allow No Replies in Data Entry Tailoring (if selected) is
ignored for that particular question, so that the respondent is forced to give an answer to the question asked,
as No Reply is not accepted.




                                                   272
Glossary                                                             Snap



GLOSSARY
This section takes you through the terminology in this user guide.

Contents
274        Glossary of Terms




                                                   273
   Snap

Glossary of Terms
CAPI                Computer Aided Personal Interviewing in which face to face interviews are
                    conducted with the interviewer reading the questions from, and recording the
                    responses on, a computer. Use the interview or questionnaire mode of data entry in
                    Snap for conducting CAPI surveys.
Case                The collective term for the responses given to all questions by (or for) one
                    respondent. The data in a case typically represents the result of performing one
                    interview. Snap can work with up to 100,000 cases (100 million for DBX version).
CATI                Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing in which an interview is conducted via the
                    telephone. The interviewer reads questions out to the interviewee and records their
                    responses on the computer.
Classified data     Data which is categorised. Of the five classifications of data in Snap, single and
                    multiple response data is categorised; quantity, date and literal response data is
                    continuous.
Code                As questions have answers, so variables have codes.
Column binary       A term used to describe data recorded in a punched card format. There are a number
                    of different coding schemes resulting in 3 or 4 different column binary formats. The
                    schemes aim to encode columns of a punched card (each with up to 12 punch
                    positions, or bits) onto magnetic media (tapes or disc) where the unit is a byte (of
                    only 8 bits). Most schemes store one card column in two bytes thus a typical
                    punched card image occupies 160 bytes when stored magnetically.
Compressed format   The alternative to Extended format is Compressed and it is a method of storing
                    multiple response answers in a multi punch format. In this method, up to six codes
                    can be recorded in each position. Data would be entered against the format mask
                    codes M (1 position, 6 codes), D (2 positions, 12 codes), T (3 positions, 18 codes) or
                    Q (1 position, 24 codes). Consequently 125 multiple response answers can be stored
                    in as few as 21 positions rather than the 125 positions in extended format. This is
                    known as multi coding in Snap.

                                              274
Glossary                                                                                            Snap

Continuous data   Data that is not categorised, sometimes termed open-ended data. Of the five
                  classifications of data in Snap, quantity, date and literal response data is continuous;
                  single and multiple response data is categorised.
Date              A form of open-ended response in which the respondent enters date information in a
                  range of different formats. Such responses are used to filter analyses or are analysed
                  by first categorising them through derived variables.
Derived           Derived variables are used to refine and re-classify responses to questions and other
                  derived variables for analysis. For example, responses to the (quantity) question
                  'How much did you spend?' could be banded using a derived single variable.
Drag-and-drop     Terminology in Windows for picking up an item with a mouse, dragging it to
                  another section of the program, and dropping it in place.
Errors            One of the three (Snap) categories of missing data. Data takes on an error value
                  when it doesn't fall into any of the remaining categories (of No Reply, Not Asked or
                  Valid).
Extended format   Another of Snap's methods storing multiple response survey data. Single punched,
                  multiple response data is comprised of a series of 1's and 0's - as many as there are
                  codes for the variable. A question with 6 possible answers would occupy 6 positions
                  and a response to answers codes 2 and 3 would be coded as 011000. Alternatively,
                  Snap will recognise that Y (for Yes) is equivalent to 1 and N (for No) is equivalent to
                  0 and so the data could be entered as NYYNNN. This is known as single coding in
                  Snap.
Length            The number of characters required to store the longest/largest possible value in a
                  variable.




                                               275
   Snap

Literal             A form of open-ended response in which the respondent describes some aspect. For
                    example "Why do you say that?" Literal responses may be analysed by producing
                    data listings for manual review.
                    As a variable response, a literal can be used to collect any alphanumeric data,
                    whether it is comments or lists of products, job titles, countries etc. The maximum
                    length of the variable set up to collect literal responses is 999 characters.
Missing data        Data which has not been recorded for some reason or another. In Snap there are
                    three categories of missing data: Not Asked, No Reply and Errors. Data that is not
                    missing is categorised as Valid.
Multiple response   A form of response in which the respondent can make more than one selection from
                    a predefined (multiple-choice) list. For example the question "Which of these items
                    do you have in your home? TV; Radio; Video; Camcorder" is a multiple response
                    question. In operation multiple response questions are similar to a series of Yes/No
                    single response questions: "Do you have a TV? Yes/No"; "Do you have a Radio?
                    Yes/No" and so on.
Multipunch          A form of encoding (typically multiple response) data so that a combination of two
                    or more responses is represented by a single character. The term comes from the
                    technique employed when punched cards were the main computerised recording
                    medium for survey data and the multiple response data was represented by punching
                    multiple holes in one column. Within Snap, multi-punch data can be set up in
                    compressed format and records up to six responses per position (or column), a total
                    of 64 combinations of answer. This is known as multi coding in Snap.
No Reply            One of the three (Snap) categories of missing data. No Reply is used to represent the
                    situation in which a respondent should have given an answer to a question but
                    actually didn't. Reasons for not responding might be because the respondent refused
                    (the question was too probing), because they didn't understand the routing through
                    the questionnaire, or because they simply didn't understand the question. No attempt
                    is made (within Snap) to distinguish which of these forms is actually the case.



                                              276
Glossary                                                                                            Snap

Not Asked       One of the three (Snap) categories of missing data. Not Asked data represents
                instances where a question is skipped during an interview because it is considered
                irrelevant due to replies already received. It can be read, and interpreted, as 'Not
                Applicable'
Precoded        A form of data coding (and type of variable) in which responses are recorded as their
                position in the list of answers for the question. That is, a response to the first answer
                is recorded as '1', to the second answer as '2' and so on. Answers beyond 9 are
                recorded as two digit numbers (e.g. '10' for answer 10) or single letters (e.g. 'A' for
                10).
Punched card    Medium on which survey data was traditionally recorded. A card comprises 80
                columns of information recorded by punching a combination of 12 holes - each card
                thus has a possible 960 punch positions. Some survey analysis software still refers
                to data in the form of punched cards. Snap is able to analyse up to 1 000 000
                columns of data per respondent, equivalent to over 12 500 'cards' worth of
                information.
Quantity        A form of open-ended response in which the respondent quantifies some aspect. For
                example "How old are you?" Such responses are used to filter or weight analyses or
                are analysed by first categorising them through derived or numeric variables.
Question        A specific type of variable used to collect data as well as analyse it.
Questionnaire   A form made up of a series of questions to be put to a respondent.
Rating          Ratings or scores are used as a means of summarising results to attitude. For
                example, given the question "What do you think of Snap? Good/OK/Poor", it is
                useful to be able to arrive at a single result, which summarises all responses; scores
                give a way of doing this. Scores are assigned to each answer category (e.g. a score
                of 1 is given to 'Good', a score of 0 to 'OK' and a score of -1 is given to 'Poor') then a
                mean score can be calculated.
Respondent      The subject of one interview. Typically, a respondent is a person but it may be a
                house (in a survey of houses), a vehicle (in a survey of vehicles) or almost anything
                else.

                                              277
   Snap

Response          A field on each variable definition. Five responses are available: single, multiple,
                  quantity, date or literal. The response will determine the number of replies that are
                  possible and the way in which they are recorded.
Routing           The order in which questions on a questionnaire are asked. In Snap, these conditions
                  are set as Not Asked code values in the variables.
Single punch      A form of encoding data so that one response is represented by one (or more)
                  characters. The term comes from the technique employed when punched cards were
                  the main computerised recording medium for survey data and holes were punched in
                  a column to record a response. Do not confuse single punch with multiple response
                  data. Multiple response data can be recorded by single punches in Snap, when data
                  is stored in extended format.
Single response   A form of response in which the respondent can make only one selection from a
                  predefined (multi choice) list. For example "What is your age? - Under 18, 18-24,
                  25-40, over 40."
Skip patterns     The order in which questions on a questionnaire are asked, and referred to in Snap as
                  routing. It is controlled by the Not Asked code values of a variable.
SnIF              Snap Interchange Format. It is a format that enables any or all variables, weights or
                  batches to be moved between surveys. SnIF is the format used to "Cut and Paste"
                  individual variables between different surveys and is the default (and option of
                  choice) for Import and Export operations.
Source            The physical location of the answer to a question on the raw data record.
Tailor            The Tailor facility provides a means of configuring various parameters that affect the
                  way operations are performed throughout the program. Any changes to these
                  parameters can be used on a temporary basis or stored as part of the current survey.
                  The settings held within the Tailor options are the defaults for the current survey.
                  Tailor | Current Window       will tailor whichever window is currently highlighted,
                  and its effect will be immediate on the information displayed in that window.



                                            278
Glossary                                                                                    Snap

SurveyPak     These are pre-assembled collections of questions, headings and code frames, which
              focus on a particular subject area.
Template      Layout, styling and colour information that can be used to change the appearance of
              a questionnaire.
triple-sSSS   An interchange format for moving survey definitions and survey data between
              different survey analysis packages.
Valid         Data which represents an acceptable reply to a question, or an acceptable response
              for a derived variable. Data which is not missing.
Variable      Variables are used to represent questions and derived values recording the views,
              opinions and parameters of respondents for analysis.




                                          279
  Snap

Your Notes




             280
Index                                                                                                                                                                             Snap



INDEX

                                         A
Adding graphics ................................................................ 180            Copying questions ...............................................................43
Adding questions................................................................. 42            Copying variables and codes .............................................200
Address fields...................................................................... 69         Counts................................................................................265
Alignment.................................................................... 48, 119           Creating new variables ......................................................198
Alphanumeric multiple variable .................................. 243–44
Alphanumeric single variable...................................... 242–43
                                                                                                                                           D
Auto renumbering ............................................................... 69             Data view mode .....................................................................5
                                                                                                Date formats ................................................................226–27
                                         B                                                                                                                       29, 96
                                                                                                Default question styles....................................... 28– 95–
Background ................................................................. 120–21             Deleting questions ...............................................................42
Background images ........................................................... 180               Deleting variables and codes .........................................201–2
Boxes........................................................................... 126–30         Demographic and lifestyle surveypak..........................168–73
Browsing surveypaks ........................................................ 161                Derived quantity variable...........................................232, 233
Buttons used in questionnaire window.............................. 6–7                          Derived variables .........................................................229–33
Buttons used in reference window .................................... 157                       Design mode..............................................................4, 60, 94
Buttons used in variable details window ........................... 196                         Dynamic question text ............................................. 49, 65–66
Buttons used in variables window..................................... 196
                                                                                                                                           E
                                         C                                                                                                                                  46
                                                                                                Editing commands .........................................................45–
Calculations in the questionnaire................................... 208–9                      Editing questions .................................................................44
Cloning questions................................................................ 43            Editing variables ................................................................199
Column breaks ............................................................ 71, 126                                                                                       108
                                                                                                Elements of a question.................................................94–
Columns ...................................................................... 126–32           Errors .................................................................................259
Conditionally ask question routing rule............................... 80                       Exporting a questionnaire in SIF format............................192
                                                                                          281
      Snap

Exporting a questionnaire in WMF format ........................190                               Moving variables between surveys ............................. 213–14
Exporting to a word processing package .....................188–89                                Multi choice questions ........................................................ 32
Exporting variables......................................................213–18
                                                                                                                                           N
                                           F
                                                                                                  Name and address fields...................................................... 69
                                                       61, 61,      38
Font................................................ 59– 59– 63, 136–                             New questions..................................................................... 42
                                                                                                  Note variable..................................................................... 228
                                          G                                                                                                                      28, 47
                                                                                                  Numbering .........................................42, 57, 127– 140–

Goto after question routing rule...........................................87                     Numeric multiple variable........................................... 236–37

Goto on answer routing rule ................................................84                    Numeric quantity variable................................................. 238

                                                                                35
Grid questions................................................................34–                 Numeric single variable .............................................. 234–35


                                          H                                                                                                O
Headers and footers .............................................................74               Other questions ................................................................... 33

Hiding question elements ....................................................53
                                                                                                                                           P
                                           I                                                      Page breaks ................................................................. 71, 126

If conditions.........................................................................91          Page setup ................................................................... 177–79

Images ...........................................................................62–
                                                                                    64                                                                                             49
                                                                                                  Positions.................................................................68, 148–

Inserting a picture ............................................ 62– 120–
                                                                   64,   23                       Precoded multiple variable................................................ 240

Inserting questions...............................................................42              Precoded single variable ................................................... 239

Instructions ..........................................................................38         Print preview a questionnaire............................................ 183
                                                                                                  Printing a questionnaire............................................... 181–82
                                          L
                                                                                                                                           Q
Literal variable...................................................................222
                                                                                                  Question date variable....................................................... 225
                                          M                                                       Question elements ............................................................... 53
                                                                                                  Question literal variable .................................................... 222
Margins..............................................................................139
                                                                                                  Question multiple variable .......................................... 219–20
Modes ................................................................................4–5
                                                                                                  Question ordering................................................................ 40
Modifying styles ............................................................93, 98
                                                                                                  Question quantity variable .......................................... 223–24
Moving questions ................................................................40
                                                                                            282
Index                                                                                                                                                                                  Snap

Question single variable .................................................... 221                    Styles, renaming ................................................................112
Quickstart guide .............................................................. 8–19                                                                                                      31
                                                                                                     Sub-title .........................................................................28–
                                                                                                                                                                              23
                                                                                                     Survey constructor wizard .............................................20–
                                            R                                                        Surveypaks ........................................................................162

Redo .................................................................................... 39         Surveypaks, opening....................................................159–60

Reference window....................................................... 156–58
                                                                                                                                                T
Referencing other surveys ................................................. 167
Response ........................................................................... 150             Tabs ...................................................................................153
Rotate codes ........................................................................ 55             Tailoring variables .......................................................210–11
                                                                                    92
Routing.......................................................................... 78–                Templates ....................................................................114–15
                                                                                                                                                                                            31
                                                                                                     Title ...............................................................................28–
                                            S                                                        Toolbar topics..............................................................118–53

Saving a questionnaire ........................................................ 75                   Transferring to another survey package.......................215–16

Section breaks ............................................................. 72, 127                 Transferring to SPSS ...................................................217–18

Show ........................................................................... 150–52
                                                                                                                                                U
Source and dependents ...................................................... 207
Spell checking ............................................................. 184–86                  Undo ....................................................................................39
Style attributes................................................................... 105
Style families..................................................................... 103                                                         V
Style mode....................................................................... 5, 94              Variable properties ........................................................54, 55
                                                                      29, 96
Style names ....................................................... 28– 95–                          Variable reports .................................................................212
Style organiser............................................................. 109–11
Style picker ................................................................... 51–
                                                                                   52                                                           Z
Style properties.................................................................. 113
                                                                                                     Zoom .................................................................................176
Style selection box .............................................................. 99
Style templates ............................................................ 114–15




Ref.V8/08.03.2005/SEW/102



                                                                                               283

				
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