Intrinsic Motivation In Education

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					   Intrinsic Motivation
        In The Classroom


By:張雅淳& 賴錦姿& 陳佩琪
DEFINING MOTIVATION
Motivation is the extent to which you
  make choice about
(a)Goals to pursue
(b)The effort you will devote to that
   pursuit.
 Motivation in terms of three
   different viewpoints.
• Traditional view of motivation that account for human
  behavior through a behavioral paradigm that stresses the
  importance of rewards and reinforcement.

• Cluster of perspective contains a number of cognitive
  psychological theories that explain motivation through deeper,
  less observable phenomena.

• Looking at motivation involves a constructivist view that
  emphasizes social context and personal choices.
   1. A behavioral definition
• A behavioral psychologist like Skinner or Watson
  would stress the role of rewards (and perhaps
  punishments) in motivating behavior.
• This reward serves to reinforce behavior: to cause it
  to persist.
• Skinner’s operant conditioning (斯肯納操作制約)
• A behaviorist would define motivation as “the
  anticipation of reinforcement.”
• Reinforcement theory is a powerful concept for the
  classroom.
      2.Cognitive definitions
     A number of cognitive psychological viewpoints
     offer quite a different perspective on motivation.
A.   Drive theory. Those who see human drives as
     fundamental to human behavior claim that motivation
     stems from basic innate drives. David Ausubel (1968)
     elaborated on six different drives:
    Exploration
    Manipulation
    Activity
    Stimulation
    Knowledge
    Ego enhancement
  B. Hierarchy of needs theory.
• One of the most widely cited theories of motivation
  comes from Abraham Maslow(1970).
• Maslow’s hierarchy is best viewed metaphorically as
  a pyramid of needs, progressing from the satisfaction
  of purely physical needs up through safety and
  communal needs, to needs of esteem, and finally to
  “self-actualization,” a state of reaching your fullest
  potential.
• Maslow’s theory tell us that might be inappropriately
  viewed as rather ordinary classroom routines may in
  fact be important precursors to motivation for higher
  attainment.
   C. self-control theory.
• Certain cognitive psychologists (for instance,
  Hunt,1971) focus on the importance of people
  deciding for themselves what to think or feel or
  do.
• Motivation is highest when one can make one’s
  own choices, whether they are in short-term or
  long-term contexts.
3.A constructivist definition
• A constructivist view of motivation places
  even further emphasis on social context as well
  as individual personal choices (Williams &
  Burden,1997).
• Motivation, in a constructivist view, is derived
  as much from our interactions with others as it
  is from one’s self-determination.
• Motivation is also typically examined in terms
  of the intrinsic and extrinsic motives of the
  learner, which we will now consider.
Intrinsic &Extrinsic Motivation
Robert Gardner
1. Integrative orientation 整合導向
(means the learner is pursuing a second
 language for a social or cultural purpose or
 both)
2. Instrumental orientation 工具導向
(Learners are studying a language in order to
  further a career or academic goal)
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
• Intrinsically motivated activities are ones
  for which there is no apparent reward
  except the activity itself.
• Extrinsically motivated behaviors are
  carried out in anticipation of a reward
  from outside and beyond the self.
 (Typical extrinsic rewards are money, prizes,
        grades, and even certain types of
         positive feedback.)
• Abraham Maslow
  Intrinsic motivation is clearly superior to
  extrinsic.
• Jerome Bruner
  “Autonomy of self-reward”
  One of the most effective ways to help
  people to think and learn is to free them
  from the control of rewards and
  punishments.
Extrinsic reward can indeed have an effect
on intrinsic motivation
• The positive feedback that learners
  perceive as a boost to their feelings of
  competence and self-determination.
• If the learners are given an opportunity to
  “do” language for their own personal
  reasons of achieving competence and
  autonomy, those learners will have a better
  chance of success.
• Traditionally, elementary and secondary
  schools are fraught with extrinsically motivated
  behavior.
• Parents’ and society’s values and wishes are
  virtually forced onto students, whether they like
  it or not.
• The administration of grades and praises for
  being a “good child” builds a dependency on
  immediate gratification.
Result

• The glorification of content, product,
  correctness and competitiveness has failed to
  bring the learner into a collaborative process of
  competence building.
• Students fear failure and therefore to refrain
  from potentially rewarding risk-taking or
  innovative behavior.
Intrinsic Motivation In Education
        Extrinsic to intrinsic motivation in
         educational institutions: ( refer to
                     Table5.1)
Extrinsic Pressure        Intrinsic Innovations     Motivational Results

School Curriculum         Learner-centered          self-actualization
                          Personal goal-setting

Parental expectations     Family solidarity         Love/intimacy
                            Negotiated              Respect for wisdom

Society’s expectations    Security of comfortable   A sense of belonging
                             routines               Identity

Tests                     Peer evaluation           Experience/self-
                          Self-diagnosis              knowledge

Immediate gratification   Set long-term goals       Self-actualization
       Extrinsic to intrinsic motivation in
       educational institutions: ( refer to
                    Table5.1)

Make money       Content-based          Cooperation
                 teaching/ vocational   Harmony
                 education

Competition      Cooperative            Community
                 learning Group         Status security
                 work
                 Risk- taking,          Learn from mistakes
Never fail       Innovation,
                 creativity
  Extrinsic Values (P.92)
1) Emphasizing the “big” picture
     => larger perspectives
2) Letting students set long-term goals
3) Allowing the sufficient time
4) Cooperative learning style/ group work
5) Viewing as a team
6) Content-centered teaching
7) Allowing risk-taking behaviors
  Intrinsic Motivation in The
 Second Language Classroom
            (P.92-93)
 The important factors:
1) Teaching writing
2) Strategies of reading
3) Language experience approach
4) Oral fluency exercises
5) Listening to academic lectures
6) communicative language teaching
7) grammar explanations
 Basic Motivation Conditions
        -- Zoltan Dornyei (p.94)

• Focus:
 Q: What the teacher can do to start the
  process of creating intrinsic motivation?
  (What about the characteristics?)
• Answers:
 Dornyei’s eight guidelines      —p.94
 Enthusiasm for the course material
 Take seriously on learning.
 Personal relationship
 Relationship between teacher- parents.
 Happy atmosphere in classroom.
 Promote the group cohesiveness
 Have a formulate group norms.
                 Conclusion
•  There are six important guidelines for teachers to follow:
a. Teachers are enablers, not rewarders.
b. Learners need to develop autonomy, not independent.
c. Helping students or learners) to recognize their own self-
   satisfaction and teach them how to set personal goals and
   use the learning strategy.
d. Give students more opportunities to make
   choices in activities (such as discussion, topics…etc)
E. Content-based activities and courses
   are intrinsically motivating.
F. Tests => to help students (learners)
   make their self- diagnosis.
~Thanks for your attention~

				
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posted:1/25/2013
language:English
pages:24