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					Typography
TYPOGRAPHY:
 The art of type
      TYPE
All the letters (abc),
 Numbers (123)
& characters (; ? @)
 of the alphabet.
    MONOTYPE
Trade name for hot metal
  composition system
     FONT
Type or letter style
  VARIATIONS OF TYPE
         Width of letters:
regular,                or condensed

         Weight of letters:
  light, regular, bold, heavy
   TYPESTYLE CATEGORIES
• SERIF: Letters that have feet or tails.

• SAN SERIF: Letters without feet or tails.

• SCRIPT: Letters that simulate handwriting (cursive)
           and/or calligraphy

• DECORATIVE: Letters that have character,
               are unique in style.
        POINT
Type is measured in points
Smallest typographical unit.
1 point = 1/72 of an inch
36 point = ½ of an inch
72 point = 1 inch
             SPACING
TRACKING:
Adjusting space between all letters equally.

KERNING:
Adjusting space between just two letters.

LEADING:
Adjusting space between sentences.
  BASELINE

The line where all
 letters stand on.
Typographical Designers
Three Famous English Type Designers


     • William Caslon
     • John Baskerville
     • Stanley Morison
William Caslon




                 Caslon Font
                        William Caslon
                                 [English]
                                  1692-1766


• Engraver, type founder, type designer.
• The first of a family of English type founders (Caslon I, II, III, IV)
• 1716: started business in London as an engraver and started a
  type foundry
• 1725: sets up his own type foundry,
   – it continued to operate for 200 years.
• 1734: Caslon’s first one-page specimen: 47 of his typefaces
• Created Caslon font: used for the Declaration of Independence
• Influenced many contemporary typographers
• Known style: old style, roman
Foundries are organizations that
manufacture fonts. Some are large
companies, while others are just a
designer or two. Type foundries have
existed since the 1450s, the birth of
printing in Europe.
John Baskerville




                   Baskerville Font
                      John Baskerville
                                 [English]
                                  1706-1775

•   Father of printing in England
•   Skilled engraver of Tombstones
•   Generated Baskerville font, still present today
•   Established a paper mill, printing office and type foundry.
•   Known style: between old style and modern style called ``Transitional'' type
•   Major innovations in printing
     – making a flatter, sturdier bed in press construction
     – printing ink (blacker, opaque, more even, and quicker-drying)
     – papermaking (wove instead of laid)
     – letter design
     – he made changes to the way in which metal type was made, enabling him
        to produce finer, more delicate lettering than any before him had
        achieved.
Stanley Morison




                  Times New Roman
                        Stanley Morison
                                   [English]
                                    1889-1967


• Typographer, type designer
• 1923–67: typography consultant to Monotype Corporation*.
• 1929–60: typography consultant to "The Times" daily newspaper.
• Created font Times New Roman, still present today
• 1932: The first issue of "The Times™" with font Times New Roman™,
        is printed.
• Produced some of the most popular text faces of the 20th century

    *Montoype: trade name for hot metal composition system,
    It consists of two units: a keyboard and a casting machine.
Famous American Type Designer


    • Morris Benton
Morris Benton




                Franklin Gothic
                        Morris Benton
                               [American]
                                1872-1948



• 1892-1937: Type designer for ATF*
• Developed over 200 alphabets, all of which were published by ATF
• Leading American type designer

• *ATF: American Type Foundary conglomeration. It owns the rights
  to one of the world’s greatest libraries of original typefaces, largely
  directed and created by Morris Benton.
Designed by Morris Benton

                                 Broadway


                                    Hobo


                              Commercial Script


                            New Century School Book
COMPARISONS
                       Caslon Font (designed by Caslon)


                  Baskerville Font (designed by Baskerville)


                 Times New Roman (designed by Morrison


              New Century School Book (designed by Benton

				
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posted:1/24/2013
language:English
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