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Script Fading

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 30

									Teaching Conversational Skills
to Children with Autism

    John L. Brown, Ph.D., BCBA
           Jennifer Ryan
          Eric Rozenblat
          REED Academy
                                 1
Script Fading


   Script fading is an empirically validated
    procedure used to teach individuals to
    verbally engage in social interactions.




                                            2
Script Fading
   Script fading teaches learners to use
    written or audio scripts.
   Scripts provide models of language that
    are appropriate to specific social
    situations.
   As learners learn to use the scripts they
    are faded from end to beginning.

                                           3
Example
   A script such as “Let’s go to the park.” could
    be faded in the following steps

    1.   Let’s   go to the park.
    2.   Let’s   go to the
    3.   Let’s   go to
    4.   Let’s   go
    5.   Let’s
    6.

    7.   Removal of script card.

                                                 4
 Three-Term Contingency
Antecedent    Script
Stimulus
Behavior      Verbal
(Response)    Interaction
Consequence   Motivational
              System
                             5
Fading
   Fading is a technique that is used to
    shift control of a response from one
    antecedent stimulus to another. (Cooper,
    Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 314)

   In the case of script fading, control of a
    verbal response is being shifted from
    the control of the script to some other
    environmental stimulus.

                                               6
Why Use Script Fading?
   To teach “spontaneous” social
    interaction.

   To reduce the use of instructor prompts
    in teaching social interaction.

   Why reduce instructor prompts?

                                         7
Types of Scripts

   Written Scripts

   Language Master Cards

   “Mini Me” Recordings


                            8
Placement of Scripts
   When deciding where to place scripts
    consider how the learner will use the
    script.
   For example:
       A script about a preferred toy could be
        placed on a picture of that toy.
       A script about soda may be placed on the
        refrigerator door.

                                               9
Using Script-Fading
Procedures
1.   Development of Scripts

2.   Pre-training Scripts

3.   Teaching Script Use

4.   Fading Scripts
                              10
Development of Scripts
   Use verbal responses that are of
    appropriate complexity for the learner.
   Use age-appropriate content.
   Determine the type of script,
   Determine the location for the script.
   Determine the SD for using the script.


                                          11
Development of Scripts
   If scripts are taught in sets, attend to
    the initial word of each script.
   Include an opening and closing in each
    script.
   When using an augmentive
    communication system start scripts with
    a statement that indicates the use of
    the machine.

                                         12
Pre-training
   Pre-train the use of the script until the
    learner demonstrates fluency in using
    the script.




                                            13
Teaching
   Use graduated guidance delivered from
    behind the learner to prompt use of
    scripts.
   Replay the script if the learner does not
    imitate the script.
   Reinforce correct use of scripts.
   Attend to other aspects of social
    interaction (eye contact, loudness, etc.)

                                          14
Fading Scripts
   Fade from the end to the beginning.

   Fade quickly.

   Be prepared to back-up if the learner
    does not imitate the full script.


                                            15
How to Back-up the Fading
Level
   Written Script
       Have a second card with the full script ready.


   Language Master Script
       Record the full script on the ‘Teacher’ track.


   Mini-Me
       Use a second Mini-Me for the full script.


                                                         16
Programming for
Generalization
   Choose verbal responses that are
    functional in a variety of situations.
   Teach multiple scripts for each SD.
   Train Loosely: Accept appropriate
    statements that do not exactly match
    the script.
   Shift reinforcement to ‘natural’
    contingencies.

                                             17
Examples of Script Fading
   Greetings
   Peer Conversation
   Shopping
   Ordering in a Restaurant
   Discussing Current Events
   Recruiting Attention


                                18
Conversation Partner
   Purpose
       To promote the continuation of a learner-
        initiated conversation that is socially
        meaningful
       To serve as a language model




                                                19
Conversation Partner
   Effectively teaching conversational skills
    while being a partner
       modeling
           attending skills

           personal space

           prosody

       giving your partner time to respond
       using continuation statements to prevent premature ending
       conversation content must be relevant and language used
        needs to be appropriate to language level
       use textual and audio prompts, and graduated guidance


                                                              20
Conversation Partner
   What to Avoid:
       descriptive praise
       using conversation enders
            questions
            partial echo's/rephrasing
       no verbal prompts




                                         21
Potential Conversation
Partners
   Trained adult conversation partner
   Untrained adult conversation partner
   Disabled peers
   Non-disabled peers
   Siblings
   Family Members
   Strangers
                                           22
Data Collection
   Scripted Interactions
       Record the number of words or scripts
        used correctly.
       Measure the use of the scripts.
   Unscripted Interactions
       Record the number of statements made
        that do not match the script.
       Measure the use of other, non-scripted,
        language.
                                                  23
Motivational Systems

   Consider the use of specialized motivational systems
    that are used exclusively for social interaction.
   Consider reserving specific reinforcers for use
    exclusively for social interaction programs.
   Consider using scripts that include language about
    preferred activities that function as reinforcers
   Although not specifically programmed, ending a
    conversation often functions as a negative reinforcer
    for children with autism

                                                      24
Empirical Evidence
   Script fading for readers
       Krantz and McClannahan (1993) used script fading
        to teach non readers with autism to initiate,
        respond to initiations, and make unscripted
        statements during conversations with peers ages
        9-12
       Sarokoff, Taylor, & Poulson (2001) used scripts
        embedded in product packaging to teach
        conversation among learner’s with autism ages
        8-9

                                                    25
Empirical Evidence
   Script fading for beginning readers
       Children ages 4-5 were taught to read “Look” and
        “Watch me”
       Activity schedules were used to present these
        words along with photographs of activities to
        children with autism
       Scripted statements, unscripted statements, and
        elaborations increased




                                                     26
Empirical Evidence
   Script fading for non readers
       Using audio-taped scripts embedded in
        activity schedules demonstrated to be
        effective for learners with autism ages 10-
        15




                                                 27
Script Fading Exercise
   Roll playing using continuation
    statements
       non-vocal conversation
       1-word conversations
       3-word conversations
       5-word conversations
       unlimited conversations with 10 exchanges
       writing scripts

                                              28
References
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (1987).
  Applied Behavior Analysis. Columbus, OH: Merrill
  Publishing Company.
Krantz, P.J., & McClannahan, L.E. (1998). Social
  interaction skills for children with autism: A script-
  fading procedure for beginning readers. Journal of
  Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 191-202.
Krantz, P. J. & McClannahan, L. E. (1993). Teaching
  children with autism to initiate to peers: Effects of a
  script-fading procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior
  Analysis, 26, 121-132.

                                                           29
References
Johnson, K. R. & Layng, T. V. J. (1992). Breaking the
  structuralist barrier: Literacy and numeracy with
  fluency. American Psychologist, 47, 1475-1490.
Stevenson, C.L., Krantz, P.J., & McClannahan, L.E.
  (2000). Social interaction skills for children with
  autism: A script-fading procedure for nonreaders.
  Behavioral Interventions, 15, 1-20.
Sarokoff, R.A., Taylor, B.A., & Poulson, C.L. (2001).
  Teaching children with autism to engage in
  conversational exchanges: Script-fading with
  embedded textual stimuli. Journal of Applied
  Behavior Analysis, 34, 81-84.
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