Antigens for the ELISA - OIE by linxiaoqin


									                    OIE Reference Laboratory Reports
                                           Activities in 2011

   Name of disease (or topic) for                       Hendra and Nipah virus diseases
 which you are a designated OIE
         Reference Laboratory:

                             Address of laboratory:        Australian Animal Health Laboratory
                                                               CSIRO Livestock Industries
                                                                 Private Bag 24, Geelong,
                                                                      Victoria, 3220,

                                                Tel.:               (61 3) 5227 5000

                                                Fax:                (61 3) 5227 5555

                                     e-mail address:   


      Name (including Title and                                 Dr Martyn Jeggo
Position) of Head of Laboratory
          (Responsible Official):

          Name(including Title and                              Dr Peter Daniels
         Position) of OIE Reference

       Name (including Title and
 Position) of writer of this report
        (if different from above):

Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2011                                                    1
                                               Hendra and Nipah virus diseases

               Part I: Summary of general activities related to the disease

     1.    Test(s) in use/or available for the specified disease/topic at your laboratory

     For Hendra virus (HeV) laboratory testing AAHL offers virus isolation, conventional PCR and TaqMan real time
     PCR, immunofluorescent antigen detection, histopathology and immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and
     immuno-EM, characterization of isolates by sequence analysis and serology by ELISA and VNT under PC4
     biocontainment. For Nipah virus (NiV) AAHL offers a similar range of tests.

     Regarding tests performed in 2011:

                      Test                                For                     Specificity               Total 2011

                  HeV ELISA                            Antibody                      Group                      1847

                   NiV ELISA                           Antibody                      Group                       26

                   HeV VNT                             Antibody                       Type                      534

                    NiV VNT                            Antibody                       Type                      138

                   Cell culture                     Virus isolation              Virus specific                  86

               HeV real-time PCR                      Nucleic acid               Virus specific                 5655

             HeV conventional PCR                     Nucleic acid               Virus specific                  6

               NiV real-time PCR                      Nucleic acid               Virus specific                  16

              NiV conventional PCR                    Nucleic acid               Virus specific                  0

               PCR and sequencing                Virus characterisation          HA and F gene                   9

           HeV immunohistochemistry                     Antigen                      Group                       30

           NiV immunohistochemistry                     Antigen                      Group                       1

2.   Production and distribution of diagnostic reagents

     For both HeV and NiV diseases AAHL produces reagents for ELISA and immunological techniques and molecular
     diagnostic tests.

                                        Amount supplied nationally                      Amount supplied to other
          Type of reagent
                                         (including for own use)                              countries

          Control positive        400 µl strong positive                           250 µl strong positive
              serum               400 µl low positive                              250 µl low positive
                                  400 µl normal horse serum (negative control)     250 µl normal horse serum (negative
                                                                                   control) (Indonesia)

          Antigens for the        2 ml viral antigen                               300 µl viral antigen
              ELISA               1 ml Vero control antigen                        500 µl vero control antigen

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                                                Hendra and Nipah virus diseases

                     Part II: Activities specifically related to the mandate
                                 of OIE Reference Laboratories

3.   International harmonisation and standardisation of methods for diagnostic testing or the
     production and testing of vaccines

     a)    Establishment and maintenance of a network with other OIE Reference Laboratories
           designated for the same pathogen or disease and organisation of regular inter-laboratory
           proficiency testing to ensure comparability of results

           AAHL is the only designated Reference Laboratory for Nipah and Hendra virus diseases.

     b)    Organisation of inter-laboratory proficiency testing with laboratories other than OIE
           Reference Laboratories for the same pathogens and diseases to ensure equivalence of

           AAHL is accredited as a proficiency test (PT) provider to the international standard ISO/IEC17043; 2010
           Conformity Assessment – General Requirements for Proficiency Testing in the fields of i) Virology
           (immunological methods of detection and identification by molecular techniques) and ii) Serology of

           Australia has coordinated its government laboratories into a functional network for responses to emergency
           animal diseases – Laboratories for Emergency Animal Disease Diagnosis and Response, LEADDR – with
           the mission to coordinate a national laboratory network to detect and manage outbreaks of selected EADs.
           The network is coordinating an expanding diagnostic and surge capacity for EAD outbreaks nationwide,
           including those which have the potential to threaten human health. Through its role in LEADDR, and
           specifically the Hendra virus working group in LEADDR, AAHL has helped coordinate adoption of an
           agreed national real time PCR test for Hendra virus detection. PT in support of this test is being provided, as
           well as for serology.

           In addition Network quality controls (NQC) are distributed to LEADDR laboratories to be incorporated into
           the routine testing procedure performed at the participating laboratories. Positive control material (low to
           moderate positive) is provided to each laboratory. This material is coded with a batch number. Every time a
           test is run, or at least once daily where it is run frequently (see below), the network control must be included,
           with data collected and reported. NQC reports are generated monthly to be discussed at the LEADDR
           teleconferences. NQC reagents are distributed for the Hendra ELISA (6 laboratories) and real time PCR (5
           laboratories). Molecular testing initially involved real time PCR for the N, P and/or M genes. Network
           collaboration has seen the discontinuation of the P gene test as a network-supported test due to its lower
           sensitivity than the other tests. Harmonisation is progressing well with the remaining tests.

4.   Preparation and supply of international reference standards for diagnostic tests or vaccines

     AAHL can supply standard reference materials for Hendra and Nipah viruses, and does so when transferring
     diagnostic test capability. Such reagents were supplied to Indonesia and Thailand and internally to laboratories in
     Australia, as reported in other items in this report.

5.   Research and development of new procedures for diagnosis and control

     a.    AAHL is a national laboratory facility for the biocontainment of foreign animal diseases and new and
           emerging animal diseases and viral zoonoses, operating at BSL3 (enhanced) and BSL4. It provides a rapid
           diagnostic capability and outbreak diagnostic surge capacity through a Diagnosis, Surveillance and Response
           group and conducts research in to the major transboundary animal diseases and viral zoonoses under the
           theme of transforming animal biosecurity. Work is directed towards 3 main objectives: Reduction of Disease
           Emergence or Invasion Risk, Mitigation of Disease Impact through Decision Support for Limiting Disease
           Spread and Mitigation of Disease Impact through Modification of the Host Response. This year has seen a
           considerable enhancement (5 times) of the available PC4 space with the addition of 350 sq metres, including
           areas for small animals, insects and live cell imaging.

Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2011                                                                             3
                                             Hendra and Nipah virus diseases

     b.   Research on Hendra and Nipah viruses includes:

             development of novel antiviral treatments for Henipavirus infections including passive immunotherapies
             optimization and commercialisation of Hendra vaccine for use in equines
             development of an improved diagnostic capability for Henipavirus infections including stall-side tests
             use of reverse genetics systems for further henipavirus studies
             continuous bat cell lines for host-virus interaction and immunological studies
             comparative pathogenesis studies on different strains of Hendra and Nipah viruses with a focus on
              transmission mechanisms
             further use of the ferret model for henipavirus research and vaccine/therapeutics trials
             studies on the role of Australian bats in Hendra virus maintenance
             molecular detection and characterisation systems for characterising unknown viruses such as may be
              isolated from bats
             rapid characterisation of unknown viruses using microarray hybridisation and PCR-select-subtraction and
              mass (454) sequencing

6.   Collection, analysis and dissemination of epizootiological data relevant to international disease

     This year has seen an unprecedented number of Hendra virus cases with ten locations in Queensland with
     confirmed cases. The number of confirmed horse deaths from Hendra virus in Queensland this year was thirteen.
     There were another eight incidents in New South Wales. Hence the geographical distribution of cases was great,
     covering a range of approximately1500 miles or 2,400 kilometres from north to south. The outbreaks in the two
     states resulted nationally in the death or euthanasia of 23 horses and one dog. Studies of the factors involved are
     continuing. Importantly, sequence analysis of isolates from different geographical areas showed sufficient
     variation at the nucleotide level to suggest that the outbreaks were not caused by the emergence of a single strain
     of virus with increased transmissibility.

7.   Maintenance of a system of quality assurance, biosafety and biosecurity relevant to the
     pathogen and the disease concerned

     AAHL’s diagnostic operations are conducted under NATA accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. In addition to its
     NATA accreditation AAHL maintains certification to AS/NZS ISO 9001:2008 for the management of its Quality
     Assurance System as well as AS/NZS ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management. AAHL is accredited to
     ISO/IEC 17043 as an international proficiency testing provider for exotic disease agents.

     The Hendra outbreak in 2011 prompted reconsideration of appropriate samples for Hendra virus testing, especially
     biosafety issues surrounding handling of serum samples Discussions included the need to pre-treat sera according
     to the OIE Manual published procedure before testing samples. Subsequently, a document was prepared and
     distributed to network members regarding the safe handling of equine sera in the laboratory. The working group
     also created recommendations on preferred samples for serology, qPCR and virus isolation.

     Hendra virus (HeV) serology has been based on a Hendra virus cell lysate as antigen. This test has been shown to
     result in a manageable but not insignificant number of reactors in unexposed animals. AAHL has previously
     produced a semi-purified antigen preparation but because of the difficulties of preparing even limited amounts
     while meeting the bio-risk management issues for this BSL4 agent it has not distributed this alternative antigen to
     other laboratories. Rather it has operated a reference laboratory service to evaluate ELISA reactors. Now that a
     recombinant, soluble G protein of the Hendra virus has become available it has been evaluated as an antigen for
     use in diagnostic tests. AAHL has prepared a validation dossier in support of NATA recognition of an ELISA
     based on the soluble G antigen (HeV sG iELISA).

     AAHL is now leading an activity to develop a generic system for transferring a serological test to participating
     laboratories in a network using the newly validated Hendra soluble G antigen as a pilot activity. A procedure is
     being developed for recipient laboratories to utilise a validation dossier supplied from a laboratory where a new
     test has been developed. That information can then be incorporated into their own data dossier to be presented in
     support of use of the new test in the recipient laboratory under that laboratory’s accreditation using a process of
     verification for the establishment of the test in the new location. This includes provision of a panel of known
     positives and negatives along with the test reagents, the scope of verification testing needed, the optimal analysis

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                                                Hendra and Nipah virus diseases

     of that verification data in conjunction with the data in the initial validation dossier, and the identification of any
     issues and procedures required to maintain the test in a networked capability. These include the specification of
     ongoing National Quality Control (NQC) and proficiency testing (PT) activities and analysis. Data from the
     establishment of the test in other laboratories will feed back into the core validation data, giving information on
     reproducibility. This project will also establish a model for accreditation of a test throughout a network.

     The proposed transfer of the new HeV sG iELISA will facilitate better management of tests in the national
     network and will serve as a high-quality model to establish a national generic accreditation system for serology.

8.   Provision of consultant expertise to OIE or to OIE Member Countries

        Peter Daniels participated in The Technical Consultation in Support of the OIE Emerging Pandemic Threats
         Program in Paris, 25–27 January 2011.
        Glenn Marsh attended the 6th international Conference on Emerging Zoonoses, Cancun, Mexico, 24–27 Feb.
        John Allen participated in the first meeting for the lab strengthening working group for the Australian
         Indonesia Partnership for Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010–2014, Jakarta, Indonesia, 21–25 Feb. 2011.
        Sam McCullough participated in the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) Training,
         Kampot, Cambodia, 24 Feb.–5 March 2011.
        Martyn Jeggo was invited to participate in the OIE Twinning Program Workshop, Paris, France, 30–31 March
        John Allen attended the OIE workshop on Laboratory Gap Analysis, Paris, France 12–13 May 2011.
        Peter Daniels attended the DISCONTOOLS FP7 project meeting of the Nipah Virus Expert Group, Brussels,
         Belgium, 28 May–1 Jun 2011.
        Martyn Jeggo was invited to present at the conference for Emerging and Persistent Infectious Diseases: Focus
         on Prevention convened by the Institute on Science for Global Policy (ISGP) in San Diego, 3–8 Jun 2011.
        Chris Morrissy was involved meetings to prepare for linking assessment missions and gap analysis in Viet
         Nam, 5–19 June 2011.
        John Allen and Chris Morrissy were invited to undertake a scoping mission for a Lab-Field Epidemiology
         Training Course for FAO, Bangkok, Thailand, 26 June–2 July 2011
        Martyn Jeggo attended the first meeting of the International Society of One Health (ISOH), London, UK,
         29 June 2011.
        Greg Smith was invited to attend the US National Academies Workshop on Anticipating Biosecurity
         Challenges of the Global Expansion of High Containment Biological Laboratories, Istanbul, Turkey, 10–
         15 July 2011.
        Peter Daniels presented a plenary paper at the Sustainable Animal Agriculture for Developing Countries
         Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 24–30 July 2011.
        Peter Daniels attended the FAO/OIE Regional Laboratory Network Technical Advisory Group Meeting,
         Bangkok, Thailand 2–6 August 2011.
        Chris Morrissy was invited to attend the FAO LabNet meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, 4–5 August 2011.
        John Allen attended the WHO Regional Workshop on Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory
         Network (EDPLN) in Jakarta, Indonesia, 20–22 Sept. 2011.
        Martyn Jeggo presented at the RELU Conference – Living with uncertainty in animal disease management,
         London, UK, 20–22 Sept. 2011.
        Sam McCullough presented an invited paper at the 23rd Malaysian Veterinary Association Annual Meeting,
         Ipoh, Malaysia, 23–26 Sept. 2011.
        Martyn Jeggo presented at Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Workshop – One
         Health – The Road Ahead - Hong Kong, 26–28 Sept. 2011.
        Chris Morrissy attended FAO meetings at Pirbright to plan the 4 Way Linking Mission initiative, UK, 10 Oct.
        John Allen attended the Annual International Symposium for Biosecurity and Biosafety: Future Trends and
         Solutions in Milan, 12–14 Oct. 2011.
        Martyn Jeggo was invited to participate in the preparation meeting for PMAC 2013 One Health - Bangkok,
         15–17 Oct. 2011.
        Chris Morrissy attended a 4 Way Linking Meeting as the OIE representative with FAO and WHO, Hanoi,
         Vietnam, 15–19 Oct. 2011.
        Martyn Jeggo attended the IOM Meeting on One Health in Washington as a keynote speaker at the Institute of
         Medicine (IOM), 12–16 Dec. 2011.

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                                            Hendra and Nipah virus diseases

9.   Provision of scientific and technical training to personnel from other OIE Member Countries

     Capacity building activities, as reported in the report of the Collaborating Centre for Laboratory Capacity
     Building, is planning for and incorporating other major zoonoses such as Nipah virus. Under the IDENTIFY
     program systems have been developed among the network of ASEAN laboratories and extending into China to
     address diagnosis of major diseases of pigs, as a potential reservoir host for Nipah virus infections of people.
     Much capacity building is being delivered within the context of management systems such as are necessary for
     quality assurance and biorisk management.

         The following training was conducted in member countries:
             Kritaya Kongsuwan delivered training to assist VRDC staff in qRT-PCR analysis of bat samples under
              the AusAID Strengthening the EID Surveillance capability of Thailand and South East Asia, Bangkok
              and Chonburi, Thailand, 1–9 Jan. 2011
             Peter Durr provided assistance and guidance to plan for a sero-survey of pigs and humans in Northern
              Laos for the ACIAR Project Increased Productivity and Reduced Risk in Pig Production and Market
              Chains. Component 1: Animal and Human Health, Vientiane, Laos PDR, 23 March –1 April 2011.
             Sandy Crameri conducted follow-up training on Identification and Characterization of Viruses by
              Electron Microscopy as part of the NIAH Electron Microscopy Collaboration Project, Bangkok,
              Thailand, 31 May–25 June 2011.
             Brian Meehan and Susan Juzva under the IDENTIFY PRRS/CSF project provided lab training on
              diagnosis and characterization of the viruses of Classical Swine Fever and Porcine Reproductive and
              Respiratory Syndrome in a Regional Laboratory Workshop on Diagnosis and Characterization of Priority
              and Emerging Disease in Swine, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, 7–24 July 2011.
             Kim Newberry provided training and assistance to laboratory staff in the diagnosis of important diseases
              of swine under the ILRI project, EcoHealth Pig Systems, in Vientiane, Laos PDR 18–30 July 2011.
             John Allen provided assistance in the Southern District survey as part of the ACIAR Increased
              Productivity and Reduced Risk in Pig Production and Market Chains. Component 1: Animal and Human
              Health in Vientiane and Pakse, Laos PDR, 19–25 August 2011.
             Susan Juzva provided support and training on laboratory quality systems and diagnostic protocols and
              procedures under the IDENTIFY PRRS/CSF Project, Medan, Indonesia, 2–6 Oct. 2011
             Susan Juzva provided support and training on laboratory quality systems and diagnostic protocols and
              procedures under the IDENTIFY PRRS/CSF project, Vientiane, Laos PDR, 7–11 Oct. 2011 and at the
              VRI, Ipoh, Malaysia, 12–16 Oct. 2011 while Brian Meehan provided similar training under the same
              project in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 8–13 Oct. 2011, in Bangkok, Thailand, 13–19 Oct. 2011 and Hanoi,
              Viet Nam 19–22 Oct. 2011
             Kim Newberry provided training and follow-up support to NAHC under the ILRI project, Vientiane,
              Laos PDR, 24 Oct.–4 Nov. 2011.
             Chris Morrissy conducted training in Laboratory Quality Systems under the IDENTIFY CSF/PRRS
              project in Beijing, China, 20-27 Nov 2011 and in Yangon, Myanmar, 26 Nov.–4 Dec. 2011.

         The following training was conducted at AAHL:
             Fifteen scientists from China, Viet Nam, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar and
              Cambodia attended AAHL to participate in a two week training course as part of the AAHL-.FAO
              collaboration project for IDENTIFY in laboratory capacity building for quality assurance, proficiency
              testing and reagent production, 5–16 Sept 2011.

10. Provision of diagnostic testing facilities to other OIE Member Countries

     AAHL provides a serological testing service in support of animal movements in the region, with testing being
     conducted according to the requirements of a number of countries internationally. 125 submissions were tested to
     demonstrate freedom from Nipah virus infection and 52 for Hendra virus freedom.

11. Organisation of international scientific meetings on behalf of OIE or other international bodies

     A project involving Dr Kritaya Kongsuwan, Dr Linfa Wang and Mr Gary Crameri at the National Institute of Animal
     Health (NIAH) in Bangkok under the AusAID project ‘Strengthening the EID surveillance capability of Thailand and
     South-East Asia, continued with project activities and a project completion meeting.

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                                                Hendra and Nipah virus diseases

12. Participation in international scientific collaborative studies

     AAHL continues to collaborate with Dr Indrawati Sendow at the Research Institute for Veterinary Science in Bogor,
     Indonesia, in studies to detect and characterize Nipah virus in Indonesian Pteropid species.

13. Publication and dissemination of information relevant to the work of OIE (including list of
    scientific publications, internet publishing activities, presentations at international conferences)

         Journal articles

          Boyd, Vicky, Foord, Adam, Heine, Hans. Detection and Differentiation of Avian and Zoonotic Pathogens by
           a Luminex Liquid Bead Array Multiplex Assay. EcoHealth 2011;7:S140
          Clayton B, Haining J, Robinson R, Middleton D, Wang L-F, Marsh G. Nipah Viruses from Malaysia and
           Bangladesh: Differences in Transmission and Pathogenesis. Ecohealth. 2011;7:S140-S1.
          Cowled C, Baker M, Tachedjian M, Zhou P, Bulach D, Wang LF. Molecular characterisation of Toll-like
           receptors in the black flying fox Pteropus alecto. Developmental and Comparative Immunology.
          Dups J, Haining J, Robinson R, Wang L-F, Middleton D, Marsh G. Henipaviruses and Mice - Are They
           Truly Resistant to Infection? EcoHealth. 2011;7:S141-S.
          Durr, Peter Emerging and re-emerging diseases of wildlife and domestic animals – redefining the role of
           climate change. EcoHealth 2011;7:S74
          Foord, Adam, Boyd, Victoria, Heine, Hans A loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for
           detection of Hendra virus (HeV) in the field. EcoHealth 2011;7:S143
          Halpin K, Hyatt AD, Fogarty R, Middleton D, Bingham J, Epstein JH, et al. Pteropid Bats are Confirmed as
           the Reservoir Hosts of Henipaviruses: A Comprehensive Experimental Study of Virus Transmission.
           American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2011;85(5):946-51.
          Hayman DTS, Wang L-F, Barr J, Baker KS, Suu-Ire R, Broder CC, et al. Antibodies to Henipavirus or
           Henipa-Like Viruses in Domestic Pigs in Ghana, West Africa. PLoS One. 2011;6(9).
          Janardhana V, Tachedjian M, Crameri G, Cowled C, Wang LF, Baker ML. Cloning, expression and antiviral
           activity of IFNgamma from the Australian fruit bat, Pteropus alecto. Developmental and Comparative
           Immunology. 2011.
          Li Z, Xu J, Patel J, Fuentes S, Lin Y, Anderson D, et al. Function of the Small Hydrophobic Protein of J
           Paramyxovirus. Journal of Virology. 2011;85(1):32-42.
          Middleton D. Update on Hendra virus vaccine. Australian Equine Veterinarian. 2011;30(2):58.
          Middleeton, Deborah Emerging virus infections of bats: old relationships, new paradigms EcoHealth
          Pallister J, Middleton D, Wang LF, Klein R, Haining J, Robinson R, et al. A recombinant Hendra virus G
           glycoprotein-based subunit vaccine protects ferrets from lethal Hendra virus challenge. Vaccine.
          Pallister, Jackie, Middleton, Deborah, Wang, Linfa, Broder, Christopher. Henipavirus vaccine development.
           Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense. 2011; 1-8.
          Payne J, Yamada M, Rookes J, Bingham J, Middleton D. Neuropathology during Henipavirus
           convalescence: resolution of infection or virus persistence? Ecohealth. 2011;7:S148
          Smith I, Broos A, de Jong C, Zeddeman A, Smith C, Smith G, et al. Identifying Hendra virus diversity in
           pteropid bats. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25275.
          Virtue Elena, Marsh Glenn, Wang LinFa. Modulation of Interferon Response by Henipavirus Infection.
           EcoHealth. 2011;7:S153
          Virtue ER, Marsh GA, Baker ML, Wang LF. Interferon production and signaling pathways are antagonized
           during henipavirus infection of fruit bat cell lines. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22488.
          Virtue ER, Marsh GA, Wang LF. Interferon signaling remains functional during henipavirus infection of
           human cell lines. Journal of Virology. 2011;85(8):4031-4.
          Walpita P, Barr J, Sherman M, Basler CF, Wang L. Vaccine Potential of Nipah Virus-Like Particles. PLoS
           One. 2011;6(4).
          Wang, L-F, Barr, Jennifer, Crameri, Gary Virus discovery using bat cell lines. EcoHealth 2011;7:S45
          Wang L-F. Henipavirus: From Emergence to Control. EcoHealth. 2011;7:S41
          Zhou P, Cowled C, Marsh GA, Shi Z, Wang LF, Baker ML. Type III IFN receptor expression and functional
           characterisation in the pteropid bat, Pteropus alecto. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25385.

Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2011                                                                       7
                                           Hendra and Nipah virus diseases

        Zhou P, Cowled C, Todd S, Crameri G, Virtue ER, Marsh GA, et al. Type III IFNs in pteropid bats:
         differential expression patterns provide evidence for distinct roles in antiviral immunity. Journal of
         Immunology. 2011;186(5):3138-47.

       Conference papers/Conference proceedings

        Cowled, Chris, Baker, Michelle, Wang, Linfa. Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like helicases in the fruit bat,
         Pteropus alecto. In: Lorne Infection and Immunity; 16-18 February 2011; Lorne, Vic. Lorne, Vic.: Victorian
         Infection and Immunity Network; 2011. 63.
        Marsh, Glenn, Wang, Linfa. Bats - a mixed bag of new and emerging viruses. In: 6th International
         conference on emerging zoonoses; 24th-27th February, 2011; Cancun, Mexico. Mexico: The Conference;
         2011. 1.
        Ng, Justin, Belov, Katherine, Wang, Linfa, Baker, Michelle. The major histocompatibility complex (mhc) of
         the black flying fox (pteropus alecto). In: Lorne Infection and Immunity; 16th - 18th February, 2011; Mantra
         Erskine Beach Resort, Lorne, Vic. Lorne, Vic.: The Conference; 2011. 1.

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