Midterm Exam – Chapters 16-29

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Midterm Exam – Chapters 16-29 Powered By Docstoc
					Name: ___________________________                                   July 30, 2003


                           ALAT FINAL EXAMINATION


1) Which of the following is not a physical method of euthanasia?

              a)   Decapitation
              b)   Carbon dioxide
              c)   Cervical dislocation
              d)   Microwave irradiation

2) Mice exhibit postpartum estrus. They will normally come into estrus within ______
   hours after giving birth.

              a)   12
              b)   24
              c)   36
              d)   48

3) A male ferret is called a _______ and a female ferret is called a ______________.

              a)   boar; sow
              b)   buck; doe
              c)   tom; queen
              d)   hob; jill

4) Scientific technology has developed the technique for introducing genetic material
   (DNA) from one animal into the fertilized egg of a different animal. When the
   offspring are born they are called ______________.

              a)   Defined flora
              b)   Axenics
              c)   Gnotobiotes
              d)   Transgenics

5) Eating feces is termed _______________, and is common in rodents and rabbits,
   although only rabbits produce special feces for this purpose.

              a)   Starvation
              b)   Night feces
              c)   Metabolism
              d)   Coprophagy




                                           1
6) When an animal is mostly active at night they are said to be __________________.

              a)   Diurnal
              b)   Nocturnal
              c)   Procturnal
              d)   Alturnal

7) The common laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, was developed from the wild brown
   __________ rat.

              a)   Danish
              b)   Norway
              c)   Mediterranean
              d)   Swedish

8) The reddish material found in the tears and saliva of rats is called _____________.

              a)   polymyxin
              b)   protophyrin
              c)   porphyrin
              d)   polyphyrin

9) The “hooded” rat is also known as a ________________ rat.

              a)   Wistar
              b)   Long-Evans
              c)   Sprague-Dawley
              d)   Fisher

10) The hamster has several anatomic features that make it a popular model for research.
    Which of the following is not an anatomic feature of the hamster?

              a)   Cheek pouch
              b)   Flank organ (scent gland)
              c)   2 compartment stomach
              d)   Incomplete Circle of Willis

11) The “golden” hamster is also known as the _________________ hamster.

              a)   Chinese
              b)   Armenian
              c)   Syrian
              d)   Siberian




                                            2
12) The most unusual anatomic feature of the hamster, which makes it a popular model
    for research, is their ___________.

              a)   lack of a lobulated liver
              b)   right kidney
              c)   cheek pouch
              d)   single ovary

13) Hamster urine is normally ______________ in color.

              a)   blue
              b)   pale yellow
              c)   orange tinged
              d)   whitish

14) If an animal is born blind and helpless it is considered to be _______________.

              a)   precocial
              b)   altricial
              c)   premature
              d)   dystotic

15) The most common outbred guinea pig used in research is the _____________.

              a)   Strain 13
              b)   Fisher
              c)   Strain 2
              d)   Dunkin-Hartley

16) The normal gestation period for the cat is _________ month(s).

              a)   1
              b)   2
              c)   3
              d)   4

17) A female guinea pig is called a _______________.

              a)   dam
              b)   doe
              c)   sow
              d)   gilt




                                               3
18) Guinea pigs cannot synthesize Vitamin ___.

               a)   D3
               b)   B12
               c)   A
               d)   C

19) The unique reproductive trait among gerbils is that they __________________.

               a)   have extremely large ova
               b)   are hermaphroditic
               c)   only come into estrus once per year
               d)   mate for life

20) An unusual behavior noticed in approximately 20% of gerbils is spontaneous
    ____________.

               a)   seizures
               b)   somersaulting
               c)   hibernation
               d)   circling

21) Gerbils have relatively little odor compared to other rodents because
    _______________.

               a)   they have no scent glands
               b)   they groom themselves constantly
               c)   produce very small amounts of urine
               d)   produce very dilute urine

22) Parturition in rabbits is called ______________________.

               a)   farrowing
               b)   queening
               c)   kindling
               d)   whelping

23) A female rabbit does not release eggs from her ovaries until after mating has
    occurred. This process is called ______________ ovulation.

               a)   forced
               b)   spontaneous
               c)   induced
               d)   triggered




                                             4
24) The normal gestation period for the dog is __________ month(s)

               a)   1
               b)   2
               c)   3
               d)   4

25) The primary reason a rabbit ingests “night feces” is to:

               a)   Recover B vitamins, protein, and water
               b)   Mark territory
               c)   Recover gut flora
               d)   Prevent hairballs

26) The scientific term used to describe blood in the urine is ___________.

               a)   hematology
               b)   hematoma
               c)   hematuria
               d)   hemoptysis

27) The gestation period of the rabbit is approximately ___________ days.

               a)   30
               b)   60
               c)   90
               d)   120

28) Every six months, a female cat will have several periods of estrus, which may last 3-6
    days. Reproductively she is said to be _______________.

               a)   biannually multiestrus
               b)   seasonally monoestrous
               c)   seasonally polyestrous
               d)   biannually polyestrus

29) A cat’s __________ requirement is higher than that of other common laboratory
    animals.

               a)   mineral
               b)   protein
               c)   water
               d)   fiber




                                             5
30) If a cats’ hindquarters are elevated and her back is flattened she is probably
    ____________.

               a)   Aggressive
               b)   Near parturition
               c)   Sick
               d)   In estrus

31) Neonatal (newborn) animals require __________ exposure to CO2 to cause death
    compared to adult animals.

               a)   Shorter
               b)   Longer
               c)   Same
               d)   Some

32) The average gestation length in sheep and goats is _________ months

               a)   3
               b)   4
               c)   5
               d)   6


33) Animals who chew their cud are also known as ______________.

               a)   herbivores
               b)   omnivores
               c)   ruminants
               d)   carnivores

34) The _______________ requires that dogs be given the opportunity for additional
    exercise outside of their normal cages or runs (unless they have very large runs).

               a)   Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
               b)   Association for the Assessment and Accreditation for Animal Care
               c)   Public Health Policy
               d)   Animal Welfare Act

35) What structure is used to determine the sex of bullfrogs?

               a)   eye
               b)   anogential distance
               c)   external tympanic membrane
               d)   nupital pads




                                              6
36) In birds, the reproductive, digestive and urinary tract all terminate in a common
    opening known as the _____________.

               a)   crop
               b)   ceca
               c)   cloaca
               d)   carapace

37) The normal gestation length for the guinea pig is __________ days.

               a)   19-21
               b)   31-33
               c)   42-45
               d)   60-65

38) Which of the following is not an Old World Monkey?

               a)   cynomolgus
               b)   marmoset
               c)   rhesus
               d)   baboon

39) Which of the following anatomic features is normally seen in New World monkeys?

               a)   cheek pouches
               b)   callous pads
               c)   eyes open downward
               d)   nostrils open to the front or sides

40) A viral disease carried by macaques that can be fatal to humans is ______________.

               a)   rabies
               b)   measles
               c)   herpes B
               d)   parainfluenza

41) The most commonly used drug for nonhuman primate restraint is ______________.

               a)   xylazine
               b)   ketamine
               c)   valium
               d)   telazol




                                               7
42) During the estrous period, numerous nonhuman primates develop red, wrinkled skin,
    called “sex skin”, on the face, groin and buttocks. Which of the following does not
    get sex skin?

              a)   squirrel monkeys
              b)   chimpanzees
              c)   baboons
              d)   rhesus

43) Which non-human primate commonly gives birth to twins?

              a)   owl monkeys
              b)   squirrel monkeys
              c)   cynomolgus
              d)   marmosets

44) Facilities housing non-human primates should perform tuberculosis (TB) testing a
    minimum of ____ time(s) per year.

              a)   1
              b)   2
              c)   4
              d)   6

45) When TB testing non-human primates, the route of administration of tuberculin into
    the eyelid is _________.

              a)   intrademal
              b)   subcutaneous
              c)   intramuscular
              d)   intranasal

46) Guinea pig offspring are born precocious. The term precocious means:

              a)   blind, hairless, helpless at birth
              b)   fully furred, blind, and drinks milk and eats solid food at birth
              c)   old enough to breed and give birth
              d)   fully furred, eyes open, able to run and eat solid food at birth

47) The normal gestation length for the hamster is _________ days.

              a)   15-16
              b)   19-21
              c)   24-26
              d)   31-33




                                             8
48) The normal gestation length for the gerbil is ________ days.

              a)   19-21
              b)   20-22
              c)   24-26
              d)   31-33

49) Which of the following is not a method of restraint commonly used in laboratory
    swine?

              a)   Terris confinement stand
              b)   Bollman cage
              c)   Sling
              d)   V through

50) Which of the following breeds is not considered a miniature swine?

              a)   Yorkshire
              b)   Hanford
              c)   Sinclair
              d)   Yucatan

51) A number of contemporary restraint alternatives have been developed to provide firm,
    but gentle restraint. A _____________ sling holds a pig in a fleece-lined hammock,
    suspended from the floor.

              a)   Suspension
              b)   Brewer
              c)   Suspensory
              d)   Panepinto

52) Young female pigs are called _________________.

              a)   ewes
              b)   weaners
              c)   gilts
              d)   jills

53) The term for parturition in swine is called __________________.

              a)   kindling
              b)   littering
              c)   whelping
              d)   farrowing




                                              9
54) Both male and female gerbils have a dark yellow gland called the ____________,
    which is located on the midline of the abdomen. This gland is used to scent their
    territory and may be a sexual attractant.

               a)   flank gland
               b)   ventral marking gland
               c)   abdominal gland
               d)   gerbil scent gland

55) The scientific study of animal behavior is known as __________.

               a)   Sociology
               b)   Botany
               c)   Ethology
               d)   Psychology

56) The proper method for picking up a mouse is to:

               a) Grasp the mouse near the base of the tail between the thumb and
                  forefinger
               b) Grasp the mouse near the tip of the tail with forceps
               c) Grasp the mouse by the skin on the abdomen with forceps
               d) Grasp the mouse near the tip of the tail between the thumb and
                  forefinger

57) Sheep hooves should be trimmed about every _________ months.

               a)   2
               b)   3
               c)   6
               d)   12

58) The gestation period in the mouse and rat is about ________ week(s).

               a)   1
               b)   2
               c)   3
               d)   4

59) If two mouse strains are bred together to produce a mixture of genes of each strain,
    the resultant animals are called ________________.

               a)   transgenic
               b)   knockouts
               c)   mutants
               d)   hybrids



                                            10
60) The non-functional pendants of skin sometimes hanging from either side of the goats
    neck are called _________________.

              a)   dewlaps
              b)   trichobezoars
              c)   wattles
              d)   flaps

61) The space between the anus and genital papilla of rodents used for sex determination
    is called the _________________.

              a)   perineum
              b)   anus perineum distance
              c)   anogenital distance
              d)   genital diameter

62) Amphibian cages should be routinely rinsed a few hours after __________________.

              a)   the start of the light cycle
              b)   mating
              c)   metamorphosis
              d)   feeding

63) What is the best method to permanently identify a nonhuman primate?

              a)   Collar
              b)   Ear tag
              c)   Ear notch
              d)   Chest tattoo

64) What are the two main types of nonhuman primates?

              a)   Humans and Apes
              b)   Hominidae and Cercopithidae
              c)   Prosimians and Tarsiodea
              d)   Anthropoids and Prosimians

65) Which of the following is not a method for removing chlorine from tap water?

              a)   add sodium thiosulfate to the water
              b)   let water sit for 24 hours
              c)   let water sit for 48 hours
              d)   add chloramine to the water




                                              11
66) Nonhuman primates who originate in South and Central America are referred to as
    ___________.

              a)   New World Monkeys
              b)   Old World Monkeys
              c)   Prosimians
              d)   New Age Monkeys

67) A common condition in salamanders where they remain in their aquatic larval form
    with persistent gills throughout life is called ______________.

              a)   neonatal persistence
              b)   neoteny
              c)   larval persistence
              d)   larvoteny

68) The common name for Xenopus laevis is _________________.

              a)   bullfrog
              b)   tiger salamander
              c)   leopard frog
              d)   African clawed frog

69) Which of the following is not a characteristic of Old World Monkeys?

              a)   Ischial callosities
              b)   Cheek pouches
              c)   Prehensile tails
              d)   Nostrils open downward

70) Which of the following is not a characteristic of New World Monkeys?

              a)   Nonopposable thumbs
              b)   Ischial callosities
              c)   Nostrils open to the side
              d)   Prehensile tails

71) Which of the following is not part of the avian reproductive system?

              a)   cloaca
              b)   infundibulum
              c)   crop
              d)   magnum




                                               12
72) The average gestation period in nonhuman primates is __________ months.

               a)   3-4
               b)   5-6
               c)   8-9
               d)   10-11

73) A special dietary component for birds that is composed of oyster shell and granite is
    called ______________.

               a)   grit
               b)   cuttle
               c)   mash
               d)   groat

74) The __________________ requires that monkeys housed in research facilities be
    provided with opportunities to simulate, as closely as possible, its normal (wild)
    activities.

               a)   CT State Law
               b)   Public Health Service Policy
               c)   Animal Welfare Act
               d)   Good Laboratory Practices

75) The clinical term for insufficient oxygen is ________________.

               a)   hypothermia
               b)   hypocapnia
               c)   hypoxia
               d)   hypothyroidism

76) The term used to describe the study of birth defects is _____________.

               a)   Ethology
               b)   Teratology
               c)   Histology
               d)   Gynecology

77) The largest government agency fostering biomedical research with direct financial
    support is the _____________.

               a)   Howard Hughes Institute
               b)   Robert Wood-Johnson Foundation
               c)   National Science Foundation
               d)   National Institutes of Health




                                            13
78) Which of the following warm-blooded vertebrates is not regulated by the Animal
    Welfare Act?

               a)   Guinea pigs
               b)   Rabbits
               c)   Wild rats
               d)   Nude mice


79) Who prepares the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals?

               a)   AAALAC
               b)   USDA
               c)   ACLAM
               d)   ILAR

80) If an animal lacks a means of generating heat internally they are called
    _____________.

               a)   endotherms
               b)   ectotherms
               c)   hypotherms
               d)   hypertherms

81) The word, “hypotrichosis”, has the root _______, the prefix ______, and the suffix
    ____.

               a)   tricho; osis; hypo
               b)   hypo; tricho; osis
               c)   tricho; hypo; osis
               d)   osis; tricho; hypo

82) All organic compounds contain _____________.

               a)   Nitrogen
               b)   Oxygen
               c)   Carbon
               d)   Hydrogen




                                            14
83) The term “ cardio” refers to the _____________.

              a)   heart
              b)   stomach
              c)   nerve
              d)   skin

84) Snakes are ____________________.

              a)   omnivores
              b)   herbivores
              c)   carnivores
              d)   insectivores

85) The term “hepato” refers to the _______________.

              a)   Blood
              b)   Kidney
              c)   Bone
              d)   Liver

86) The standard symbol for the element “calcium” is ___________.

              a)   Na
              b)   Ca
              c)   Fe
              d)   K

87) Which of the following is the correct formula for the conversion of Fahrenheit
    degrees to Celsius degrees?

              a)   C=9/5 (F-32)
              b)   F=9/5 (C-32)
              c)   C=5/9 (F-32)
              d)   F=5/9 (C-32)

88) Cagewash temperatures should be 1500 F. What is the temperature on the Celsius
    scale?

              a)   210 C
              b)   540 C
              c)   660 C
              d)   820 C




                                           15
89) The anatomic term “ventral” means “towards the ________________”

              a)   abdomen
              b)   back
              c)   head
              d)   tail

90) The anatomical term “medial” means “towards the ____________”

              a)   side of the body
              b)   nose
              c)   middle of the body
              d)   foot

91) The lungs in mammals lie in the ___________ cavity?

              a)   cranial
              b)   pelvic
              c)   thoracic
              d)   abdominal

92) A male rabbit is called a _______________.

              a)   buck
              b)   tom
              c)   hob
              d)   boar

93) The kidneys are part of which body system?

              a)   Urinary
              b)   Cardiovascular
              c)   Respiratory
              d)   Reproductive

94) The chinchilla belongs to the same family as the _______________.

              a)   ferret
              b)   guinea pig
              c)   rabbit
              d)   hamster




                                          16
95) The function of the lungs is to _______________________.

               a)   Filter the blood
               b)   Deliver oxygen to tissues
               c)   Filter the lymphatics
               d)   Deliver oxygen to the blood

96) The function of arteries is to _____________________.

               a)   Filter the blood
               b)   Pump blood from the tissues
               c)   Carry blood from the heart
               d)   Bring blood back to the heart

97) How many compartments are in a ruminant stomach?

               a)   1
               b)   2
               c)   3
               d)   4

98) The largest vein in the body is the ____________.

               a)   Jugular vein
               b)   Aorta
               c)   Portal vein
               d)   Vena cava

99) In the gonads, sex cells (egg or sperm) divide and the daughter cells contain only half
    the number chromosomes as the parent cells. This cell division process is called
    ___________.

               a)   Schizogony
               b)   Mitosis
               c)   Meiosis
               d)   Schizosis

100) A gene is _______________________.

               a) The part of the chromosome responsible for expressing a trait
               b) A cell with only half the number of chromosomes coming from the
                  female
               c) An ovum when successfully fertilized by a person
               d) A cell with only half the number of chromosomes coming from the
                  male



                                             17
101) The shelf life of a bag of standard laboratory swine chow is ________ days after the
__________ date.

               a)   60; shipping
               b)   90; milling
               c)   120; shipping
               d)   180; milling

102) The type of caging material that has high impact strength, is transparent and can
withstand high temperatures is ___________________.

               a)   Polypropylene
               b)   Polystyrene
               c)   Polycarbonate
               d)   Polyethylene

103) Strains are considered inbred after being mated for _____ generations.

               a)   10
               b)   20
               c)   30
               d)   100

104) Surgery rooms, like rodent barrier rooms, should operate on a ________________
pressure air supply to prevent any disease organisms from entering the room.

               a)   Positive
               b)   Forced
               c)   Injected
               d)   Negative

105) A zoonotic disease is a disease that is transmitted from ________________.

               a)   Gnotobiotic animals to axenic animals
               b)   Guarantied animals to barrier maintained animals
               c)   Animals to animals
               d)   Animals to humans

106) The process by which the number of bacteria and other organisms is reduced enough
to prevent disease and meet an acceptable public health standard is called
_________________.

               a)   Disinfection
               b)   Sanitization
               c)   Steam sterilization
               d)   Cold sterilization



                                            18
107) Gnotobiotic animals are animals that __________________________.

              a) Harbor no detectable bacteria, viruses or other microorganisms
              b) Are carefully monitored to be sure they don’t harbor certain
                 pathogenic organisms
              c) Are nearly devoid of microorganisms and have been provided with
                 known bacteria
              d) Carry an unknown, uncontrolled variety and number of organisms

108) Another term for gnotobiotic is __________________________.

              a)   Defined flora
              b)   Axenic
              c)   Specific pathogen free
              d)   Viral antibody free

109) Prolapse means ___________________________.

              a)   An organ is protruding externally from a body opening
              b)   Secretions of a wet material from a body opening
              c)   Difficulty breathing
              d)   Constant scratching

110) Alopecia is defined as ____________________________.

              a)   Paleness in an animals skin or mucous membrane
              b)   Listlessness
              c)   Hair loss
              d)   Constant or frequent scratching

111) A fomite is ____________________________.

              a)   A transmissible disease
              b)   A living creature that can carry disease organisms
              c)   A nonliving object that can carry disease organisms
              d)   Any person or object that can carry disease organisms

112) A drug that relieves pain, but does not produce unconsciousness is called an
______________.

              a)   Anesthetic
              b)   Antibiotic
              c)   Antiprotozoal
              d)   Analgesic




                                            19
113) What government agency is in charge of preparing standards and enforcing the
Animal Welfare Act?

               a)   AAALAC, International
               b)   USDA
               c)   FDA
               d)   OPRR

114) What is the name of the voluntary accreditation organization that inspects and
accredits animal care programs?

               a)   USDA
               b)   PHS
               c)   NIH
               d)   AAALAC, International

115) A single notch in the bottom of right ear and a single punch hole in the top of the
left ear indicate what identification number in a mouse?

               a)   16
               b)   32
               c)   66
               d)   75

116) If the genes for coat color in a sheep are different, the animal is said to be:

               a)   heterozygous for coat color
               b)   dominant for coat color
               c)   homozygous for coat color
               d)   recessive for coat color

117) In a rodent-breeding colony, which type of breeding scheme should be used to
obtain minimal homozygosity in the shortest period of time?

               a)   outbreeding
               b)   inbreeding
               c)   cross breeding
               d)   monogamous breeding




                                              20
118) Rodent barrier rooms should be ventilated at which type of pressure towards the
hallway?

               a)   Positive pressure
               b)   Negative pressure
               c)   Neutral pressure
               d)   It does matter if all of the rodents are SPF

119) The destruction of all organisms on an object is referred to as:

               a)   Disinfection
               b)   Sanitization
               c)   Sterilization
               d)   Pasteurization

120) Commercially prepared rabbit diets have a high ____________ content.

               a)   Fiber
               b)   Moisture
               c)   Protein
               d)   Vitamin C




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