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On blood transfusion

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					On blood transfusion


Before undergoing any medical procedure was a serious, thinking person knows about all the "for" and
"against." What about blood transfusions ? Now this is one of the main tools of medicine. Many
doctors have a genuine interest in their patients will not be kolebatsya - to do a blood transfusion or not.
Now scientists are investigating how blood transfusions affect the body's defenses, or the immune
system. What does this mean to you or one of your relative, who needs surgery?
When transplanting the heart, liver or other organ which the immune system of the recipient may feel
foreign tissue and reject it. But after a blood transfusion is the graft. Even "properly" matched blood
can suppress the immune system. At a conference of pathologists emphasized that hundreds of medical
publications "associated with immunological transfusion reactions" ("Case Builds Against Transfusions"
["Evidence oppose transfusions"]).
One of the main objectives of your immune system - to detect and eliminate malignant (cancer)
cells. Therefore, immunosuppression may lead to negative consequences.
Another problem associated with blood transfusion - infection. Blood-borne diseases of concern
conscientious physicians and many patients. Here, the list is long, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B,
cytomegalovirus, malaria, herpes, brucellosis, salmonellosis, etc. toksoplazmos Especially necessary to
provide HIV. After a person is infected, it could be months before he faces detectable antibodies. Without
realizing that it is a virus, it can give blood with a negative result in the test. The consequences of this
are not hard to dogadatsya.
In addition, a specialist in infectious diseases warned: "The stock of blood may be necessary to check and
to prevent the transfer of a number of diseases that were not previously considered infectious, and
include lymphoma, leukemia and dementia [or Alzheimer's disease]" ( Transfusion Medicine Reuiews
["Medical review transfusions"]).
Another cause for concern is that blood collected in a country dominated by a disease, can be used far
beyond its borders, where neither the public nor the doctors are unaware of the danger. With today's
increasing number of crossings, including crossings of refugees and immigrants, increasing the risk that
blood products can skryvatsya unknown disease.
But there is, effective ways to solve serious health problems without the use of blood? To start with, why
blood transfusions.
Hemoglobin in red blood cells carries oxygen is necessary for life and health. Therefore, if a person has
lost a lot of blood, apparently, it is logical to just make the problem. Usually you have 14 or 15 grams of
hemoglobin per 100 cubic centimeters of blood.
Observations of anemia found that hard to see the restriction functionality in hemoglobin concentration of
7 g / l 0.1. Other people with similar content of red blood cells was observed only a slight decrease in
performance.
This information does not mean that nothing should be done when a person loses a lot of blood. If the
blood loss is significant, the blood pressure drops and the person can enter into a state of shock. First,
you need to stop the bleeding and to restore blood volume. This is to prevent shock and support the
circulation of red blood cells and other components.
To restore the volume does not need to use whole blood or plasma. Effective volume expander may have
different blood fluids. The simplest among them, inexpensive and compatible with blood - is saline (salt)
solution. There is also a liquid with special properties, such dekstan, gelatin solution, Ringer's lactate,
hydroxyethyl starch. These fluids are nontoxic and inexpensive, accessible, stored at room temperature,
do not require testing for compatibility and not get any blood transfusion diseases.
However, you may ask, "How can I get help blood products when I need red blood cells to supply the
body kislordom?" The fact that there are reserves for oxygen transport. If blood is lost, the work includes
compensatory mechanisms. With each beat of the heart pumps more blood. And since the lost blood was
replaced with a suitable liquid, now diluted blood, even small vessels to flow easier. Because of the
chemical changes in the tissue more oxygen. These devices are so effective that if even half of the red
blood cells remain, oxygen delivery can be 75 percent of normal. At rest, the patient spends only 25
percent of the available oxygen in the blood. However, most general anesthetics reduce the body's need
for oxygen.
A ASCT scientist Niels Jerne received in 1984 the Nobel Prize in Medicine. When asked why he refused a
blood transfusion, he said: "A person's blood is like his fingerprints - no two types of blood tests that are
exactly alike."
Once the volume is restored with a blood substitute, doctors can administer oxygen under increased
pressure. This will provide the body more oxygen. You can also take steps to generation of an increasing
number of red blood cells. Iron-containing products are introduced, which help the body to produce them
in three to four times faster. Another existing drugs such as erythropoietin. It stimulates the formation of
red blood cells in the bone marrow.
There are other ways to help. Sometimes blood in the wound can otsasyvatsya, filtrovatsya and sent back
into the bloodstream (during surgery). Reduction procedure is also used in body temperature during
surgery to reduce the need for oxygen. Hypotensive anesthesia. Therapy to improve clotting. Laser
"scalpel." Desmopressin to reduce the bleeding ... The author hopes that you'll never lose a lot of
blood. But if this happens, then surely, skilled doctors can help you, not floating so dangerous blood
transfusion.

				
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