On blood transfusion Before undergoing any medical procedure was a serious, thinking person knows about all the "for" and "against." What about blood transfusions ? Now this is one of the main tools of medicine. Many doctors have a genuine interest in their patients will not be kolebatsya - to do a blood transfusion or not. Now scientists are investigating how blood transfusions affect the body's defenses, or the immune system. What does this mean to you or one of your relative, who needs surgery? When transplanting the heart, liver or other organ which the immune system of the recipient may feel foreign tissue and reject it. But after a blood transfusion is the graft. Even "properly" matched blood can suppress the immune system. At a conference of pathologists emphasized that hundreds of medical publications "associated with immunological transfusion reactions" ("Case Builds Against Transfusions" ["Evidence oppose transfusions"]). One of the main objectives of your immune system - to detect and eliminate malignant (cancer) cells. Therefore, immunosuppression may lead to negative consequences. Another problem associated with blood transfusion - infection. Blood-borne diseases of concern conscientious physicians and many patients. Here, the list is long, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus, malaria, herpes, brucellosis, salmonellosis, etc. toksoplazmos Especially necessary to provide HIV. After a person is infected, it could be months before he faces detectable antibodies. Without realizing that it is a virus, it can give blood with a negative result in the test. The consequences of this are not hard to dogadatsya. In addition, a specialist in infectious diseases warned: "The stock of blood may be necessary to check and to prevent the transfer of a number of diseases that were not previously considered infectious, and include lymphoma, leukemia and dementia [or Alzheimer's disease]" ( Transfusion Medicine Reuiews ["Medical review transfusions"]). Another cause for concern is that blood collected in a country dominated by a disease, can be used far beyond its borders, where neither the public nor the doctors are unaware of the danger. With today's increasing number of crossings, including crossings of refugees and immigrants, increasing the risk that blood products can skryvatsya unknown disease. But there is, effective ways to solve serious health problems without the use of blood? To start with, why blood transfusions. Hemoglobin in red blood cells carries oxygen is necessary for life and health. Therefore, if a person has lost a lot of blood, apparently, it is logical to just make the problem. Usually you have 14 or 15 grams of hemoglobin per 100 cubic centimeters of blood. Observations of anemia found that hard to see the restriction functionality in hemoglobin concentration of 7 g / l 0.1. Other people with similar content of red blood cells was observed only a slight decrease in performance. This information does not mean that nothing should be done when a person loses a lot of blood. If the blood loss is significant, the blood pressure drops and the person can enter into a state of shock. First, you need to stop the bleeding and to restore blood volume. This is to prevent shock and support the circulation of red blood cells and other components. To restore the volume does not need to use whole blood or plasma. Effective volume expander may have different blood fluids. The simplest among them, inexpensive and compatible with blood - is saline (salt) solution. There is also a liquid with special properties, such dekstan, gelatin solution, Ringer's lactate, hydroxyethyl starch. These fluids are nontoxic and inexpensive, accessible, stored at room temperature, do not require testing for compatibility and not get any blood transfusion diseases. However, you may ask, "How can I get help blood products when I need red blood cells to supply the body kislordom?" The fact that there are reserves for oxygen transport. If blood is lost, the work includes compensatory mechanisms. With each beat of the heart pumps more blood. And since the lost blood was replaced with a suitable liquid, now diluted blood, even small vessels to flow easier. Because of the chemical changes in the tissue more oxygen. These devices are so effective that if even half of the red blood cells remain, oxygen delivery can be 75 percent of normal. At rest, the patient spends only 25 percent of the available oxygen in the blood. However, most general anesthetics reduce the body's need for oxygen. A ASCT scientist Niels Jerne received in 1984 the Nobel Prize in Medicine. When asked why he refused a blood transfusion, he said: "A person's blood is like his fingerprints - no two types of blood tests that are exactly alike." Once the volume is restored with a blood substitute, doctors can administer oxygen under increased pressure. This will provide the body more oxygen. You can also take steps to generation of an increasing number of red blood cells. Iron-containing products are introduced, which help the body to produce them in three to four times faster. Another existing drugs such as erythropoietin. It stimulates the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. There are other ways to help. Sometimes blood in the wound can otsasyvatsya, filtrovatsya and sent back into the bloodstream (during surgery). Reduction procedure is also used in body temperature during surgery to reduce the need for oxygen. Hypotensive anesthesia. Therapy to improve clotting. Laser "scalpel." Desmopressin to reduce the bleeding ... The author hopes that you'll never lose a lot of blood. But if this happens, then surely, skilled doctors can help you, not floating so dangerous blood transfusion.
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