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Cultural Influences

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					Cultural Influences

       Chp. 16
  with Duane Weaver
                   Outline
•   Culture and Culture Variability
•   Norms
•   Myths
•   Rituals
•   Sacred & Profane Consumption
•   Desacralization/Sacraliztion
    Culture and Culture Variability
• Culture: Values, ethics, rituals, traditions,
  material objects and services produced or valued
  by the members of a society

•    A cultural system consists of 3 functional areas:


     Ecology            Social Structure          Ideology

Adaptation to habitat   How social order is   Shared ethos: moral and
                           maintained             aesthetic values
                Culture Variability
Although every culture is different, four
dimensions account for most of the variance:

     Power Distance                  Uncertainty Avoidance

    Power impact on relationships    How the society handles ambiguity
                                                (religion?)


Masculinity/Femininity                     Individualism
How a society defines gender roles   Collectivist or individualist focused
          (examples?)                              society?
                       Norms
  Rules that govern what is right or wrong.

                          Norms

Explicitly decided   Culturally embedded
    Enacted             Crescive
                                             Subtleties (suggested
     Norms               Norms               appropriate behaviour)
                                             - dressing, dining…

     Rules/guides      Taboos - punishable


       Customs            Mores              Conventions
                           Myths
 Myth: a story containing symbolic elements that expresses the
  shared emotions and ideals of a culture
    – Myths serve four interrelated functions in a culture


Metaphysical Explain the origins of existence

             Emphasize that all components of the universe
Cosmological are part of a single picture

Sociological     Help maintain social order by authorizing a
                 social code

Psychological Provide models for personal conduct
                          Rituals
• Ritual
  – A set of symbolic behaviours that occur in a
    fixed sequence and tend to be repeated
    periodically.
             • (Let’s discuss Table 16-1 for examples)


• Ritual Artifacts
     • Items used in the performance of rituals
           – Wedding cakes, birthday candles…(others??)
Sacred and Profane Consumption
• Sacred Consumption
   – Involves objects and events that are set apart from normal life
     and are treated with some degree of respect or awe
• Profane Consumption
   – Involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary or of
     the everyday world
• Domains of Sacred Consumption


 Sacred Places                              Sacred People
                      Sacred Events
  Desacralization & Sacralization
 Desacralization
    A sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place, or is
     duplicated in mass quantities (Eiffel tower, Mona Lisa)
    It becomes profane as a result
 Sacralization
    When ordinary objects, events or people take on sacred meaning to
     a culture or to specific groups within a culture
   – The Stanley Cup (hockey)
   – World Cup (soccer)
   – Confucius
   – Abraham Lincoln

				
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posted:1/24/2013
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