Cultural Influences by pptfiles


									Cultural Influences

       Chp. 16
  with Duane Weaver
•   Culture and Culture Variability
•   Norms
•   Myths
•   Rituals
•   Sacred & Profane Consumption
•   Desacralization/Sacraliztion
    Culture and Culture Variability
• Culture: Values, ethics, rituals, traditions,
  material objects and services produced or valued
  by the members of a society

•    A cultural system consists of 3 functional areas:

     Ecology            Social Structure          Ideology

Adaptation to habitat   How social order is   Shared ethos: moral and
                           maintained             aesthetic values
                Culture Variability
Although every culture is different, four
dimensions account for most of the variance:

     Power Distance                  Uncertainty Avoidance

    Power impact on relationships    How the society handles ambiguity

Masculinity/Femininity                     Individualism
How a society defines gender roles   Collectivist or individualist focused
          (examples?)                              society?
  Rules that govern what is right or wrong.


Explicitly decided   Culturally embedded
    Enacted             Crescive
                                             Subtleties (suggested
     Norms               Norms               appropriate behaviour)
                                             - dressing, dining…

     Rules/guides      Taboos - punishable

       Customs            Mores              Conventions
 Myth: a story containing symbolic elements that expresses the
  shared emotions and ideals of a culture
    – Myths serve four interrelated functions in a culture

Metaphysical Explain the origins of existence

             Emphasize that all components of the universe
Cosmological are part of a single picture

Sociological     Help maintain social order by authorizing a
                 social code

Psychological Provide models for personal conduct
• Ritual
  – A set of symbolic behaviours that occur in a
    fixed sequence and tend to be repeated
             • (Let’s discuss Table 16-1 for examples)

• Ritual Artifacts
     • Items used in the performance of rituals
           – Wedding cakes, birthday candles…(others??)
Sacred and Profane Consumption
• Sacred Consumption
   – Involves objects and events that are set apart from normal life
     and are treated with some degree of respect or awe
• Profane Consumption
   – Involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary or of
     the everyday world
• Domains of Sacred Consumption

 Sacred Places                              Sacred People
                      Sacred Events
  Desacralization & Sacralization
 Desacralization
    A sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place, or is
     duplicated in mass quantities (Eiffel tower, Mona Lisa)
    It becomes profane as a result
 Sacralization
    When ordinary objects, events or people take on sacred meaning to
     a culture or to specific groups within a culture
   – The Stanley Cup (hockey)
   – World Cup (soccer)
   – Confucius
   – Abraham Lincoln

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