Human Y Chromosome Evolution by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									Human Y Chromosome Evolution
  Group 3: Brian Davis, Ian Davis, Navada
Eagleton, Clayton Knight, and Michelle Mann
 The Wimpy, Selfish, Dominant Y
• 57,772,954 bp (1.776% of the
  total genome.)
• Genes- 78-400 genes, many
  NORFs, SNPs- 71,070
• More than 50%
  heterochromatin
• 3 MSY gene classes on the Y
  chromosome:
  – X-degenerate
  – X-transposed
  – Ampliconic
      Sex chromosome Evolution and Y
               Degeneracy




Lahn and Page, 1999
 Current State of Human Y Evolution
• Y chromosome is considered a haploid element in
  a diploid genome.
• Male haplotypes reveal a pattern of human
  evolution, originally migrating from Africa.
• The Y chromosome is still undergoing
  degradation.
• It is ultimately trying to preserve itself, but at
  what costs? Silencing mechanisms that were once
  meant for preservation are now driving its rapid
  degradation.
                      PAR Overview
• The PAR region is the only region of the Y chromosome that
  undergoes recombination.
• Loss of PAR1 results in male infertility.
• The PAR region is the product of Addition/Attrition.
• The PAR1 region is a remnant of an addition that appears between 80
  and 130 MYA.
• The gene content of the PAR region varies widely between species.
            Y Chromosome Intelligence
    • Y degeneracy and dosage compensation
      evolution are intimately linked.
    • Vicious cycle.
    • Does the Y have a chance?




Graves, Wakefield and Toder, 1998
-Small 79 amino acid intronless gene
-TDF factor (Testis Determining Factor)
-A member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box)
family
-From Class I SRY genes, which have X
chromosome homologues (from which they
diverged)
-Present in a single copy
-SRY protein contains a domain (HMG box) that
binds to DNA at a target sequence and bends it
at particular angles
  -Almost all sex-reversing mutations occur in this
  HMG box
                   HMG box Conservation

                                                                 Relatively conserved
                                                                 within HMG box




                      Relatively impossible to align!
“The genomic structure of SRY coding regions in different species, compared
with the conserved ancestral gene SOX3. The HMG box (blue) is well conserved,
but SRY flanking regions (orange) are hard to align between different species,
and differ from SOX3.”Graves 2002
Mammalian Y Chromosome and SRY
           Evolution




             Graves, 2002
AMELY – A Candidate Gene for Future Y-Linked Decay?

•   AMELY is an X-degenerate gene, transposed
    onto sex chromosomes 100-180 mya.

•   Mutation in AMELX causes recessive
    amelogenesis imperfecta.

•    Evidence for relaxed functional constraint of
     AMELY:
    1. Low AMELY protein expression
    2. AMELY has been deleted in normal human
     males
    3. AMELY has been lost in some rodents,
     including the mouse, with no apparent effect.
                                                     If AMELY is under relaxed functional constraint in humans,
                                                     we predict closely related AMELY genes should show
                                                     lower sequence conservation than AMELX genes.
                                                     Emboss global   AMELX Conservation          AMELY Conservation
                                                     alignment
                                                     Human/Chimp     95.6%identity, 4.1% gaps    94.3% identity, 5.0% gaps

                                                     Human/Cow       77.5% identity,14.7%        84.7% identity, 3.6% gaps
                                                                     gaps
                                                     Human/Horse     81.9% identity, 8.0% gaps   80.5% identity, 6.8% gaps
If AMELY is subject to little selective pressure, how does it
retain such high conservation with AMELX?

Grouping X-degenerate genes by Ks values shows AMELX/AMELY
differentiation began recently (30-50 mya).


                                                  MYA since X-Y
                                                  differentiation began:

                                                  Group 4: 30-50 mya or
                                                  divergence of New
                                                  World and Old World
                                                  monkey lineages.

                                                  Group 3: 80-130 mya

                                                  Group 2: 130-170 mya

                                                  Group 1: 130-350 mya

From Lahn et al. 1999
                Mechanisms for Survival
Ampliconic Regions - TSPY, DAZ, CDY
•   Multi-copy testis-specific genes with highly homogeneous sequences
•   Region on the long arm comprising 25% of the MSY has eight large palindromes (9kb-1.45
    Mb)
•   Also contain five sets of widely spaced inverted repeats (62kb - 298kb)
•   Many long tandem repeats, one 700 kb repeat includes 35 copies of the TSPY gene.




Intrachromosomal gene conversion:
    - Decrease variation by correcting mutant alleles to wild-type or vice versa within the Y -
•   Intrachromosomal repeats have less than .03% variation in both humans and chimps
•   When inter-species comparison is made, however variation was 1.4 - 2.3%
•   The near uniformity of arm-to arm sequence in the palindromes of both humans and
    chimpanzees suggests that gene conversion must be frequent enough to erase new
    mutations almost as quickly as they occur.
•   This makes it a profound selective force for maintaining the Y chromosome population.
                                                      DAZ
DAZ is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF).
• Expressed in premeiotic germ cells, spermatogonia and encodes an RNA-binding protein (spermatogenesis)
      – Deletions cause azoospermia / oligospermia
• The DAZ proteins (DAZ, DAZ2, DAZ3 and DAZ4) are all encoded by a strongly repeated region
      – One pair of genes is part of the P2 palindrome, second is part of the P1 palindrome.
• Within the RNA recognition motif (RRM), the mouse DAZL differs from human DAZL by far less amino acids than
    the mouse DAZL differs from the DAZ domain. This divergence increases outside the RRM.




•   Comparing the 5’ and 3’ UTRs of human DAZL and human DAZ mRNA shows 75% 5’ and 87% 3’ similarity
•   Comparing the 5’ and 3’ UTRs of human DAZL and mouse DAZL mRNA shows 17% 5’ and 59% 3’ similarity
     – This indicates that the DAZ gene family arose from its DAZL homolog on chromosome 3 during primate
       evolution by transposition of a complete transcription unit.
                                                               CDY
•   Chromodomain protein 1 is involved in chromatin assembly/disassembly
     – Contains a histone acetyltransferase catalytic domain
     – CDY1 is localized to the nucleus of late spermatids
          •   where histone hyperactelyation occurs, which is usually associated with gene activation.
•   Two identical copies of CDY1 located at the same position on opposite arms of P1
•   CDY gene family are derivatives of a single-copy gene, CDYL (human 13 & mouse 6)
•   CDY genes contain the exonic sequences present in CDYL but no introns




•   Again, much greater amino acid divergence between CDY and CDYL than intra-species
•   In mice, the autosomal Cdyl gene produces two transcripts
•   In humans, CDY1 has two isoforms that with different roles in spermatogenesis
•   In humans, autosomal CDYL produces only a ubiquitous housekeeping transcript
•   The Y homolog produces the testis-specific transcript.
•
                                                   TSPY
    TSPY was discovered over 15 years ago and was the first gene to be isolated from any Y chromosome

•   TSPY homologues with similar gene structure
     – Found on the Y chromosome in primates, artiodactyls and rodents
     – Suggest TSPY has been on the Y chromosome since before the eutherian radiation more than 80
        mya
     – There have been no homologs found in marsupials

•   Has been extensively amplified
     – Present in 20-40 copies on the human, primate and artiodactyl
     – 50-200 copies have been found on the bovine Y
     – Only a single functional copy on mouse and rat Y chromosomes

•   Unlike other amplified testis-specific genes on the human Y (DAZ, CDY)
     – TSPY is found outside the palindromic sequences.
     – Several TSPY-like genes have been identified on autosomes in human and mouse but lack introns

•   TSPX, A ubiquitously transcribed gene with an identical intron-exon structure maps to the X
    chromosome syntenic with SMCX
     – Appears to have evolved from a ubiquitously expressed gene on the proto-sex chromosome pair
     – Its transcription was limited to the testis during evolution
     – No sequence available for comparison
      The Future of the Human Y
• Y degeneracy and the evolution of dosage
  compensation are intimately linked.
• Vicious cycle.
• The genetic isolation of Y also means that the
  selection of the fittest Y is inefficient.
• Only genes with a male selectable function can
  ultimately resist degradation.
• Does the Y have a chance?
  – Will survival mechanisms be able to counteract
    degeneracy?
               Conclusions
• You cannot only look at the genomic side.
• Combination of mechanisms- selection, drift,
  environmental factors, high mutation rate,
  haploid state, etc.
• Will Y disappear? What will happen to human
  race?
• Does it matter if the male genes are on the X
  chromosome, because there is no Y
  chromosome?  highly evolved dosage
  compensation system.
  Questions???

Thank you for listening.

								
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