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					Food & Beverage




                                       Food & Beverage
                                        Encyclopedia
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                                                                      A
      •   ... la King - A dish of diced food, usually chicken or turkey, in a cream sauce
      containing mushrooms, pimentos, green peppers, and sometimes sherry.
      •   a la Bourgeoise: (French) The style of the family (family style).
      •   a la Broche: (French) Cooked on a skewer over a flame. See Brochette.
      •   a la Carte: (French) Each menu item is priced separately: Foods prepared to
      order.
      •   a la Mode: (French) Refers to ice cream on top of pie.
      •   a la Provencale: (French) Dishes prepared with garlic and olive oil. See
      Provencale.
      •   a la Russe: (French) The Russian way.
      •   a la: (French) The style of, such as: a la Francaise (The style of the French).
      •   A.P.:As Purchased.

      •    Abalone - This gastropod can be found along the coasts of California, Mexico
      and Japan. The edible portion is the "adductor muscle" (false foot) by which it clings
      to rocks. Its iridescent ear-shaped shell is the source of mother-of-pearl.

      •     Abbaye de Belloc is a French, traditional farmhouse, hard cheese from the
      Pays Basque region, made from unpasturized sheep's milk. The cheese was first
      made by the Benedictine monks of the Abbaye de Notre-Dame de Belloc from milk
      from the local flocks of sheep. Abbaye de Belloc is made in a 5 kg fat wheel with a
      natural, crusty, brownish coloured rind with patches of red, orange and yellow.
      •     Abbey Beers are strong fruity beers brewed in Belgium under licence from
      religious communities. They are based upon the style of beers brewed by the
      monasteries.

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      •    Abbots Invalid Stout is an Autralian strong stout brewed by CUB. It is a rare
      reminder of Australia' s early brewing links with England. Although now bottom-
      fermented, it still has a creamy, coffee character. Only found in Victoria, it is named
      after the co-operative Abbotsford brewery of Melbourne, which was taken over by
      CUB in 1925. The site now houses one of CUB's largest and most modern plants.

      •   Acerola - A cherry-like fruit from a small tree in the West Indies and adjacent
      areas. This fruit contains a high concentration of vitamin C. Also called "Barbados
      cherry" and "Puerto Rican cherry."

      •    Acesulfame-K is an artificial sweetener, manufactured by Hoechst, a giant
      German chemical company, and widely used around the world. It is about 200
      times sweeter than sugar and is marketed under the name Sunett. In the United
      States, for several years acesulfame-K was permitted only in such foods as sugar-
      free baked goods, chewing gum, and gelatin desserts. In July 1998, the FDA
      allowed this chemical to be used in soft drinks, thereby greatly increasing consumer
      exposure. Studies on rats indicate that it may cause cancer.

      •      Acidophilus Milk - Milk that has had lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria added
      to it. Many experts believe that this addition of bacteria helps restore or maintain
      "nature's balance" in the digestive tract.

      •   Ackee - A bright red tropical fruit ("blighia sapida") that features a soft, creamy
      white flesh. Captain Bligh brought the fruit from West Africa to Jamaica in 1793.
      Certain parts of the fruit are toxic when under-ripe.

      •   Acorn - Fruit of the oak tree. This nut may be eaten raw, roasted, or baked. It
      can be chopped to the size of coffee beans, roasted until brown, ground, mixed with
      a small amount of butter, and prepared as a coffee substitute.

      •    Acorn Squash - An oval winter squash with a ribbed, dark green skin and
      slightly sweet orange flesh. May be eaten baked or directly from the shell. The word
      squash comes from the Massachusetts Indian word "asquash," meaning "eaten
      green."

      •    Acorn Squash - An oval winter squash with a ribbed, dark green skin and
      slightly sweet orange flesh. May be eaten baked or directly from the shell. The word
      squash comes from the Massachusetts Indian word "asquash," meaning "eaten


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      green."

      •   Adnams is an English beer brewing company of Suffolk. They were
      established in 1890.
      •   Adnams Regatta is an English summer ale brewed with English pale ale malts
      and Goldings hops.

      •   Adzuki Bean - A small, dried, russet-colored bean with a sweet flavor.
      Available whole or powdered at Asian markets. Popular in Japanese confections
      such as "Yokan," which is made from adzuki-bean paste and agar.

      •    Aerated water (soda water) is a solution of carbonic acid in water. It was
      discovered by Priestly and suggested as a prevention of scurvy, a paper being
      presented to the Admiralty in 1773. Certainly sailors drank aerated water on board
      ship as a bottle was found from the Royal George which sank in 1780.
      •    Affenthaler is a red wine which takes its name from the Village of Affenthaler
      in Baden.

      •   Agar - A tasteless dried seaweed that is used as a thickening agent. Sold in
      blocks, powder, or stands. Agar can be used in place of gelatin, but less is required.
      Also called "kanten" and "Japanese Gelatin."

      •    Aging: A term used to describe the holding of meats at a temperature of 34 to
      36 degrees F. for a period of time to break down the tough connective tissues
      through the action of enzymes thus increasing tenderness.
      •    Agneau: (French) Lamb.
      •    Agnolotti - The name for a dish of small half moon-shaped pasta shells filled
      (usually) with tortellini stuffing. It is boiled and served in a broth or in a sauce.
      •    Aguardiente is a coarse Spanish brandy. In Spanish speaking areas of the
      Americas the term is used to describe a distilled liquor similar to brandy made from
      cane sugar.

      •    Ahi - These tuna reach about 300 pounds in weight. They feature a pale pink
      flesh that is relatively mild. Also called "Yellowfin tuna."

      •   Aisy Cendre is a French, traditional, farmhouse semi-soft cheese from the
      Burgundy region made from unpasturized cow's milk. The cheese is made by


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       immersing a local cheese (usually a young Epoisses) in a bed of ashes for a month
       or so, after which time the ashes are brushed off. Aisy Cendre is made as a 200 to
       250 gramme round with a natural rind covered with a thick coating of ash. It is slow
       to ripen and has a white, salty, chalky centre surrounded by a softer, earthy-tasting
       outer layer.
       More information at http://www.france-
       gourmet.com/cheese/Cheese/AisyCendre.html

       •    Aku - This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light-colored meat similar to
       yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "Katsuo."

       •    Akule - This marine fish, found near Hawaii, is normally served salted and
       dried. Also known as "Bigeye Scad."

       •    Alaskan Cod - This saltwater fish, which is not a true cod, has a soft textured
       flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also
       called "Sablefish."

       •   Albacore - A highly prized, mild-flavored tuna that weighs between 10 and 60
       pounds. This high-fat fish is the only tuna that can honestly be called "white." It is
       the most expensive variety of canned tuna.

   q   Ale - An alcoholic beverage that is brewed from malts and hops. It is generally
       stronger than beer and varies in color from light to dark amber. Because of the
       hops, ale is normally more bitter in taste than beer.

       •     Alewife - One of the most popular members of the herring family, the alewife is
       anadromous (it spawns in fresh water). This fish provides high-fat flesh with a fine,
       soft, texture.

       •    Alfalfa - One of the world's most important forage plants. It is widely cultivated
       and is increasing in popularity for human consumption due to its promotion as a
       dietary supplement. The seeds are often sprouted much like mung beans.

       •   Alfredo Sauce - A thick, creamy white sauce composed of butter, cream, and
       eggs used in Italian cuisine.

       •      Alginate is an apparently safe derivative of kelp, it is used as a food additive to


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       maintain the desired texture in dairy products, canned frosting, and other factory-
       made foods. Propylene glycol alginate, a chemically- modified algin, thickens acidic
       foods (soda pop, salad dressing) and stabilises the head in beer.

       •    Alligator - A large aquatic reptile that grows up to 19 feet in length. The meat
       is generally only available in its native regions--Louisiana and the Gulf States.
       Alligators feature meat ranging from white to dark--mild to strongly flavored.

       •    Allspice is a spice prepared from the dried berries of the evergreen pimento
       tree or West Indian pepper tree Pimenta dioica of the myrtle family, cultivated
       chiefly in Jamaica. It has an aroma similar to that of a mixture of cinnamon, cloves,
       and nutmeg.
       •    Allumette Potatoes: (French) Potatoes cut like large match sticks.

       •    Almond - The kernel of the fruit of the almond tree. Comes in sweet and bitter
       varieties. Bitter almonds contain traces of lethal "prussic acid" when raw. Processed
       bitter almonds are used to flavor extracts, liqueurs, and orgeat syrup.

       •   Altbier is a style of bitter German beer produced in the ancient style of brewing
       using top-fermentation. It produces copper-coloured aromatic ales.
       •   Amandine: (French) Prepared with or garnished with almonds.

       •    Amaranth - This weed is a nourishing, high-protein food. Amaranth greens
       have a slightly sweet flavor. The seeds are used as cereal or can be ground into
       flour for bread. Found in health food stores.

   q   Amaretto - A liqueur with the flavor of almonds (although it is often made from the
       kernels of apricot pits). The original amaretto liqueur came from Italy.

       •     Amberjack - A lean, mild fish found along the South Atlantic coast. Difficult to
       find in markets; usually sold whole.

       •     Ambrosia - "Ambrosia" means "immortality" and was the food of the gods on
       Mount Olympus. Today, it refers to a dessert of chilled fruit mixed with coconut. The
       fruits used are normally oranges and bananas.

       •   American Buffalo - American Buffalos are presently raised on game farms.
       The meat is very tender and tastes quite a bit like lean beef. It has no pronounced

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       gamey flavor. Also called "bison."

       •    Anchovy - There are many species of small, silvery fish known as "anchovies,"
       but the true anchovy comes from the Mediterranean and southern European
       coastlines. Often filleted, salt-cured, and canned in oil. Used sparingly to flavor
       foods.

       •      Anglaise: (French) The English way.

       •    Angler Fish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet
       flavor that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as "poor man's lobster."
       Also called "Monkfish," and "goose-fish."

       •     Angostura is a flavouring prepared from oil distilled from the bitter, aromatic
       bark of either of two South American trees, Galipea officinalis or Cusparia trifoliata,
       of the rue family. It is blended with herbs and other flavourings to give angostura
       bitters, which was first used as a stomach remedy and is now used to season food,
       fruit, and alcoholic drinks. It takes its name from the port of Angostura in Venezuela.

       •     Anise - A small annual plant from the parsley family was used as far back as
       1500 B.C. The leaves and the seeds have a distinctive sweet licorice flavor. Used
       to flavor a number of confections and savory dishes.

   q   Anisette - A very sweet clear liqueur made with anise seeds. The taste is that of
       licorice.

       •   Antelope - A large, deer-like animal that inhabits Asia, Africa, and Europe.
       Their meat is called "venison" and may be cooked by roasting. Plenty of fat is
       recommended to prevent the meat from becoming too dry.

       •     Appalachian Tea (Carolina Tea, Black Drink) is a north American substitute
       for traditional tea.

       •    Apple - Cultivated in temperate zones throughout the world for at least 3,000
       years, there are now thousands of varieties of this popular member of the rose
       family.

       •      Apricot - A relative of the peach, this fruit has been grown in China since

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      2,000 B.C. 90% of the American crop comes from California. Select plump,
      relatively firm fruit with a uniform color.

      •   Apricot Kernel Oil - Oil produced from the kernels of the apricot pit. Like bitter
      almonds, apricot kernels are poisonous until roasted.

      •     Arborio Rice - An Italian rice used to make "risottos," a specialty of hot stock,
      rice, and butter-sautéed chopped onions.

      •   Archers Ales is an English beer brewing company of Wiltshire. They were
      established in 1979.

      •    Arctic Bonito - This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light-colored meat similar
      to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "katsuo" and the Hawaiians call it "aku."

      •    Ardi-Gasna is a French, traditional, farmhouse hard cheese from the Pays
      Basque region made from unpasturized sheep's milk in three to five kilogram
      rounds. The cheese has a natural, crusty, yellow rind with greyish moulds. The
      cheeses are generally made by local shepherds in the high mountain pastures, in
      late spring and early summer.
      •    Armagnac is a deep-coloured brandy named after the district of Armagnac in
      Gascony, South-West France, where it is produced.
      •    Aromes au Gene de Marc is a French, traditional farmhouse, cow and goat's
      milk cheese from the Lyonnais region. The cheese is made from a small, immature
      cheese such as Rigotte or St Marcellin being macerated or cured in vats of
      fermenting grape skins and pips (known as marc) and then rolled in the marc before
      being sold. The resulting cheese is a small, 80 to 120 g round with a strong,
      bittersweet, yeasty taste and aroma and after maturing become hard and flaky with
      a powerful pungent taste.
      •    Arrack is a coarse liquor manufactured in the East Indies from a large variety
      of substances, for example by distilling saki, or fermented rice or coconut juice.
      Arrack is transparent and the colour of straw and has a peculiar but agreeable taste
      and contains bewteen 52 and 54% alcohol.

      •    Arrowhead - A Chinese water plant with arrowhead-shaped leaves. The
      starchy roots can be thin sliced, lightly fried, and used in various Chinese dishes.
      The roots can also be powdered like arrowroot.


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      •   Arrowroot - The root of the tropical arrowroot plant. This tuber is dried,
      ground, and used as a thickening agent for puddings, sauces, and other foods. It
      has about twice the thickening power of wheat flour. Also called arrowroot flour.

      •    Arrowroot is a starchy substance derived from the roots and tubers of various
      tropical plants with thick, clumpy roots. The true arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)
      was used by the Indians of South America as an antidote against the effects of
      poisoned arrows. The West Indian island of St Vincent is the main source of supply
      today. The roots and tubers are dried, finely powdered, and filtered. Because of the
      small size of the starch particles, the powder becomes translucent when cooked.
      Hence, it is often used as a glaze. The edible starch is easily digested and is often
      prescribed in the diet of invalids and young children.

      •    Artichoke - This name is shared by three unrelated plants: the globe,
      Jerusalem, and Chinese artichokes. The globe artichoke is considered the true
      artichoke and is cultivated in California. Buy deep green artichokes with a tight leaf
      formation.

      •       Artichoke Heart - The tender center of the globe artichoke.

      •    Arugula - This slightly bitter, aromatic salad green (also called "rocket,"
      "Rugula," and "Rucolo") has a peppery mustard flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-
      looking leaves. Makes a lively addition to salads, soups, and sautéed vegetables.

      •     Arundel Footslogger is a pale, straw-coloured beer from the Arundel
      Brewery.
      •     Ash Vine is an English beer brewing company of Somerset. They were
      established in 1987.
      •     Ashmore Farmhouse is a handmade British cheese made from unpasteurised
      friesian cows milk to a cheddar type recipe at Ashmore farm in Dorset. The recipe
      was invented in 1985 by Patricia and David Doble. The cheese is produced in 10lb
      wheels, 4lb truckles and 1.5lb truckles.

      •    Asiago Cheese - This semi-firm cheese has a rich, nutty flavor. Made from
      whole or part-skim cow's milk. Young Asiago cheese is used as a table cheese.
      After it has aged for over a year, it is suitable for grating.

      •       Asparagus - This vegetable is a member of the lily family. Normally green with

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      purple-tinged tips. Europeans prefer white asparagus which is grown underground
      to prevent greening. Choose bright green or pale ivory stalks with tight tips.

      •   Asparagus Bean - A pencil-thin legume from the black-eye pea family that
      looks like a very long green bean. These beans can grow a yard long, but are
      usually picked at 18" or less. These beans are slightly less sweet and crispy as the
      green bean.

      •       ASPARTAME

      •   Aspartame - A sugar substitute that is said to be 180 times sweeter than
      sugar. Aspartame, which is synthesized from tow amino acids, breaks down and
      loses its sweetness when it is heated.

      •    Aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet), is an artifical sweetner made up primarily of
      two amino acids. Some people have reported adverse behavioral effects (dizziness,
      hallucinations, headache) after drinking diet soda, but such reports have not been
      confirmed in controlled studies.

      •    Aspic - A savory jelly made of clarified meat, fish, or vegetable stock and
      gelatin. Most aspic is clear, but tomato aspic (made from tomato juice and gelatin)
      is opaque. Clear aspics form the base for molded dishes or as a glaze for cold
      dishes.

      •    Aspic: (English) Clear meat, poultry, or fish jelly.
      •    Au Gratin - A French phrase that refers to food that is topped with grated
      cheese or breadcrumbs mixed with bits of butter. This food is then broiled until
      brown and crisp.
      •    Au Jus - The French phrase that refers to meat served in its own natural
      juices.
      •    au Lait: (French) With milk.
      •    au Naturel: (French) Food that are plainly cooked.

      •   Avocado - A rich fruit known for its lush, buttery texture and mild, nutty flavor.
      Comes from the Nahuatl word for "testicle," perhaps for its shape. 80% of the U.S.
      crop comes from California. Avocados are the chief ingredient in "guacamole."

      •   Awa - An important food fish of the Indo-Pacific region that offers a tender,
      white flesh. Hawaiians use Awa for making fish cakes and sashimi. Also called

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      "Milkfish."

                                                                      B
      •   BABA
      •   Baba is a small cake of leavened dough, sometimes mixed with currants and
      usually soaked in rum (then called a rum baba).

      •    Bacon - A smoked and cured product made from the meat taken from the
      back, sides, and belly of pigs. Fat, which gives bacon its sweet flavor and tender
      crispness should be half to two-thirds of the total weight.

      •    Bacon is the side or back of pork which has been preserved by salting and
      drying.
      •    Baguette Laonnaise is a traditional creamery French cow's milk cheese from
      the Ile-de-France region. It was created after the Second World War, and is a
      strong cheese with a pingent, spicy aroma and taste that develops as the cheese
      matures and a glossy, crusty orange-brown rind.
      •    Bain Marie (French) Steam table or double boiler insert.
      •    Bake To cook in an oven. Baking Powder - A leavener containing baking
      soda, an acid (such as cream of tartar) and a moisture-absorber (such as
      cornstarch). Double-acting baking soda releases carbon dioxide gas when it
      becomes wet and again when exposed to oven heat. Baking Soda - Baking soda
      ("bicarbonate of soda") is a leavener used in baked goods. When mixed with an
      acid ingredient (such as butter-milk, yogurt, or molasses), baking soda produces
      carbon dioxide bubbles that make the dough rise.
      •    Balausta is an old term for the fruit of the pomegranate.

      •   Balsam Pear - Not a pear at all, but the fruit of a tropical climbing herb in Africa
      and Asia. It is similar to a cucumber and is used as a vegetable in meat dishes, fish
      dishes, and in soups. Also called "bitter melon" or "bitter gourd."

      •   Balsam Pear - Not a pear at all, but the fruit of a tropical climbing herb in Africa
      and Asia. It is similar to a cucumber and is used as a vegetable in meat dishes, fish
      dishes, and in soups. Also called "bitter melon" or "bitter gourd."

      •    Balsamic Vinegar - An Italian vinegar made from white Trebbiano grape juice.
      This fine vinegar gets part of its flavor from aging in wooden barrels over a period of
      years.

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      •    Bamboo Shoot - The tender-crisp, ivory colored shoot of a particular edible
      species of bamboo. The shoots are cut as soon as they appear above ground while
      they are still young and tender.

      •     Banana - The world's most popular fruit. The most common U.S. variety is the
      yellow Cavendish. They are picked green and develop better flavor when ripened
      off the bush. Two sweeter varieties are the red banana and the dwarf or finger
      banana.

      •   Banks and Taylor are an English beer brewing company of Bedfordshire.
      They were established in 1981.
      •   Bannock is a flat, round cake made of oat or barley meal, or a mixture of both,
      moistened with water and toasted upon a girdle.

      •   Barbados Cherry - A cherry-like fruit from a small tree in the West Indies and
      adjacent areas. This fruit contains a high concentration of vitamin C. Also called
      "acerola" and "Puerto Rican cherry."

      •    Barbecue Sauce - A sauce used to baste barbecued meat. Also used as an
      accompaniment to the meat after it is cooked. Traditionally made with tomatoes,
      onions, mustard, garlic, brown sugar, and vinegar. Beer or wine is also a popular
      ingredient.

      •    Barbera is a type of grape used for producing red wine. It is a major Italian
      variety with a 'tarry' smell and medium body.
      •    Bard: To wrap meat with bacon or salt pork.

      •    Barley - A hardy grain that dates back to the Stone Age. Used in cereals,
      breads, and soups. Hulled barley has the outer husk removed and is the most
      nutritious form of barley.

      •       Barley Wine is an English name for a very powerful, thick strong ale.
      •       Barley, Pearl: Polished barley.

      •    Barracuda - A pike-like sea fish with long pointed jaws filled with razor-sharp
      teeth. It is a firm-textured fish with moderate fat content. The type most commonly
      found in the U.S. is the Pacific barracuda (also called the California barracuda).

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      •    Basella - An edible leaf from a tropical plant that is cultivated in certain parts of
      France. Basella may be prepared in any manner appropriate for spinach. Also
      called "vine spinach."

      •   Basil - An herb with a pungent flavor described as a cross between licorice
      and cloves. The ancient Greeks called this member of the mint family the "royal
      herb." Most varieties have green leaves, but one variety, the opal basil, is purple.

      •    Basmati Rice - This exotic rice variety from East India, is long-grained and
      perfumy.

      •    Bass - A term that refers to numerous and often unrelated freshwater and
      saltwater fish. True basses include groupers, black sea bass, and the striped bass.
      Largemouth, redeye, rock, smallmouth and the spotted bass, are actually sunfish.

      •       Baste: To pour drippings, fat, or stock over food while cooking.
      •       Batter: A mixture of flour and liquid.

      •     Bay Leaf - Also called laurel leaf or bay laurel, this aromatic herb is native to
      the Mediterranean. Turkish bay leaves are milder than the California variety. Used
      to flavor soups, vegetables, and meats. Normally removed before serving.

      •    Beamish is an Irish stout brewed only in Ireland, in Cork. It has a distinctive
      flavour achieved through the use of malted wheat as well as barley in the mash.

      •   Bean Sprouts - The crisp, tender sprouts of various germinated beans. Mung
      bean sprouts, used often in Chinese cooking, are the most popular. However, other
      seeds and beans, such as alfalfa seeds, soybeans, and wheat beans are also
      sprouted.

      •       Bean Sprouts: Chinese Mung beans.

      •   Bean Threads - A form of translucent Chinese noodle. These are not true
      noodles, but are made from the starch of mung beans. Also called "cellophane
      noodles."

      •    Beans - These highly nutritious seeded pods of various legumes are among
      the oldest foods known to humanity, dating back to prehistoric times.

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      •    Bear - A large, partly carnivorous quadruped found in America, the Arctic, and
      in Europe. Bear steaks should be cooked like beef, except that they are generally
      marinated for a couple of days in oil and vinegar or wine to help tenderize the meat.

      •   Béarnaise Sauce - Classic French sauce made with a reduction of vinegar,
      wine, tarragon and shallots and finished with egg yolks and butter. Served with
      meat, fish, eggs, and vegetables.

      •   Bearnaise: (French) Sauce derived from Hollandaise, with a tarragon
      reduction added.
      •   Beaufort is a traditional farmhouse French hard cheese from the Savoie region
      made from unpasteurized cow's milk in large, concave cartwheels weighing about
      75 kg. It is an ancient cheese of the Gruyere family dating back to the Romans.
      More information at http://www.conus.fr/beaufort_a.html

      •    Beaver - A semi-aquatic animal of the rodent family. The tail is considered the
      best part to eat. Care must be taken when skinning to avoid severing the musk
      gland, which will permeate the entire flesh when cut.

      •    Béchamel Sauce - A term for light white or blond sauces. In its simplest form,
      white sauce is cream or milk mixed into a white roux (a combination of butter and
      flour which isn't browned). Also called "white sauce."

      •   Bechamel: (French) A rich cream sauce made from cream and a roux, with an
      onion pique.

      •   Beechnut - The small, triangular fruit of the beech tree that has been used
      since prehistoric times. The flavor has been described as a cross between a
      hazelnut and a chestnut. Usually roasted before serving. Used in breads and
      pressed for oil.

      •   Beef - The meat from cows, steers (males castrated when very young), heifers
      (females that have never borne a calf) and bulls under 2 years old. The eight USDA
      grades are Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and
      Canner.

      •       Beef is the meat derived from the carcass of bulls and cows.


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       •    Beef Tartare - A dish of coarsely ground beef. The meat is normally high-
       quality, lean, and seasoned with salt, pepper, and seasonings. Beef tartar is often
       served with a raw egg placed on top, along with capers, parsley, and onions.

       •      Beef, Dried: Beef soaked in brine and then soaked and dried.

       •    Beefalo - A cross between the American bison (commonly called buffalo) and
       cattle, the beef strain being dominant. The dark red meat of beefalo is very lean and
       has a somewhat stronger flavor than beef.

   q    Beer - A low-alcohol beverage brewed from malted barley and cereals (such as
        corn or rye) mixed with yeast (for fermentation) and flavored with hops. Since
        about 90% of beer is water, the water used in very important to the taste of the
        beer.
       •    Beer is a drink of fermented hops, malt and barley.

       •    Beerwurst - A German cooked sausage with a garlic flavor and a dark red
       color. Normally used as lunch meat. Also know as "Bierwurst."

       •   Beet - A firm, round-rooted vegetable with nutritious leafy greens. Commonly
       known as the garden beet. In addition to the garden beet, are the spinach or leaf
       beet ("Swiss chard"), the sugar beet, and the mangold, which is used mostly for
       fodder.

       •    Bell Pepper - The best-known members of the sweet peppers. This mild,
       sweet bell-shaped pepper is crisp and features a very juicy flesh. Bell peppers are
       available in green, yellow, red, orange, purple and brown colors.

       •    Belly-Fish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet
       flavor that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as "poor man's lobster."
       Also called "angler fish," "monkfish," and "goosefish."

   q    Benedictine - A sweet liqueur named after the Benedictine monks of Normandy
        who first created it in the 16th century. This liqueur is based on cognac and
        flavored with various aromatics, fruit peels, and herbs.
       •    Beurre Noir:(burr-nwahr) (French) Butter cooked to a dark brown, then adding
       capers and a dash of vinegar.
       •    Beurre Noisette: (burr-nwah-zet) (French) Butter that tastes like hazelnuts,


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      achieved by melting butter until it turns a golden brown.
      •   Beurre: (burr) (French) Butter.
      •   Bhang is an Indian drink prepared from the leave and shoots of the hemp
      (cannabis) plant.

      •   Bibb Lettuce - A type of butterhead lettuce with soft, loose, tender whitish-
      green leaves and a mild flavor. Other butterhead lettuce varieties include "Boston"
      and "buttercrunch."

      •    Biere de Garde is a French style of top-fermented beer originally brewed in
      north-west France farms, but now produced commercially.
      •    Biscuit is a crisp, flat cake, consisting of flour, sugar, fat and flavouring
      materials. Only a small amount of moisture is present in a biscuit thus making them
      a concentrated food.

      •   Bison - Also know as the "American Buffalo," bison is presently raised on
      game farms. The meat is very tender and tastes quite a bit like lean beef. It has no
      pronounced gamey flavor.

      •       Bitter is an English style of draught ale served in pubs.

      •    Bitter Melon - The fruit of a tropical climbing herb in Africa and Asia. It is
      similar to a cucumber and is used as a vegetable in meat dishes, fish dishes, and in
      soups. Also called "Balsam pear" or "bitter gourd."

      •    Bitters is an alcoholic beverage of sugar herbs and alcohol. The herbs used
      are naturally bitter, hence the name, and may include gentian, quassia, angelica,
      bog-bean, camomile, hops, centuary and others.

      •    Black Beans - Also known as "turtle beans" or "black turtle beans," these
      beans have black skin, cream-colored flesh, and a sweet flavor that forms the base
      for black bean soup.

      •   Black Beer is a strong-tasting bitter-chocolate lager brewed in Germany. In
      Yorkshire, Black Beers are treacly malt extracts bottled for mixing with lemonade to
      produce distinctive shandies.

      •       Black Cod - This saltwater fish, which is not a true cod, has a soft textured

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      flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also
      called "sablefish."

      •    Black Crow is a fruity, all-malt Australian dark ale from Coopers of Adelaide.
      Unlike the company's more celebrated brews, it is filtered before being bottled.

      •   Black Pudding - This large link sausage is made of pig's blood, suet, bread
      crumbs, and oatmeal. It is generally sold precooked. Also known as "blood
      sausage."

      •    Black Radish - A large plant thought to be of Oriental origin. These plants are
      grown chiefly for their pungent peppery root, which can get up to 2 pounds or more.
      This radish is popular in Germany and in the East.

      •    Black Salsify - Also called "Scorzonera," this is a black-skinned variety of
      salsify. Most varieties of this vegetable are grayish or pale golden in color.

      •    Black Turtle Beans - Also known as "black beans," these beans have black
      skin, cream-colored flesh, and a sweet flavor that forms the base for black bean
      soup.

      •   Black velvet is a drink consisting of equal proportions of stout and
      champagne.

      •    Black Walnut - A highly fat walnut that is better used with other foods than out-
      of-hand. Used in cakes, confections, and ice cream.

      •    Blackberry - Also called "bramble," these are the largest of the wild berries, up
      to 1 inch long when mature. Look for plump, deep colored berries without hulls. (If
      hulls are present, the berries were picked too early and will be tart.)

      •    Black-Eyed Peas - A small beige bean of the legume family with a round black
      "eye" located at its inner curve. This bean is popular, particularly in the south. Also
      called the "cowpea." Varieties with yellow "eyes" are called "yellow-eyed peas."

      •   Blackfish - A lean, delicately flavored Pacific Ocean fish that is popular in
      Chinese cookery. Also called "Black Trout" and "Chinese Steelhead."



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       •      Blanch - To plunge food briefly into boiling water, then into cold water to stop
       the cooking process. This process is performed to firm the flesh, loosen skins, and
       to heighten and set the color and flavor of foods.
       •      Blanquette de veau is a ragout or stew of veal in a white sauce.
       •      Bleach - To make white or colorless by means of chemicals or the sun's rays.
       •      Bleu d'Auvergne is a traditional farmhouse and creamery French blue cheese
       made from cow's milk in the Auvergne region of France.
       •      Bleu de Haut Jura is a traditional farmhouse and cooperative, unpasteurized
       French blue cheese made with cow's milk in the Franche-Comte region of France.
       Unusually the cheese is made in the shape of a large flat wheel, which speeds the
       ripening process.
       •      Bleu de Laqueuille is a traditional creamery French blue cheese made from
       unpasteurized cow's milk in the Auvergne region of France. The cheese was first
       produced by Antoine Roussel in 1850 at Laqueuille, by sprinkling young curd with
       blue moulds he found growing on rye bread.
       •      Bleu des Causses is a traditional creamery French blue cheese made from
       unpasteurized cow's milk in the Auvergne region of France. Originally it was made
       with either cow's milk or sheep's milk, but in 1947 the AOC decreed that it must be
       made with cow's milk so as to distinguish it from Roquefort which is made in the
       same area. Bleu des Causses is matured in limestone caves which have natural
       fissures that allow currents of fresh air to circulate and move the natural moulds
       through the cheese.
       •      Blintz - A very thin pancake that is rolled up to encase either sweet or savory
       fillings. The most common fillings are cottage or ricotta cheese, fruits, and meat
       mixtures. Often sautéed and served with sour cream.

       •    Blood Sausage - Also known as "blood pudding" and "black pudding" in
       Ireland. This large link sausage is made of pig's blood, suet, bread crumbs, and
       oatmeal. It is generally sold precooked.

   q   Bloody Mary - Invented by Pete Petiot at Harry's Bar in Paris, 1921. This drink
       contains vodka, lemon juice, Tabasco, Worcestershire sauce, pepper and V 8,
       tomato juice, or cocktail juice.

       •    Blue Cheese - This type of cheese has been treated with molds that form blue
       or green veins that give it its characteristic flavor. Blue cheeses, including Danablu,
       Gorgonzola, Roquefort and Stilton, tend to increase in flavor and aroma with age.


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      •   Blue Crab - Named after its blue claws and dark blue-green shell, this crab is
      found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard-shell
      stages. The "soft-shell crab" is simply a blue crab caught just after molting.

      •     Blueberry - The blue-black berries of this plant are smooth-skinned, round,
      juicy, and sweet. Look for firm, uniformly sized blueberries that are indigo blue with
      a silvery frost.

      •    Bluefin Tuna - Among the largest of tuna, the bluefin can weigh over 1,000
      pounds. As bluefin age, their flesh turns from light to dark red and takes on a
      stronger flavor.

      •   Bluefish - A fatty, fine-textured fish that is also known as "bulldog of the
      ocean" because of its tenacity. Found in the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Discard the
      dark oily strip that runs down its center to prevent a strong, fishy flavor.

      •    Bluegill - One of a large number of North American freshwater fish closely
      related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors, bluegill are also known as
      "sunfish."

      •    Boar - An uncastrated male swine. In culinary terms, it is the male of a wild
      boar species found in Europe, Asia, North Africa and the U.S. Young boar is the
      best eating and is often prepared roasted, grilled, braised, or smoked like ham.

      •    Bobwhite - A small game bird of the partridge family that resembles a small,
      plump chicken. The flesh is white and delicately flavored. Most of these birds are
      raised on bird farms today. Known also as "quail."

      •    Bock (Bockbier) is a German beer made with more malt and less hops than
      ordinary German beer, and is as a result sweeter and stronger. It was originally
      brewed for colder months as a 'winter warmer'.

      •   Bockwurst - A German ground-veal sausage that is flavored with chopped
      parsley and chives. This sausage is normally sold raw. Bockwurst is traditionally
      served with bock beer, particularly during the Bavarian bock beer festivals.

      •       Bohea is an inferior kind of black tea.



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      •    Bok Choy - Also called Chinese cabbage, this variety of cabbage has crinkly,
      thick veined leaves which are thin, crisp, and delicately mild. Choose firm, tightly
      packed heads with crisp, green-tipped leaves.

      •    Bologna - Also known as "baloney." This is a highly seasoned sausage meat
      that takes its name from the Italian city of Bologna. True Italian sausage is called
      "mortadella."

      •   Bolognaise - A term that applies to several dishes inspired by Italian cookery
      from the Bologna region. Bolognaise sauce is a thick sauce based on various
      vegetables and meats.

      •    Bonbel Cheese - A mild-flavored semi-soft cheese sold in small paraffin-
      coated rounds. It is pale cream in color. Its smooth, buttery texture makes it popular
      with fruit, sandwiches, and salads.

      •    Bonito - This variety of tuna is the smallest of the tuna family, rarely weighing
      over 25 pounds. They range from moderate to high fat and are the most strongly
      flavored of the tunas. Many Japanese recipes call for dried bonito ("dashi").

      •   Borage - This European herb has a flavor similar to that of cucumber. Both the
      flowers and leaves are used in salads. The leaves are also used to flavor teas and
      vegetables.

      •    Borecole - A non-heading member of the cabbage family. Also called "kale."
      Cultivated for over 2,000 years, this vegetable can be prepared and eaten in much
      the same way as spinach.

      •    Borscht - Also known as "borsch." This is a beet soup. It is prepared with
      beets and an assortment of vegetables with meat and/or meat stock. It is served hot
      or cold and is often garnished with a dollop of sour cream.

      •   Botargo is a relish made from the salted roe of the mullet or tunny. It is eaten
      in Mediterranean coastal regions.

      •   Bottle Gourd - A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called "white-
      flowered gourd" and "Calabash gourd." This gourd is used in the West Indies to
      produce a very popular syrup. Its shell is often used to create bowls and other
      utensils.

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       •   Bottle Gourd - A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called "white-
       flowered gourd" and "Calabash gourd." This gourd is used in the West Indies to
       produce a very popular syrup. Its shell is often used to create bowls and other
       utensils.

       •  Bouillabaisse is a fish stew from Marseilles made with rascasses and other
       Mediterranean fish.

       •   Bouillon - A flavor-concentrated powder of dehydrated beef, chicken or
       vegetable stock. Dehydrated bouillon must be dissolved in a hot liquid before using.

       •    Bouillon is the French term for stocks or broths.
       •    Bouquet is the characteristic flavour and aroma of a wine, due partly to the
       presence of volatile organic ethers, such as acetic, propylic, butylic and amylic, and
       partly to the ferments such as yeasts used in fermenting the must.
   q    Bourbon - Named after Bourbon county, Kentucky. Straight bourbon is distilled
        from a mash of at least 51% corn; blended bourbon contains at least 51% straight
        bourbon; sour mash is made by adding some of the old mash to ferment each new
        batch.
       •    Bousa is a native Ethiopian beer which is brewed by spontaneous
       fermentation.
       •    Bovril (Ox-strength) is a preparation of lean beef from which the water, about
       75 per cent., has been excluded; and the albumen and fibrine, the nutritive parts
       retained by processes gradually invented by Lawson Johnston, who began his
       experimental researches in Canada in 1872.

       •    Boysenberry - Created by horticulturist Rudolph Boysen in 1923 by crossing a
       raspberry, blackberry, and a loganberry. It is shaped like a large raspberry and has
       a rich sweet-tart flavor.

       •    Brains - Gourmets say that sheep's brains are best, followed by calves, then
       pigs. Often boiled with salted water and a dash of vinegar, then reheated with butter
       and capers or deep fried in egg and bread crumb batter.

       •   Brains SA is a medium strength British bottled ale. It is brewed with Fuggles
       and Golding hops and has a fruity taste.


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       •   Bramble - These are the largest of the wild berries, up to 1" long when mature.
       Look for plump, deep colored berries without hulls. (If hulls are present, the berries
       were picked too early and will be tart.) More commonly known as "blueberry."

       •   Bran - The outer layer of grains such as wheat or oats. This outer layer is
       normally removed during the milling process. Bran is a good source of
       carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, and fiber.

   q    Brandy - A liquor distilled from wine or other fermented fruit juice. Brandies are
        aged in wood, which contributes to the flavor. The finest brandies are called
        "cognacs."
       •    Brandy is an alcoholic beverage of distilled wine.

       •    Bratwurst - A German sausage made of pork and veal and seasoned with
       ginger, nutmeg, and coriander or caraway. Each German district has its own special
       variety of this sausage. Also called "brotwurst."

       •    Bratwurst is a German sausage made of lean pork and heavily seasoned with
       herbs and spices including sage, nutmeg and ginger. It is traditionally served hot
       with vegetables.

       •     Braunschweiger - A smoked German liver sausage made with eggs and milk.
       It is soft enough to spread and is usually served at room temperature.

       •   Brawn is a food preparation produced from pig flesh freed from all bones,
       formed into a roll, boiled and pressed.

       •    Brazil Nut - This is the seed of a giant tree that grows in the Amazon jungle.
       The kernel of this nut is white, rich, and high in fat. Also known as "butternut,"
       "cream nut," and "paranut."

       •   Bread is the flour or meal of grain kneaded with water into a tough paste and
       then baked. There are numerous kinds of bread, according to the ingredients and
       methods of preparation, but they may all be divided into one of two groups:
       fermented, leavened, or raised and unfermented, unleavened or not raised.

       •   Breadfruit - This fruit is native to the Pacific. The fruit is up to ten inches in
       diameter and it has a bumpy green skin and a bland cream-colored center.

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      Breadfruit can be baked, grilled, fried, or boiled, and served as a sweet or savory
      dish.

      •   Breadnut Tree Seeds - The seeds of a tree from the mulberry family that is
      grown in Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. These seeds are boiled,
      ground into flour and made into bread. Also called "Jamaican breadnut" and
      "Ramons."

      •    Brewers often make one-off brews to commemorate special occasions.
      Harveys of Lewes in Sussex, for example, bottled a special strong pale ale, called
      Firecracker, in honour of the emergency services who fought to save it from
      disaster when a fire broke out in the brewery in 1996. Many brewers bottled ales to
      keep for the Queen's Coronation in 1953 and later royal marriages.

      •     Brick Cheese - This pale yellow semi-soft cheese comes from Wisconsin and
      is brick shaped. When young, it has a mild flavor; as it ages, however, it becomes
      almost as strong as Limburger cheese.

      •    Brie Cheese - This cheese has an edible white rind and a cream-colored,
      buttery soft inside that should ooze when ripe. French brie is considered the world's
      best. Made from whole or skim milk.

      •    Broad Bean - Also known as the "fava bean," "faba bean," and "horse bean."
      This bean looks like a very large lima bean. The pod is inedible unless the plant is
      very young. Avoid pods bulging with beans as this is an indication of age.

      •       Broccio is a Corsican cheese made from goat's milk or sour ewes' milk.

      •    Broccoli - This vegetable is related to the cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and
      cauliflower. It is a deep green vegetable that comes in tight clusters of tiny buds that
      sit on stout edible stems.

      •    Broken Hill Draught is a dry, malty Australian lager from the South Australian
      brewery of Adelaide, this beer is named after the famous mining town. It is one of
      Australia's truly regional brews and has been produced for the 'Silver City' and
      surrounding areas for nearly 80 years. It is only available in kegs in the Broken Hill
      area.
      •    Brown Ale is a sweetish, bottled mild ale, dark in colour and low in alcohol. In


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       north-east England stronger brown ales are brewed.

       •    Brown Rice - This is the entire rice grain minus only the inedible husk. The
       nutritious, high-fiber bran coating gives it its distinctive light tan color and nut-like
       flavor. The presence of the bran means a shorter shelf life (about 6 months).

       •   Brown Sugar - White sugar combined with molasses. The darker the brown
       sugar, the more molasses that is used.

       •     Brussels Sprouts - This vegetable is a member of the cabbage family and, in
       fact, looks like miniature heads of cabbage. The smaller spouts are more tender.
       Storing Brussels sprouts too long will produce a strong flavor.

   q   Brut - This is a term that refers to the driest champagnes. Brut champagnes are
       even drier than formulations labeled "extra dry."

       •   Buckwheat - Normally thought of as a cereal, buckwheat is actually an herb.
       The triangular seeds are use to make buckwheat flour which is used in pancakes
       and other baked goods.

       •   Buckwheat - Normally thought of as a cereal, buckwheat is actually an herb.
       The triangular seeds are use to make buckwheat flour which is used in pancakes
       and other baked goods.

       •   Buckwheat Groats - Also known as "Kasha." Buckwheat groats are the hulled,
       crushed kernels of buckwheat. Normally cooked like rice and is available in coarse,
       medium, and fine grains.

       •   Buffalo - Also know as the "bison," buffalo is presently raised on game farms.
       Buffalo meat is very tender and tastes somewhat like lean beef. It has no
       pronounced gamey flavor.

       •    Buffalo Fish - This freshwater fish, which belongs to the sucker family, is
       similar to carp. It offers a coarse but sweet, low-fat flesh that lends itself to a variety
       of cooking methods.

       •   Bulghur - A nutritious staple in the Middle East, bulghur consists of wheat
       kernels that have been steamed, dried, and crushed. It has a tender, chewy texture
       and can be made into a pilaf. It is sometimes confused with "cracked wheat."

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       •     Bullhead - A small, freshwater catfish that usually weighs in at under a pound.
       Its flesh is lean and mild in flavor.

       •    Bullock's Heart - Also called "Custard Apple," this tropical fruit tastes like a
       cross between pineapple, mango, and strawberry. The flesh is cream-colored and
       has the texture of firm custard.

       •    Bunny Hug is a cocktail comprised of equal parts of gin, Scotch whisky and
       pastis shaken together and then strained into a glass.
       •    Buñuelo - A thin, deep-fried Mexican pastry. It is normally sprinkled with a
       cinnamon and sugar mixture.

       •   Burbot - A freshwater cod with a lean white flesh and a delicate flavor. It is
       normally poached, baked, broiled or sautéed.

       •   Burdock - This slender root vegetable has brown skin and grayish white flesh.
       Used in soups as well as with vegetables and meats. Known by the Japanese as
       "Gobo."

       •    Burgos is a very soft Spanish cheese made in the Burgos province of Spain.
   q    Burgundy - One of the most famous wine growing regions in France (and
        therefore in the world). Burgundy wines tend to be more robust and full bodied than
        bordeaux wines.
       •    Buridda is an Italian fish stew.

       •   Bush Nut - More commonly known as the "Macadamia nut." This is a small,
       round, brown nut with a buttery, slightly sweet flavor and a high fat content. Used in
       a variety of dishes.

       •   Butter - Butter is made by churning cream until is reaches a semi-solid state.
       By U.S. law, butter must be at least 80% butter-fat. The USDA grades butter quality
       based on flavor, body, texture, color and salt. The grades are AA, A, B, and C.

       •    Butter - This product is made by churning cream until is reaches a semi-solid
       state. By U.S. law, butter must be at least 80% butter-fat. The USDA grades butter
       quality based on flavor, body, texture, color and salt. The grades are AA, A, B, C.



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      •   Butterbean - A pale green, plump-bodied bean with a slight kidney-shaped
      curve. Baby limas are smaller and milder than the Fordhook variety (which are not
      mature baby limas). More commonly known as the "lima bean."

      •    Butterfish - This small, high-fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet
      flavor. Found off the coast of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also
      called the "dollarfish," "Pacific pompano," and "pomfret."

      •   Butterine, a composition of fats as a substitute for butter was first sold in
      London in 1885. By the Margerine Act of 1887 it changed its name to margarine.

      •   Buttermilk - Long ago, buttermilk was the liquid that was left after the butter
      was churned. Now it is made by adding special bacteria to nonfat or lowfat milk.
      Sometimes, small amounts of butter is added to give it an "authentic" look.

      •   Butternut - This is the seed of a giant tree that grows in the Amazon jungle.
      The kernel of this nut is white, rich, and high in fat. Also known as "Brazil nut."

      •    Butternut Squash - Large winter squash that looks like a pear-shaped
      baseball bat. This vegetable weights about 2 to 3 pounds and has a sweet orange
      flesh. Used in breads, stews, soups, muffins, and puddings.

      •    Butternut Squash - Large winter squash that looks like a pear-shaped
      baseball bat. This vegetable weights about 2 to 3 pounds and has a sweet orange
      flesh. Used in breads, stews, soups, muffins, and puddings.

      •       Butterscotch - Butterscotch flavor is a blend of butter and brown sugar.

                                                                      •      C

      •    Cabbage - Cabbage comes in many forms: flat, conical, or round shapes and
      leaves that are compact, loose, curly, or flat. The most popular U.S. cabbage
      varieties are round, have waxy leaves, are heavy for their size, and vary from white
      to red.

      •    Cabbage Turnip - This vegetable is a member of the cabbage family. Popular
      in Europe, the cabbage turnip's bulb tastes like a sweet turnip. Eaten steamed, in
      soups, and in stews. Also called the "kohlrabi."


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       •    Cabernet Franc is a type of grape used for producing red wine. It is a
       component of Bordeaux wine, and a little is often blended with Cabernet Sauvignon
       to add bouquet to a wine.
       •    Cabernet Sauvignon is a type of grape used for producing red wine. It is one
       of the components of French Bordeaux wine.
   q    Cabernet-Sauvignon - A superior red-wine grape cultivated in France and
        California. This small, thin-skinned black grapes are used to produce the fine
        clarets of France and Cabernets of California.
       •    Cacciatore - The Italian word for "hunter." Refers to food prepared "hunter-
       style." That is, with mushrooms, onions, tomatoes, various herbs, and sometimes
       wine. Chicken cacciatore is the most popular type of cacciatore.
       •    Cafe: (French) Coffee.
       •    Caffeine - A slightly bitter alkaloid found in coffee, tea, and many other foods
       and beverages. Caffeine is stimulating to the heart and nervous system. It is toxic in
       large doses.

       •    Caimit - The purple, white, green, yellow, or rose-colored fruit of a West Indian
       tree. When cut open, the seeds are disposed into the shape of a star. Also called
       "star apple."

       •    Cajun - A form of cooking that is a combination of French and Southern
       cuisines uses a dark roux and animal (usually pork) fat. Creole cooking emphasizes
       the use of butter and cream. Cajun food is very spicy and makes good use of filé
       powder.

       •   Calabash - A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called "bottle gourd"
       and "white-flowered gourd." This gourd is used in the West Indies to produce a very
       popular syrup. Its shell is often used to create bowls and other utensils.

       •    Calamari - This ten-armed cephalopod, commonly known as "squid," is related
       to the octopus. They vary in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm
       and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavor. Over-cooking can lead to a rubbery
       texture.

       •      Calavo: The trade name for California Avocados.

       •    Calico Bass - One of a large number of North American freshwater fish closely
       related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors, calico bass are also

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      known as "sunfish."

      •    Caliente - This is the Spanish word for "hot," and it refers to temperature.
      "Picante" means "pepper hot."

      •    California Sheepshead - A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also
      called "sheepshead," "fathead," and "redhead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

      •    Callaloo is the Jamaican name for the young leaves of two distinct plants; the
      taro plant and Chinese spinach, eaten as a vegetable. It is not, as some cookery
      books suggest, a Jamaican name for spinach.
      •    Calorie: Unit of heat; 1 calorie = 3.968 B.T.U. . The heat required to raise 1
      gram of water 1 degrees centigrade.
      •    Calzone is a bread-dough pie or wrap, resembling a folded pizza, and
      containing a cheese and vegetable filling - traditionally tomato and garlic.

      •     Camembert Cheese - This cow's milk cheese has a white, downy rind and a
      smooth creamy inside. When ripe, the cheese should ooze thickly. When overripe,
      it is bitter and rank.

      •    Canadian Bacon - A lean, smoked meat that is closer to ham than to bacon. It
      comes from the lean tender eye of the loin, located in the middle of the back. It is
      called "back bacon" in Canada.

      •       Canadian Bacon: Lean, trimmed, pressed, smoked porl loin.
      •       Canape: (French) An appetizer prepared on a base such as toast or crackers.
      •       Canard: (French) Duck.

      •   Candlefish - A rich and oily mild-flavored fish. This variety of smelt is so
      named because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high-fat flesh and use
      them for candles. Also known as the "Eulachon."

      •   Cane Syrup - Thick, extremely sweet syrup made from the sugar cane. Used
      in Caribbean and Creole cooking.

      •       Canestrato is a strongly flavoured Sicilian hard cheese.

      •       Cannellini - The Italian name for an oval, white, dried bean that is served in

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       soups, or with a dressing made from olive oil and vinegar dressing. Used in salads
       and antipastos. Also called "white kidney bean."

       •    Canning is the commercial operation of food preserving which involves the use
       of heat and sealing the food in airtight containers.

       •    Canola Oil - This is the market name for "rapeseed oil," Canada's most widely
       used oil. Also called lear oil, for "low erucic acid rapeseed" oil. Canola oil is lowest
       in saturated fat of any oil. Canola oil is 6% saturated fat; palm oil is 79%.

       •    Cantaloupe - True cantaloupes are European and are not exported to the U.S.
       North American "cantaloupes" are actually muskmelons. The light orange flesh is
       mild, sweet, and very juicy.

       •    Cantaloupe - True cantaloupes are European and are not exported to the U.S.
       North American "cantaloupes" are actually muskmelons. The light orange flesh is
       mild, sweet, and very juicy.

       •    Cape Gooseberry - Also called "ground cherry," this fruit has a bitter-sweet,
       juicy flesh. This fruit is eaten out of hand and used with meats, pies, jams, and
       savory foods.

       •    Capers - These are the sun-dried, then pickled buds of a bush native to the
       Mediterranean. Capers make a pungent addition to many sauces and condiments,
       including tartar sauce.

       •    Capocollo - An Italian sausage made from pork shoulder and flavored with
       sweet red peppers. It is pressed (rather than chopped), put into casings, and air
       dried. It is a specialty of the Parma region of Italy.

       •     Capon - The culinary term for castrated chicken that is fed on a special diet
       until it is slaughtered at the age of 6 to 9 months. Considered by most to be the best
       eating chicken available.

   q    Cappuccino - An Italian coffee made by topping espresso with the creamy foam
        from steamed milk. Often dusted with cinnamon or sweetened cocoa powder.
       •    Caprian is an Italian goat's milk cheese.
       •    Caprino is an Argentine goat's milk cheese.


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      •  Carambolla - Also known as "star fruit," this fruit reveals a star-shaped center
      when it is cut crosswise. This juicy and fragrant tropical fruit ranges in taste from
      sweet to tart, depending on the variety.

      •   Caramel - Caramel is a mixture produced when sugar has been cooked until it
      melts to become a thick clear liquid ranging in color from gold to brown. Caramel is
      used to flavor soups, stocks, desserts, and sauces.

      •    Caraway Seed - The aromatic seed of an herb in the parsley family with a
      flavor described as a cross between aniseed and fennel. Used to flavor cheese,
      breads, cakes, stews, meats, vegetables and the liqueur "Kümmel."

      •    Carbine Stout is an Australian dark beer brewed by Castlemaine from
      Brisbane since 1925. Despite the name, it is a bottom-fermented lager with a
      roasted-malt flavour.
      •    Carbonade is a rich beef stew made with onions and beer.
      •    Carbonara - An Italian term that refers to a pasta dish of spaghetti or other
      noodles with a sauce of cream, eggs, Parmesan cheese, and bits of bacon. Fresh
      green peas are sometimes used to add flavor and color.

      •    Cardamom - A pungent aromatic spice that is a member of the ginger family.
      Widely used in Scandinavian and East Indian cooking. A little of this spice goes a
      long way.

      •    Cardoon - This vegetable resembles a large bunch of wide flat celery. Popular
      in France, this vegetable is described as tasting like a cross between an artichoke,
      celery, and salsify. Also called "cardoni."

      •    Caribou - Any of several large North American deer which are related to Old
      World reindeer. Caribou meat is called "venison." Antelope, elk, deer, moose, and
      reindeer meat are also classified as venison, the most popular large animal game
      meat.

      •   Carissa - This scarlet fruit of a South African shrub is an oval berry about 2
      inches long. This fruit is used in pies, jellies, and preserves. Also called "Natal
      plum."

      •       Carob - The dried and roasted pulp of the tropical carob tree. After it is ground


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      to create carob powder, it is used to flavor baked goods and candies. Because it
      tastes somewhat like chocolate, it is sometimes used as a chocolate substitute.

      •    Carp - This freshwater fish ranges from 2 to 7 pounds and has a lean white
      flesh. It is the primary ingredient for the Jewish dish called "gefilte fish."

      •    Carrot - This member of the parsley family has long green foliage and an
      edible orange root. This very popular vegetable has been cultivated for over 2,000
      years.

      •    Casaba Melon - This member of the muskmelon family has cream-colored
      flesh, is extremely juicy, and has a mild cucumber-like flavor.

      •    Casaba Melon - This member of the muskmelon family has cream-colored
      flesh, is extremely juicy, and has a mild cucumber-like flavor.

      •   Casareep is the concentrated juice of the roots of the cassava flavoured with
      aromatics and boiled to remove the toxins. It is then used as a relish in soups and
      other dishes. It is the basis of the Jamaican dish 'pepper-pot'. Casareep is also a
      powerful antiseptic and was used for preserving meat in tropical countries.
      •   Cascade is an Australian brewer of beers.

      •   Cashew - The kidney-shaped nut that grows on the outside of the cashew
      apple at its base. The shell is highly toxic. Cashews have a sweet buttery flavor and
      contain about 48% fat.

      •   Cassava - The cassava is a root with a crisp white flesh. There are two main
      categories of cassava: sweet and bitter. Bitter cassavas are toxic until cooked.
      Cassava is used to make "cassreep" and "tapioca."

      •    Cassiri is an intoxicating liquor brewed in Guyana from sweet potatoes.
      •    Cassoulet is a French stew of white beans, meats, onions and garlic.
      •    Castlemaine XXXX is an Australia lager. It uses whole hops rather than pellets
      or hop extracts.

      •    Catfish - This fish is firm, low in fat, and has a mild flavor. Most catfish are
      fresh water varieties, but there is a salt water variety that called the "hogfish." The
      channel catfish is considered the best for eating.

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      •   Catsup, Ketchup - A thick, spicy sauce with vinegar, sugar, salt, and spices.
      Catsup usually has a tomato foundation, but gourmet markets often carry
      condiments with a base of anything from walnuts to mangos. Also called "ketchup."

      •   Caudle is a warm, thin spiced gruel made with wine and sugar which was
      given to invalids and women after childbirth.

      •    Cauliflower - This member of the cabbage family is composed of bunches of
      tiny creamy white florets on stalks of the same color. The entire white portion--
      called the curd--is edible.

      •   Caviare is the roes of certain large fish prepared and salted. The best is made
      from the roes of the sterlet and sturgeon caught in the lakes and rivers of Russia.

      •   Cayenne Pepper - A hot red pepper powder made chiefly from the dried ripe
      pepper Caspsicum frutescens. While very hot to most people, it is not as hot as chili
      pepper, which is sometimes sold as cayenne. Also called "red pepper."

      •   Ceci - The round irregularly shaped buff-colored legumes with a firm texture
      and a mild nut-like flavor. Also called "chick-peas" and "garbanzo beans." Used in
      salads, soups, and stews.

      •   Celeriac - This vegetable is the root of a special celery that is cultivated
      specifically for its root. It tastes like a cross between parsley and a strong celery.
      Used in soups, stews, and purees. Also known as "celery root" and "celery knob."

      •   Celery - One of the most popular vegetables in the Western world. This plant
      grows in bunches of leaved ribs surrounding a tender heart. Eaten raw and used in
      soups, stews, and casseroles.

      •       Celery Salt - A seasoning composed of celery seed and salt.

      •    Cellophane Noodle - A form of translucent Chinese noodle. These are not
      true noodles, but are made from the starch of mung beans. Also called "bean
      threads."

      •       Celtuse - A variety of lettuce that exhibits characteristics of both celery and


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       lettuce. Celtuse can be eaten raw or cooked.

   q    Chablis - An elegant dry wine grown in the Chablis district of northern Burgundy
        (France). Chablis is clear and pale in color. It is made from the Chardonnay grape
        and is extremely dry and has a "flinty" taste similar to champagne.
       •     Chablis is a white burgundy wine produced near the town of the same name in
       the Yonne departement of central France.
       •     Chambertin is a high quality red Burgundy wine named after the place where it
       is produced. It was a favourite with Louis XIV and Napoleon.
   q    Chamomile - An aromatic flower that is dried and used to flavor chamomile tea.
        This tea is purported to be a soothing drink. Also spelled "camomile."
   q    Champagne - A popular bubbling wine from the Champagne region of France.
        Bubbling wine is called "spumante" in Italy, "Seki" in Germany, and "vin mousseux"
        in other regions of France. Americans unashamedly call their bubbling wines
        "champagne."

       •   Chantilly Creme - A French term that refers to dishes that are served or
       prepared with whipped cream. Creme Chantilly is a lightly sweetened whipped
       cream that is sometimes flavored with vanilla or a liqueur.

       •      Chapati is a North Indian unleavened bread, flat and round, it is eaten hot.

       •    Chard - A type of beet that doesn't develop the swollen, fleshy roots of
       ordinary beets. This vegetable is grown for its large leaves which are used much
       like other green vegetables. Also called "Swiss chard."

   q    Chardonnay - The wine from the Chardonnay grape, which is grown chiefly in
        France and California. This is one of the grapes used in making fine French
        champagnes and white burgundies.
   q    Chartreuse - An aromatic liqueur that was originally made by the monks of La
        Grande Chartruese monastery in France. The yellow variety, colored with saffron,
        is lighter and sweeter than the green type, which is higher in alcohol content.
       •      Chaud: (French) Hot.

       •   Chayote - This gourd-like fruit has a bland white flesh. Chayotes can be
       prepared in any way suitable for summer squash. It is a good source of potassium.

       •      Chayote - This gourd-like fruit has a bland white flesh. Chayotes can be


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       prepared in any way suitable for summer squash. It is a good source of potassium.

       •    Cheddar Cheese - This firm cow's milk cheese originated in the English village
       of Cheddar. Color ranges from natural white to pumpkin orange. Flavor ranges from
       mild to sharp. Orange cheddars are dyed with a natural dye called "annatto."

       •     Cheese is a food made from the curds (solids) of soured milk from cows,
       sheep, or goats, separated from the whey (liquid), then salted, put into moulds, and
       pressed into firm blocks. Cheese is ripened with bacteria or surface fungi, and kept
       for a time to mature before eating. There are six main types of cheese. Soft
       cheeses may be ripe or unripe, and include cottage cheese and high-fat soft
       cheeses such as Bel Paese, Camembert, and Neufchatel. Semi-hard cheeses are
       ripened by bacteria (Munster) or by bacteria and surface fungi (Port Salut, Gouda,
       St Paulin); they may also have penicillin moulds injected into them (Roquefort,
       Gorgonzola, Blue Stilton, Wensleydale). Hard cheeses are ripened by bacteria, and
       include Cheddar, Cheshire, and Cucciocavallo; some have large cavities within
       them, such as Swiss Emmental and Gruyere. Very hard cheeses, such as
       Parmesan and Spalen, are made with skimmed milk. Processed cheese is made
       with dried skim-milk powder and additives, and whey cheese is made by heat
       coagulation of the proteins from whey; examples are Mysost and Primost. From
       1980 in France a cheese has the same appellation controlee status as wine if it is
       made only in a special defined area - for example, Cantal and Roquefort are
       appellation controlee cheeses, but not Camembert and Brie, which are made in
       more than one region.
       •     Chef: (French) A culinary expert. The chief of the kitchen.
   q    Chenin Blanc - A grape of French origin that produces excellent white wines. It
        has proven itself highly productive in California.
       •     Chenin blanc is a type of grape used to produce white wine. It is widely
       cultivated in the French

       •   Cherimoya - This large tropical fruit tastes like a cross between a pineapple,
       mango, and strawberry. The flesh is cream-colored and has the texture of firm
       custard.

       •    Cherry - There are two main types of cherries: sweet and sour. The sweet
       varieties include Bing, Lambert, Tartarian, and Royal Ann (from which Maraschino
       cherries are made). The sour types include Early Richmond, Montemorency,
       English Merello.

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       •   Chervil - A mild, aromatic herb of the parsley family. It can be used like
       parsley, although its delicate flavor is diminished when boiled.

       •   Cheshire Cheese - A rich, cow's milk cheese that originated in Cheshire
       county England. This cheese is semi-firm, mild, and has a tangy cheddar flavor.
       The blue Cheshire has a golden interior veined with blue.

       •    Chestnut - This nut of the chestnut tree was once abundant in America, but
       most were killed by a fungus at the turn of the century. The many varieties of
       chestnuts can be boiled, candied, dried, preserved, pureed, roasted, or ground into
       flour.

       •   Chewing Gum is a masticatory substance made from latex, the resin of the
       spruce tree or derived from parafin wax, and flavoured with originaly spices but now
       popularly mint. It has been popular in the USA since the 19th century.

       •   Chia Seeds - Seeds from a plant of the mint family that grows in the U.S.
       Southwest and Mexico. These seeds are used as food and brewed to make a
       beverage commonly called "chia."

   q    Chianti - A sturdy dry red Italian wine that is was packaged in a strawcovered
        bottle (now more commonly in a Bordeaux-type bottle). The word "Riserva" on the
        label indicates a superior Chianti that it has been aged in oak for at least 3 years.
       •    Chicha is a fermented liquor made from maize in South and central America.

       •   Chicken - This bird, taken from the jungles of southeastern Asia around 1400
       B.C., has become a popular food fowl throughout the world. Boiler-fryers are 2.5
       months old; roasters are 8 months old; stewing chickens are 10 to 18 months old.

       •    Chick-Pea - The round irregularly shaped buff-colored legumes with a firm
       texture and a mild nut-like flavor. Also called "garbanzo beans" and "ceci." Used in
       salads, soups, and stews.

       •    Chicory - An endive relative with curly, slightly bitter leaves that are used in
       salads or cooked as greens. "Radicchio" is the red-leafed Italian chicory. "Succory,"
       a coffee substitute, comes from the roasted, ground chicory roots.

       •      Chikuwa - A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.

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      •       Chikuwa - A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.

      •    Chili Pepper - Any of over 200 varieties of hot pepper. They vary from mild to
      blistering hot and make very powerful seasonings.

      •    Chili Powder - A seasoning mixture of dried chilies, garlic, oregano, cumin,
      coriander, and cloves.

      •   Chili Sauce - A spicy condiment composed of tomatoes, chili peppers, onions,
      green peppers, vinegar, sugar, and spices.

      •       Chilli is a spice, being either the pod or powder of capsicum.

      •    Chinese Cabbage - Also called bok choy, Napa cabbage, chinese celery
      cabbage, wong bok, and Peking cabbage. Has crinkly, thick veined leaves which
      are thin, crisp, and mild. Choose firm, tightly packed heads with crisp, green-tipped
      leaves.

      •   Chinese Date - A leathery skinned, olive-sized fruit that ranges from red, to off-
      white, to black, depending on the variety. It has a rather dry flesh that tastes
      somewhat like a prune. Also known as "Chinese Jujube" and "Red Date."

      •    Chinese Fungus - A fungus that resembles a human ear. It is found almost
      exclusively on dead elder tree branches. Used in many Chinese dishes. Normally
      dried before use. Also know as "Jew's Ear."

      •   Chinese Gooseberry - A fruit containing a brilliant green flesh with tiny, edible
      black seeds. It has a unique tart-sweet taste. Also known as the "kiwi fruit."

      •    Chinese Parsley - A plant native to the Mediterranean and the Orient. It is
      related to the parsley family and is valued for both its leaves and its seeds--both of
      whose flavors bear no resemblance to each other.

      •    Chinese Parsley Leaves - This pungent herb, also called "cilantro" and
      "coriander," is used in highly seasoned foods. Although it is purported to be one of
      the world's most popular herbs, Americans and Europeans find it to be an acquired
      taste.


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      •    Chinese Parsley Seed - The seed of the Chinese parsley, also called
      "cilantro" and "coriander." They are mild and have an aroma similar to a cross
      among lemon, sage, and caraway. Used in baking, curry blends, pickling, special
      drinks, and soups.

      •   Chinese Radish - This radish has a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh.
      Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "Oriental radish" and
      "Daikon," which means "big root" in Japanese.

      •    Chinese Watermelon - The melon-like fruit of a tropical Asian vine belonging
      to the gourd family. Also called "white gourd."

      •    Chinese Watermelon - The melon-like fruit of a tropical Asian vine belonging
      to the gourd family. Also called "white gourd."

      •    Chinese Yam - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a
      white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty
      flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Yam Bean Tuber."

      •    Chinook Salmon - Considered the finest Pacific salmon. This high-fat, soft
      textured fish can reach up to 120 pounds. Also called the "king salmon."

      •    Chitterlings - The small intestines of animals, usually pigs. They are cleaned,
      simmered, then served with a sauce or used as a sausage casing. Chitterlings are
      also added to soups or battered and fried.

      •    Chives - A fragrant herb with slender, hollow green stems and a mild onion
      flavor. Chives are related to onions and leeks.

      •       CHOCOLATE

      •   Chocolate - A preparation made from cocoa seeds that have been roasted,
      husked, and ground. Chocolate today is often sweetened and flavored with vanilla.
      Aztec king Montezuma drank 50 goblets a day in the belief that it was an
      aphrodisiac.

      •   Chocolate is a substance made from the cocoa berry sweetened with sugar
      and blended with varying amounts of milk and water. It was introduced to Europe


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      from Mexico and Brazil around 1520 and was sold in the London coffee-houses
      soon after their establishment in 1650.

      •    Chorizo - A spicy, highly seasoned, coarsely ground pork sausage flavored
      with garlic, chili, and other spices. Widely used in Mexican and Spanish cooking.

      •    Chowchow - A mustard-flavored relish of vegetables and pickles. Chowchow
      is believed to have been brought to America by Chinese railroad workers.

      •   Chub - One of the most prized whitefish found in the Great Lakes and in
      Canada. May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon. Also called "?Lake
      Herring" and "Cisco."

      •    Chum Salmon - This, the smallest and most delicate flavored of the salmons,
      has the lightest color and the lowest fat content of the various salmon varieties.
      Also called the "dog salmon."

      •    Chutney - A spicy condiment containing fruit, vinegar, sugar, and spices.
      Chutney can range from mild to hot and is often used as an accompaniment to
      curried dishes.

      •    Chutney is a condiment composed of fruits, acids and spices used extensively
      in India, and from there introduced to the West.
      •    Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented apple juice. The
      manufacture consists in crushing the apples and squeezing out the juice. The juice
      is poured into casks, where it ferments and clears itself of impurities. The strength
      and flavour of the cider is dependant upon the variety of apple used.

      •    Cilantro - A plant native to the Mediterranean and the Orient. It is related to
      the parsley family and is valued for both its leaves and its seeds--both of whose
      flavors bear no resemblance to each other.

      •    Cilantro Leaves - This pungent herb, also called "Chinese parsley" and
      "coriander," is used in highly seasoned foods. Although it is purported to be one of
      the world's most popular herbs, Americans and Europeans find it to be an acquired
      taste.

      •       Cilantro Seed - The seed of the Chinese parsley, also called "Chinese


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      parsley" and "coriander." They are mild and have an aroma similar to a cross
      among sage, and caraway. Used in baking, curry blends, pickling, special drinks,
      and soups.

      •   Cinnamon - This spice comes from the inner bark of a tropical evergreen tree.
      Ceylon cinnamon is buff-colored and has a mildly sweet flavor. Cassia cinnamon is
      dark red and is stronger in flavor. Cassia is the most common U.S. variety.

      •    Cisco - One of the most prized whitefish found in the Great Lakes and in
      Canada. May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon. Also called "lake
      herring" and "chub."

      •   Citron - A semitropical fruit that resembles a six-to-nine inch long lemon.
      Because the pulp is very sour, it is unsuitable for eating. The extremely thick peel,
      however, is candied and used in baking.

      •   Citrus - A large family of fruits that include grapefruits, lemons, limes, oranges,
      shaddocks, tangerines, and kumquats.

      •       Civet is a highly seasoned stew of hare, venison or game.

      •     Clam - These bivalve mollusks come in two varieties. Hard-shell clams include
      littleneck, cherrystone, and chowder clams. The soft-shelled clams, such as
      steamer, razor, and geoduck clams, have thin brittle shells that can't completely
      close.

      •     Claret is a light-red wine produced in the French proince of the Gironde, also
      known as Bordeaux wine.
      •     Clingstone - A term that refers to a fruit with a pit to which the flesh clings
      tenaciously. The best known fruits of this type are "cling peaches" or "clingstone
      peaches." The term with the opposite meaning is "freestone."
      •     Clottedcream is the cream which rises inc clots to the surface of milk when it
      is allowed to warm. Clotted Cream is made by allowing milk to stand in shallow
      pans for 12 hours at 60 degrees farenheight and then gently heating it to 180
      degrees farenheight until the surface becomes wrinkled. More cream is separated
      by this system and it is more easily churned, and the scalding cures taints. Clotted
      cream contains about 67.5 per cent butterfat.



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      •   Clove - This spice is the dried, unopened flower bud of the tropical evergreen
      clove tree.

      •   Cobnut - This nut is also known as the "hazelnut" or "filbert." Used whole,
      chopped, and ground in baking, candies, desserts, and salads.

      •    Coca Wine (vinum cocoe) was a wine used for stimulating purposes around
      1905, consisting of one part coca and eight parts sherry. It was strongly medicated,
      containing half a grain of alkaloid in the ounce. It was largely consumbed by drunks
      who bought it from licensed grocers. A weaker preparation was sold by wine
      merchants. It was probably the inspiration for the non-alcoholic drink Coca-Cola.
      •    Coca-Cola is the trade name of a sweetened, carbonated drink, originally
      made with coca leaves and flavoured with cola nuts, and containing caramel and
      caffeine. It was invented in 1886 and sold in every state of the USA by 1895 and in
      155 countries by 1987.

      •   Cocktail Sauce - A combination of catsup or chili sauce with prepared
      horseradish, lemon juice, and hot red pepper seasoning. Used with seafood and as
      a condiment for hors d'oeuvres.

      •   Cocoa - The fruit of the cocoa plant. These beans are fermented, dried,
      roasted, cracked, and ground. After extracting half the fat, it is again dried into
      unsweetened cocoa. "Dutch cocoa" is treated with alkali to neutralize acidity.

      •   Cocoa Butter - The natural, cream-colored vegetable fat extracted during the
      process of making chocolate and cocoa powder.

      •    Coconut - Fruit of the coconut tree. It has a hard outer husk enclosing a large
      nut containing a white, edible, jelly-like substance called the "endosperm."

      •    Coconut Cream - Coconut cream is made by combining one part water and
      four parts shredded fresh or desiccated coconut meat and simmering until foamy.
      The coconut is then discarded. Used in recipes, particularly those in curried dishes.

      •   Coconut Milk - Coconut milk is made by combining equal parts water and
      shredded fresh or desiccated coconut meat and simmering until foamy. The
      coconut is then discarded. Used in recipes, particularly those in curried dishes.


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       •    Coconut Oil - Coconut oil is made by pressing the coconut meat ("copra").
       Used in frying and as an ingredient in many packaged goods. Because this oil is
       high in saturated fats, many food makers are replacing it with more costly
       unsaturated oils.

       •    Coconut Water - The opaque white liquid in the unripened coconut that serves
       as a beverage for those living near the coconut palm.

       •    Cod - A popular lean, firm, white meat fish from the Pacific and the North
       Atlantic. "Scrod" is the name for young cod (and haddock) that weight less that 2.5
       pounds. "Haddock," "Hake," and "Pollock" are close relatives of the cod.

       •    Cod Liver Oil - A valuable, vitamin-rich oil produced from the liver of the
       saltwater cod fish.

       •    Coddling: Cooking just below the boiling point; such as Coddled Eggs.
   q    Coffee - A coffee bean beverage. Believed to have originated in Ethiopia, but
        Brazil and Columbia are the two largest producers today. American roast ("regular
        roast") beans are medium-roasted, resulting in the moderate brew favored by
        Americans.

       •   Coho Salmon - This high-fat variety of salmon provides a firm-textured, pink to
       orange-red flesh. Also called the "silver salmon."

       •    Colby Cheese - A mild, whole-milk cheddar cheese with a softer, more open
       texture than regular cheddar. Because it is a high-moisture cheese, it doesn't keep
       as well as many other cheeses.

   q   Cold Duck - A pink sparking wine--originally from Germany--that is a combination
       of sparkling Burgundy, champagne, and sugar. This very sweet wine is often made
       from less expensive grapes.

       •    Cole - A non-heading member of the cabbage family. Also called "kale."
       Cultivated for over 2,000 years, this vegetable can be prepared and eaten in much
       the same way as spinach.

       •    Cole Slaw - A salad composed of shredded red or white cabbage and
       mayonnaise, vinaigrette or other type of dressing. Chopped onion, celery, peppers,
       pickles, bacon, nuts, and herbs are also sometimes added.

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       •    Colewart - A non-heading member of the cabbage family. Also called "kale."
       Cultivated for over 2,000 years, this vegetable can be prepared and eaten in much
       the same way as spinach.

       •   Collards - A variety of cabbage that doesn't form a head, but grows in a loose
       rosette at the top of a tall stem. Tastes like a cross between cabbage and kale,
       which is a close relative. Also called "collard greens."

       •    Collops is a British dish of minced meat fried with onions and then slowly
       cooked in stock.
   q    Colombard - A productive French grape that produces a dry and full-bodied good
        quality white wine. Also grown in California.
       •    Coniston Bluebird is a medium strength British bottled malt pale ale brewed
       with English challenger hops giving a floral perfume to the beer.
       •    Consomme is a thin clear soup made from stock.

       •   Converted Rice - Rice that has had the unhulled grain soaked, pressure
       steamed, and dried prior to milling. This infuses some of the bran's nutrients into the
       kernel and gelatinizes the starch in the grain to produce a "non-sticky" cooked rice.

       •    Cooking Banana - The fruit of a large tropical herb that belongs to the banana
       family, but are larger, starchier, and not as sweet. It has a squash-like flavor and is
       used much like a potato. Also called the "baking banana" and "plantain."

       •    Cooking Banana - The fruit of a large tropical herb that belongs to the banana
       family, but are larger, starchier, and not as sweet. It has a squash-like flavor and is
       used much like a potato. Also called the "baking banana" and "plantain."

       •    Cooking is the art of preparing food for the table by subjecting it to heat in
       various ways. In its higher developments, cooking also involves making the food
       attractive to the eye.
       •    Cooking Wine - Generally a wine that should not be used as a beverage.
       Some experts recommend only using wines that you would drink as a cooking wine.
       •    Coopers Sparkling Ale is an Australian beer. It is a full-flavoured, bottle
       conditioned strong pale ale.
       •    Copra is the dried flesh of the coconut.
       •    Coquilla nut is the fruit of the Brazilian tree Attalea funifera, an ally of the


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      coconut palm.
      •     Coquille: (French) Shell.
      •     Coquimol is a Cuban coconut cream sauce served with desserts.
      •     Cordial is traditionally a weak alcoholic beverage flavoured with essential oils,
      fruit essences or plant extracts and sweetened.
      •     Cordon Bleu - French for "blue ribbon." A dish in which a thin scallop (usually
      chicken or veal) is topped with a thin slice of prosciutto and Gruyère cheese, then
      with another meat scallop. This is then breaded and sautéed until brown.

      •    Coriander - A plant native to the Mediterranean and the Orient. Coriander is
      related to the parsley family of herbs. Coriander is valued for both its leaves and its
      seeds--both of whose flavors bear no resemblance to each other.

      •    Coriander Leaves - This pungent herb, also called "cilantro" and "Chinese
      parsley," is used in highly seasoned foods. Although it is purported to be one of the
      world's most popular herbs, Americans and Europeans find it to be an acquired
      taste.

      •    Coriander Seeds - The seed of the coriander herb. They are mild and have an
      aroma similar to a cross between lemon, sage, and caraway. Used in baked goods,
      curry blends, pickling, special drinks, and soups.

      •    Corn - This cereal grain was brought from the American Indians to Europe by
      the early colonists. As soon as it is picked, the corn's sugar begins to convert into
      starch. For this reason, the corn should be eaten very soon after it is picked.

      •   Corn Dog - A frankfurter or other sausage that has been dipped into a heavy
      cornbread batter, impaled onto a smooth round stick, then deep-fried and often
      served with mustard. Created in 1942 by Neil Fletcher for the Texas State Fair.

      •    Corn Flour - Finely ground cornmeal. It is available in white or yellow varieties
      (from white and yellow corn). Corn flour is milled from the entire kernel; cornstarch
      is milled from the endosperm portion of the kernel.

      •    Corn Grits - Coarsely ground corn that is available in coarse, medium, and
      fine grains. Grits can be cooked in milk or in water, normally by boiling. Usually
      served as a cereal or as a hot side dish. Sometimes called "Groats."



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      •   Corn Oil - A nonhydrogenated oil derived from the kernel of corn. The refined
      product is tasteless and odorless. Used in U.S. for salad dressings, frying, and as a
      shortening in baking.

      •       CORN SYRUP

      •     Corn Syrup - This is a syrup derived from cornstarch. It comes in dark and
      light varieties. Light syrup has been clarified and decolorized. Dark syrup has a
      stronger flavor. Both are used for desserts, frostings, candies, jams, and jellies.

      •   Cornbread - An American quick bread that uses cornmeal in place of all or
      most of the flour. Often flavored with cheese, scallions, molasses, bacon, jalapeño,
      and other ingredients.

      •    Corned Beef - Beef brisket (or round) cured in a seasoned brine. Old-
      fashioned corned beef is grayish-pink and is very salty; the newer style is bright
      reddish and less salty. Most corned beef today is free of nitrites (alleged
      carcinogens).

      •   Cornish Game Hen - Also called "Rock Cornish game hen." This is a hybrid of
      Cornish and White Rock chickens. These miniature chickens are about 4 to 6
      weeks old and weigh about 2.5 pounds... usually enough for one serving.

      •   Cornmeal - Coarsely ground corn. Nowadays, the corn is ground after
      removing the hull and germ. Although this lowers its vitamin A content, this formula
      keeps better because of its lower fat content.

      •   Cornstarch - Cornstarch is produced by milling the endosperm portion of the
      corn kernel. Used as a thickener in sauces, gravies, and puddings.

      •    Cos Lettuce - Also called "Romaine," this variety of lettuce is long and
      cylindrical. Its broad, crisp leaves are used in Caesar salads.

      •    Cottage Cheese - A fresh cheese made from whole, part-skimmed, or
      skimmed pasteurized cow's milk. If cottage cheese, which is very moist, is left to
      drain longer, "pot cheese" is formed. Draining longer still produces "farmer cheese."

      •     Cottonseed Oil - A widely used vegetable oil that is--like olive oil and peanut
      oil--high in monounsaturated fat. Cottonseed oil is used in some margarines and

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      salad dressings and is often mixed with other oils to create vegetable oil products.

      •   Country Best Bitter is a full and fruity, clean tasting bitter from the McMullen
      brewery in Hertford.
      •   Country Stile is a mid-brown draught beer, produced by the Daleside brewery
      in Harrogate, Yorkshire.
      •   Courage Best is one of the most popular cask conditioned ales in the south of
      England. It is a copper-coloured, medium strength ale.

      •    Couscous - Granular semolina. ("Semolina" is a coarsely ground wheat flour.)
      It may be cooked and served with milk as a porridge. Also served with a dressing
      as a salad or sweetened and used in desserts.

      •    Cowpea - A small beige bean of the legume family with a round black "eye"
      located at its inner curve. This bean is popular, particularly in the south. Also called
      the "black-eyed pea." Varieties with yellow "eyes" are called "yellow-eyed peas."

      •   Cow's Milk - Most U.S. milk is pasteurized, meaning that potentially harmful
      microorganisms have been destroyed. Although cow's milk is the most popular,
      animals such as camels, goats, llamas, reindeer, sheep, and water buffalo also
      provide milk.

      •    Crab - Any of a large variety of 10-legged crustaceans (shelled animals). There
      are freshwater and salt water varieties. It is the second most popular shellfish.
      (Shrimp is the most popular.)

      •   Crabapple - A small, red apple with a hard, extremely tart flesh. Used in jellies
      and jams, but are generally too tart for eating out-of-hand.

      •   Craftsman is a hoppy, gold, premium ale from Thwaites brewery in Blackburn,
      Lancashire.

      •    Cranberry - A bright red berry of the heath family. About 70% of the crop
      comes from the Cape Cod area. Because of their tartness, they are often combined
      with other fruits and used in chutneys, pies, and other desserts.

      •    Cranberry Bean - Also known as "Roman beans," these beans are buff-
      colored with reddish streaks. Used at add interest and visual appeal to salads and

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       dishes like succotash.

       •    Crappie - One of a large number of North American freshwater fish closely
       related to the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors, crappie are also known as
       "sunfish."

       •    Crayfish - Also called "Crawfish" and "crawdads." Crayfish are freshwater
       crustaceans that look like tiny lobsters. Crayfish can be prepared in any manner
       appropriate to a lobster.

       •   Cream Ale is a smooth, golden ale brewed in America, originally as a result of
       brewers trying to imitate the Pilsner style.

       •   Cream Cheese - A mildly tangy, creamy, spreadable cow's milk cheese. It was
       developed in 1872 and by law it must contain at least 33% butterfat and no more
       than 55% moisture. Cream cheese is often combined with herbs, spices or fruit.

       •    Cream is the thicker substance that rises to the top of milk which is allowed to
       stand. It contains all the constituents of milk, with a larger but variable quantity of
       solids. A medium cream contains 36 percent butterfat, 6 percent albuminoids and
       2.5 percent milk sugar. The butterfat content varies between 15 and 56 per cent.

       •   Cream Nut - This is the seed of a giant tree that grows in the Amazon jungle.
       The kernel of this nut is white, rich, and high in fat. Also known as "Brazil nut."

       •   Cream of Tartar - A natural fruit acid in the form of a fine white powder derived
       from a crystalline deposit found inside wine barrels. Used as the acid in some
       baking sodas. Also used in frostings, candies, and as an egg white stabilizer.

   q   Creme de Menthe - This mint-flavored liqueur is available clear ("white") and
       green. The green variety gives the Grasshopper cocktail its distinctive color.

       •   Crenshaw - This hybrid muskmelon is considered one of the most succulent of
       melons. They weigh in at between 5 and 9 pounds.

       •    Creole - A style of cooking that features a spicy sauce or dish made especially
       with tomatoes, peppers, onion, celery, and seasoning. Creole cuisine is often
       served over rice.

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      •    Crêpe - The French word for "pancake." Available in various flavors and filled
      with savory or dessert fillings.
      •    Crepe: (French) Thin pancakes.

      •   Cress - Any of various plants belonging to the mustard family, especially the
      watercress, which has a pungent-tasting leaf. Used for salads and as a garnish.

      •    Croaker - Any of a variety of fish named for the peculiar drumming or deep
      croaking noise they make. These fish are firm and low in fat. The croaker family
      includes the black croaker, black drum, hardhead, kingfish, and redfish.

      •   Cromwell Bitter is a gold, fruity cask bitter from the Marston Moor brewery,
      North Yorkshire.

      •   Crookneck Squash - Any of several varieties of summer squash with a long
      curved neck and a bulbous base. The creamy-white flesh has a mild flavor.

      •   Crookneck Squash - Any of several varieties of summer squash with a long
      curved neck and a bulbous base. The creamy-white flesh has a mild flavor.

      •   Croquette - A mixture of minced meats or vegetables, a thick white sauce and
      seasonings that is formed into small cylinders, ovals or rounds, dipped in beaten
      egg and breadcrumbs, then deep-fried until crisp and brown.
      •   Croquettes is a savoury mixture of meat, fowl, fish, cheese, nut egg etc.
      bound together with a sauce and then coated with egg and breadcrumbs and fried.

      •   Crouton - A small piece of bread--often cubed--that has been either sautéed or
      baked. Used in soups, salads, and other dishes. Croutons are available plain or
      seasoned with herbs and/or cheeses.

      •   Crumpet - Small yeast-raised breads that are about the size of English
      Muffins. They are "baked" on the stovetop in special metal "crumpet rings."

      •   Cubebs is an eastern condiment made from dried unripe berries of a plant
      closely related to the pepper.

      •    Cucumber - A long, green, cylinder-shaped member of the gourd family with
      edible seeds surrounded by mild, crisp flesh. Used for making pickles and usually

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      eaten raw. Cucumbers have been cultivated for thousands of years.

      •    Cucumber - A long, green, cylinder-shaped member of the gourd family with
      edible seeds surrounded by mild, crisp flesh. Used for making pickles and usually
      eaten raw. Cucumbers have been cultivated for thousands of years.

      •   Cuit was a thickened and sweetened wine. It was thickened by boiling down.
      •   Cumberland ale is a gold-coloured bitter with a delicate flavour, from the
      Jennings brewery in Cockermouth in the Lake District.

      •    Cumin - This spice is a member of the parsley family and dates back to the
      Old Testament. Also called "cumino." Its nutty-flavored seeds are used to make
      curries, chili powders, and Kümmel liqueur.

      •    Cumin - This spice is a member of the parsley family and dates back to the
      Old Testament. Also called "cumino." Its nutty-flavored seeds are used to make
      curries, chili powders, and Kümmel liqueur.

      •    Cup is an alcoholic beverage consisting of the lighter wines, such as claret,
      sherry, cider, hock, champagne, etc. mixed with soda-water, and sweetened with
      sugar. Fruit juices and slices of fruit and spices are sometimes added.
      •    Curacao is an easily-prepared liqueur manufactured from the essential oils
      and peel of the Curacao orange.
      •    Curd - When milk coagulates, it separates into two parts--the curds and the
      whey. The curd is the semisolid formed by this separation. Cheese is made from
      the curd. The whey is the watery liquid.

      •    Currant - This fruit is a tiny berry from the gooseberry family. There are black,
      red, and white currants. Black ones are used in syrups and liqueurs; red and white
      ones are eaten and used in some preserves and sauces.

      •    Curry - This word refers to any number of hot, spicy, gravy-like dishes from
      East India. Comes from the Indian word "kari," which means "sauce." Curry powder
      is a primary ingredient in curry.
      •    Curry is an Indian dish composed of various solids - fish, meat, fowl or eggs -
      served in a hot flavored sauce. The sauces vary, but are based upon chilli, black
      pepper, coriander and turmeric.


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       •    Cusk - A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also
       called "tusk" or "torsk."

       •     Custard Apple - Also called "Cherimoya" and "Bullock's Heart," this tropical
       fruit tastes like a cross between pineapple, mango, and strawberry. The flesh is
       cream-colored and has the texture of firm custard.

       •    Custard is a sweet sauce made from eggs, sugar, milk and vanilla essence.
       The eggs are beaten with the sugar and then milk and the vanilla essence are
       added. The dish may also be steamed and served set as a desert.
       •    Cutlet is a small slice of veal, mutton or lamb, trimmed into shape and usually
       part of the rib.

       •    Cuttlefish - A relative of the squid and octopus, the cuttlefish has ten arms that
       can reach up to 16 inches in length. "Sarume," which is available in ethnic stores, is
       cuttlefish that has been seasoned and roasted.

                                                                      D
       •      Dab - This flatfish is variety of flounder that features a sweet, firm flesh.

       •    Daikon - "Daikon" means "big root" in Japanese. This radish has a sweet
       flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh. Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a
       garnish. Also called "Oriental radish."

   q   Daiquiri - A cocktail prepared with rum, lime, and sugar. Daiquiris are also made
       with fruit. Frozen daiquiris are made by adding crushed ice and fruit chunks and
       pureeing them in a blender.

       •    Danbo Cheese - A Swiss-style cheese with red or yellow wax rind and a pale
       yellow interior. Danbo has a mild sweet taste, firm texture, and is dotted with holes.
       Available in regular and lowfat varieties.

       •    Dandelion Greens - A weed with bright green leaves with a slightly bitter tangy
       taste. Used to add interest to salads. The leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. The
       roots can eaten raw or cooked or roasted and ground to make "root coffee."

       •      Danish Pastry - This butter-rich pastry begins as yeast dough that is rolled

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      out, buttered, folded, then rolled out several more times. Danish is often filled with
      fruit, cream cheese, and/or nuts.

      •    Daredevil Winter Warmer is a smooth, fruity beer with a strong, mature
      flavour, produced by Everards in Narborough, near Leicester.

      •    Dasheen - A variety of taro that is grown in the southern states. It is a high-
      starch tuber. Although acrid in the raw state, it has a nut-like flavor when cooked.
      Taro can be boiled, fried, baked, and used in soup.

      •    Dasheen Leaf - The large "elephant ear" leaves of the dasheen (a variety of
      "taro") that are edible when young.

      •   Date - The fruit of the giant date palm, which lives up to 200 years and has
      been cultivated for over 5,000 years. Dates are about 55% sugar when picked--
      higher as they dry. In the U.S., dates are grown primarily in Arizona and California.

      •    Deacon is a pale-gold, orangey, dry bitter from the Gibbs Mews brewery in
      Salisbury, Wiltshire.
      •    Decon gold is a straw-coloured, fruity, summer beer from Blackawton in South
      Devon.
      •    Deep Shaft Stout is a black stout produced by the Freeminer brewery,
      Gloucestershire with a roast-malt flavour.
      •    Deglaze: To add liquid such as wine, stock, or water to the bottom of a pan to
      dissolve the carmelized drippings so that they may be added to a sauce, for added
      flavor.
      •    Demi: ( French) Half.
      •    Deuchars IPA is a light Scottish ale brewed by the Caledonian Brewing
      Company of Edinburgh.

      •       Dewberry - A trailing-vine variety of blackberry.

      •       Dew-cup was the first allowance of beer to harvestmen in England.

      •   Dextrous Sugar - This type of sugar is produced from grape or corn sugar.
      Also called "grape sugar" or "corn sugar."



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      •   Diable Sauce - A meat and poultry sauce that is composed of a basic brown
      sauce with wine, vinegar, shallots, and red or black pepper.

      •    Diable: Devilled.
      •    Diat Pils is a lager which undergoes a thorough fermentation which removes
      almost all the sugars from the botom-fermented, Pilsner-derived beer. It was
      originally brewed for diabetics.
      •    Diced:Cut into small cubes.
      •    Dietetics is the study of food in relation to the promotion and maintenance of
      health. Despite the attempts of some authors to claim it is a new science, it has
      been known and practised for centuries, and the term dietetics precedes the
      Second World War.

      •    Dijon - Originally from Dijon, France, this pale variety of mustard is known for
      its sharp, clean flavor that can range from mild to hot. It is made from brown
      mustard seeds, white wine, unfermented grape juice and a variety of seasonings.

      •   Dill - A hardy, aromatic herb that has been cultivated for thousands of years.
      Marketed in two forms: dill weed, which is the dried leaves; and dill seed, the dried
      seeds of the herb. Dill was a symbol of good luck for first-century Romans.

      •     Dim Sum - This Chinese name, which means "heart's delight," includes a
      variety of snacks such as steamed dumplings, shrimp balls, pastries, and spring
      rolls.
      •     Directors is a strong English ale brewed by the Courage brewery.

      •   Dishcloth Gourd - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family.
      Also called the "loofah," "rag gourd," and "vegetable sponge." The dried insides of
      these gourds can be used as a sponge.

      •   Dishcloth Gourd - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family.
      Also called the "Loofah," "rag gourd," and "vegetable sponge." The dried insides of
      these gourds can be used as a sponge.

      •      Distillation - The process of separating the components in a liquid by heating
      it to its vapor point, then condensing the vapor into a purified and/or concentrated
      form.
      •      Divinity - A fluffy, creamy candy made from sugar, corn syrup, and beaten egg

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      whites. Nuts, chocolate, and other flavorings are often added to the mixture.

      •   Dock - Any of several varieties of the hardy perennial herb from the perennial
      herb from the buckwheat family. The most strongly flavored variety is "sour dock."
      The mildest form is "dock sorrel," also known as "herb patience dock."

      •    Dogbolter is an Australian bottom-fermenting dark lager from the Matilda Bay
      brewing company of Perth. The beer is cask-matured before bottling, taking twice
      as long to produce as most Australian beers.

      •    Dollarfish - This small, high-fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet
      flavor. Found off the coast of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also
      called the "butterfish."

      •   Dolphin Best is a dry, amber, cask bitter brewed by the Poole brewery,
      Dorset.

      •   Dolphin Fish - Also called "Mahi Mahi" and "Dorado." Although this fish is a
      dolphin, it is not a mammal. To avoid confusion, the Hawaiian name "Mahi Mahi" is
      becoming prevalent. This fish is moderately fat with firm, flavorful flesh.

      •    Domestic Turbot - A highly prized flatfish with a lean, firm white flesh and a
      mild flavor. Turbot is also the market name for several varieties of flounder fished
      from Pacific waters.

      •     Dorest Best also known as Badger Best Bitter is a Hall and Woodhouse cask
      ale with a bitter hop and fruit flavour.
      •     Double chance is a malty bitter from the Malton brewery of North Yorkshire.
      •     Double diamond is Ind Coope's famous dark amber bottled pale ale from
      Burton-on-Trent, which after a period of promotion as a weak keg beer, saw its
      reputation restored as a bottled ale, particularly in the stronger export version. It is
      also occasionally available as a cask beer.
      •     Double Maxim is a classic, strong, amber coloured brown ale with a smooth,
      fruity taste formerly from the Double Maxim Beer Company in Sunderland.
      More information at http://www.dmbc.org.uk

      •   Dragon's Eye - A small, round fruit with a thin brown shell. Its flesh is soft,
      white, juicy, and surrounds one large black seed. Used as a snack, in oriental

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       soups, desserts, and some sweet-and-sour dishes. Also called "Longan."

       •    Dragonslayer is a yellowish real ale with a dry malt and hops flavour, from
       B&T, Bedfordshire.
   q    Drambuie - This Scotch-based liqueur is sweetened with honey and flavored with
        a variety of herbs.
       •    Draught Bass is a superb British bitter with a malty flavour and light hop
       bitterness.
       •    Draught Burton Ale is a full-bodied ale from the Carlsberg-Tetley brewery in
       Burton-on-Trent.
       •    Drawn butter: Melted butter.
       •    Drawwell bitter is a cask beer from the Hanby brewery in Shropshire.
       •    Dredging: To coat with dry ingredients such as flour or bread crumbs.

       •    Drum - Any of a variety of fish named for the drumming or deep croaking noise
       they make. These fish are firm and low in fat. The drum family include the black
       croaker, black drum, hardhead, kingfish, and queenfish.

       •    Duck - Any of a variety of species of wild or domestic web-footed birds.
       Broilers and fryers are under 8 weeks old, roasters are no more than 16 weeks old.
       Duck is generally higher in fat than other domestic birds.

       •   Duck Sauce - A thick, sweet and sour condiment made from plums, apricots,
       sugar and seasonings. Often served with duck, pork, or spareribs.

       •    Dunkel is a German style of dark, soft, malty brown lager.
       •    Dusting: To sprinkle with sugar or flour.
       •    Dutch oven is a large, heavy, saucepan with a close-fitting lid used for braising
       meat, making soup and similar dishes. Now almost obsolete in Britain, they are still
       widely used on a day-to-day basis in Jamaica and possibly other Caribbean
       cultures, where they are known as 'Dutch Pot' or ' Dutchie'.
       •    Dylans Ale is an English ale brewed by the Brain, Crown Buckley brewery of
       Cardiff to celebrate the poetry of Dylan Thomas. It is a full-bodied mature ale with a
       mellow flavour and a subtle hop aroma.
                                                                      E
       •      E.P.: Edible Portion.
       •      E102 is the EEC food labeling code for tartrazine.

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      •     E104 is the EEC food labeling code for quinoline yellow.
      •     E110 is the EEC food labeling code for sunset yellow.
      •     E120 is the EEC food labeling code for cochineal colouring matter.
      •     E122 is the EEC food labeling code for the colouring agent carmoisine.
      •     E123 is the EEC food labeling code for the colouring agent amaranth.
      •     E124 is the EEC food labeling code for the colouring agent ponceau 4R.
      •     E127 is the EEC food labeling code for the colouring agent erythrosine.
      •     E131 is the EEC food labeling code for the colouring agent patent blue V.
      •     E132 is the EEC food labeling code for the colouring agent indigo carmine.
      •     E142 is the EEC food labeling code for the colouring agent green S.
      •     E150 is the EEC food labeling code for sulphite ammonia caramel. Various
      forms of the colourant are used, ranging from the harmless E150(a) produced by
      heating carbohydrates (usually glucose) to the toxic E150(c) ammonia caramel
      produced by heating carbohydrate with ammonia.
      •     E160(b) is the EEC food labeling code for the colourant annatto, also known as
      bixin or norbixin. It is a vegetable dye derived from the seed coat of the tropical tree
      Bixa orellana.
      •     E180 is the EEC food labeling code for the colouring agent pigment rubine
      (lithol rubine BK).
      •     E200 is the EEC food labeling code for the food additive sorbic acid.
      •     E202 is the EEC food labeling code for potassium sorbate.
      •     E210 is the EEC food labeling code for benzoic acid.
      •     E211 is the EEC food labeling code for sodium benzoate.
      •     E212 is the EEC food labeling code for potassium benzoate.
      •     E300 is the EEC food labeling code for ascorbic acid.
      •     E310 is the EEC food labeling code for the anti-oxidant propyl gallate.
      •     E311 is the EEC food labeling code for the anti-oxidant octyl gallate.
      •     E312 is the EEC food labeling code for the anti-oxidant dodecyl gallate.
      •     E320 is the EEC food labeling code for the anti-oxidant butylated hydroxynisole
      (BHA).
      •     E321 is the EEC food labeling code for the anti-oxidant butylated
      hydroxytoluene (BHT).
      •     E330 is the EEC food labeling code for citric acid.
      •     E500 is the EEC food labeling code for sodium carbonate.
      •     Eagle IPA is a sweet, malty, amber coloured cask beer from the Charles Wells

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      brewery in Bedford.
      •   Ecossaise: (French) The way of the Scottish.

      •   Edam Cheese - This mellow, savory Holland cheese has a pale yellow interior
      and a paraffin coating. Made from part-skimmed cow's milk, it is Holland's second
      most exported cheese ("Gouda" is number one).

      •   Eden bitter is a smooth, sweet bitter from the Castle Eden brewery in County
      Durham.
      •   Edmund II Ironside is a tasty, cask conditioned bitter from the Hampshire
      brewery in Andover.

      •    Eel - A long snake-like fish with smooth scaleless skin and a rich, sweet, and
      firm flesh. Eels, which are considered a fatty fish, are very popular in Europe and
      Japan.

      •    Egg - Most eggs come from hens, but duck, goose, and quail eggs are also
      available. Eggs should be refrigerated in the original container, large end up.
      Because the yolk is high in cholesterol, imitation eggs come from egg whites and
      additives.

      •   Egg Yolk - This part of the egg contains all of the fat in an egg. Yolks are a
      good source of protein, iron, vitamin A, vitamin D, choline, and phosphorus. The
      egg white is a good source of protein and riboflavin.

      •   Eggnog - A traditional Christmas beverage, eggnog is a smooth, cold drink
      containing beaten raw eggs, sugar, milk or cream, and flavoring. Brandy, rum, or
      whiskey is often added.

      •  Eisbock is an extra-strength style of bock beer. During brewing it is frozen and
      some of the ice removed to increase the potency. Eisbock was the forerunner of
      modern ice-beers.

      •   Elderberry - The purple-black fruit of the elder tree. Used to make jams, jellies,
      and the famous homemade elderberry wine--a spicy brew that can become as
      potent as its maker desires.

      •       Elizabethan is a golden, British barley wine originally brewed to mark the

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      Queen's coronation in 1953 by Harveys brewery.

      •    Elk - A large member of the deer family. Elk meat is called "venison." Antelope,
      caribou, elk, deer, moose and reindeer meat is also classified as venison, the most
      popular large animal game meat in the U.S.

      •    Emince (French) Cut fine, or sliced thin.
      •    Emu is a range of Australian beers brewed by Swan, that take their name from
      a Perth brewery taken over by Swan in 1928. The range includes four lagers, Emu
      Pilsner, Emu Export, a hoppier Emu Bitter and the darker, more malty Emu Draft.

      •    Endive - This salad green is related to the chicory. Belgian endives are grown
      in darkness and never turn green. Curly endive has curly leaves and a slightly biter
      taste. Escarole is the mildest variety of endive.

      •   English Walnut - Also called the "Persian walnut," this nut is widely available
      and features a plump, crispy meat.

      •     Entree is a complete dish consisting of meat, poultry or fish with vegetable and
      a sauce. It is served before the 'roast' course in a formal menu and may be either
      hot or cold.
      •     Enville ale is one of a range of honey beers produced by the Enville Farm
      brewery in Staffordshire. The pale-gold ale is primed with honey after a rapid initial
      fermentation and then lagered. The brewery uses its own honey and barley.
      •     Escallope - The French term for a very thin, usually flattened slice of meat or
      fish. Americans call this cut a "scallop."

      •   Escarole - Escarole is a variety of endive with broad, slightly curved leaves. It
      has a milder flavor than Belgian or curly endive.

      •       Espagnole: A mother sauce. Basic brown sauce.

      •    Eulachon - A rich and oily mild-flavored variety of smelt fish. The eulachon is
      also called the "candlefish" because Indians sometimes run a wick through their
      high-fat flesh and use them for candles.

      •   European Turbot - A highly prized flatfish found in European waters. This fish
      has a lean, firm white flesh and a mild flavor. Turbot is also the market name for

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      several varieties of flounder fished from Pacific waters.

      •    Exmoor ale is a pale-brown, malty bitter from the Exmoor brewery in
      Wiveliscombe, Somerset
      •    Export Mongrel is a bronze-coloured Australian wheat beer, produced by the
      Traditional Brewing Company, is a variation on Yellow Mongrel, using a light crystal
      malt as well as wheat and barley malts.
                                                                    F
      •    Faamafu is a Samoan home-brewed liquor.
      •    Fagins is a light-brown real ale from the Itchen Valley Brewery in Hampshire.
      •    Faham is the leaves of Angraecum fragrans, an orchid found in the islands of
      Bourbon and Mauritius, and sometimes used in France as a substitute for Chinese
      tea.
      •    Fair maid is the dried European pilchard (Clupea pilchardus).

      •    Falafel - A middle Eastern dish composed of small, deep-fried balls made of
      very spicy ground chick-peas. Normally tucked into pita bread or served alone as
      an appetizer.

      •       Farce: (French) Forcemeat or Stuffing.
      •       Farci: Stuffed.

      •   Farina - A bland-tasting flour or meal made for cereal grains that can be
      cooked to create a hot breakfast cereal. Farina is cream colored, rich in protein, and
      easy to digest.

      •   Farmer Cheese - This mild, slightly tangy cheese is a form of cottage cheese
      from which most of the liquid has been pressed.

      •       Faro is a style of Belgian beer. It is a weak lambic sweetened with sugar.

      •    Fathead - A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called
      "California sheepshead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

      •    Fava Bean - This bean looks like a very large lima bean. The pod is inedible
      unless the plant is very young. Avoid pods bulging with beans as this is an
      indication of age. Also known as the "broad bean."

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      •    Feijoa - This small, egg-shaped fruit is native to South America. It provides a
      very fragrant, cream-colored flesh with a jelly-like center.

      •   Feijoada is a Brazilian stew made with black beans and pork or sausage and
      served with rice.

      •    Fennel - An aromatic plant from the carrot family. Florence fennel, also called
      "finocchio," is eaten raw and in salads. Common fennel is the plant that produces
      fennel seeds. Italian (or Sicilian) fennel features stalks that can be eaten raw.

      •   Fennel Seed - The seed of the common fennel plant. Available whole or
      ground. Used in sweet and savory foods, and as a flavoring agent in many liqueurs.

      •    Fenugreek Seed - Come from the fenugreek plant, a member of the pea
      family. The seeds are pleasantly bitter and somewhat sweet. Used in curry
      powders, chutneys, spice blends, and teas.

      •    Feta Cheese - A rich tangy Greek cheese that is traditionally made from
      sheep's or goat's milk. Today, however, many commercial producers are using
      cow's milk. Feta is called a pickled cheese because it is stored in its own whey
      brine.

      •       Fettuccini - Pasta noodles cut into flat narrow strips.

      •   Field Peas - A variety of green or yellow pea that is grown to be dried. "Split
      peas" are field peas that have been dried and split along the natural seam. Field
      peas normally do not require pre-soaking.

      •   Fig - The fruit of any of approximately 700 varieties of fig trees. Figs are a good
      source of iron, calcium and phosphorus.

      •   Filbert - This nut is also known as the "hazelnut" or "cobnut." Used whole,
      chopped, and ground in baking, candies, desserts, and salads.

      •       Filbert is a nut of the cultivated variety of hazel.

      •       Filet Mignon - An expensive and very tender cut of beef that is taken from the

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      small end of Tenderloin.

      •       Finnan Haddie - A world-famous smoked haddock from Scotland.

      •    Finnochio - A variety of fennel that is eaten raw and in salads. Also called
      "Florence fennel."

      •   Flan - A round pastry tart that contains either a sweet (custard or fruit) filling or
      a savory (vegetable, meat, or savory custard) filling. The pastry is cooked in a
      special flan ring on a baking sheet.

      •    Flatfish - Fish that have a flat body with both eyes located on the upper side.
      Flatfish swim "sideways" and include "flounder," "halibut," and "sole."

      •     Flaxseed - The seed of the flax, a slender, erect, annual plant that is cultivated
      for its fiber and its seeds. The fiber is used to make linen yarn. The seeds are used
      to make linseed oil.

      •   Flounder - A fine-textured flatfish prized for its delicate flavor. Some of the
      more popular varieties include "Fab," "English Sole," and "Plaice."

      •   Flowers IPA is a copper-coloured, creamy pale ale produced by Whitbread in
      Cheltenham.
      •   Flowers original is a bitter with a good malt and hop balance, produced by
      Whitbread in Cheltenham.

      •    Flying Fish - This fish, a delicacy in the West Indies and Japan, gains speed
      underwater then leaves the water except for the lower lobe of its tail. It then
      vigorously beats its tail, extends its ventral fins and can fly a 1,000 feet or more.

      •   Fon Goot - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white
      crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor
      and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Jicama."

      •    Fondant - This is a mixture of sugar, water, and cream of tartar cooked to the
      "soft-ball" stage. This mixture is cooled, then beaten and kneaded until pliable.
      Used both as a candy and as an icing.



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      •    Fontina Cheese - An Italian cheese that is semi-soft to firm, made from cow's
      milk or sheep's milk.

      •       Forcemeat: Ground meat or meats, mixed with seasonings used for stuffing.

      •   Forestièra Sauce - A French sauce containing sliced sautéed mushrooms
      added to a base made from demiglace flavored with sherry.

      •    Fortune Cookie - This Chinese-American invention is a plain, griddle-baked
      wafer which is wrapped around a strip of paper and allowed to cool. The paper
      provides a written "fortune."
      •    Foster's is a light, fruity Australian lager with a worldwide reputation and is the
      beer most drinkers abroad associate with the Foster's name.
      •    Founders is a pale-brown bitter with a slight citrus and sweet-malt taste, from
      the Ushers brewery in Wiltshire.
      •    Fowl down-in-rice is the Barbados version of chicken served with rice which is
      so popular throughout the Caribbean.
      •    Fractioned - To separate chemically into fractions by distillation, crystallization,
      etc.
      •    Framboise is a Belgian fruit beer originally made with raspberries, but more
      recently with other fruits.

      •    Frankfurter - A smoked and seasoned precooked sausage that is also called
      the "hot dog," "wiener," and "frank." These sausages, which can be made from
      beef, pork, chicken, or turkey, are America's most popular sausage.

      •    Franklin's bitter is a distinctive floral, aromatic, hoppy bitter brewed in
      Harrogate, Yorkshire.
      •    Freedom Pilsener is a fresh, slightly fruity Pilsner brewed by the Freedom
      brewery in Fulham, London.
      •    Freeminer Bitter is a pale, hoppy bitter from the Forest of Dean,
      Gloucestershire.
      •    Freestone - A term that refers to a fruit with a pit to which the flesh does not
      cling. The opposite term is called "clingstone."
      •    Freeze-Dry - To subject foods to quick-freezing followed by drying under high
      vacuum at low temperature. This process helps foods keep for long periods at
      normal room temperatures.


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      •    French Bean - Any young, green, string bean that can be eaten whole
      (including the pod).

      •   French Fries - Raw potatoes that have been cut into strips, soaked in water,
      then deep fried until golden brown.
      •   Fricasse is a dish consisting of small pieces of white meat in a flavoured white
      sauce made from the stock in which the meat was cooked, with the addition of milk.

      •    Frogfish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet
      flavor that compares with lobster. Also called "angler fish," "monkfish," or
      "goosefish."

      •   Frog's Legs - The tender, faintly sweet white meat from the hind legs of frogs.
      Because of their delicate flavor, they should be cooked briefly without too many
      seasonings.

      •       Froid: (French) Cold.

      •   Fructose - A natural byproduct of fruits and honey. More water-soluble than
      glucose and sweeter than sucrose with half the calories. Can be used by diabetics.

      •   Fruitcake - A traditional winter holiday cake of candied fruit, fruit rinds, nuts,
      and spice. Fruitcakes are often soaked in some sort of liquor or brandy.
      •   Fuggles Imperial is a pale, strong, premium bitter from Whitbread's Castle
      Eden brewery, County Durham.

      •    Fusilli - A spiral-shaped spaghetti noodle that ranges from about 1.5 inches to
      a foot long.

      •       Fuyu - Salted and fermented tofu (soybean curd cake).

                                                                      G
      •    Galangal is a seasoning derived from the dried root of Alpinia officinarum, a
      plant found in China and the East Indies.
      •    Galantine is a dish which consists usually of a white meat, well flavoured and
      made into a roll. It is served cold and has a glazed surface.
      •    Gamay is a type of grape used to produce red wine. It produces a fruity wine

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      such as French Beaujolais.
      •   Gammon1 is a cured or smoked ham. The term is often applied to the
      hindquarter of a side of bacon, cooked either whole or cut into large rashers
      (gammon steaks).
      •   Garam masala is an aromatic mixture of spices, extensively used in curries.

      •    Garbanzo Bean - The round irregularly shaped buff-colored legumes with a
      firm texture and a mild nut-like flavor. Also called "chick-peas" and "ceci." Used in
      salads, soups, and stews.

      •   Garde Manger: (French) The person in charge of cold meat department or the
      department itself.
      •   Gargoyle is a tasty cask bitter from the Lichfield brewery in the Midlands.

      •   Garlic - A hardy bulbous plant related to leeks, chives, onions, and shallots. A
      powerful seasoning that can be used with almost any non-sweet dish. Garlic
      remains in the body and affects the breath and even the skin's odor.

      •       Garnish: To decorate. Also referring to the food used to decorate.
      •       Garniture: French for garnish.
      •       Gateau (French) Cake.
      •       Gaufres: (French) Wafers.

      •    Gazpacho - A cold summertime soup from Spain. This uncooked soup
      contains a puree of tomatoes, sweet peppers, onions, celery, cucumber, bread
      crumbs, garlic, olive oil, and vinegar. Sometimes served with croutons and hard-
      boiled eggs.

      •    GB Mild is a smooth, malty, fruity bear brewed by the Lees family brewery in
      north Manchester.

      •   Gefilte Fish - This popular Jewish dish consists of ground fish mixed with
      eggs, matzo meal, and seasonings that have been formed into balls or patties then
      simmered in vegetable or fish stock. The fish used is usually carp, pike, or
      whitefish.

      •     Gelatin - An odorless, tasteless, and colorless thickening agent that forms a
      jelly when dissolved into hot water then cooled. Used in jellied desserts, salads, and

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       cold soups. Available in both flavored and unflavored varieties.

       •    Genoa cake is a rich fruit cake, usually decorated with almonds.
       •    Georges bitter ale is a light, refreshing bitter from the Courage brewery which
       was formerly Georges, in Bristol.
   q    Gewurztraminer - An excellent white-wine grape that is grown in Germany and
        California. It is pink and yields a spicy, heavily perfumed, soft wine. "Gewurz"
        means "spice" in German.

       •    Ghee - Butter that has been melted to separate the milk solids from the liquid
       on the surface. This liquid is simmered until all the moisture evaporates and the
       milk solids begin to brown. The result is a clarified butter that keeps well.

       •   Gherkin - The young fruit of a small variety of dark green cucumbers grown
       especially for pickling. The French call this pickle "cornichons."

       •   Giblet - "Giblets" usually refers to the heart, liver, gizzard, and sometimes the
       neck of poultry. All of these except for the liver are normally used to flavor stocks,
       soups, and gravies.

   q   Gibson - This drink is identical to the Martini, which is made with gin and
       vermouth, except that it is garnished with a white cocktail onion. This drink was
       named after the illustrator Charles Gibson, the creator of the famous "Gibson Girl."
   q   Gimlet - A cocktail composed of sugar syrup, lime juice, vodka (or gin) and
       sometimes soda water.
   q   Gin - An unaged liquor using of distillates from barley, corn, or rye, and juniper
       berries. London dry gin is colorless. Hollands gin is a Dutch gin that tastes very
       different from other gins because of its large proportion of barley malt.

       •    Ginger - A tropical plant cultivated for its root. The flavor is peppery and sweet,
       the odor is spicy. Used to flavor candy, soups, meat, poultry, curries, gingerbread,
       and cakes. Also the chief flavoring agent for ginger ale.

       •   Ginger Beer is a low alcohol style of beer flavoured with root ginger.
       •   Ginger Tom is a ginger-flavoured ale from the Hoskins & Oldfield brewery,
       Leicester.
       •   Gingersnap is a dark, orangey-coloured wheat beer, brewed with fresh root
       ginger from the Salopian brewery, Shrewsbury.


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       •   Ginkgo Nut - A delicately sweet nut from the heart of the inedible fruit of the
       maidenhair tree. Particularly popular in oriental cooking.

   q   Ginseng - The Chinese name for this sweet licorice-flavored root means "human-
       shaped root." Often used in teas, ginseng has been credited over the centuries for
       being everything from a restorative to an aphrodisiac.

       •    Gjetost Cheese - A Norwegian cheese made from goat's and cow's milk whey.
       The brown color and sweetness are the result of slow cooking the milk until its
       colors caramelize. Scandinavia's "Mysost" cheese is made using cow's milk only.

       •  Gladstone is a refreshing, smooth bitter from the McMullen brewery, Hertford.
       •  Glogg is a hot alcoholic mixed drink, originally from Sweden, consisting of
       sweetened brandy, red wine, bitters or other flavourings, and blanched almonds.

       •   Glucose - Glucose is a sugar. The most common form of this sugar is called
       "dextroglucose"--commonly referred to as "dextrose." Corn syrup is a form of
       glucose made from cornstarch.

       •    Glutinous Rice - Also called "pearl rice," this rice is actually gluten-free. It is
       the preferred variety in the Orient because it is sticky and therefore easily handled
       with chop sticks.

       •   Gnocchi are dumplings made of pieces of semolina pasta, or sometimes
       potato, used to garnish soup or served alone with a sauce.

       •   Goa Bean - A fast-growing, high-protein legume. Also called the "winged
       bean." This bean is entirely edible, including the shoots, flower, roots, leaves, pods,
       and seeds. Tastes somewhat like a cross between the cranberry bean and the
       green bean.

       •    Goat - Goat meat has been eaten in other countries for centuries, but it never
       got very popular in the U.S. Most goat meat comes from kids--goats under 6
       months old. Kid meat is as tender and delicate as lamb.

       •      Goat Water is a goat stew made in Montserrat.

       •      Goatfish - Goatfish is so named because of its two long "whiskers" that

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       resemble a goat's whiskers. The meat is firm and lean. This fish is normally
       available only on the East Coast and through the Florida Keys.

       •   Goat's Milk - Goat's milk can often be found canned in supermarkets. Fresh
       goat's milk is sometimes available in health food stores. This milk is often made into
       goat cheese, which is better known as "Chèvre."

       •  Gobo - This slender root vegetable has brown skin and grayish white flesh.
       Used in soups as well as with vegetables and meats. Also known as "burdock."

       •    Godfathers is an award winning real ale from the Itchen Valley Brewery in
       Hampshire, England, made with four varieties of hop.
       •    Gold Label is England's best-known bottled barley wine. This spicy, warming
       brew is produced by Whitbread.
       •    Golden best is a fine mild from the Timothy Taylor brewery, Keighley,
       Yorkshire.
       •    Golden bitter is a fruity bitter from Archers in Swindon.
       •    Golden Brew is a golden, aromatic, bitter from the Smiles brewery, Bristol.
   q    Golden Cadillac - A creamy, gold-colored cocktail made from Galliano, white
        Creme de Cacao, and heavy cream.
       •    Golden syrup is a pale yellow syrup made by the evaporation of cane sugar
       juice. It is less sweet than sugar and is generally used to flavour puddings.

       •    Goose - Any of many species of fatty, web-footed wild or domesticated birds
       that are larger than ducks. The female is the "goose," the male is called the
       "gander." Roasted goose is traditional holiday fare in many European countries.

       •   Gooseberry - Large tart berries used in jams, jellies, pies and desserts. The
       English and French use this berry to make gooseberry sauce for use with boiled or
       baked mackerel.

       •    Goosefish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet
       flavor that compares with lobster. Also called "angler fish," and "monkfish."

       •      Gothic ale is a dark ale from the Enville Farm brewery, Staffordshire.

       •   Gouda Cheese - This is Holland's number one exported cheese. It is mild and
       has a nut-like flavor that is similar to Holland's number two exported cheese, edam.

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       Some goudas are flavored with cumin or herbs.

       •   Gourmet: (French) Connoisseur of culinary delights.
       •   Governor is an amber bitter from the Hull brewery.
       •   Graduate is a roasted-malt-flavoured premium bitter from the Morrells brewery,
       Oxford.

       •    Granadilla - A tropical fruit native to Brazil, but now grown in the U.S., New
       Zealand, and Australia. The flavor is sweet, yet tart, and has a perfumy tropical
       fragrance. Also called "passion fruit."

       •    Granary bitter is an amber-coloured beer with a bitter, fruity character, from
       the Reepham brewery near Norwich.

       •      Granola - A food composed of grains (mostly oats), nuts and dried fruits.

       •    Grape - Any of thousands of varieties of edible berries that grow in clusters.
       "Slip-skin" varieties have skins that slip off easily. Table grapes are eaten out-of-
       hand. Grapes used for wines are highly acid and generally too tart to eat.

       •    Grape Leaves - The large green leaves of grapevines. These leaves are often
       used in the Middle East to wrap foods, such as "dolmas," for cooking. Also called
       "vine leaves."

       •    Grapefruit - So named because they grow in grape-like clusters. These large
       citrus fruits are grown in Arizona, California, Florida, and Texas. They are available
       in both seeded and seedless varieties.

       •   Grapeseed Oil - Oil derived from the seeds of grapes. Used in salad dressings
       and for sautéing.

   q   Grasshopper - A sweet after-dinner cocktail made with cream, Creme de Menthe,
       and white Creme de Cacao.

       •     Gravy - A sauce made from meat juices and combined with a liquid broth,
       wine, or milk, plus a thickening agent such as flour or cornstarch. Before
       refrigeration, sauces were used to help hide the taste of foods that were going
       rancid.

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      •    Great Northern Bean - A very large white bean with a distinctive, delicate
      flavor. Popular in the Midwest for baked bean dishes. Can be substituted for any
      variety of white beans for most recipes.

      •   Green Bean - A small green bean that is eaten in its long green pod. The
      green bean used to have a fibrous "string" down the center of the pod; this
      characteristic has been bred out of the species. Also called "string bean."

      •   Green Beer is a term applied to a young beer which has not had time to
      mature.

      •   Green Pea - A small, round green vegetable from the legume family. Also
      known as the garden pea. Unlike snow peas, which are eaten pod and all, green
      peas are eaten without the pod. Used by the Greeks and Romans long before
      Christian times.

      •    Grenache is a type of grape often used to make rose wine, it is a component
      of French Chateauneuf-du-Pape, Cotes du Rhone and most other appellations from
      the south of France.

      •   Grenadine - A brilliant scarlet non-alcoholic syrup made from the juice of
      pomegranates. Used to color and flavor drinks and desserts. Called "grena dine"
      because was originally available only from the island of Grenada in the Caribbean.

      •    Grits - "Grits" refers to any coarsely ground grain such as corn, oats, or rice.
      Today, most "grits" are hominy grits. Grits are available in coarse, medium, and fine
      grinds.

      •   Grog is a nautical term for rum and water. It derived its name from admiral
      Edward Vernon who wore grogram breeches and was hence called 'Old Grog'. In
      1745 he ordered his sailors to dilute their rum with water, and hence the mixture
      became known as grog.

      •    Ground Allspice - Comes from the pea-sized berry of the evergreen pimiento
      tree, native to the West Indies and South America. Named "allspice" because it
      tastes somewhat like a combination of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves.



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      •    Ground Beef, Extra Lean - Also called "ground round" or "ground sirloin, this
      type of ground beef contains approximately 11% fat.

      •   Ground Beef, Lean - Also called "ground chuck." The fat content is
      approximately 15% to 20%. This form of ground beef is flavorful, yet doesn't shrink
      excessively--it's the favorite choice for making hamburgers.

      •   Ground Beef, Regular - This form of ground beef is usually made from the
      lower cost cuts such as brisket or shank. The fat content is up to 30%.

      •    Ground Cherry - Also known as "cape gooseberry," this fruit has a bittersweet,
      juicy flesh. This fruit is eaten out of hand and used with meats, pies, jams, and
      savory foods.

      •    Ground Husk Tomato - A small fruit, also called the "Tomatillo," that is related
      to the tomato and the cape gooseberry. Their flavor is said to resemble a cross
      between lemon, apple, and herbs. Used in guacamole and many sauces.

      •   Ground Mace - Mace is a spice made from the membrane that covers the
      nutmeg seed. Tastes like a stronger, more aromatic version of nutmeg.

      •    Ground Pepper - The result of grinding peppercorns, the berries of the pepper
      plant. Ground pepper is the world's most popular spice. (Salt is not a spice--it's a
      mineral.) Ground pepper stimulates gastric juices and aids in digestion.

      •    Grouper - This true sea bass, found in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic, has
      a lean firm flesh. Its skin has a strong flavor and should be removed prior to
      cooking. Groupers have the ability to change to the color of their surroundings.

      •       Grouse - A small, low-fat game bird. Quality birds should have no odor.

      •    Gruyère Cheese - A Swiss processed cheese made from whole cow's milk.
      Light yellow with small holes. Tastes like Swiss, except a bit sharper.

      •       GSB is a dry, fruity bitter from the Elgood brewery near Wisbech.

      •   Guacamole - Mashed avocados. Sometimes contains lemon or lime to prevent
      discoloration and seasonings such as cilantro (coriander), chili powder, red pepper,


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      finely chopped tomatoes, and green onions.

      •    Guanabana - The large, dark-green, slightly acidic and pulpy flesh of the fruit
      of a small West Indies tree called the "soursop." Not surprisingly, this fruit is also
      called "soursop."

      •     Guava - A sweet, aromatic tropical fruit from the myrtle family. Used in jams,
      jellies, preserves, sauces, and beverages. Can also be eaten out of hand.

      •   Gueuze is a ripe blend of old and new Belgian lambics which causes a
      secondary fermentation to occur resulting in a distinctive sparkling beer with a fruity,
      sour dry taste.

      •    Guinea Fowl - A relative to the chicken and partridge, the female (hen) makes
      better eating than the male. The taste has been described as "pleasantly gamey."
      Guinea fowl were raised and eaten by the Greeks and Romans.

      •   Guinness Extra Stout is a bottled stout made with unmalted roasted barley
      and heavily hopped to give a very bitter taste.
      •   Guinness is an Irish stout brewed in Ireland and other parts of the world. It has
      a smooth texture due to the nitrogen dispensing system used in the draught beer.

      •    Gumbo Filé - A seasoning and thickening agent made from the young leaves
      of the sassafras tree. Originated from the Choctaw Indians who lived in Louisiana
      prior to the settlers' arrival. Used to make the creole specialty "gumbo."

      •   Gunpowder is a liquorice-black mild from the Coach House brewery,
      Warrington.
      •   Gunpowder tea is a fine variety of green tea (often from China), each leaf of
      which is rolled into a pellet.
                                                                       H
      •    Haddock - A North Atlantic fish, the smaller cousin to the cod. The haddock
      has firm white flesh that is mild in flavor. Smoked haddock is called "finnan."

      •   Haggis is a Scottish dish made from a sheep's or calf's heart, liver, and lungs,
      minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and


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      traditionally boiled in the animal's stomach for several hours. Haggis is traditionally
      served at Hogmanay and on Burns' Night.

      •   Hake - This low-fat saltwater fish, related to the cod, is found in the Atlantic and
      North Pacific. It's flesh features a white, delicate flavor.

      •   Halibut - A low-fat, firm white and mild-flavored fish from the flatfish family.
      Resembles a gigantic flounder. "Chicken Halibuts" weigh up to ten pounds and are
      considered the finest halibut.

      •   Halvah - A middle East confection made from ground sesame seeds and
      honey. Sometimes prepared with chopped, dried fruit and pistachios.

      •   Ham - The hind leg of a hog. The taste of ham is affected by the age and
      breed of the hog, as well as by the food that the hog was fed. The unprocessed
      meat is called "fresh ham," but most ham is cured.

      •   Hamburg Parsley - A parsley subspecies grown for its beige carrot-like root
      which tastes somewhat like a cross between a carrot and celery. Used in stews and
      soups. Also eaten as a vegetable. Also called "parsley root."

      •   Hamburger - Ground beef formed into a patty for use in a hamburger
      sandwich. The best type of ground beef to use for this purpose is lean ground beef,
      which contains about 15% to 20% fat.

      •    Hamburger is a fast food consisting of a fried patty of minced meat, usually
      served in a bread roll. The hamburger (without the bun) is said to have been
      invented by medieval Tatar invaders of the Baltic area around Hamburg, Germany,
      from where it takes its name. As a dish made from minced meat, onions, bread, and
      milk, it was taken to the USA in the 19th century. The hamburger in its present form
      spread from there and was reintroduced to Europe in the 1960s.
      •    Hammerhead is a robust, strong, rich, malty ale brewed by Clark's of
      Wakefield, West Yorkshire.
      •    Haricot is a highly seasoned stew of lamb or mutton and vegetables.
      •    Haricots Verts: Tiny green string beans.
      •    Harrier S.P.A is a light-brown bitter with a light, hoppy taste, from the Cotleigh
      brewery, Somerset. Harvest Ale Harvest ale is a staggeringly strong bottled ale with
      11.5% alcohol is produced each year from the new season' s malt and hops by the

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       Lees brewery in Manchester. This vintage brew can be laid down to mature in the
       cellar for several years.
   q    Harvey Wallbanger - A sweet cocktail made with vodka, orange juice, and
        Galliano (an anise-flavored liqueur).
       •    Harveys christmas ale is a strong warming ale produced annually by the
       Harveys brewery, Lewes, Sussex.
       •    Harveys Firecracker is a beer that was bottled in honour of the emergency
       services who fought a disastrous fire at the Harveys brewery in 1996. It is a strong,
       dark pale ale with a smoky flavour.
       •    Harveys Sussex best bitter is a golden, hoppy bitter from Harveys of Lewes.
       •    Harveys Sussex pale ale is a light, hoppy ale from the Harveys brewery.
       •    Harveys Tom Paine is a strong pale ale from Harveys brewery.
       •    Hasenpfeffer: A German stew made from rabbit.
       •    Hatters is a fine, light mild from the Robinson's brewery, Stockport.

       •     Havarti Cheese - A semi-soft, mild, yet tangy pale yellow cheese similar to
       "Tilsit." Named after "Havarti," the Danish experimental farm where this cheese was
       developed.

       •   Hazelnut - This nut is used whole, chopped, and ground in baking, candies,
       desserts, and salads. Also known as the "cobnut."

       •   Hazelnut Oil - This fragrant full-flavored oil is pressed from hazelnuts and
       takes on the flavor of roasted nuts. The nuts are often toasted for a browner color
       and better flavor. The nuts are never blanched.

       •    Head Cheese - This is not a cheese, but a sausage made from the edible parts
       of a calf's or pig's head that are combined with a gelatinous meat broth. Ingredients
       include cheeks, snouts, underlips and sometimes brains, hearts, tongues, and feet.

       •     Heads A Rolling is a medium strength ale brewed by the Ash Vine company.
       It is a pale beer with a powerful hop flavour.
       •     Headstrong is a fruity bitter from the Blackawton brewery in Devon.

       •    Heart - The heart of most animals and birds are used in cooking. Some say
       that the best hearts are calf's or lamb's hearts. Hearts are sometimes stuffed with
       breadcrumbs and herbs or used in making gravies.

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       •   Heart Nut - A kidney-shaped nut that grows on the outside of the cashew
       apple at its base. The shell is highly toxic. These nuts have a sweet buttery flavor
       and contain about 48% fat. More commonly known as "cashew nuts."

       •    Hearts of Palm - The edible inside portion of the stem of the cabbage palm
       tree. They are slender, ivory-colored, and have a delicate flavor reminiscent of
       artichoke.

       •   Hefe is a German term for unfiltered beer.
       •   Heifer: A young female cow that has not had a calf yet.
       •   Herb Bouquet: A mixture of tied herms used for seasoning in soups, sauces,
       and stocks.
       •   Heritage is a full-bodied beer with a roastmalt, fruity flavour from the Smiles
       brewery, Bristol.

       •    Herring - A small salt-water fish related to the shad, alewife, sardine, and the
       freshwater cisco. Herring is often pickled, smoked, and dressed in numerous
       sauces.

       •    Hersbrucker Weizenhier is a light wheat beer from the Springhead brewery,
       Nottinghamshire.
       •    Herve is a soft Belgian rennet cheese often incorporating herbs and ripened in
       a beer-soaked cloth.

       •  Hickory Nut - An extremely hard-shelled, high-fat nut used in cakes, cookies,
       sweet breads, and candies. They are also suitable in recipes calling for pecans.

       •   Hick's special draught also known as HSD, is a full-bodied, fruity cask bitter
       produced by the St Austell brewery, Cornwall.
       •   High Force is a complex, smooth beer with a sweet, malt flavour, from the
       Butterknowle brewery in Bishop Auckland.
       •   High Level is a sweet and fruity, bright, filtered brown ale brewed for the
       working men's clubs by the Federation Brewery in the north-east of England. It is
       named after the bridge in Newcastle which crosses the River Tyne.
   q    Highball - A cocktail composed of whiskey and soda water or plain water. It is
        most often served over ice in a tall glass.
       •   Highball is a long drink of diluted spirits. Usually it is whiskey and ice in a

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      tumbler, filled up with soda water, but there are also brandy, gin, vodka and rum
      highballs.
      •    Highgate Dark Mild is a dark-brown, smooth mild produced in the Victorian
      tower brewery in Walsall, West Midlands. It is fermented using a vigorous four-
      strain yeast to give a complex flavour.
      •    Highgate Old Ale is a dark, red-brown, fruity ale with a complex flavour,
      brewed in winter by the Walsall brewery.
      •    Hobgoblin is a robust red ale sold in the cask and in the bottle in Britain,
      Europe and North America. It is produced by the Wychwood brewery, Oxfordshire.
      •    Hock is a class of light white Rhine wine. It possesses a distinct flavour,
      bouquet and delicacy of its own.

      •   Hog Maws - A pig's stomach, often stuffed with a sausage mixture, simmered,
      then baked.

      •     Hog Plum - The edible fruit of a tropical American tree that is plentiful in
      northeastern Brazil. It is bright yellow, oval, average an inch long, and features a
      soft, juicy sub-acid pulp surrounding a large seed. Also called "yellow mombin."

      •    Hoisin Sauce - A thick, reddish-brown sauce widely used in Chinese cooking.
      This sauce, composed of soybeans, garlic, chili peppers and spices, has a sweet
      and spicy flavor. Also know as "Peking Sauce."

      •  Hole in One is a strong golden ale from the Ash Vine brewery at Frome in
      Somerset.

      •   Hollandaise Sauce - A smooth, rich French cream sauce made from butter
      and egg yolks. Served over eggs ("Eggs Benedict"), vegetables, fish, and
      sometimes, meat.

      •       Holt's Bitter is a dry bitter brewed by the Holt's brewery of Manchester.

      •   Hominy - Dried white or yellow corn kernels with their hulls and germ removed.
      Also called "samp." Ground hominy is called "grits." This popular staple in the South
      and Southwest came to us from the Algonquin Indians.

      •       Homogenize - To create an emulsion by reducing all the particles to the same


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       size. In milk and salad dressings, for instance, all the fat globules are mechanically
       broken down until they are evenly distributed throughout the liquid.

       •    Honey - The thick, sweet liquid made by honey bees from the nectar of
       flowers. In general, the darker the color of the honey, the stronger the flavor. Honey
       is the oldest sweetener known.

       •      Honey is a sweet syrup made by bees from nectar.

       •    Honeydew - Melons related to cantaloupes, casaba and Persian melons.
       Honeydew melons are used to accompany meat, seafood, and cheese. They are
       also used in salads, desserts, and fruit soups.

       •    Hopping-John is a stew of rice with peas or bacon, eaten in the West Indies
       and southern USA.
       •    Hors d'oeuvre: ( ohr-duh-vr ) (French) Petite appetizers or relishes. Serve as
       the first course of the meal.

       •    Horse Bean - This bean looks like a very large lima bean. The pod is inedible
       unless the plant is very young. Avoid pods bulging with beans as this is an
       indication of age. Also known as the "broad bean."

       •    Horse Meat - Taboo for Jews, horse meat is eaten in many parts of the world,
       particularly France and Belgium. The flesh is on the sweet side and can be
       mistaken for beef if flavored with garlic or some other strong herb. May be cooked
       like beef.

       •    Horseradish - The pungent root of the horseradish tree. Used in sauces and
       as a condiment to meat and fish. Horseradish has been used since long before
       Christian times; it is one of the five bitter herbs of the Jewish Passover festival.

       •   Hubbard Squash - A large winter squash of American origin. Often mashed
       and mixed with butter and seasonings. Also used in casseroles, muffins, and pies.

   q   Human Milk - Human breast milk is about 20 calories per ounce. It is about 40%
       carbohydrate, 50% fat, and 10% protein. Human milk contains certain protein
       immune substances that are lacking in cow's milk and infant formulas.



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      •    Hummus - A thick sauce of mashed chickpeas (garbanzos) seasoned with
      garlic, lemon juice, and olive or sesame oil. Used both as a dip and as a sauce and
      often served on pita.

      •   Hyacinth Bean - An Old World vine of the legume family. The beans are black
      or white and are contained in a papery, beaked pod.

      •    Hydrogenate - The process of hardening an unsaturated oil into a semisolid by
      transforming it into a saturated fat.
                                                                        I
      •   Ice Beer is beer which during the brewing is frozen and some of the ice
      removed to increase the alcohol content of the beer. Ice beers were developed in
      Canada by Labatt in the early 1990s.

      •    Ice Cream - America's most popular dessert, a frozen food made from milk
      products, sweeteners, and flavorings. The first ice cream was served by King
      Charles I, around 1640. He ordered the cook to keep the recipe a secret forever. He
      didn't.

      •    Ice Milk - This dessert is made much the same way as ice cream, but with less
      milk fat.

      •   Iceberg Lettuce - The most popular variety of lettuce. Although less flavorful
      and less nutritious as the other varieties, it costs less, is easier to shred, and keeps
      longer than other varieties.

      •     Imbu - The edible fruit of a tropical American tree that is plentiful in
      northeastern Brazil. It is bright yellow, oval, averages an inch long, and features a
      soft, juicy sub-acid pulp surrounding a large seed. Also called "yellow mombin."

      •    Infusion: Liquid derived from steeping herbs, spices, etc..
      •    Inspired is a dark, malty cask bitter from the small Lichfield brewery.
      •    Invert sugar is the mixture of dextrose and levulose, prepared by heating cane
      sugar with dilute acids. It is readily fermentable, reduces Fehling's solution, and is
      used in the preparation of sparkling wines.
      •    Iodize - To combine or impregnate with iodine. Iodine is a chemical element
      that is used to help prevent thyroid disorders.


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       •    Iodized Salt - Table salt to which sodium iodine has been added. This additive
       is a preventative for hyperthyroidism ("goiter").

       •    IPA (India Pale Ale) is a strong heavily hooped English style of beer designed
       to withstand the long sea voyage to India.
   q    Irish Coffee - A strong blend of coffee, Irish whiskey, and a little sugar. Normally
        served in a mug with whipped cream on top.

       •   Irish Soda Bread - A classic Irish quickbread that uses baking soda as its
       leavener. This bread is often made with buttermilk and is sprinkled with currants
       and caraway seeds.

       •      Irish stew is a stew of mutton, potato and onion.
       •      Ironbridge Stout is a dark, rich stout from the Salopian brewery, Shrewsbury.

       •    Italian Sausage - A popular pizza topping consisting of pork flavored with
       garlic and fennel. Available in sweet and hot styles, the latter of which contains hot
       peppers.

                                                                       J
       •    Jack Bean Seed - Also known as "horse bean seed." This bean looks like a
       very large lima bean. The pod is inedible unless the plant is very young. Avoid pods
       bulging with beans as this is an indication of age.

       •    Jackfruit - A large fruit related to the fig and the breadfruit. This fruit,
       indigenous to Africa, Brazil, and Southeast Asia, which weighs up to 100 pounds, is
       used in desserts.

       •    Jaggery is a sugar obtained from the flowering shoots of tow Indian palms,
       Phoenix sylvestris and Caryota urens. But many other palms also yield jaggery
       juice. The juice is largely fermented, and the fermented liquid distilled to form a sort
       of arrack.

       •   Jalapeño - A smooth dark green chili pepper named after Jalapa, the capital of
       Veracruz, Mexico. These peppers range in flavor from hot to very hot. The flavor is
       much milder if the seeds and veins are removed prior to use. Often found in salsas.


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      •   Jamaican Breadnut - The seeds of a tree from the mulberry family that is
      grown in Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. These seeds are boiled,
      ground into flour and made into bread. Also called "Ramons."

      •   Jambalaya - A creole dish that combines cooked rice with tomatoes, onion,
      green peppers, and almost any kind of meat, poultry, or shellfish.

      •   Jamberry - A small fruit, also called the "tomatillo," that is related to the tomato
      and the cape gooseberry. Their flavor is said to resemble a cross between lemon,
      apple, and herbs. Used in guacamole and many sauces.

      •    Jambolan - An olive-sized fruit of a tropical evergreen that is cultivated
      throughout Southeast Asia to the Philippines. The several varieties vary in
      sweetness and range from white to dark purple. Also called the "Java plum."

      •    Japanese Gelatin - A tasteless dried seaweed that is used as a thickening
      agent. Sold in blocks, powder, or stands. Agar can be used in place of gelatin, but
      less is required. Also called "agar" and "kanten."

      •   Japanese Horseradish - A horseradish that is dried, powdered, and made into
      a pale green paste with an extremely potent flavor. Often mixed with soy sauce and
      served with sushi, sashimi, and other Japanese specialties. Also called "wasabi."

      •   Japanese Medlar - This pear-shaped fruit has a juicy, crisp flesh and a
      sweetly tart flavor. Used as a snack, in salads, and in chicken and duck dishes.
      Also called "loquat" and "Japanese Plum."

      •     Japanese Plum - This pear-shaped fruit has a juicy, crisp flesh and a sweetly
      tart flavor. Used as a snack, in salads, and in chicken and duck dishes. Also called
      "loquat" and "Japanese Medlar."

      •   Japanese White Radish - This radish has a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy
      white flesh. Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "Daikon."

      •       Jardinière - A French term that refers to dishes garnished with vegetables.

      •    Jarlsberg Cheese - A mild semi-firm Swiss-style cheese from Norway with a
      mild, slightly sweet flavor.


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      •    Java Plum - An olive-sized fruit of a tropical evergreen that is cultivated
      throughout Southeast Asia to the Philippines. The several varieties vary in
      sweetness and range from white to dark purple. Related to the rose apple and the
      pitanga.

      •  Jennings Bitter is a light, dry malty bitter from the Jennings brewery in
      Cumbria.

      •  Jerky - Meat that is cut into long, narrow, strips then dried. Beef is the most
      commonly used meat for jerky. Also known as "Jerked Meat."

      •    Jerusalem Artichoke - This vegetable is not an artichoke and its name has
      nothing to do with Jerusalem. This member of the sunflower family is also known as
      a "sunchoke" and has a flesh that is nutty, sweet, and crunchy.

      •   Jew's Ear - A fungus that resembles a human ear. It is found almost
      exclusively on dead elder tree branches. Used in many Chinese dishes and is also
      know as "Chinese fungus." Normally dried before use.

      •   Jicama - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white
      crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor
      and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Mexican potato."

      •     Jobo - The edible fruit of a tropical American tree that is plentiful in
      northeastern Brazil. It is bright yellow, oval, averages an inch long, and features a
      soft, juicy sub-acid pulp surrounding a large seed. Also called "yellow mombin."

      •    John Smith's Bitter is a dark-amber, sweet, malty cask bitter with a creamy
      texture, from Yorkshire. It is one of the most popular beers in England.
      •    Jollof rice is an West African stew made from fish, rice, meat and chilli
      peppers.
      •    Judge Jeffreys is a copper coloured, strong, real ale from the Itchen Valley
      Brewery in Hampshire.

      •   Jujube - A small, hard, gelatinous candy with a fruit-flavor. Also refers to a
      Chinese jujube, a red, olive-sized fruit with a leathery skin with a prune-like flavor.

      •       Julienne - Foods that have been cut into thin strips approximately the size of

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       match sticks of various lengths. Julienne foods are often used as a garnish.
       •    Julienne: (French) A cut of meat, poultry, or vegetables which is 1/8 x 1/8 x 1
       1/2 inches long.
       •    Jus: Usually refers to the natural juice from meat. See au Jus.
                                                                      K
       •   Kabinett is a high quality German wine made from grapes which ferment
       without added sugar.
   q    Kahlua - A sweet coffee liqueur imported from Mexico.

       •   Kale - A non-heading member of the cabbage family. Cultivated for over 2,000
       years, this vegetable can be prepared and eaten in much the same way as spinach.

       •      Kamoboko - A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.

       •    Kamut - A variety of high-protein wheat that hasn't yet been hybridized. Kamut
       kernels are two-to-three times larger than most wheat and provides a higher
       nutritional value.

       •      Kankie is a west African bread made from maize flour.

       •   Kanpyo - Strips of dried gourd, popular in Japan. The strips are soaked in
       water to soften before they are used in sushi, soups, and broths.

       •   Kanpyo - Strips of dried gourd, popular in Japan. The strips are soaked in
       water to soften before they are used in sushi, soups, and broths.

       •   Kanten - A tasteless dried seaweed that is used as a thickening agent. Sold in
       blocks, powder, or stands. Agar can be used in place of gelatin, but less is required.
       Also called "agar" and "Japanese Gelatin."

       •      Karo: Light or dark corn Syrup.

       •   Kasha - Also known as "buckwheat groats." Kasha is the hulled, crushed
       kernels of buckwheat. Normally cooked like rice and is available in coarse, medium,
       and fine grains.

       •      Katsuo - This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light-colored meat similar to


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      yellowfin. "Katsuo" is the Japanese name for this fish. The Hawaiians call it "aku."

      •   Katuray - The edible flower of a tree native to the South Pacific and parts of
      Asia. Especially popular as a food in the Philippines. Also called "Sesbania Flower."

      •    Kelp - A long, dark brown to grayish-black algae which is harvested, sun-dried,
      then folded into sheets. A popular ingredient in Japanese cookery. Sometimes
      pickled and used as a condiment.

      •    Kephir (or kefir) is a traditional drink of the Caucasus. It is prepared by the
      action of a fungus known as kephir grains on cow's milk. Afterwards when kept in
      closed vessels, the changed milk ferments producing a thickish liquid.
      •    Kichel is a type of small cake.

      •    Kidney - The kidneys are a pair of glandular organs in the abdominal cavities
      of mammals and reptiles. Calf's and lamb's kidneys are amongst the most delicate.
      Pig's kidneys are larger and coarser and make good pâtés.

      •    Kidney Bean - A popular, firm bean with a dark red skin and a full-bodied
      flavor. Considered the world's second most important bean (behind the soybean).
      Popular in "chili con carne" (chili with meat), soups, and salads.

      •   Kielbasa - A highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish origin made from
      pork and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with garlic and other spices. Can be
      served cold or hot.

      •   Kimberley classic is a light-coloured premium bitter with a dry, hoppy taste,
      from Hardys & Hansons brewery, Nottinghamshire.
      •   King Alfred's is a hoppy cask beer from the Hampshire brewery.

      •   King Crab - A giant crab that can grow up to 10 feet, claw-to-claw. It has
      snowy white meat edged in red. Because their numbers are rapidly decreasing, the
      catch is rigidly quota-controlled.

      •    King Salmon - Considered the finest Pacific salmon. This high-fat, soft
      textured fish can reach up to 120 pounds. Also called the "Chinook Salmon."

      •       Kingfish - Any of several varieties of drum found along the Atlantic coast.

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       •   Kingsdown Ale is a powerful, fruity, draught beer produced by the Arkell's
       Kingsdown brewery, Swindon.
       •   Kippered Herring: Smoked or dried herring.

       •  Kippered Snack - Herring that is split, cured by salting, drying, and cold-
       smoking. Also called "Kippered

       •    Kirschwasser is a distillation of sweetened cherry juice in water.
   q    Kirsh - A clear form of brandy that is distilled from cherry juice and pits. "Kirsh"
        means "cherry" in German.
       •    Kitchen Bouquet: A trade name a bottled sauce flavor and color enhancer.

       •   Kiwi Fruit - A fruit containing a brilliant green flesh with tiny, edible black
       seeds. It has a unique tart-sweet taste. Also known as the "Chinese gooseberry."

       •    Knackwurst - A smoked and cooked sausage made from beef and/or pork. It
       is shorter and larger in diameter than a frank and is strongly seasoned with garlic.

       •    Knish - A Jewish potato pancake that is deep-fried or baked. Sometimes meat
       (primarily beef) or other ingredients are encased in its outer dough.

       •   Kohlrabi - Also called the "cabbage turnip," this vegetable is a member of the
       cabbage family. Popular in Europe, the kohlrabi bulb tastes like a sweet turnip.
       Eaten steamed, in soups, and in stews.

       •   Kolbassy - A highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish origin made from
       pork and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with garlic and other spices. Can be
       served cold or hot. Also called "polish sausage" or "Kielbassa."

       •      Kome-Kogi - Miso made from rice.

       •     Kosher - Derived from the Hebrew word "kasher," which means "proper" or
       "pure." Kosher foods conform to strict Jewish biblical laws pertaining to the type of
       food eaten, the kinds of foods combined in one meal, and how an animal is killed.
       (meat) Meat sold within 48 hours after being butchered in accordance to Hebrew
       religious laws. The style of Jewish dietary cooking.



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       •      Koyodofu - Dried tofu (soybean curd cake).

       •    Kozel is a Bohemian bottled pilsner which was voted the number one
       champion Pilsner at the 1997 World Beer Festival in Chicago. It is a barley malt
       beer brewed since 1871 with water drawn from forest wells away from any sources
       of pollution.
       •    Kumis (also koumiss and kumiss) is a fermented liquor prepared from
       fermented mare's (or other animal's) milk by central Asian nomadic tribes.
   q    Kummel - A sweet, clear liqueur that has been flavored with caraway seed, cumin,
        and fennel.

       •     Kumquat - The smallest of the citrus fruits, the kumquat is used in desserts,
       jellies, and marmalades. If eaten fresh, the fruit should be very ripe or it will likely be
       unpalatable.

                                                                       L
       •     Laban is an Arab drink consisting of coagulated sour milk.
       •     Labrador tea is a Canadian infusion brewed from an arctic evergreen
       ericaceous shrub.
       •     Lachryma Christi is a red or white wine from the bay of Naples in southern
       Italy.

       •    Lactose - Also called "milk sugar," lactose is that sugar that occurs naturally in
       milk. It is less sweet than any of the other sugars. Used in baby formulas and
       candies.

       •    Ladyfinger - A light and delicate sponge cake that is shaped somewhat like a
       large, fat finger. Often used as an accompaniment to ice cream, puddings, and
       other desserts.

       •   Lahvosh - A round, flat, crispbread that ranges from about 6 to 14 inches in
       diameter. Also known as "Armenian Cracker Bread."

       •      Lait: (French) Milk.

       •   Lake Herring - One of the most prized whitefish found in the Great Lakes and
       in Canada. May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon. Also called "cisco"

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      and "chub."

      •    Laksa is a Malaysian dish of Chinese origin consisting of rice noodles served
      in curry or hot soup.

      •   Lamb - A sheep under 1 year old. "Baby lamb" in slaughtered at between 6 - 8
      weeks of age, "spring lamb" at 3 - 5 months, "regular lamb" at under one year.
      Lamb over 1 year old is "mutton" and is less tender and has a stronger flavor than
      lamb.

      •    Lamington in Australia and New Zealand, is a cube of sponge cake coated in
      chocolate and dried coconut.
      •    Lancashire hotpot is a stew of meat, potato and onion resembling Irish Stew.
      •    Lancaster bomber is a straw-coloured cask ale from the Mitchell brewery in
      Lancaster.
      •    Landlord is a classic, amber-coloured, premium bitter with a buttery flavour,
      from Timothy Taylor's brewery in Keighley, Yorkshire. It won the Champion Beer of
      Britain award in 1994.

      •       Langostino - The Spanish word for "prawn."

      •       Langouste: (lahn-goost) (French) Crawfish.
      •       Lapin Kulta is a strong Finnish Pilsner brewed by Hartwall.

      •  Lard - Rendered and clarified pork fat. The best lard is called "leaf lard," and it
      comes from around the pig's kidneys.

      •    Larding: Salt pork strips inserted into meat with a special needle. Used to add
      flavor and moisture to meat.
      •    Lardon is a strip of bacon or pork used to lard meat.
      •    Lardons: Juienne of bacon. Strips of salt pork used for larding.
      •    Larkins best bitter is a full-bodied, fruity bitter from the Larkins Kent brewery.
      •    Lasagna - A wide, flat pasta noodle with a ruffled or plain edge. Also a dish
      prepared using the lasagna noodle with various cheeses, and a tomato sauce. A
      meat is sometimes included. The plural of "lasagna" is "lasagne."

      •       Laver - A very nutritious seaweed that is normally sold in tissue-thin sheets. It

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       has a tangy, sweet flavor and a dark purple color. Used in soups or deep-fried as
       an appetizer.

       •   Leek - A relative to the onion and the garlic. It has a mild onion flavor and is
       used as a vegetable or as seasoning for salads, soups, and other dishes.

       •      Legumes: (French) Dried beans, peas, lentils and such.

       •     Lemon - A yellow citrus fruit with a juicy flesh and a acidic juice. This simple
       fruit is a powerful flavoring agent that finds hundreds of uses in desserts, drinks,
       marinades, and drinks.

   q   Lemonade - A popular beverage made of lemon juice, sugar, and water.

       •    Lentil - A nutritious member of the legume family, the lentil is most often eaten
       in the U.S. in soups. In Europe, they are frequently used in stews and in salads.

       •    Lettuce - There are several hundred varieties of lettuce. The four most general
       classifications include "butterhead," "crisphead," "leaf," and "Romaine." The darker
       green outer leaves contain the most vitamins.

       •   Liaison: A binding agent made up of egg yolks and cream, used for thickening
       soups and sauces.

       •    Licorice - A plant whose root provides an extract that has long been used to
       flavor confections and medicines. "Licorice" also refers to candy that has been
       flavored with licorice extract.

       •   Lima Bean - A pale green, plump-bodied bean with a slight kidney-shaped
       curve. Baby limas are smaller and milder than the Fordhook variety (which are not
       mature baby limas). The popular combination of lima beans and corn is called
       "succotash."

       •      Limburger Cheese - A highly aromatic whole cow's milk cheese with a cream-
       colored interior and a light grayish brown surface. It originated in Belgium but most
       of it is imported from Germany. Most consider it an acquired taste.

       •    Lime - A small, green citrus fruit that resembles a lemon. Used in drinks and is
       the primary ingredient in the famous "Key lime pie." British sailors were called

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      "limeys" because they used lime as a scurry-preventative.

      •    Lingcod - A North American Pacific coast fish with a mildly sweet flavor and a
      firm, lean texture.

      •   Linguine - Long, narrow, flat pasta noodles that are sometimes called "flat
      spaghetti." "Linguine" is the Italian word for "little tongues."

      •       Linseed Oil, Edible - An oil pressed from flaxseed.

      •    Liqueur is a strong sweet alcoholic beverage with a spirit base and flavoured
      with aromatics.
      •    Liquorice is the root or underground stem of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra. It is
      usually sold as cylindrical, brown pieces which are sweet to the taste due to a
      substance called it glycyrrhizine contains.

      •    Litchi - This fruit is used in salads and as a dessert. It has a creamy white
      flesh that is juicy and sweet. The litchi has been cultivated in China for over 2,000
      years. Dried litchis are eaten like nuts. Also called the "lychee nut."

      •       Lite is a North American term applied to thin, low calorie beers.

      •    Liver - This nutritious organ meat filters toxins from the blood. Select the
      youngest liver you can find. Poultry generally offers the mildest flavored and most
      tender livers; pork has the strongest and toughest liver of those commonly
      available.

      •    Liverwurst - German for "liver sausage." Liverwurst is a ready-to-eat sausage
      of at least 30% ground pork liver plus other meats combined with spices and
      seasonings. The most famous liverwurst is called "Braunschweiger."

      •     Lobster - This crustacean was used as bait until around 1880. Because dead
      lobsters spoil quickly, they should be cooked live if possible. (Live lobsters curl their
      tails under when picked up.) Look for curled tails on precooked lobsters.

      •    Loganberry - A berry that resembles a red raspberry (purple when ripe). The
      berry, discovered by in the late 1800's by J. H. Logan in California, tastes
      somewhat like a raspberry but is slightly more acidic.

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       •   London Broil - A flank steak that has been cut into large pieces, tenderized by
       marinating, broiled or grilled, then sliced into thin strips across the grain before it is
       served.

       •   London Pride is Fuller's fine, deep-red best bitter beer. It has a rich, dry,
       malty, hoppy taste.
   q    Long Island Tea - An alcoholic beverage consisting of gin, vodka, cola and lemon.
        Tequila is sometimes also used.

       •    Longan - A small, round fruit with a thin brown shell. Its flesh is soft, white,
       juicy, and surrounds one large black seed. Used as a snack, in oriental soups,
       desserts, and some sweet-and-sour dishes.

       •    Longbean - A pencil-thin legume from the black-eye pea family that looks like
       a very long green bean. These beans can grow a yard long, but are usually picked
       at 18" or less. These beans are slightly less sweet and crispy as the green bean.

       •    Loofah - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family. The dried
       insides of these gourds can be used as a sponge. Also called "vegetable sponge"
       and "sponge gourd."

       •    Looseleaf Lettuce - Looseleaf lettuce varieties include "greenleaf," "oakleaf,"
       and "redleaf." These varieties of lettuce offer large loose heads of crisp, delicately
       flavored leaves. More perishable than iceberg or romaine.

       •    Loquat - This pear-shaped fruit has a juicy, crisp flesh and a sweetly tart
       flavor. Used as a snack, in salads, and in chicken and duck dishes.

       •    Lotte - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavor
       that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as "poor man's lobster." Also
       called "angler fish," "monkfish," and "goosefish."

       •    Lotus - The lotus is a water lily whose leaves, root, and seeds are used in
       oriental cooking. The root can be used as a vegetable. The seeds are used in
       desserts.

       •     Lupine - This flat, yellow bean native to the Mediterranean basin, has been
       cultivated since ancient times. A three-hour soaking in water removes a bitter taste.

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      Occasionally eaten roasted as a snack.

      •    Lynesack Porter is a very dark beer, even for a porter with a sweet, malty
      finish. It is produced by the Butterknowle brewery in Bishop Auckland.
      •    Lyonnaise Potatoes: (French) Potatoes sliced and sauteed with onions.
                                                                      M
      •    M&B Mild is a reddish, full-bodied cask mild from Mitchells & Butlers brewery
      in, Birmingham.
      •    Mabby is a spirituous liquour distilled from potatoes in Barbados.

      •   Macadamia Nut - A small, round, brown nut with a buttery, slightly sweet flavor
      and a high fat content. Used in a variety of dishes. Also known as "bush nut."

      •    Macaroni - A noodle made from semolina and water. Most are tube-shaped,
      but twists and ribbons are available too. Popular tube shapes are: elbow (short,
      curved), mostaccioli (large, diagonally cut), rigatoni (short, grooved), ziti (long, thin).

      •    Macaroon is a cake or bicuit consisting chiefly of ground almonds, egg white
      and sugar, baked.
      •    Mace is a kind of spice extracted from the covering of the nutmeg. There are
      two types: Red mace is the aril of Myristica tingens. White mace that of Myristica
      Otoba. Both East Indian trees of the same genus as the nutmeg tree.

      •    Mackerel - A long, slender saltwater fish. The flesh is firm and fatty, with a
      distinctive savory flavor. The most popular mackerel is the king mackerel, also
      known as the "kingfish."

      •  Mackerel, King - Also called the "kingfish," this is the most popular variety of
      mackerel. This fish has a firm, high-fat flesh with a savory flavor.

      •    Mackerel, Pacific - Also called the "chub," this species of Pacific mackerel is
      also found in the Mediterranean. Like other mackerels, this fish is fatty and has a
      strong flavor.

      •   Mackeson's Stout is England's best-known bottled sweet stout. It is made by
      Whitbread and is a blackish colour with a sugary, fruity taste. It was originally
      brewed by the firm of Mackeson in Hythe, Kent, in 1907. At that time it was claimed

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       to be a tonic for invalids because it contained milk sugar or lactose. The sugar does
       not ferment, so the beer is low in alcohol. Mackeson's was called milk stout until the
       British Government banned the term in 1946. However, Whitbread continues the
       connection through a milk churn on the label. It is still the leading brand in a
       declining sweet stout market and was once exported to 60 countries, and was
       brewed under licence in Belgium, Jamaica, New Zealand and Singapore.
   q    Madiera Wine - A fortified wine named after the Portuguese island of Madiera. Its
        color ranges from pale blond to tawny; its flavor from very dry to very sweet.
       •     Magnet is a nutty-tasting premium bitter from the John Smith's brewery,
       Tadcaster, North Yorkshire.
       •     Magnum is a large bottle containing the equivalent of two ordinary (75 or 80
       centilitres) bottles.

       •   Mahi Mahi - Also called "dolphin fish." Although this fish is a dolphin, it is not a
       mammal. To avoid this confusion, the Hawaiian name "Mahi Mahi" is becoming
       prevalent. This fish is moderately fat with firm, flavorful flesh.

   q    Mai Tai - An alcoholic beverage made from light and dark rums, orgeat syrup,
        curacao, and orange and lime juices. In Tahitian, "Mai Tai" means "out of this
        world."
       •    Maitre d'Hotel, a la: (French) A yellow butter sauce consisting of lemon juice,
       parsley, salt, pepper, and drawn butter. Butter: Same as theother but with whole
       butter.
       •    Maitre d'Hotel: (French) The head of the catering department.
       •    Malaga is a sweet fortified dessert wine from Malaga, in Spain.
       •    Malmsey is a strong, sweet wine with a strong flavour. It was originally made in
       Greece, but now most of it is made in Madeira.

       •    Malt - A powder made by germinating, drying, and grinding grains. Enzymes
       are added during the process to partially convert the starch to sugar. This creates
       the sweet-tasting malt used in brewing, distilling, yeast-making, and vinegar.

       •    Malt and Hops is a lively, seasonal ale made by Wadworth's, in Devizes,
       Wiltshire. It is one of a range of seasonal brews made using the new season' s
       unkilned fresh hops.
       •    Malt is derived from grain, usually barley, which is steeped in water and made
       to germinate which causes the grain's starch to convert into saccharine matter, it is


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       then dried in a kiln and used in the brewing of beer, distilling of whisky and other
       culinary uses.
       •    Mamaliga is a type of corn meal mush popular in Romania. It is used to make
       bread and cooked in various other ways including being used to make fried
       dumplings.

       •      Mame-Kogi - Miso made from soy beans.

       •     Mandarin - A cooking style which, in Chinese, means "Chinese official."
       Mandarin cooking is an aristocratic cuisine that takes the very finest elements from
       all the Chinese regions.

       •    Mandarin Orange - A category of thin-skinned citrus fruit that includes several
       varieties. The most common variety sold in the U.S. is the "tangerine." It has a
       delicate, somewhat spicy tart.

       •   Mango - The fruit of the tropical mango tree. The flesh is very juicy and
       pleasantly acid. Used in snacks, jams, jellies, and desserts. Green mangos are
       used to make pickles and chutney.

   q    Manhattan - An alcoholic beverage made with bourbon or blended whiskey mixed
        with sweet vermouth and garnished with a maraschino cherry.
       •    Manhattan Clam Chowder: Made with quahog clams, tomatoes, onions,
       celery, and potatoes.

       •    Manicotti - A tube-shaped pasta noodle approximately 4 inches long by 1 inch
       in diameter. Normally stuffed with a cheese or meat mixture, covered with a sauce,
       then baked before serving.

       •  Manioc - A root with a crisp white flesh. There are two main categories of
       manioc: sweet and bitter. Bitter maniocs are toxic until cooked. Manioc is used to
       make "cassreep" and "tapioca." Also called "cassava."

       •    Mann's Original is England's best-known bottled, sweet brown ale. It has a
       sticky, sugary texture and a fruity taste, and is now brewed by Ushers in Wiltshire.
       •    Mansfield Bitter is a refreshing, sweetish bitter brewed using traditional
       Yorkshire squares by the Mansfield brewery, Nottinghamshire.
       •    Mao-tai is a strong liquor based upon sorghum distilled in south-west China.

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       •    Maple Syrup - A syrup made by boiling the sap of the maple tree until it has
       the consistency of syrup. Boiled longer, it becomes "maple honey." Longer still, and
       it becomes maple cream or butter. When cooked long enough, it becomes maple
       sugar.

       •      Maraschino is a white liqueur distilled from a cherry grown in Dalmatia.

       •     Margarine - A vegetable oil butter substitute. Cream or milk is often added to
       make it taste more like butter. Regular margarine contains at least 80% fat. Diet
       margarines contain about 40% fat. Whipped margarine has up to 50% air beaten
       into it.

   q   Margarita - An alcoholic beverage containing tequila, triple sec, and lime juice. A
       frozen margarita is blended with ice cubes.

       •    Marinade - A highly seasoned liquid in which foods are soaked. Marinating
       foods permits them to absorb the flavor of the marinade. Most marinades contain a
       acid of some sort (lemon juice, vinegar, wine) which aid in tenderizing meats.

       •  Marinara - A highly seasoned Italian tomato sauce used with pasta and some
       meats. Marinara is made with tomatoes, onions, garlic, and oregano.

       •    Marjoram - A culinary herb from the mint family with a mild, sweet sagelike
       flavor. Used to flavor meats and stews.

       •  Marmalade is a kind of jam usually made from oranges or lemons, but also
       made from ginger and other fruits.

       •    Marmalade Plum - Fruit of a tree, native to Mexico and Central America, also
       called the "marmalade tree" or "sapote." It offers a sweet, edible fruit.

       •      Marrow Bean - A type of white bean that is generally dried before use.

       •   Marrow Squash - Also known as "vegetable marrow," this oval squash-like
       gourd, which is related to the zucchini, has a bland flavor and is often stuffed with a
       meat filling.



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       •   Marsala is a dry or sweet Sicilian dessert wine, with a dark amber colour and a
       caramel flavour. It is fortified with grape juice that has been cooked and reduced to
       one-third of its original volume.

       •   Marshmallow - An American confection made from sugar gelatin, corn syrup,
       gum arabic, and flavoring. Some add egg whites for additional fluffiness.
       Marshmallows used to be made from the sweetened extract of the roots of the
       marshmallow plant.

       •    Marston's Sundance is a strong golden pale ale characterised by a crisp
       bitterness derived from golden hops.
   q    Martini - An alcoholic beverage made with gin and vermouth, then garnished with
        a green olive or a lemon twist. A "dry" martini contains less vermouth. A "vodka
        martini" uses vodka instead of gin.

       •   Mascarpone Cheese - Soft and delicate Italian cream-enriched cow's milk
       cheese with a high butter fat content. Sometimes blended with other flavors or
       sweetened with fruit.

       •    Matai - The nut-like kernel of a water plant that grows in southeast Asia. The
       flesh is white, crunchy, crisp, juicy and a somewhat sweet nutty flavor. More
       commonly known as "water chestnut."

       •    Mate tea or Paraguay tea is a beverage prepared from the Brazilian holly,
       infused in water and sweetened with burnt sugar and often flavoured with lemon
       juice.

       •   Matzo - A thin, crisp, unleavened bread that is traditionally eaten during the
       Jewish Passover. Tradition dictates that matzos be made only with water and flour,
       but moderns include certain flavors, such as onion.

       •   Mauldon Special is a very hoppy cask beer from the Mauldon brewery in
       Suffolk.

       •   Mayonnaise - A thick, creamy emulsion of vegetable oil, egg yolks, and
       seasonings. This product is called "salad dressing" if no eggs are used.
       Commercial mayonnaise must contain at least 65% oil by weight. Mayonnaise is of
       French origin.

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      •       Mead is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented honey.

      •    Meat Tenderizer - Most chemical meat tenderizers are a powder composed
      chiefly of "papain," an enzyme extracted from papayas. This enzyme is effective in
      breaking down the meat fibers.

      •    Meatball - Chopped meat formed into balls and cooked. Additional ingredients
      are sometimes added to the meat.

      •    Melba Toast - This accompaniment to soups and salads is a very thin, dry
      toast. Created by Auguste Escoffier for opera singer Dame Nellie Melba.

      •       Menthe: (French) Mint.

      •       Meringue - A mixture of stiffly beaten egg whites and granulated sugar.

      •    Merlin Stout is a medium strength stout brewed by the Tomos Watkins
      brewery of Llandeilo, Wales.
      •    Merlot is a type of grape used to produce red wine. It is one of the major
      components of most French Bordeaux, and possess less tannin than some other
      varieties making for a smoother characteristic in the wine.
      •    Merman XXX is a Scottish ale brewed with a mix of roast and crystal malts to a
      19th century recipe by the Caledonian Brewing Company of Edinburgh.
      •    Mesquite - A hardwood tree indigenous to the American Southwest. Mesquite
      it used in barbecuing and smoking foods. It imparts a slightly sweet flavor to the
      meats.
      •    Metheglin was a peculiar form of spiced or medicated mead produced in
      Wales.
      •    Mexican Potato - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a
      white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty
      flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called
      •    Mild is a low-gravity malty beer.
      •    Milk Stout is a type of stout with added lactose (milk sugar). The term was
      banned in Britain in 1946 because of the implication that milk was added to the
      brew.

      •       Milkfish - An important food fish of the Indo-Pacific region that offers a tender,

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       white flesh. Hawaiians use milkfish for making fish cakes and sashimi. Also called
       "awa."

   q    Milkshake - An American beverage consisting blended milk, ice cream, and
        flavorings.
       •    Millennium Gold is a fruity, amber, cask beer produced by Crouch Vale
       brewery, Essex.

       •    Millet - A bland flavored cereal grass used chiefly for forage in the U.S., but as
       a staple for one-third of the world's population. Millet can be boiled and used to
       make a hot cereal pilaf or ground and used as flour.

       •   Minced: Ground or chopped fine.
       •   Ministerley Ale is a complex, pale, cask bitter from the Salopian brewery,
       Shrewsbury.

       •   Mint - The two most popular types of the over 30 varieties of mint are
       peppermint and spearmint. Peppermint is more pungent. Mint is used in both
       savory and sweet dishes.

   q    Mint Julep - A cocktail composed of fresh mint, bourbon, and crushed ice.
        Traditionally served in an iced pewter or silver mug at the running of the Kentucky
        Derby.
       •   Mishla is a ferment liquor made from plantain, cassava, maize etc. produced in
       eastern Central America.

       •    Miso - A paste of fermented soybeans used as a flavoring agent in much of
       Japanese cuisine. Generally, the lighter the color, the milder the flavor. Miso is easy
       to digest and is extremely nutritious.

       •    Mitchell's bitter is an amber-coloured, mild-tasting, hoppy bitter from Mitchell's
       of Lancaster.
   q    Mocha - A strong, slightly bitter coffee that originally referred only to a very fine
        coffee grown in Arabia and shipped from Yemen's port of Mocha. Mocha also
        refers, nowadays, to a hot coffee-and-chocolate beverage.

       •    Mochi - A sweet, short-grained, Glutinous rice with a very high starch content
       that is used to make rice cakes.

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      •       Molass was a Scottish liquor distilled from mollasses.

      •    Molasses - A thick brown syrup that is separated from raw sugar during the
      refinement process.

      •    Mole - A rich, dark reddish-brown Mexican sauce that is often served over
      poultry. Mole contains onion, garlic, chili peppers, ground seeds, and a small
      amount of Mexican chocolate.

      •    Moles best is a fruity cask bitter, the leading beer from the Moles brewery,
      Wiltshire.
      •    Mondongo is a Puerto Rican tripe stew flavoured with bitter orange and
      annatto.
      •    Monkey Wrench is a smooth, dark, sweetish, potent beer which is produced
      by the Daleside brewery in the spa town of Harrogate, Yorkshire.

      •    Monkfish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet
      flavor similar to lobster. Sometimes referred to as "poor man's lobster." Also called
      "Angler," "Lotte," "Belly-Fish," "frogfish," "Sea Devil," and "Goosefish."

      •   Monosodium Glutamate - Known as "MSG," this natural white flavor-
      enhancing amino acid was isolated from seaweed in 1908. Some people
      experience allergic reactions to MSG, producing dizziness, headache, facial
      pressure, etc.

      •    Monterey Jack Cheese - This semi-soft buttery ivory cheese is made from
      whole, partly skim, and skim milk. It hails from Monterey, California and is also
      called "California Jack" or "Jack." Somes contain jalapeños and other flavorings.

      •       Moochim - A Korean-style dried fish with soy sauce.

      •  Moonraker is a rich, strong, orangey ale from the J.W. Lees brewery,
      Manchester.

      •    Moose - A large member of the deer family with enormous palmate antlers.
      Moose meat is called "venison." Antelope, caribou, elk, deer, and reindeer meat is
      also classified as venison, the most popular large animal game meat in the U.S.

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      •   Mornay Sauce - A Béchamel sauce to which cheese has been added.
      Parmesan and Swiss are two popular choices for the cheese.

      •    Morocco ale is a dark, rich, spicy bottled ale said to be based on a 300- year-
      old recipe. It is produced by the Daleside brewery, Harrogate, Yorkshire.
      •    Morrells bitter is a golden-brown cask bitter from the Morrells brewery in
      Oxford.

      •    Mortadella - A smoked sausage from Bologna, Italy, the city that brought us
      "bologna" sausage. Made from finely ground beef, pork, cubes of pork fat, and
      seasonings.

      •    Mostaccioli - A large, 2-inch macaroni tube cut on the diagonal. This noodle is
      available with both a ridged or a plain surface.

      •   Moth Bean - A low, trailing Indian plant of the legume family. The edible beans
      are mottled grayish-yellow.

      •   Mousse - A rich, airy dish that can be sweet or savory and served hot or cold.
      The fluffiness comes from whipped cream or beaten egg whites. Mousses are
      made with meat, fish, vegetables, cheese, chocolate, and fruit purees.

      •     Mozzarella Cheese - A soft white cheese with a mild flavor. Used on pizzas
      because of its excellent melting properties. In southern Italy where it originated, it is
      still made from water-buffalo's milk. The rest of the world uses cow's milk.

      •    Muenster Cheese - The American of this has a light yellow interior and a bland
      taste that is different from the European originals, which are yellow, semi-soft and
      have flavors ranging from mild (when young) to very assertive (when aged).

      •   Muesli - The German word for "mixture." Muesli was developed as a health
      food by a Swiss nutritionist near the end of the 19th century. Now a popular type of
      cereal. Often labeled "granola."

      •       Mugi-Kogi - Miso made from wheat.

      •       Mugwort - A dried green herb that rich in iron and calcium.


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       •    Mulberry - A berry resembling a blackberry that comes in white, red and black
       varieties. Their flavor is sweet and somewhat bland. The leaves of the white
       mulberry are used in silkworm cultivation.

       •    Mullagatawny is a soup made with meat cut into small pieces and mixed with
       rice and curry-powder.

       •  Mullangi - A type of radish with a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh.
       Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "Oriental radish."

       •   Mullet - This term is used to describe several families of important food fish. In
       general, they are saltwater fish with a moderate to high fat content and flesh that is
       tender, white, and firm textured. They have a sweet, nut-like flavor.

       •   Mum is a malt liquor made of malt wheat, oats and bean meal. It was brewed
       extensively in Brunswick at the start of the 20th century.

       •   Mung Bean - A small bean with yellow flesh that is most commonly used to
       grow bean sprouts. They can also be cooked and eaten or ground into a flour to
       make noodles.

       •   Murphy's is a relatively low strength Irish stout.
   q    Muscatel - A strong sweet wine made from the muscat grape. It is a rich, sweet
        dessert wine. Muscatel can be amber, golden, red, white. It is sometimes sparkling.

       •     Mushroom - There are thousands of varieties of this fleshy fungus. The
       cultivated mushroom is commonly available, but other wild varieties include cepe,
       chanterelle, enokitake, morel, puffball, and shiitake. Many wild mushrooms are
       poisonous.

       •    Mushroom, Hiritake - This fan-shaped mushroom is often grows on rotting
       tree trunks. This fungus is fairly robust and slightly peppery when raw, but is
       becomes much milder when cooked. Also known as "oyster mushroom."

       •   Mushroom, Oyster - This fan-shaped mushroom is also known as "oyster
       caps" and "tree mushrooms" because it often grows on rotting tree trunks. This
       fungus is fairly robust and slightly peppery when raw, but is becomes much milder
       when cooked.

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      •   Mushroom, Shiitake - An expensive mushroom that originated in Japan, but is
      now grown in the U.S. Sometimes called "golden oak," this tasty, dark brown
      mushroom has a meaty flesh and a full-bodied flavor.

      •    Mushroom, Shimeji - This fan-shaped mushroom often grows on rotting tree
      trunks. This fungus is fairly robust and slightly peppery when raw, but is becomes
      much milder when cooked. Also called "oyster mushroom."

      •  Muskellunge - A freshwater pike that averages between 10 and 30 pounds.
      Some specimens, however have reached 60 pounds and up to six feet in length.
      Muskellunge offers a lean, firm, low-fat flesh.

      •    Muskmelon - Muskmelons are called "cantaloupes" in North America, but they
      are not actually cantaloupes. True cantaloupes are European and are not exported
      to the U.S. The light orange flesh is mild, sweet, and very juicy.

      •    Muskmelon - Muskmelons are called "cantaloupes" in North America, but they
      are not actually cantaloupes. True cantaloupes are European and are not exported
      to the U.S. The light orange flesh is mild, sweet, and very juicy.

      •    Muskrat - Also known as a "marsh rabbit" and "musquash," this animal is a
      large, aquatic, North American rodent with a red, gamey flesh. Muskrat has a lot of
      bones, but it makes a good stew.

      •    Mussel - A bivalve mollusk with worldwide distribution. There are salt and
      freshwater varieties. The thin shell means there is more meat compared to the
      same weight of clams or oysters. The yellow meat has a sweet and delicate flavor.

      •    Mustard - Any of several culinary herbs grown for its acrid seeds. Mustard
      seeds can be ground into a powder that can be prepared into a table condiment
      containing mustard, sugar, vinegar and turmeric (which gives it its bright yellow
      color).

      •   Mustard Greens - The peppery leaves of the mustard plant. Mustard greens
      can be steamed, sautéed, or simmered.

      •   Mustard Spinach - An herb of the mustard family whose leaves are cooked
      and eaten like spinach. Americans cultivate this plant for its leaves; Asians cultivate

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      it also for its thick, tuberous crown, which they pickle. Also called "tendergreens."

      •   Mutiny is a reddish, full-bodied cask ale from the Rebellion brewery,
      Buckinghamshire.

      •   Muttonfish - A marine fish of the eelpout family found mainly in the Pacific.
      The flesh is sweet and white and contains very few bones. Also called "ocean
      pout."

                                                                       N
      •   Nacho Cheese - A cheese (usually cheddar) used to top crisp tortilla chips in a
      Mexican snack called "nachos."

      •   Nan bread or naan is an Indian slightly leavened bread in a large flat leaf
      shape.
      •   Nasi goreng is a Malaysian dish consisting of rice fried with a selection of
      other ingredients.

      •   Natal Plum - This scarlet fruit of a South African shrub is an oval berry about 2
      inches long. This fruit is used in pies, jellies, and preserves. Also called "Carissa."

      •   Natterjack is an aromatic, golden ale, named after the natterjack toad,
      produced by the Frog Island brewery, Northampton.

      •   Natto - Soy beans that have been steamed, fermented, and mashed until they
      have a glutinous texture and a strong cheese-like flavor. Popular condiment in
      Japan. Often served at breakfast over rice or mixed with chives, mustard, and soy
      sauce.

      •    Natural Cheese - The product of thickening milk into a liquid "whey" and a
      semi-solid called "curd." Normally, the curd is pressed, treated with cultures, and
      ripened into approximately 18 distinct families of cheese with over 400 specific
      types.

      •   Navarin: (French) Lamb stew with root vegetables, cut green beans, tomatoes,
      and peas.


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      •   Navy Bean - A small white legume that takes its name from the fact that the
      U.S. Navy has served it as a staple since the 1800's. Used widely in canned pork
      and beans and in Boston baked beans.

      •    Neapolitan - A type of ice cream featuring three distinctive flavors, usually
      chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla. Usually served in slices to display the three
      different colors.

      •    Neapolitan ice cream is a type of ice cream, usually in brick form, with several
      layers of different colors and flavours.
      •    Nebbiolo is a type of grape used to produce red wine. It is a grape of the
      Piedmont area of Northern Italy, and is also grown in California. It is used in
      Barbaresco and Barolo wines, which can be aged with great success.
      •    Nebuchadnezzar is a wine bottle, generally used for display purposes, holding
      the equivalent of twenty normal bottles (approximately 520 ounces).

      •     Nectarine - A fuzzless relative of the peach, the nectarine is one of the oldest
      fruits. The flesh is very juicy and may be red, yellow, or white. Best eaten raw.

      •       Negus is a hot drink of port and lemon juice, usually spiced and sweetened.

      •    Neufchâtel Cheese - A soft, white, mild French cheese from whole or skim
      milk or milk and cream mixtures. Other cheeses that differ mainly in fat content are
      Bondon, Malakoff, Petit Suisse, and Petit Carré. The Swiss call this cheese
      "Neuchâtel."

      •   New Zealand Spinach - This plant, brought to England by Captain Cook, looks
      and tastes like spinach. Its leaves are covered with minute dots that reflect the sun.
      Also called "tetragone" and "New Zealand Ice Plant).

      •   Newburg Sauce - A very rich sauce of butter, cream egg yolks, sherry, and
      seasonings used over cooked shellfish such as lobster, crab or shrimp. It was
      created by a chef of the once famous Delmonico Restaurant in New York.

      •   Newcastle Brown is a famous English strong brown ale first brewed by
      Colonel Jim Porter in Newcastle in 1927.
      •   Nitro Keg is a strong copper-coloured dry ale from the Ash Vine brewery at
      Frome in Somerset.

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      •       Noir: (French) Black.

      •   Non-Iodized Salt - Ordinary table salt to which sodium iodine has not been
      added.

      •    Nonpareil - A tiny colored sugar pellet used to decorate cakes, cookies,
      candies, etc. The name also refers to a confection that is covered with these
      pellets. In France, it means "without equal" and often refers to small pickled capers.

      •    Noodle - A pasta made of flour, water, and egg yolks. (Macaroni and spaghetti
      don't use egg yolks.) Noodles come in a wide variety of shapes and are used all
      around the world.

      •    Nopal - The Prickly Pear cactus. Nopales are the fleshy leaves ("paddles").
      These leaves are pale to dark green and feature a delicate, slightly tart flavor
      similar to that of green beans.

      •   Nori - A nutritious dried seaweed that is normally sold in tissue-thin sheets. It
      has a sweet flavor and a dark purple color. Used to wrap rice balls and sushi.
      Usually toasted lightly before use.

      •   Norway Haddock - This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish
      group. Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

      •   Nouilles: (French) Noodles.
      •   Noyeau is a French liqueur made from brandy and sweetened with cane
      sugar, and flavoured with crushed peach stone kernels.

      •   Nutmeg - The spice of the nutmeg tree. The lacy membrane around the seed,
      when dried and powdered, is the spice we call "mace." The mild, sweet flavor of
      nutmeg is used in cream dishes and fruit desserts. Also sprinkled on custards and
      eggnog.

                                                                      O
      •     Oat - A very nutritious cereal grass. Oats that have been cleaned, toasted, and
      hulled become "oat groats" which can be cooked and served. Steaming and
      flattening the grain in rollers produces "rolled oats." The hull is called the "bran."

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      •    Oat Bran - The outer casing of the oat grain. This part of the grain is very high
      in soluble fiber, which is believed to be effective in helping to reduce cholesterol
      levels in the blood.

      •       Oatcake is a brittle unleavened oatmeal biscuit.
      •       Oatmeal is a meal ground from oats and used for making porridge, oatcakes,
      etc.
      •       Oats are the seed of the oat grass.
      •       O'Brien: With diced pimiento and green pepper

      •   Ocean Perch - This important commercial fish is not a true perch, but is rather
      a member of the rockfish group. Also known as "sea perch."

      •   Ocean Pout - A marine fish of the eelpout family found mainly in the Pacific.
      The flesh is sweet and white and contains very few bones. Sometimes called a
      "muttonfish."

      •    Oceanic Bonito - This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light-colored meat
      similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "katsuo" and the Hawaiians call it
      "aku."

      •    Octopus - This cephalapod, related to the squid and the cuttlefish, can reach
      50 feet in length. It features a highly flavorful meat that tends to be a bit on the
      rubbery side. Octopus is eaten raw, boiled, pickled, sautéed, and fried.

      •       Oeuf: (French) Egg.

      •       Okara - The ground-up byproduct that results from the production of tofu.

      •    Okra - A tall plant from the mallow family that produces an edible pod
      containing a gooey, mucilaginous flesh with seeds. Often called "gumbo" because
      is used in gumbos, soups and stews. Okra serves to thicken the liquid in which it is
      cooked.

      •   Old Buzzard is an almost black winter beer. It has a smooth, rich flavour and is
      produced by the Cotleigh brewery, Somerset.
      •   Old Ebenezer is a dark, tawny-coloured, rich ale from the Butterknowle


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      brewery in Bishop Auckland, County Durham.
      •    Old Expensive is a strong, fruity winter barley wine brewed by Burton Bridge
      in Burton-on-Trent.
      •    Old Growler is a complex porter with a sweet fruit and malt taste and
      chocolatey character, which comes from the Nethergate brewery, Suffolk.
      •    Old Hooky is a strong, reddish-brown beer with a honey, orange and malt
      flavour. This cask brew is produced by the Hook Norton brewery in Oxfordshire.
      •    Old Knucker is an additive-free rich, dark old ale from the Arundel brewery,
      Sussex.
      •    Old Masters is a dry, tawny bitter brewed by Morland's of Abingdon.
      •    Old Mill mild is a dark-red, malty mild from the Old Mill brewery, Snaith,
      Yorkshire.
      •    Old Nick is a bottled barley wine with a dark reddish-brown hue and a
      pungent, but mellow, fruity flavour from Young's.
      •    Old original is a premium bitter with a strong, rich, malty character from
      Everard.
      •    Old Peculier is Theakston's famous, rich, dark old ale with a roast-malt
      flavour. It comes from Masham, North Yorkshire.
      •    Old Smokey is a warming, malty dark ale with a slightly bitter, liquorice taste,
      brewed by Bunces brewery, Wiltshire.
      •    Old speckled hen is a deep-gold, premium pale ale with a good malt, hop
      balance from Morland's of Abingdon, Oxfordshire. It is named not after a farmyard
      fowl, but an old MG car made in the town which was speckled black and gold.
      •    Old spot prize ale is a reddish, fruity cask ale from the Uley brewery in
      Gloucestershire. The spent grains from brewing go to a local pig herd, and the ales
      have retained the porky connection. Others include Hogshead, Pig's Ear and
      Severn Boar.
      •    Old Stockport bitter is a malty, fruity cask bitter from the Robinson's brewery,
      Stockport.
      •    Old Thumper is a pale-coloured, strong ale with a rounded grain and hops
      flavour, from Ringwood, Hampshire.
      •    Old Tom Robinson's is a rich, fruity barley wine from Stockport, Cheshire. It
      was originally named after the brewery cat it, and was first brewed in 1899.
      •    Olde Merryford ale is a light-brown, full-bodied, sweet bitter with a good malt
      and hop balance, from the Wickwar brewery in Gloucestershire.


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      •   Olde Stoker is a dark-brown, smooth winter bitter from the Branscombe Vale
      brewery, Devon.
      •   Olio is a Spanish or Portugese highly spiced stew of various meats and
      vegetables.

      •    Olive Oil - A monounsaturated fat pressed from tree-ripened olives. Olive oils
      are graded according to their acidity. "Extra virgin" is about 1% acid and is
      considered the finest. The other grades are "superfine," "fine," and "pure" or
      "virgin."

      •   Omelet: Seasoned eggs that are beaten and fried. The eggs will puff up at
      which time, they are rolled or folded over.
      •   Omelette is a dish of eggs beaten until frothy and cooked until set in a frying
      pan. Often other ingredients, such as mushrooms or cheese are added.

      •    Onion - This underground bulb is related to leeks, garlic, and chives and is
      prized for its distinct, pungent flavor and aroma. There are two types: green
      ("scallions") and dry onions. The white-skinned onion has the mildest flavor of the
      onions.

      •       Onion Salt - A mixture of onion powder and salt.

      •   Onion, Cocktail - Tiny pearl onions that are mild-flavored and about the size of
      a marble. Used as a garnish in certain cocktails.

      •    Ono - The Hawaiian name for "Wahoo," a marine fish whose flesh compares
      favorably with Albacore. It provides a moderate to high-fat flesh that is white and
      slightly sweet. In Hawaii, "Ono" means "sweet."

      •   Oolong is a kind of dark tea, grown in China, that is partly fermented before
      being dried.
      •   Ophir wine is a red Australian wine of the Pummard Burgundy type.

      •   Opossum - A cat-sized marsupial with a prehensile tail native to the Southern
      and Midwestern U.S. Opossum, which has a flavor resembling young pig, can be
      prepared in the same manner suitable for a roast suckling pig.

      •       Orange - Citrus fruit from the orange tree. There are three major types of

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      oranges: Sweet (Valencia, Mediterranean, and Navel), Loose-skinned (Mandarin,
      King), and Bitter (Seville, Bergamot). Bitter oranges are used in marmalades.

      •   Orange Roughy - A New Zealand area fish with lean, white flesh that is firm
      and mild. Also called "Slimeheads" (by fishermen--not by fish vendors). This
      popular fish can be poached, baked, broiled, or fried.

      •    Oregano - A popular culinary herb of the mint family with a flavor similar to that
      of sweet marjoram or thyme. Also called "wild marjoram." Oregano is not quite as
      sweet and has a stronger flavor that marjoram.

      •      Organic Food - Technically, anything that contains at least 1 atom of carbon.
      In common usage, "organic" refers to foods cultivated and processed without
      fertilizers, insecticides, artificial coloring, artificial flavorings, or additives.

      •    Oriental Radish - This radish has a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh.
      Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "daikon," meaning
      "big root" in Japanese.

      •   Original Porter is a ruby-brown porter with a roast-malt and liquorice flavour
      from the liquorice used in the recipe, produced by the Shepherd Neame brewery,
      Kent.
      •   Originally a pickle was a spicy sauce served with meat. More recently the term
      describes a salty or acid liquid in which foods are preserved (onions, cabbage etc).
      •   Ouzo is a Greek liqueur flavoured with aniseed and herbs.
      •   Owd Rodger is a rich, strong, creamy winter ale from Marston's brewery,
      Burton-on-Trent.

      •    Oyster - A bivalve mollusk with a rough gray shell. The flesh varies from
      creamy beige to pale gray; the flavor from salty to bland; the texture from tender to
      firm. The Atlantic or Eastern oysters are considered superior to Pacific varieties.

      •    Oyster Plant - Also known as "salsify," this biennial herb is cultivated for its
      root which is used as a vegetable. Its taste hints of a delicately flavored oyster. Can
      be found in the U.S. in Spanish, Italian, and Greek markets.

      •   Oyster Stout is a creamy, bottle-conditioned stout by Marston's, Burton-on-
      Trent.

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                                                                      P
      •    Paella - Named after the two-handled pan that it is prepared in, Paella is a
      combination of saffron-flavored rice, a variety of meats, garlic, onions, peas,
      artichoke hearts and tomatoes.

      •     Pak Choi - This variety of cabbage has crinkly, thick veined leaves which are
      thin, crisp, and delicately mild. Choose firm, tightly packed heads with crisp, green-
      tipped leaves. Also called "Chinese cabbage."

      •    Pale Ale is a style of English bottled beer, usually stronger than light ale and
      often based upon the brewery' s best bitter.
      •    Palm Hearts: Hearts of young palm trees.

      •    Palm Kernel Oil - This oil comes from the nut or kernel of the fruit of the
      African palm tree. Like palm oil, it too is very high in saturated fat. It is used in the
      making of margarine. Often listed in the ingredients as "palm oil."

      •    Palm Oil - The reddish-orange oil derived from the pulp of the fruit of the
      African palm tree. Contains a very high percentage of saturated fat.

      •    Pan Broiling: To cook in an uncovered skillet where the fat is poured off
      during cooking.

      •    Papaya - The fruit of the papaya tree, which grows from seed to a 20-foot fruit-
      bearing tree in under 18 months. The fruit is juicy, smooth, and has a sweet-tart
      flavor. "Papain," a digestive enzyme used in meat tenderizers, comes from
      papayas.

      •   Papillote: (French) Cooked in foil or parchment paper to seal in flavor, then
      served and cut open at table.

      •   Paprika - A seasoning powder made by grinding dried red or bell pepper pods.
      The flavor ranges from mild to hot, the color from orange-red to bright red. U.S.
      supermarkets carry the mild paprikas; try ethnic shops for stronger varieties.

      •    Paprika: Used as a seasoning or coloring agent, this is the ground dried fruit of
      various ripe pepper plants.


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      •   Paranut - This is the seed of a giant tree that grows in the Amazon jungle. The
      kernel of this nut is white, rich, and high in fat. Also known as "Brazil nut."

      •    Parboiling: To cook partially by boiling for a short period of time.
      •    Parfait - An American parfait consists of ice cream layered with flavored syrups
      and whipped cream, then topped with chopped nuts and a maraschino cherry. A
      French parfait is a frozen custard with egg yolks, sugar, whipped cream and
      flavorings.

      •    Parmesan Cheese - A dry cow's milk cheese. The world's finest quality
      parmesan is "Parmigiano-Reggiano." After it is aged 3 years, it is called
      "Stravechhio." At 4 years, they're called "Stavecchions." U.S. parmesans are aged
      about 14 months.

      •   Parmigiana - This term refers to foods that have been cooked with Parmesan
      cheese.

      •    Parrot Fish - Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the
      family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring
      and the shape of their jaws. "Also called "Pollyfish."

      •     Parsley - A highly peppery herb related to anise, dill, celery, and carrots. Used
      to flavor soups, meats, fish, cream and cheese sauces, eggs, breads, butter,
      marinades, and salads. There are more than 30 varieties of this herb.

      •    Parsley Root - A parsley subspecies grown for its beige carrot-like root which
      tastes somewhat like a cross between a carrot and celery. Used in stews and
      soups. Also eaten as a vegetable.

      •    Parsnip - The edible creamy-white root of the parsnip plant. Used as a
      vegetable and prepared using just about any cooking method. The sweet flavor of
      the parsnip develops only after the first frost, when the cold converts its starch into
      sugar.

      •       Part One

      •    Passion Fruit - A tropical fruit native to Brazil, but now grown in the U.S, New
      Zealand, and Australia. The flavor is sweet, yet tart, and has a perfumy tropical
      fragrance. Used as a table fruit, as well as for sherbets, candies, and beverages.

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      •    Pasta - A staple made from flour, salt, water and often eggs. Countless
      varieties are served covered with sauces, cheese, butter, olive oils, soups, or used
      to enclose stuffings.

      •    Pasteles are Puerto Rican steamed meat patties, very popular in Puerto Rico
      during the christmas season.
      •    Pasteurisation is a preservative heat treatment applied to foods, notably milk.
      •    Pasteurize - To kill bacteria by heating milk (or other liquids) to a moderately
      high temperature for a brief period. Milk is a beverage that benefits from this
      process. Pasteurization was discovered by the French scientist, Louis Pasteur.

      •    Pastrami - A highly seasoned preserved meat made from beef dry-cured with
      salt or saltpeter. The seasonings include garlic, ground pepper, cinnamon, red
      peppers, cloves, allspice and coriander seeds. Commonly served as a sandwich on
      rye bread.

      •    Pâté - A well-seasoned French preparation using a meat or fish paste filling.
      Sometimes a fruit or vegetable mixture is used. Can be smooth or coarsely
      textured. Pâtés may be served hot or cold, usually as a first course or appetizer.

      •    Pâté - A well-seasoned French preparation using a meat or fish paste filling.
      Sometimes a fruit or vegetable mixture is used. Can be smooth or coarsely
      textured. Pâtés may be served hot or cold, usually as a first course or appetizer.

      •    Pea - Peas are popular members of the legume family. There are many
      varieties of peas, some of which were cultivated by the Greeks and Romans long
      before Christian times. Peas are a fair source of protein, iron, and vitamin A.

      •     Peach - This fruit is third in importance in the U.S. (behind apples and second-
      place oranges). There are two general classifications: Freestone, in which the pit
      falls freely away from the flesh, and Clingstone, in which it does not.

      •   Peanut - This "nut" is not a nut but a high-fat, high-protein legume seed. The
      most popular types are Spanish (small and round) and Virginia (large and oval).
      About half the U.S. peanut crop is used to make peanut butter. Also called
      "goobers."



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      •  Peanut Oil - A clear oil derived from peanuts. It has a high smoke point which
      makes it useful for frying. The fat in peanut oil is approximately 50%
      monounsaturated and 30% polyunsaturated.

      •    Pear - A fruit from to the rose family which includes apples, plums, cherries,
      apricots, and strawberries. There are over 5,000 varieties of pears. It improves in
      texture and flavor after it is picked. France is the leading pear-growing country.

      •    Pecan - A native American nut related to the "hickory nut." It has the highest
      fat content of any nut. They are eaten out-of-hand and used in baked goods, as
      garnishes, and in batters, pies, frostings, candies, ice cream, and sauces.

      •       Peche: (French) Peach.

      •   Pectin - A thickening agent used in the preparation of jams, jellies and
      preserves. Pectin is found in a variety of ripe fruits and vegetables.

      •    Pedigree is a classic, coppery coloured pale ale with a dry hop and malt taste
      and woody, spicy overtones, from Marston's of Burton-on-Trent. It is brewed using
      the traditional Burton Union system.
      •    Pemmican is a preparation of lean meat, pulverized and mixed with boiling fat
      and then allowed to dry in the form of cakes. It was invented by North American
      Indians and adopted by British Arctic expeditions around the late 19th and early
      20th centuries, on account of it keeping for a long time unless moisture gets in.
      •    Pendle witches brew is a tasty, full-bodied ale which comes from the
      Moorhouse brewery in Bumley, Lancashire.

      •   Penne - A large, straight, tube-shaped macaroni noodle that is cut on the
      diagonal.

      •       Penn's bitter is a reddish, sweet bitter from the Hoskins brewery in Leicester.

      •    Pepitas - Edible pumpkin seeds that have had their white hull removed. There
      are green, and have a delicate nutty flavor. These seeds are often roasted and
      salted. Pepitas are popular in Mexican cookery.

      •   Pepper Steak - A beefsteak sprinkled with black pepper, sautéed in butter and
      served with a sauce made from the drippings, stock, wine, and cream. Also refers

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      to a Chinese stir-fry of steak strips, green peppers, and onion cooked in soy sauce.

      •    Pepperoni - A highly spiced dry sausage made of pork and beef. Seasoned
      with salt, black pepper, cayenne, and garlic. Often thin sliced and served as an
      appetizer or as a topping for pizzas.

      •   Pepperpot is an ancient Amerindian meat stew - flavoured with cassareep -
      which originated in Guyana and has spread throughout the Caribbean.

      •    Perch - Any of a number of spiny-finned freshwater fish found in North America
      and Europe. The best known U.S. perch is the "yellow perch." Perch have a mild,
      firm, low-fat flesh. The saltwater white perch and ocean perch are not true perches.

      •    Percolator is a device for making coffee by allowing water to filter repeatedly
      through ground coffee.
      •    Perry (or pear wine) is a fermented liquid derived from pears, or pears and
      crab-apples. Good quality perry has long been used for the adulteration of cheap-
      champagne, and is sold as aimitation champagne.

      •    Persian Walnut - Also called "English walnut," this nut is widely available and
      features a plump, crispy meat.

      •       PERSIMMON

      •   Persimmon - A warm-weather fruit of which there are two important varieties:
      "Hachiya" (Japanese persimmon) and the "Fuyu" which is milder. The Fuyu is
      smaller. Both should be completely ripe before eaten. Used in baked goods and
      desserts.

      •  Persimmon is a yellow-orange plum-like astringent fruit. It becomes sweet
      when softened by frost.

      •   Pesto Sauce - An uncooked sauce of basil, garlic, pine nuts, olive oil, and
      parmesan or pecorino cheese. Often served with pasta.

      •   Peter's Porter is a seasonal porter brewed in autumn and winter by the
      Arkell's Kingsdown brewery, Swindon.
      •   Petit: (French) Small.

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      •    Pe-Tsai - This form of Chinese cabbage features an oval-shaped heart with
      very tightly closed leaves. It can be prepared in any manner appropriate for other
      green cabbages. Also used raw in salads and marinated in a manner similar to red
      cabbage.

      •   Pheasant - A medium-sized game bird related to the partridge and the quail.
      The female's flesh is plumper, juicier, and more tender. Farm-raised birds have a
      somewhat milder flavor than wild varieties.

      •   Phoenix best bitter is a light-tawny, hoppy cask bitter from the Phoenix
      brewery, near Manchester.

      •   Phyllo - This word is Greek for "leaf." It refers to the tissue-thin layers of pastry
      dough used in Greek and Near Eastern preparations such as Baklava and
      Spanakopita.

      •       Picadillo is a Cuban beef hash flavoured with chile, olives and capers.

      •  Picante Sauce - A hot and spicy sauce, most often tomato-based. "Picante"
      means "pepper hot."

      •    Picatta - A classic Italian dish that consists of veal or chicken that has been
      seasoned and floured, sautéed, and served with a sauce made from the pan
      drippings, lemon juice, and parsley.

      •    Piccalilli Pepper - A highly seasoned pickled vegetable relish. The vegetables
      can include cucumber, cauliflower, beans, onions, sweet peppers, etc.

      •    Pickerel - A small (between two and three pound) variety of the freshwater
      pike. Pickerel are know for their lean, firm flesh.

      •    Pickle - A food that has been preserved in vinegar or a seasoned brine.
      Commonly pickled foods include cucumbers, pearl onions, cauliflower, baby corn,
      pig's feet, watermelon rind, and herring. Flavors include dill, sweet, and sour
      varieties.

      •       Pickling Spice - A blend of seasonings used to flavor pickles, including


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      varying combinations of allspice, bay leaves, cardamon, cinnamon, cloves,
      coriander, ginger, mustard seeds, and peppercorns.

      •       Pico de Gallo - A topping made from fresh tomatoes, onions, and hot peppers.

      •     Pierogi - A Polish specialty consisting of half-moon-shaped noodle dumplings
      filled with a mixture, often of pork, onions, cottage cheese, and seasonings. Served
      as a first course or side dish.

      •    Pigeon - A widely distributed bird that is normally eaten only when young.
      Squabs are young pigeons that have never flown are therefore very tender. Squabs
      are normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old. May be prepared like chicken.

      •    Pigeon Pea - A tiny grayish-yellow legume that can be eaten raw but is more
      often dried and split. Popular in the southern states, pigeon peas are prepared in a
      manner similar to other dried beans.

      •    Pig's Feet - The feet and ankles of a pig. Available fresh, pickled, and smoked.
      Fresh and smoked pig's feet are used in sauces, soups, and stews. Pig's feet are
      called "trotters" in England.

      •    Pike - A family of fish that includes the pike, pickerel, and the muskellunge.
      These freshwater fish have long bodies, pointed heads, vicious teeth, and provide a
      lean, firm, bony flesh. Used in French "quenelles" and the Jewish "gefilte fish."

      •   Pilaf - A dish that starts with browned rice or bulgur and adds cooked
      vegetables, meat, seafood, or poultry. It originated in the Near East and is called
      know as "Pilau."
      •   Pilau is a Turkish dish of rice with meat or fish and spices, boiled or stewed
      together.

      •    Pili Nut - A nut from a tree native to the Philippines and other Pacific Islands.
      This light brown, triangular nut has a smooth, hard shell. Normally roasted before
      being eaten and is added to rice dishes and used to make confections.

      •   Pilsner is a style of golden, hoppy aromatic lager which originated in the
      Czech town of Plzen (Pilsen) in 1842.
      •   Pimm's is a proprietary drink based upon a fruit cup invented in the 1820's by


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       James Pimm. It is based upon London gin flavoured with various secret ingredients
       including orange.
   q    Pina Colada - A tropically flavored alcoholic beverage made with coconut cream,
        pineapple juice, and rum. The coconut-pineapple flavor has also become popular
        in desserts and candies.

       •     Pine Nut - An high-fat nut from inside the pine cones of several pine trees.
       These nuts are expensive because it is labor-intensive to heat the pine cones and
       facilitate the manual removal of the nut. These nuts have a pungent pine flavor.

       •   Pineapple - An exceedingly juicy fruit with a distinctive tangy sweet taste.
       Pineapples must be picked when ripe because they won't ripen off the plant. The
       English named this fruit for its resemblance to a pine cone.

       •   Pink Bean - A reddish-brown dried bean used to make refried beans and chili
       con carne. This bean, which is popular in the western U.S., can be used as a
       substitute for "pinto beans" in just about any dish.

       •   Pink Salmon - A lower fat variety of salmon. Also called the "humpback
       salmon."

       •   Pinocchio - An high-fat nut from inside the pine cones of certain pine trees.
       These nuts are expensive because it is labor-intensive to heat the pine cones and
       remove of the nut. These nuts have a pungent pine flavor. Also called "pignolia."

       •   Pinot noir is a type of grape used to produce the famous French Red
       Burgundy appellations of the Cotes de Beaune, Cotes de Nuit and Cote d'or wines.

       •    Pinto Bean - A pale pink bean with streaks of reddish-brown. Also called "red
       Mexican beans," these beans are interchangeable with the pink bean and are used
       just as often in popular dishes such as refried beans and chili con carne.

       •      Pish-pash is an Indian soup or stew made with rice and small pieces of meat.

       •    Pistachio Nut - The edible seed of a certain small evergreen tree. Naturally
       tan-colored, these nuts are often dyed red to make them stand out in a dish of
       mixed nuts. Available raw or roasted, salted or unsalted.



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      •   Pitanga - The yellow to deep red, cherry-like fruit of a Brazilian tree of the
      myrtle family. These fruit, which are now grown in the U.S., are slightly acid and are
      eaten out-of-hand and used in jams and jellies. Also called "Surinam cherry."

      •    Plantain - The fruit of a large tree-like tropical herb. Plantains belong to the
      banana family, but are larger, starchier, and not as sweet. It has a squash-like
      flavor and is used much like a potato. Also called the "cooking banana."

      •  Plug & Play is a strong dark ale brewed by the Ash Vine company of Frome,
      Somerset.

      •   Plum - There are hundreds of varieties of this edible fruit. Colors include blue,
      green, purple, red, and yellow. The flesh is thick and juicy and the flavor ranges
      from sweet to tart. Plums are eaten out-of-hand and used in sauces and desserts.

      •    Poach - To cook food gently in a liquid at or just below its boiling point. Meats
      are normally poached in stock, eggs in lightly salted water, fruit in light sugar syrup.

      •    Poha - Also known as "cape gooseberry," this fruit has a bitter-sweet, juicy
      flesh. This fruit is eaten out-of-hand and used with meats, pies, jams, and savory
      foods.

      •  Pokeberry Shoots - Shoots from the pokeweed shrub, a native of North
      America. The root is poisonous. The young leafy shoots are picked and cooked the
      same way as asparagus, except that it is boiled twice (each time in fresh water).

      •    Polenta - A staple from northern Italy, where it is used like a bread. Polenta is
      a cornmeal mush that can be served hot or cooled until firm then cut into squares
      that are fried. "Parmesan" or "gorgonzola" cheese is sometimes added for flavor.

      •    Polish Sausage - Also called "kielbasa," this is a highly seasoned smoked
      sausage of Polish origin made from pork and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with
      garlic an other spices. It can be served cold or hot.

      •   Pollack - This low to moderate fat fish has firm, white, flesh with a delicate,
      somewhat sweet flavor. Pollack is often used to make imitation crab meat. Also
      known as "Coalfish" or "Saithe," this saltwater fish is a member of the cod family.



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      •    Pollyfish - Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the
      family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant coloring
      and the shape of their jaws. "Also called "parrot fish."

      •    Pomegranate - The pomegranate is an orange-sized fruit with a hard leathery
      skin. Inside are hundreds of edible seeds with a sweet pleasantly acidic taste.
      Pomegranates are eaten out-of-hand, used in salads, and sprinkled over desserts.

      •    Pomelo - Also called "shaddock" and "pumello," this large citrus fruit is very
      similar to large grapefruits, but can weight up to 25 pounds. May be prepared and
      served any way that grapefruits are prepared and served.

      •    Pomfret - This small, high-fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavor.
      Found off the coast of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also called the
      "butterfish."

      •    Pompano - This saltwater fish is a succulent, fine-textured fish with a mild
      delicate flavor. This expensive, moderately fat fish is considered by many experts
      as America's finest fish.

      •    Popcorn - A variety of corn with small, hard kernels and a large endosperm.
      When heated, these kernels explode from internal pressure to produce an inside-
      out white popped corn. Can be eaten as a breakfast food or flavored and served as
      a snack.

      •    Poppy Seed - These small, dried seeds of the poppy plant have a crunchy,
      nutty flavor that find use in baked goods, salad dressings, and a multitude of
      cooked dishes. 900,000 poppy seeds weight about a pound.

      •    Porgy - Also know as "Scup" or "Porgie." These saltwater fish are generally
      lean, and coarse-grained. Porgy is often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.

      •     Pork - The flesh of domestic swine. Today's pork is leaner (1/3 fewer calories)
      and higher in protein than a decade ago. And with improved feeding techniques,
      trichinosis has become extremely rare. Most pork is slaughtered at 6 to 9 months.

      •   Pork Chitterlings - The small intestines of freshly slaughtered pigs. They are
      cleaned and simmered until tender. Chitterlings are served with sauce, added to
      soups, battered and fried, and used as sausage casings.

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       •    Pork Lard - Rendered and clarified pork fat. The best lard is "leaf lard" which
       comes from the fat around the pig's kidneys. Unprocessed lard has a very strong
       flavor and a soft texture. Processed lard is firmer and milder.

   q   Port - A fortified Portuguese wine with an alcoholic strength of more than 16.5%.
       Brandy is added to the wine part way through the fermentation process. Port is
       most often served as an after-meal drink.

       •    Port du Salut Cheese - A semi-soft cow's milk cheese that was first made by
       19th century Trappist monks at the monastery of Port-du-Salut in France. It has a
       mild, savory flavor and a smooth texture that goes well with fruit.

       •    Porter (Stout) is a dark type of beer which originated in London in 1722.
       •    Posset is a drink of hot milk curdled with ale, wine or other spirits and perhaps
       sweetened and spiced. Possets have been popular, especially medicinally or as a
       delicacy for many years.

       •   Pot Cheese - A soft, fresh cheese made by draining cottage cheese longer to
       produce a cheese that is drier. When drained longer still, "farmer cheese" is formed.

       •    Potash Water is an aerated water produced by mixing bicarbonate of potash
       with carbonic acid water in the proportion of 20 grains to each bottle of the water, or
       about half an ounce to the gallon. Bisulphate of potash was sometimes used to
       produce an effervescing drink as it was cheaper than tartaric acid.

       •    Potato - The edible tuber of a plant from the nightshade family. "Russet" or
       "Idaho" potatoes have a long, rounded shape and many eyes. The less starchy
       medium-sized "round whites" and "round reds" are also called "boiling potatoes."

       •     Potato Flour - This very fine gluten-free flour is made from cooked, dried, and
       ground potatoes. Also called "potato starch." Used as a thickening agent and in
       some baked goods. Corn flour and starch has replaced potato flour for the most
       part.

       •   Potato Starch - This very fine gluten-free flour is made from cooked, dried,
       and ground potatoes. Also called "potato flour." Used as a thickening agent and in
       some baked goods. Corn flour and corn starch have pretty much taken its place
       today.

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      •    Potted Meat - A meat that has been cooked and ground to a fine paste, lightly
      seasoned, and packed.
      •    Pressure cooker (or digester as it was formerly known) was invented in the
      17th century prior to 1681 by Denys Papin. It cooks vegetables and other foods
      quicker than an ordinary pan on account of the temperature of the boiling water
      inside being higher than the usual 100 degrees due to the pressure it is under.

      •    Prickly Pear - The fruit from several varieties of cactus. It is gaining popularity
      in the U.S. Sweet and somewhat bland, prickly pear are served whole and used in
      candies and preserves.

      •    Pride of Romsey is a strong bottle conditioned English beer with a powerful
      aroma of hops.
      •    Primavera - Italian word for "spring style." Culinarily, it refers to the use of
      fresh vegetables as a garnish to various dishes--often pasta. The vegetables are
      most often raw or blanched.

      •   Process Cheese (pasteurized process) - A product made from one or more
      natural cheeses that have been ground, heated, and blended with an emulsifier and
      water until smooth. Pasteurization prevents further ripening and improves shelf life.

      •   Process Cheese Food (pasteurized process) - This product is made like
      process cheese except that in contains less cheese and has added dairy products
      such as milk, nonfat dry milk, cream, or whey solids. By law, 51% of the product
      must be cheese.

      •    Process Cheese Spread (pasteurized process) - This product is "process
      cheese food" with an added edible stabilizer. The fat content is lower; the moisture
      is higher. Fruits, vegetables, or meats are sometimes added. It is spreadable at 70
      F°.
      •    Progress is a malty ale from the Pilgrim brewery, Reigate, Surrey.

      •    Prosciutto - An unsmoked, seasoned, salt-cured, and air-dried ham. The meat
      is pressed to produce a firm texture, then sliced very thin. "Parma ham" is the true
      prosciutto. "Prosciutto cotto" is cooked ham, "Prosciutto crudo" is raw.

      •       Provolone Cheese - An Italian cow's milk cheese with a firm texture and a

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      mild, somewhat smoky flavor. Most provolone is aged 2 to 3 months, but some is
      aged for a year or more. Aged provolone is often grated.

      •     Prune - A dried plum. Traced back to Roman times, the prune is popular for its
      ability to store well. Commercial dehydration has replaced sun-drying as the
      method of producing plums.

      •   Psyllium - A plant, also known as "fleawort," that is valued for its high fiber
      content. The powdered seeds of this plant are often used as a laxative.

      •   Puchero is a Latin American stew of beef, sausage, bacon and various
      vegetables.

      •    Puerto Rican Cherry - A cherry-like fruit from a small tree in the West Indies
      and adjacent areas. This fruit contains a high concentration of vitamin C. Also
      called "acerola" and "Barbados cherry."

      •    Puff Pastry - A delicate French pastry with hundreds of layers of dough and
      butter. The French call it "pâte feuilletée." When baked, the butter creates steam
      which creates the "puff." Used to create croissants, Napoleons, and allumettes.
      •    Pulque or octli is a drink made in Mexico and Central America from the juices
      of various species of agave.
      •    Pulse is a popular name for the edible seeds of leguminous blants, such as
      peas and beans.
      •    Pumpernickel is a German wholemeal rye bread. It is dark brown and often
      sweetened and spiced.

      •    Pumpkin - A large orange gourd related to the muskmelon and the squash.
      Pumpkins are popular in pies, but can be prepared like any winter squash. The
      seeds, which are known as "pepitas," are often husked and roasted to produce a
      nutty snack food.

      •    Pumpkin Seeds - The edible seeds of the pumpkin. These seeds are hulled to
      reveal a green seed with a delicate nutty flavor. These seeds are often roasted and
      salted. Also called "pepitas," these seeds are popular in Mexican cookery.

      •   Pure Gold is a golden coloured strong real ale from the Itchen Valley Brewery
      in Hampshire, made with Czech hops for flavour and American speciality hops to

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      give aroma.
      •    Puree is a type of soup made from meat, fish, game or vegetables which have
      been rubbed through a sieve and flavourings, liquid fat and a thickening agent have
      been added.
      •    Purl is a hot beer flavoured with gin, sugar and ginger. It was originally beer or
      ale mixed with gin, wormwood, or other bitter herbs, but the recipe changed
      towards the end of the 19th century. It was popular in England around the end of
      the 19th century and the start of the 20th century.

      •    Purslane - A garden herb with a reddish green stem, thick leaves, yellow
      flowers, and a mild acidic fatty flavor. Purslane is used in salads, used as a potherb
      in soups and gumbos, and can also be eaten raw. Also called "pussley."

                                                                      Q
      •       Quahaug: Alantic Coast clam.

      •    Quail - A small game bird of the partridge family that resembles a small, plump
      chicken. Known also as "bobwhites" and "partridges." The flesh is white and
      delicately flavored. Most quail today are raised on bird farms.

      •    Quandang is the edible fruit of a species of the sandalwood tree.
      •    Quass (Kvass) is a sour, fermented liquor made by pouring warm water on rye
      or barley meal. It was popular in Russia amongst the peasantry.
      •    Quenelle: A poached dumpling (oval), usually made of veal or chicken.
      •    Quiche - This dish originated in the Alsace-Lorraine region of France. It is a
      pastry shell filled with a savory custard of eggs, cream, onions, mushrooms, meats,
      shellfish, and seasonings. Quiche Lorraine includes crisp bacon.

      •   Quince - The round pear-shaped fruit of the quince tree. The flesh tastes
      somewhat like a cross between an apple and a pear. Popular in jams, jellies, and
      preserves, this fruit is normally better for cooking than for eating out-of-hand.

      •    Quinoa - This "supergrain of the future" contains more protein than any other
      grain. It is a "complete protein" (it contains all 8 essential amino acids) and is very
      high in unsaturate fat. Can be prepared in any manner suitable for rice.

                                                                      R

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      •   Rabbit - Rabbit meat is mostly white, fine textured and mildly flavored.
      Domesticated rabbit is generally plumper and less strongly flavored that wild
      rabbits. Rabbit can be prepared in any manner suitable for chicken.

      •    Raccahout is a flour prepared from the acorn of the Barbary Oak. It is mixed
      with sugar and aromatics as a substitute for chocolate by the Arabs of North Africa.

      •    Raccoon - A North American mammal that served as an important food source
      for pioneers. The flesh is mostly dark meat, and the fat is strong in flavor and
      aroma. Young raccoons are usually roasted; older raccoons should be braised or
      stewed.

      •    Raclette Cheese - A cow's milk cheese from Switzerland. It is semi-firm and
      dotted with holes--similar to Gruyère.

      •   Raddicchio - A red-leafed Italian chicory that is most commonly used as a
      salad green.

      •    Radish - A popular salad vegetable that is the root of a plant from the mustard
      family. The flavor of radish can vary from mild to peppery, depending on the variety
      and the age.

      •    Rag Gourd - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family. The
      dried insides of these gourds can be used as a sponge. Also called the "sponge
      gourd."

      •   Ragoût - A thick, rich, highly-seasoned stew of fish, poultry, or meat that can
      be prepared with or without vegetables.
      •   Rain Dance is a golden, fruity wheat beer from Lancing, Sussex.

      •    Raisin - A dried grape. Raisins have a higher sugar content and a different
      flavor from grapes. Raisins are eat out-of-hand and used in cereals, puddings,
      cookies, cakes, muffins, stuffings, salads, and rolls.

      •   Raki is an aromatic liquor made from grain-spirit or grape juice in Greece,
      Turkey and the Middle East.
      •   Rakshi is a liquor distilled from rice or grain in Nepal and Tibet.


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      •   Ramekin: Small shallow baking dish. The foods cooked in these are also
      served in them.

      •    Ramons - The seeds of a tree from the mulberry family that is grown in
      Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. These seeds are boiled, ground into
      flour and made into bread. Also called "Jamaican breadnut."

      •   Rapeseed Oil - An oil expressed from rapeseeds. Contains more
      monounsaturated fat than any other oil except for olive oil. Marketed in the US as
      "Canola Oil."

      •       Rasher: Thin slice of bacon or a portion consisting of 3 slices of bacon.
      •       Rasin: Dried grape.

      •    Raspberry - A strongly-flavored berry made up of many connecting drupelets
      (individual sacs of fruit, each with its own seed). Varieties include golden, black,
      and red. The red type is the most common. Attached hulls indicate immaturity.

      •     Ratatouille - A dish that combines eggplant, tomatoes, onions, bell peppers,
      zucchini, and a variety of seasonings, including garlic--all simmered in olive oil.
      •     Rauchbier is a type of German smoked beer from the Franconia region. It gets
      its flavour from malt that has been dried over moist beechwood fires.
      •     Ravioli - An Italian dish made with small square or round noodles stuffed with
      meat, cheese, and/or vegetable mixtures. These noodles are boiled then baked
      with a cream, cheese, or tomato sauce.

      •   Raw Sugar - The residue left after sugar cane has been processed to remove
      molasses and refine the sugar crystals. Because raw sugar contains contaminants
      such as molds and fibers, it is (in the US) purified.

      •  Ray - This kite-shaped fish features edible fins. The fish is firm, white, and
      sweet; similar to the texture and taste of scallop. Also known as a "Ray."

      •       Real Ale is a term coined by CAMRA for traditional cask-conditioned beer.

      •    Red Banana - Available in some markets is the short, chubby red banana. This
      variety of banana is sweeter than the extremely popular yellow variety known as the
      "Cavendish."

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      •     Red Bean - Also known as "Mexican chili beans," are a favorite for making
      refried beans and chili with beans. Popular in Mexico and throughout the
      Southwest, these beans are readily available in most markets.

      •   Red Pepper - A hot red pepper powder made chiefly from the dried ripe
      pepper Caspsicum frutescens. While very hot to most people, it is not as hot as chili
      pepper, which is sometimes sold as cayenne. Also called "cayenne."

      •   Red Perch - This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group.
      Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

      •    Red Snapper - This is the most popular of a few hundred species of snapper.
      This is a lean, firm-textured saltwater fish. Some species of rockfish and tilefish are
      also called snappers, but are not.

      •    Redeye Salmon - Prized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a firm, red
      flesh. Also known as the "sockeye salmon."

      •   Redfish - This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group.
      Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

      •    Redhead - A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called
      "California Sheesphead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

      •   Refried Beans - Also known as "frijoles," refried beans are "pink beans," "pinto
      beans," or "red beans" that have been mashed then fried, often in lard.

      •   Rennet - An extract from the stomachs of calves and lambs which contains the
      enzyme rennin, which is used to curdle milk in foods such as cheese and junket.

      •     Restaurants originated in France as an institution for the refreshment of man.
      Originally restaurants did not advertise their prices, and served well prepared and
      complex dishes of the highest quality to those who could afford them. By 1900
      cheaper restaurants, advertising their prices on menus evolved. In England,
      restaurants took the place of eating houses - where diners enjoyed roast meats and
      chops - during the latter half of the 19th century, in 1850 there were less than five
      first-class restaurants in London, by 1904 every quality hotel in London had a
      restaurant attached and open to the public. America was quicker to adopt

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       restaurants, with the first opening in New York before any in London.
       •    Reuben Sandwich - A sandwich composed of corned beef, Swiss cheese, and
       sauerkraut on sourdough rye bread.
   q    Rhine - This term refers to fine German white wines that are smooth, not too dry,
        relatively low in alcohol, have a delicate fragrance, and are often slightly
        effervescent.

       •   Rhubarb - The rhubarb is a very tart member of the buckwheat family. It is
       generally eaten as a fruit but is actually a vegetable. It is used in sauces, jams, and
       desserts. Rhubarb leaves contain the toxin "oxalic acid" and should not be eaten.

       •   Ribeye Steak - A tender, flavorful beef steak that comes from the rib section
       between the chuck and the short loin.

       •      Rice Bran Oil - An oil pressed from the outer hull (the "bran") of the rice grain.

       •     Rice Flour - Regular rice flour is a fine, powdery flour made from regular white
       rice. "Glutinous rice flour" or "sweet rice flour" is made from high-starch, short-grain
       rice.

       •      Rice is the seeds of a grass grown in marshes mainly in the orient.

       •   Ricotta Cheese - A soft white cheese product with a slightly sweet flavor. It is
       made from the whey drained off while making cheeses such as mozzarella.
       Technically, ricotta is not a cheese because it is made from a cheese by-product.

   q   Riesling - This is the classic white-wine grape of Germany that is believed to be
       native to the Rhine Valley. It is responsible for the finest German wines and has
       been successfully transplanted to California, Chile, Austria, and Italy.

       •   Rigatoni - A large ribbed (grooved), tubular pasta that is cut into segments
       approximately 2 to 3 inches in length.

       •    Rioja is a red wine of the burgundy type produced in north Spain.
       •    Risotto - An Italian dish made by stirring hot stock into a mixture of rice that
       has been sautéed in butter. The rice often contains chopped onions and is flavored
       with cheese, chicken, shellfish, sausage, vegetables, or white wine and herbs.



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       •   Robert Sauce - One of the oldest brown sauces, invented in the 17th century
       by Frenchman Robert Vinot. Made with butter, flour, onions, wine bullion,
       seasoning, and French mustard. Used with goose, pork, and venison.

       •    Rocket - This slightly bitter, aromatic salad green has a peppery mustard
       flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves. Makes a lively addition to salads,
       soups, and sautéed vegetables. Also called "arugula."

       •   Rockfish - A low-fat fish of the Pacific Coast. There are two categories: the
       elongated varieties are milder and softer, and include Yellowtail and Goldeneye.
       The more full-flavored deep-bodied types include Bocaccio, Chilipepper, and
       Shortbelly.

       •    Roe - A seafood delicacy with two varieties: "Hard roe" is the female fish's
       eggs. "Soft roe" (also called "white roe") is the milt (male reproductive glands filled
       with seminal fluid) of the male fish. Salted roe is called "caviar."

       •      Roggen is a German/Austrian rye beer.

       •    Romaine Lettuce - Also called "cos," this variety of lettuce is long and
       cylindrical. Its broad, crisp leaves are used in Caesar salads.

       •    Roman Bean - Also known as "Cranberry beans," these beans are buff-
       colored and feature reddish streaks. Used to add interest and visual appeal to
       salads and dishes like succotash.

       •    Romano Cheese - One of several types of Roman cheese, all of which take
       their name from the city of Rome. The sharp and tangy "Pecorino Romano" comes
       from sheep's milk. The very sharp "Caprino Romano" comes from goat's milk.

   q   Root Beer - Created in the mid-1800s by pharmacist Charles Hires. The original
       root beer was very low in alcohol, and was made by fermenting a blend of sugar
       and yeast with various roots, herbs, and barks such as sarsaparilla and sassafras.

       •    Roquefort Cheese - Called "the king of cheeses," this blue cheese in made
       from sheep's milk and aged in the limestone caverns of Mount Combalou near
       Roquefort, France. This cheese is creamy rich and has a pungent and slightly salty
       taste.


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       •    Roquette - This slightly bitter, aromatic salad green has a peppery mustard
       flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves. Makes a lively addition to salads,
       soups, and sautéed vegetables. Also called "arugula."

   q   Rosé - A red wine made with the skins and stems removed almost immediately.
       This gives it its light pink (rose) color. It is light-bodied, slightly sweet, and served
       cold. In the U.S., the term "blush wine" is replacing the term "rosé."

       •    Rose Apple - The oval, yellow fruit of various tropical trees belonging to the
       myrtle family. These fragrant fruits not generally eaten out-of-hand but are most
       often used in making jams, jellies and confections.

       •     Rose Hip - The ripe reddish-orange fruit of the rose that is often used to make
       jellies, jams, syrups, teas, and wines. Because of their high vitamin C content, rose
       hips are dried, ground, and sold in health-food stores.

       •   Rosefish - This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group.
       Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

       •    Roselle - A tropical plant of the mallow family that is cultivated for its thick, red
       calyx and bracts, used in making jellies and as a cranberry substitute.

       •   Rosemary - This highly aromatic herb from the mint family has a flavor that
       some describe as a cross between lemon and pine. Used in dressings, fruit salads,
       soups, vegetables, meats, fish, egg dishes, stuffings.

       •      Rosolio is an alcoholic beverage from southern Europe.

       •      Rotini - Short spirals of spaghetti noodles.

       •      Ruddles County is a full-bodied, malty, strong cask bitter from Ruddles.

       •    Rugula - This slightly bitter, aromatic salad green has a peppery mustard
       flavor. Look for bright green, fresh-looking leaves. Makes a lively addition to salads,
       soups, and sautéed vegetables. Also called "arugula."

   q   Rum - A slightly sweet liquor distilled from fermented sugar-cane juice or
       molasses. Most of the world's rum is produced in the Caribbean.


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       •    Rumpus is a ruby-coloured nutty ale with a fruit and malt navour, from the
       Ridleys brewery, near Chelmsford.
   q    Rumrunner - A cocktail made with white rum, orange juice, lime juice, sugar syrup,
        and orange bitters. Often served on ice and garnished with a twist of orange.

       •    Rutabaga - A root vegetable from the mustard family that resembles a large
       turnip. Also known as "Swedish turnips," this vegetable can be prepared any way
       that turnips can be cooked.

       •  Ryburn best bitter is a fine, hoppy cask bitter from the Ryburn brewery,
       Sowerby Bridge, West Yorkshire.
       •  Rydale is a brown, malty cask bitter from the Ryburn brewery.

       •    Rye - A hardy annual cereal grass related to wheat. Rye flour is often mixed
       with wheat flour to make rye breads. The seeds are used to make flour, malt
       liquors, whisky, and Holland gin. "Pumpernickel" is a heavy, dark bread made of rye
       flour.

   q   Rye Whiskey - American law requires that this liquor be made from a minimum of
       51% rye. Straight ryes are from a single distiller; blended ryes are a combination of
       several straight ryes.
                                                                       S
       •   Sabayon Sauce - The French word for "Zabaglione," an ethereal dessert
       made by whisking egg yolks, Marsala wine, and sugar over simmering water to
       convert the eggs into a foamy custard.

       •   Sabayon: A sauce resembling custard, mainly used for puddings or vanilla ice
       cream. Sabayon is made of wine, sugar, and egg yolks.

       •    Sablefish - This saltwater fish has a soft-textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its
       high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Called "Alaskan cod," "Black
       Cod," "Butterfish," and "Skil," although it is neither a cod nor a butterfish.

       •   Saccharin: A product made from coal tar, used as a substitute for sugar.
       Saccharin has no food value.

       •      Saccharine - This sugar substitute contains 1/8 calorie per teaspoon and is

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       said to be about 400 times sweeter than sugar. Some feel that saccharine has a
       bitter aftertaste. There is also controversy as to whether or not it is a carcinogen.

       •    Sachet bag: Cloth bag filled with select herbs used to season soups or stocks.
       •    Sack is a dry sherry, which first found favour with the nobles in England during
       the Tudour period.

       •   Safflower Oil - A light, odorless, flavorless and colorless cold-pressed oil
       made from white seeds of the safflower plant. It contains more polyunsaturates than
       any other vegetable oil, and it has a high smoke point.

       •   Safflower Seed - The seeds of the safflower plant, used to yield a low-
       cholesterol oil used in cooking oils and margarines.

       •   Safflower Seed Meal - A meal made from the seed of the safflower plant. The
       seeds are rich in polyunsaturated fats. Also called "Mexican saffron" because the
       flower's stigmas can produce a lower quality substitute for the expensive "saffron."

       •    Saffron - The dried stigmas from the tiny blossom of the small crocus, Corcus
       satirus. Also called "vegetable gold," saffron is the world's most expensive herb
       because it takes 4,000 to 5,000 hand-picked stigmas to produce an ounce of the
       herb.

       •   Sage - There are over 500 varieties of this herb that are prized for their
       aromatic bitter flavor. Used to season pork, cheese, beans, stuffings, and
       sausages.

       •    Sahti is the traditional style of beer brewed in Finland. It is a strong (around
       8%) unfiltered, hazy, reddish-amber brew, quite flat with a spicy, bitter-sweet
       flavour. It is brewed with rye rather than barley and juniper rather than hops.
   q    Sake - Japanese rice wine. Used as an alcoholic beverage and in oriental cookery.
        The alcohol content is typically between 12 and 15 percent by volume.
       •    Saki (Sake) is a Japanese beer made from unmalted rice and Koji cake.
       •    Salamander: A small broiler used to brown or gratin foods.

       •   Salami - Any of a family of boldly seasoned sausages similar to "cervelats,"
       except that they tend to contain more garlic and are coarser and drier than
       cervelats. Salamis are rarely smoked. "Pepperoni" is a popular type of salami.


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      •    Salem Porter is a deep, dark porter with a nutty, dry taste from the Bateman
      family brewery in Wainfleet, Lincolnshire.
      •    Salisbury best is a sweetish bitter from the Gibbs Mews brewery in Salisbury,
      Wiltshire.

      •   Salisbury Steak - A ground beef patty seasoned with onions and seasonings
      before it is broiled or fried and served with gravy. Named after Dr. J. H. Salisbury
      who recommended eating a lot of beef for a wide variety of ailments.

      •    Salmagundi is a mixture of pickled herrings, cold dressed chicken or turkey,
      salt beef, radishes, endive and olives arranged artistically with regard to a contrast
      of colour and flavour, served with oil, vinegar, salt and pepper. Sometimes pickled
      cabbage and anchovies are added.
      •    Salmi is a game and vegetable stew in a rich sauce.

      •   Salmon - Perhaps the best-known of all fish, pictures of salmon from 12,000
      B.C. have been found. Salmon migrate from the seas into freshwater to spawn.
      Over the years, some varieties have become landlocked in lakes.

      •   Salopian bitter is a fruity, hoppy cask bitter from the Salopian brewery,
      Shrewsbury.

      •   Salsa - The Mexican word for "sauce." There are many varieties: cooked and
      uncooked, chunky to smooth, green to red, hot to mild.

      •    Salsify - Also known as the "oyster plant," this biennial herb is cultivated for its
      root which is used as a vegetable. Its taste hints of a delicately flavored oyster. Can
      be found in the U.S. in Spanish, Italian, and Greek markets.

      •     Salt - The mineral "sodium chloride." Most of today's salt comes from mines
      left by dried salt lakes. Used as a flavoring agent in many foods. Because of its
      value as a preservative, salt was a vital commodity to early civilization.

      •   Salt Pork - The salt-cured layer of fat taken from the pig's belly and sides. Salt
      pork is sometimes confused with fatback, which is unsalted. It is similar to bacon
      except that it is much fattier an has not been smoked.



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       •   Salt Substitute - A substitute for salt that contains little or no sodium. Used by
       persons on a salt restricted diet.

       •    Samshoo is a Chinese liquor distilled from rice or sorghum.
       •    Samuel Smith's imperial stout is a rich, heavy, bottled stout from the famous
       North Yorkshire brewery in Tadcaster, which is best served and enjoyed as a
       liqueur.
       •    Samuel Smith's oatmeal stout is a distinctive stout with a thick, dark texture
       and chocolatey, fruity flavour.
       •    Sancocho is a South American and Caribbean rich soup or stew of fish, meat
       and vegetables.
       •    Sangaree is an alcoholic beverage made from wine diluted with water and
       mixed with spices and sugar and drunk iced.
       •    Sanoche is a Trinidadian pork and beef and yam and dasheen and cassava
       stew.

       •     Sapodilla - A large evergreen tree of tropical America that bears an edible
       fruit. The sapodilla is the source of "chicle," the key ingredient in the manufacture of
       chewing gum.

       •    Sapote - This tree, native to Mexico and Central America, is also called the
       "marmalade tree" or "sapota." It offers a sweet, edible fruit. "Sapote" is also used to
       refer to the "sapadilla tree."

       •    Sardine - The name describing several varieties of weak-boned fish including
       the Alewife, French Sardine, Herring, and Sprat. Named after the French island of
       Sardina. Often salted, smoked, or canned and packed in oil, tomato, or mustard
       sauce.

   q    Sarsaparilla - This flavor was originally derived from the dried roots of tropical
        smilax vines. Today, products featuring sarsaparilla use artificial flavors.
       •    SAS - Strong Anglian Special - is a dry, well-balanced cask bitter produced by
       the Crouch Vale brewery, Essex.

       •    Satsuma Orange - A small Japanese orange that belongs to the Mandarin
       family. It contains relatively few seeds.

       •      Sauce - A thickened and flavored liquid that is created to enhance the flavor of

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       the food that it accompanies. In the days before refrigeration, sauces were used to
       disguise the taste of foods that were going bad.

       •   Sauerkraut - German for "sour cabbage." Made by combining cabbage, salt,
       and occasionally other spices and permitting the mixture to ferment. Though
       thought of as a German invention, this pickled food was eaten in China over 2,000
       years ago.

       •      Saumur are varieties of good quality French wine, both still and sparkling.

       •   Sausage - Basically, sausage is ground meat with fat, salt, seasonings,
       preservatives, and sometimes fillers. They may be smoked, fresh, dry or semi-dry,
       uncooked, partially cooked, or fully cooked. There are thousands of variations of
       sausage.

   q   Sauterne - A sweet wine from the Sauternes region of France. It is made from
       Sauvignon Blanc or Semillon grapes that have been infected with a special mold
       that causes them to shrivel and leave a sugary fruit with highly concentrated
       flavors.
   q   Sauvignon Blanc - An excellent white-wine grape that rivals Chardonnay and the
       Reisling. This grape imparts a grassy, herbaceous flavor to the wines produced
       from them.

       •   Savory - A strongly flavored herb of the mint family. There are two varieties:
       winter and summer. The summer savory is slightly milder, but both should be used
       carefully. Savory has a flavor reminiscent of a cross between thyme and mint.

       •   Savoy Cabbage - A loose, full headed, and mellow-flavored cabbage that is
       considered by many to be the finest cabbage for cooking.

       •   Scallion - Also called "spring onions," these are very young ordinary onions
       (such as "shallots") picked when beds of onions need to be thinned.

       •    Scallop - A bivalve mollusk with a ribbed, fan-shaped shell. In U.S. markets,
       only the adductor muscle, which opens and closes the shell is available. The Bay
       scallop is smaller, sweeter and a bit more succulent that their deep sea
       counterparts.

       •      Scallop - To prepare food by layering slices with cream or cream sauce in a

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       casserole. These foods are often topped with bread or cracker crumbs before being
       baked. "Scallop" also refers to forming a decorative edge in the rim of pie dough.

       •   Scallop Squash - A flat, whitish variety of squash that features a scalloped
       edge. Also known as "cymling" and "pattypan squash."

       •   Scampi - The Italian name for the tail portion of any of several varieties of
       miniature lobsters. In the U.S., the term refers to large shrimp that are split and
       brushed in a garlic oil or butter, then broiled. "Scampo" is the singular form.

       •    Scorzonera - Also called "black salsify," this is a black-skinned variety of
       salsify. Most varieties of this vegetable are grayish or pale golden in color.

   q    Scotch - This distinctive liquor, made only in Scotland, uses barley for flavoring
        instead of corn (which is used in American whiskeys). The sprouted malted barley
        is dried over peat fires to impart a characteristic smoky flavor to the scotch.
       •     Scotch Woodcock is a jocular name for a preparaton of toast and finnan
       haddock.
   q    Screwdriver - An alcoholic beverage made with orange juice and vodka. It is said
        to have been named by American oil-rig workers in the Middle East who opened
        and stirred cans of this beverage with their screwdrivers.

       •    Scrod - Scrod is the name for young cod (and haddock) that weight less that
       2.5 pounds. It is a popular fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic with a lean,
       firm, white flesh. "Haddock," "hake," and "pollock" are close relatives of the cod.

       •   Scup - Also know as "porgie" or "sea bream." These fish are generally lean,
       and coarse-grained. Scup is often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.

       •     Sea Bass - A term used to describe a number of lean to moderately fat marine
       fish, most of which aren't actually members of the bass family. "Striped bass" and
       "Black Sea bass" are true bass. The "white sea bass" is a member of the drum
       family.

       •   Sea Bream - Also know as "scup." These marine fish are generally lean, and
       coarse-grained. Sea bream is often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.

       •    Sea Devil - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet
       flavor that compares with lobster. Also called "angler fish" "monkfish," and

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       "goosefish."

       •      SEA is a malty bitter from the Donnington brewery, Stowon-the-Weld.

       •   Sea Perch - This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group.
       Also known as "ocean perch," although it is not a true perch.

       •  Sea Salt - Salt produced by evaporating sea water. Salt produced in this
       manner is more expensive than salt that has been mined.

       •    Sea Trout - An anadromous (spawns in fresh water) brown trout that spends
       part to its life cycle in the sea. Sea trout have meat that is pink to red in color and is
       very comparable to salmon. May be prepared any way appropriate for salmon.

       •   Seafood Sauce - A combination of catsup or chili sauce with prepared
       horseradish, lemon juice, and hot red pepper seasoning. Used with seafood and as
       a condiment for hors d'oeuvres.

       •   Seaweed - Any of a multitude of sea plants from the algae family. Used in
       soups, as vegetables, in teas, in shushi, and as a seasoning. Seaweed is a rich
       source of iodine. A seaweed called "carrageen," is used in McDonald's McLean
       hamburger.

   q   Seltzer - A flavorless, naturally effervescent water that takes its name from the
       town of Nieder Selters in Germany. Soda water is man-made by injecting carbon
       dioxide into water.

       •   Semolina - The purified middlings (medium-sized particles) of wheat. The best
       semolina, the type used to make macaroni, spaghetti, and other pastas, comes
       from the milling of Durum wheat, a very hard variety of wheat.

       •  Serenata is a salt codfish and vegetable salad eaten in the Dominican
       Republic.

       •    Sesame Oil - This oil is high in polyunsaturated fast (4th behind safflower,
       soybean, and corn). There are two basic forms: light and dark. The light form is
       lighter in color and flavor and has a hint of nuttiness. The dark from is much
       stronger.


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       •    Sesame Seed - A tiny, flat seed with a nutty, slightly sweet flavor used in
       breads, cakes, confections, cookies, pastries, and salads. This seed was used at
       least as far back as 3,000 B.C. in Assyria.

       •   Sesbania Flower - The edible flower of a tree native to the South Pacific and
       pasts of Asia. Especially popular as a food in the Philippines. Also called "Katuray."

       •   Shad - Small, delicate saltwater fish related to the alewife, herring, and
       sardine. They are larger than herrings and spawn in fresh water. Some species of
       shad have been landlocked and live in freshwater lakes.

       •   Shakemantle Ginger is a cloudy, ginger wheat beer produced by the
       Freeminer brewery, Gloucestershire.

       •    Shallot - The mild-flavored cousin to the onion, chive, leek, and garlic. The
       bulb is edible and is used like onions or garlic. The green tops are harvested and
       marketed as "scallions."

       •   Shark - A flavorful, low-fat fish that includes varieties such as Leopard, Mako,
       Spiny Dogfish, Soupfin and Thresher. Shark meat tends to have an ammonia-like
       smell that can be eliminated by soaking the flesh in milk or acidulated water.

       •   Sheanut Oil - Oil from the seed of the shea tree, an African tree from the
       sapodilla family. "Shea butter" (also called "galam butter") is the solid green, yellow,
       or white fat derived from the seeds of the shea tree.

       •    Sheepshead - A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family. Also called
       "California Sheephead," "Fathead," and "Redhead." Its meat is white, tender, and
       lean.

       •    Shefford Bitter is a good, well-balanced, real ale from B&T, Bedfordshire.
   q    Sherry - This famous Spanish fortified wine is also made in the U.S. Sherries
        range in color, flavor, and sweetness. They are drunk as an apértif (appetizer) or
        after dinner. Cry sherries are usually served cold; sweet sherries unchilled.

       •    Shortening - Any fat, liquid, or solid used in pastry, dough, or batter for making
       the resulting product flakier, richer, or more tender. In common use are
       hydrogenated shortenings like butter, lard, margarine, and the edible oils.

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       •   Shoyu - A dark, salty sauce made from fermenting boiled soybeans and
       roasted wheat or barley. Extremely popular in the Orient; used to flavor fish, meat,
       marinades, sauces, soups, and vegetables. Better known in U.S. as "soy sauce."

       •    Shrimp - American's most valuable and popular shellfish. This ten-legged
       crustacean got its name from English word "shrimpe," which means "puny person."

       •   Shropshire lad is a flavoursome bitter produced by the Wood Brewery,
       Wistanstow.
       •   Shropshire stout is a deep-red, rich, dry cask beer from the Hanby brewery,
       Shropshire.

       •   Sicama - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white
       crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor
       and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Jicama."

       •    Silver Hake - A small gray and white saltwater fish that is also called the
       "whiting." This low-fat fish, which is related to both the "cod" and the "hake," has a
       tender white fine-textured flesh and a flaky, delicate flavor.

       •    Silver Salmon - This high-fat variety of salmon provides a firm-textured, pink
       to orange-red flesh. Also called the "coho salmon."

       •    Sim Sim - A tiny, flat seed with a nutty, slightly sweet flavor used in breads,
       cakes, confections, cookies, pastries, and salads. This seed was used at least as
       far back as 3,000 B.C. in Assyria. Better known in U.S. markets as "sesame seed."

   q    Singapore Sling - A cocktail of gin, cherry brandy, and lemon juice. This mixture is
        shaken in ice, strained into a tall glass, and topped off with soda water. Said to
        have originated in Singapore's Raffles Hotel.
       •   Single malt is a powerful, seasonal ale which uses whisky malt in the brewing
       process, from Mitchell' s brewery in Lancaster.

       •  Sirloin - A cut of beef that lies between the Short Loin (very tender) and the
       Round (much tougher).

       •      Skate - This kite-shaped fish features edible fins. The flesh is firm, white, and


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       sweet, similar to the texture and taste of scallop. Also called "Skate."

       •     Skil - This saltwater fish has a soft-textured flesh and a mild flavor. Its high fat
       content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also "black cod" and "sablefish," although
       it is not a cod.

       •    Skipjack Tuna - Also called the "oceanic bonito," "watermelon," and "Arctic
       bonito," this small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a light-colored meat similar to yellowfin.
       The Japanese call this fish "katsuo" and the Hawaiians call it "aku."

       •   Skokiaan is a strong, home-brewed alcoholic liquer fermented with yeast in
       South Africa.

       •    Skunk Cabbage - A perennial herb of the arum family. Its thick leaf stalk is
       used in salads after it has been boiled in two or more changes of water. Also known
       as "swamp cabbage."

       •   Slaughter porter is a dark, roasted, malty porter produced by the Freeminer
       brewery, Gloucestershire.
       •   Sliver - To cut foods into thin strips.
   q    Sloe Gin - A liqueur made by steeping gin with crushed sloes. "Sloes" are wild
        European plums with an extremely tart flesh.

       •    Smelt - A rich and oily mild-flavored fish. Popular varieties of smelt include
       "Eulachon" and "Whitebait." The eulachon is called the "candlefish" because
       Indians sometimes run a wick through their high-fat flesh and use them for candles.

       •    Smiles best bitter is a rich, brown-coloured, clean-tasting, sweetish bitter with
       a dry, bitter finish from the Bristol brewery.
       •    Smuggler is a bitter-sweet, hoppy, fruity beer from the Rebellion brewery,
       Buckinghamshire.

       •  Snail - Popular since prehistoric times, the snail was greatly favored by ancient
       Romans who set aside special vineyards where snails could feed and fatten.

       •   Snap Bean - A small green bean that is eaten in its long green pod. The snap
       bean used to have a fibrous "string" down the center of the pod; this characteristic
       has been bred out of the species. Also called "green bean" and "string bean."

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       •     Snapper - There are a few hundred species of this lean, firm-textured saltwater
       fish, 15 or so which are available in the U.S. The most popular snapper is the "red
       snapper." Some species of rockfish and tilefish are called snappers, but are not.

       •    Sneck lifter is a rich, dark malty premium bitter from the Jennings brewery in
       the Lake District. Also available in a bottle.

       •   Soba - A Japanese noodle made from buckwheat flour. The buckwheat gives
       soba a dark brownish gray color.

       •    Sockeye Salmon - Prized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a firm, red
       flesh. Also known as the "redeye salmon."

   q   Soft Drink - Any drink that is non-alcoholic. Although carbonation is not required,
       most people think of soft drinks as being effervescent.

       •    Softshell Crab - The "soft-shell crab" is actually the blue crab caught just after
       molting (discarding its shell). This crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It
       is sold in both its soft and hard-shell stages.

       •    Sole - A popular flatfish with a delicate flesh with a firm, fine texture. The best-
       known variety is "Dover sole" (also called "channel sole)." Much of what is sold as
       "sole" in the U.S. is actually a variety of flounder, which isn't a true sole.

       •     Sorghum - A genus of cereal grasses with a large number of species,
       cultivated throughout the world for food, forage, and syrup. It is the world's third
       largest food grain.

       •    Sorghum Syrup - The stalks of the cereal grass sorghum can be boiled down
       to produce a thick syrup which can be used as a table syrup and to sweeten baked
       goods. Also called "sorghum molasses."

       •   Sorrel - Any of several varieties of the hardy perennial herb from the
       buckwheat family. Also known as "dock." The most strongly flavored variety is "sour
       dock." The mildest form is called "dock sorrel," also known as "herb patience dock."

       •      SOS - Shefford Old Strong - is a malty, fruity real ale from B&T, Bedfordshire.


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      •   Soufflé - A light, airy mixture that is normally made by taking an egg yolk-
      based sauce that has been lightened by adding stiffly beaten egg whites. Souffles
      may be sweet or savory and served cold or hot.
      •   Souffle is a dish, either sweet or savoury, the essential ingredient of which is
      egg white beaten to a froth.

      •   Sour Cream - Also known as "dairy sour cream." This commercial product is
      made from homogenized pasteurized sweet cream to which a dairy culture has
      been added for souring.

      •   Soursop - The large, dark-green, slightly acidic and pulpy flesh of the fruit of a
      small West Indies tree called the soursop. Also called "guanabana."

      •   Souse Loaf - Well-cooked pig's head and feet that are chopped into small
      pieces, marinated in lime juice, chili pepper and salt, then pressed into a loaf.

      •   Southern Comfort is an American liqueur based upon whisky flavoured with
      peaches.

      •   Soy Flour - A very high-protein, low carbohydrate flour made from soybeans.
      Soy flour has approximately twice the protein of wheat flour.

      •   Soy Milk - This milky, iron-rich liquid is the product of pressing cooked and
      ground soybeans. Soy milk is higher in protein than cow's milk. It is cholesterol-free
      and low in calcium, fat, and sodium.

      •   Soy Sauce - A dark, salty sauce made from fermenting boiled soybeans and
      roasted wheat or barley. Extremely popular in the Orient; used to flavor fish, meat,
      marinades, sauces, soups, and vegetables.

      •     Soybean - The world's most important bean is the low carbohydrate, high-
      protein soybean. This inexpensive, yet nutritious legume is used to make soybean
      oil, soy flour, soy sauce, miso, tamari, and tofu. Can also be used like any other
      bean.

      •   Soybean Curd Cake - A low-calorie, high-protein, cholesterol-free food made
      from curdled soy milk. It is creamy white with a firmness that varies from soft to firm.
      Should be kept refrigerated. The water it is packed in should be changed daily.


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      •   Soybean Oil - An inexpensive oil that is nutritious and has a high smoke point.
      Soybean oil is approximately 58% polyunsaturated fat, 23% monounsaturated, and
      15% saturated fat. Used extensively in making margarine and shortening.

      •     Spaghetti - Like its cousin "macaroni," spaghetti is made from semolina and
      water. Sometimes eggs are added. The name comes from the italian word for
      "strings."

      •    Spaghetti Squash - This creamy-yellow watermelon-shaped squash is so
      named because its flesh, when cooked, separates into yellow-gold spaghetti-like
      strands. Avoid greenish squash (indicating immaturity).

      •     Spaghettini - A thin form of the spaghetti pasta. It is not quite as thin as
      vermicelli, however. Other spaghettis include "fettuccine" and "linguine," which are
      flat rather than round.

      •   Spinach - An annual potherb from southwestern Asia grown for its leafy green
      leaves. Spinach can be used raw, or cooked by boiling or sautéing. Its leaves
      contains small amounts of oxalic acid which gives spinach a slightly bitter flavor.

      •   Spinnaker bitter is a smooth, hoppy ale, one of the Brewery-on-Sea's range of
      cask beers. Brewed at Lancing, Sussex.
      •   Spitfire is an amber-coloured, mild, smoky malt ale from the Shepherd Neame
      brewery, Kent.

      •    Split Peas - A variety of yellow or green field pea that is grown specifically for
      drying. These peas are often dried and split along a natural seam, whereupon they
      are called "split peas" and are used in soups and other dishes.

      •    Sponge Gourd - The fruit of any of several tropical vines of the gourd family.
      The dried insides of these gourds can be used as a sponge. Also called the
      "Luffah."

      •   Spot - A small fish (approximately 1.5 pounds) belonging to the drum family. In
      1925, these fish appeared in New York harbor in such vast numbers that they
      clogged the condenser pumps of the electric company and caused a blackout.

      •       Spruce beer is an alcoholic beverage prepared by boiling sugar with essence

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      of spruce, cooling and fermenting with yeast. It was popular in Canada in the timber
      regions during the early 20th century.

      •    Squab - A young domesticated pigeon that has never flown and is therefore
      very tender. Squabs are normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old. May be
      prepared in any manner suitable for chicken.

      •    Squash Seeds - The edible seeds of the pumpkin. These seeds are hulled to
      reveal a green seed with a delicate nutty flavor. These seeds are often roasted and
      salted. Also called "pepitas," these seeds are popular in Mexican cookery.

      •    Squid - This ten-armed cephalopod is related to the octopus and the cuttlefish.
      Squid varies in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm and chewy,
      with a somewhat sweet flavor. Over-cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.

      •    Squirrel - An abundant, largely arboreal rodent. Red and gray squirrels are
      commonly eaten in the U.S. The gray squirrel is fatter and has a flavor considered
      by many as superior to the red squirrel. Squirrels do not have a strong "gamey"
      taste.

      •   Stabber's is a brown, strong bitter with a rich, malty navour from the Ryburn
      brewery, West Yorkshire.
      •   Stag is a light-brown, malty, sweet bitter from the Exmoor brewery in
      Wiveliscombe, Somerset.

      •    Star Apple - The purple, white, green, yellow, or rose-colored fruit of a West
      Indian tree. When cut open, the seeds are disposed into the shape of a star. Also
      called "caimit."

      •    Steaming is the practice of cooking by indirect moist heat.
      •    Steeplejack is a light-brown cask bitter with a fresh, hoppy taste, from the
      Lichfield brewery in the Midlands.
      •    Stewing is a method of cooking somewhat similar to boiling. Less water is
      used, however, and the juices and food values are drawn out, whereas in boiling
      they are sealed in. It is an economical but slow method of cooking meat.
      •    Stig swig is a golden, seasonal ale brewed by Bunces brewery, Wiltshire,
      using the herb Sweet Gale (bog-myrtle) , an old Viking ingredient.
      •    Stilton is an English, strong cheese named after the village of Stilton, but

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      actually first made in Leicestershire.
      •    Stir-Fry - Any dish that has been prepared by stir-frying. That is, the food is
      chopped into small pieces and cooked very quickly over high heat in a large pan for
      a short period of time while briskly stirring the food.
      •    Stones Bitter is a famous straw-coloured bitter with a sweet, malt and hops
      flavour. It was introduced by the Cannon Sheffield brewery in the 1940s.

      •    Strawberry - This hardy member of the rose family is a red, juicy sweet-tart
      berry. The French "European Alpine" strawberries are tiny, very sweet berries and
      are considered the finest. Eaten out-of-hand, used in wines, liqueurs, and in
      desserts.

      •     Strega is an Italian liqueur so called because it is supposedly based upon a
      witch's recipe for an aphrodisiac which will bind two lovers together for ever (Strega
      is Italian for Witch). It is a yellow, syrupy, citrus based drink with a complex blend of
      herbs.

      •    String Bean - A small bean that is eaten in its long green pod. Named after the
      fibrous "string" that used to grow down the center of the pod; this characteristic has
      since been bred out of the species. Also called "green beans" and "snap beans."

      •    Striped Bass - This true bass is found along the Atlantic coast. It features six
      to eight horizontal stripes and provides a moderately fat, firm flesh with a mild,
      sweet flavor.

      •   Stroganoff - A dish of thinly sliced beef (usually tenderloin or top loin), onions,
      and mushrooms sautéed in a combination of butter and sour-cream sauce. Often
      served with a rice pilaf. Invented by Count Paul Stroganoff in the 19th century.

      •    Strong Suffolk is an intriguing, unique, complex bottled ale which comes from
      Greene King brewery of East Anglia. It is produced by blending an old ale that has
      been matured in oak vats for at least two years with a fresh brew of dark beer.
      •    Strongarm is Camerons premium ruby bitter with a smooth, creamy head from
      Hartlepool. It was originally brewed for the steelworkers of Teesside.
      •    Stronghart is a rich, dark, strong beer produced by the McMullen brewery in
      Hertford.

      •       Strudel - This German word for "whirlpool" refers to a pastry made of layers of

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      thin dough spread with a filling, then rolled up and baked. The extremely thin pastry
      resembles Phyllo.

      •   Stuffing - A mixture of seasoned breadcrumbs, cornbread, rice, potatoes, or
      other food item used to stuff fish, meat, poultry, shellfish, and sometimes,
      vegetables.

      •     Sturgeon - A name for various migratory species of fish know for its rich, high-
      fat flavor, firm texture, and excellent roe. Their average weight is 60 pounds, but
      one freshwater "Beluga" sturgeon was 26 feet long and weighed 3,221 pounds.

      •       Succotash - A dish composed of a combination of lima beans and corn.

      •    Sucker - A name popularly applied to various types of freshwater fish closely
      related to carp. Suckers live and feed near the bottoms of streams. They may be
      cooked in any way appropriate for other fish.

      •   Suet is the fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys of oxen and sheep. It is used in
      cooking.

      •   Sugar Beet - A type of beet with a very high sugar content that is cultivated
      primarily for making sugar. Most varieties of sugar beet are white inside and out
      and can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable, just like ordinary garden beets.

      •    Sugar Cane - A tall grass of tropical and warm regions with tough, jointed
      stalks that can be processed to produce sugar.

      •       Sugar is a sweet, soluble carbohydrate.

      •    Sugar Substitute - Also called "non-nutritive sweeteners," sugar substitutes
      are used by persons with reasons for avoiding or restricting their intake of sugar.
      "Saccharin" and "aspartame" are two common sugar substitutes.

      •   Summer Lightning is a striking, strong pale bitter which comes from the Hop
      Back brewery, near Salisbury, Wiltshire.

      •   Summer Squash - The fruit of various members of the gourd family. Summer
      squash has a thin edible skin, soft seeds, high water content, and a mild flavor.

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      •   Summer Squash - The fruit of various members of the gourd family. Summer
      squash has a thin edible skin, soft seeds, high water content, and a mild flavor.

      •    Summerskills best bitter is a good, brown-coloured, malt and hops bitter from
      the South Devon.

      •    Sunchoke - This vegetable is a member of the sunflower family i s also known
      as a "sunchoke" and has a flesh that is nutty, sweet, and crunchy. Also called
      "Jerusalem artichoke," although it is not an artichoke.

      •   Sundae - Ice cream topped with syrup, nuts, and whipped cream. In the 19th
      century, moralists decried the drinking of carbonated beverages--including ice
      cream sodas--on Sundays. Vendors removed the soda, added toppings, and
      changed the spelling.

      •    Sunfish - Any of a number of North American freshwater fish closely related to
      the perch. Known for their bright, sunny colors and interesting shapes, popular
      varieties include "Bluegill," "Crappie," and "Calico Bass," commonly called
      "Sunnies."

      •    Sunflower - These bright yellow flowers turn and track the sun throughout the
      day. The seeds are either roasted or dried, salted or unsalted. The seeds
      (excluding the shell) are 47% oil and 24% protein by weight.

      •    Sunflower Oil - The pale yellow mild-flavored oil derived from sunflower
      seeds. This oil is high in polyunsaturated fat and low in saturated fat. Used in
      cooking and in salad dressings. Not well suited for frying because of its low smoke
      point.

      •       Sura is a drink made from the fermented sap from various species of palm.

      •       Surimi - Imitation crab meat processed from fish.

      •    Surinam Cherry - The yellow to deep red, cherry-like fruit of a Brazilian tree of
      the myrtle family. These fruit, which are now grown in the U.S., are slightly acid and
      are eaten out-of-hand and used in jams and jellies. Also called "pitanga."

      •       Sussex bitter is a light-coloured, tasty bitter from the King & Barnes brewery in

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      Horsham, Sussex.
      •   Sussex mild is a dark-brown, malty mild from Harveys brewery, Lewes,
      Sussex.

      •    Swamp Cabbage - A perennial herb of the arum family. Its thick leaf stalk is
      used in salads after it has been boiled in two or more changes of water. Also known
      as "skunk cabbage."

      •   Swedish Meatballs - A combination of ground meat (often a combination of
      beef, pork, or veal), sautéed onions, milk-soaked breadcrumbs, beaten eggs, and
      seasonings. The mixture is formed into small balls, then sautéed until brown.

      •    Swedish Turnip - A root vegetable from the mustard family that resembles a
      large turnip. This vegetable can be prepared any way that turnips can be cooked.
      Also called "Swedish turnips."

      •    Sweet and Sour Sauce - A sauce that has a flavor intended to balance sweet
      with pungent. This is usually accomplished by using sugar and vinegar. This type of
      sauce is often served over meat, fish, or vegetables.

      •    Sweet Pepper - Any of a wide variety of mildly-flavored peppers, including
      "bell peppers," "pimiento," "bull's horn," "Cubanell," and the "sweet banana pepper."

      •   Sweet Potato - There are many varieties of sweet potato, which are in-
      appropriately called (and labeled) "yams," which they are not. True yams are
      unrelated to sweet potatoes.

      •   Sweetbread is the name given to the pancreas, or thymus of the calf or lamb
      used as a food.

      •     Sweetsop - Also known as "Sugar Apple," this is the sweet pulpy fruit of a
      tropical American tree. The skin of this heart-shaped fruit is sweet and custard-like.
      It is similar in flavor to a mild cherimoya. Eaten raw and in desserts and in ices.

      •    Swiss Chard - Another name for "chard," a type of beet that doesn't develop
      the swollen, fleshy roots of ordinary beets. This vegetable is grown for its large
      leaves which are used much like other green vegetables.



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      •    Swiss Cheese - A term for cheeses that have a pale yellow, slightly nutty-
      flavored flesh and large holes. Switzerland is famous for two cheeses:
      "Emmentaler," and "Gruyère." Swiss cheeses are prized for their excellent melting
      properties.

      •    Swiss roll is a sponge cake spread with jam, cream, or some other filling, and
      rolled up.

      •   Swiss Steak - Round or chuck steak that has been tenderized by pounding,
      coated with flour, and browned on both sides. The meat is then smothered in
      chopped tomatoes, onions, carrots, celery, broth, and seasonings, then baked for
      about two hours.

      •    Swizzle stick is a small rod used to stir or agitate a fizzy drink to help release
      the bubbles of carbon dioxide.

      •    Swordfish - A saltwater food and sport fish with mild-flavored, moderately fat
      flesh. The flesh is red, dense, and meat-like. Thanks to its firmness, swordfish can
      be prepared by baking, broiling, grilling, poaching, or sautéing.

      •   Syllabub is a British cold dessert made from milk or cream beaten with sugar,
      wine, and lemon juice.

      •   Szechuan Sauce - A sauce prepared with the Szechuan pepper. This pepper
      (and therefore the sauce) has a very distinctive mildly hot flavor and aroma.

                                                                       T
      •       Tabasco: Hot red pepper sauce. (brand name)

      •   Table Queen Squash - An oval winter squash with a ribbed, dark green skin
      and slightly sweet orange flesh. May be eaten baked or directly from the shell. Also
      known as "acorn squash."

      •   Table Queen Squash - An oval winter squash with a ribbed, dark green skin
      and slightly sweet orange flesh. May be eaten baked or directly from the shell. Also
      known as "acorn squash."



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      •   Taddy Porter is a distinctive dark-brown, rich, dry, bottled porter from Samuel
      Smith's, Yorkshire.
      •   Tafia is a low quality spirit resembling rum, produced from lower grades of
      mollases, refuse brown sugar etc.

      •   Tahini - A thick paste made of ground sesame seed. Popular in the Middle
      East in a number of specialties, including "hummus" and "babghanoush."

      •    Taleggio Cheese - A rich semi-soft cheese made from whole cow's milk. This
      cheese is approximately 48% fat and has a flavor that ranges from mild to strong,
      with the flavor increasing with age. Often served with salads and fruit.

      •       Tallow - The harder and less fusible fat in animals and vegetables.

      •   Tally Ho is a rich, warming barley wine brewed by Adnams at Christmas.
      Palmer's of Dorset also brew a dark nutty ale which is sold under the same name.
      •   Tamal is a Mexican dish of crushed maize with pieces of meat or chicken, red
      pepper etc., wrapped in corn husks and baked or steamed.

      •  Tamari - A dark, thicker form of soy sauce with a distinctive mellow flavor.
      Used as a dipping sauce, for basting, and as a table condiment.

      •   Tamarind - Also called an "Indian Date," this large pod features small seeds
      and a pulp that is extremely sour when dried. Used in East India and the Middle
      East the way lemon juice is used in the West. Used in chutneys, curries, and
      preserves.

      •    Tangelo - A cross between a tangerine and the pomelo. This fruit contains only
      a few seeds and provides a juicy, sweetly tart taste.

      •   Tangerine - A thin-skinned citrus fruit descended from the mandarin orange. It
      has a delicate, somewhat spicy tart. Named after the African city of Tangiers (even
      though they originated in China).

      •   Tanglefoot is a toe-tingling strong, sweet, amber bitter brewed at the Badger
      brewery, Blandford St Mary, Dorset, by Hall & Woodhouse.
      •   Tapioca is a starchy granular foodstuff prepared from cassava and used in


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       puddings. The name comes from the Brazilian word tipioca which translates as
       juice of cassava. The tapioca is obtained by pulping the root, washing it out and
       collecting the starch which is then dried on heated plates.

       •    Taro - A high-starch tuber grown in West Africa. The American variety is called
       "dasheen." Although acrid in the raw state, taro has a nut-like flavor when cooked.
       "Poi" is made from taro root. Taro can be boiled, fried, baked, and used in soup.

       •   Taro Leaf - The large "elephant ear" leaves of the taro that are edible when
       young.

       •  Tarpon - A large, powerful game fish from the warmer waters of the Atlantic
       Ocean.

       •    Tarragon - A distinctive, aromatic perennial herb often called "French
       tarragon." Used in butter, chowders, juices, marmalades, fish, poultry, meat, soups,
       vegetables, and sauces such as "bérnaise." A little of this spice goes a long way.

       •   Tartar Sauce - A creamy white sauce composed of mayonnaise, minced
       capers, dill pickles, onions or shallots, olives, and lemon juice or vinegar and other
       seasonings. Tartar sauce is often served as an accompaniment to fried fish.

   q   Tea - Tea was used 4,000 years ago in China to flavor water that had been boiled
       (to make it safe). Americans invented tea bags and iced tea. All tea is a single
       species--the climate, soil, and processing creates the individual characteristics.

       •    Teaseed Oil - The oil pressed from the seed of a small Chinese tree of the
       Camellia family (C. oleifera). This commercial tea oil is said to equal olive oil in
       quality and is used in a similar manner.

       •    Teff Flour - The flour produced by grinding the seeds of the teff, a northern
       African grass cultivated for its seeds.

       •      Teff Seed - The seed of the North African teff plant.

       •      Tempeh - A fermented soybean cake used in Indonesian cooking.

       •      Tempura - A Japanese specialty prepared by deep frying fish and vegetables


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       that have been dipped in tempura batter. The resulting batter is light, thin, and
       crispy. Usually served with rice and soy sauce.

       •    Tendergreens - An herb of the mustard family whose leaves are cooked and
       eaten like spinach. Americans cultivate this plant for its leaves; Asians cultivate it
       also for its thick, tuberous crown, which they pickle. Also called "mustard greens."

   q   Tequila - Originally from Tequila, Mexico, tequila is a colorless or pale straw-
       colored liquor made by fermenting and distilling the sap of the agave plant.

       •   Teriyaki Sauce - A Japanese sauce made of soy sauce, sake or sherry, sugar,
       ginger, and seasonings. Used as a marinade for chicken and beef. The sugar often
       gives the sauce a slight glazed appearance.

       •    Terrapin - This eight-inch long freshwater turtle is considered by many to have
       the best meat among turtles. Its flesh is often pounded and served like steak.

       •     Tesvino is a variety of maize beer, prepared by the Indians in mexico and
       Central America.
       •     Tetley Bitter is a pale-amber, hoppy, fruity bitter traditionally served through a
       tight tap to give a creamy head. It is brewed by Tetley in Leeds, Yorkshire.
       •     Tetley mild is an amber, hoppy mild with a malt finish, produced by Tetley,
       Leeds.
       •     Theakston best bitter is a bright-gold, soft bitter with a nutty flavour, which
       originally came from the North Yorkshire Theakston brewery in Masham. It is now
       also brewed by Scottish Courage in Newcastle.

       •   Thuringer Cervelat - A fresh, smoked sausage named after the former
       German region of Thuringia. Coriander (also called "cilantro") is an important spice
       used in this variety of sausage.

       •   Thyme - Two popular members of this mint family herb are "garden thyme"
       and "wild thyme." Both varieties are used widely in cooking and to season
       vegetables, meats, poultry, fish, soups, and sauces. It is the key ingredient to
       "bouquet garni."

   q   Tia Maria - A dark-brown, rum-based liqueur from Jamaica that features a strong
       coffee flavor.

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       •    Tilefish - This low-fat Atlantic fish is delicately flavored and has a flesh that is
       firm yet tender. Available fresh and frozen, in steaks and fillets. Suitable for just
       about any cooking method.

       •    Tilsit Cheese - A cheese that was accidentally created when Dutch immigrants
       were trying to make "gouda." This mild cheese is made from pasteurized milk. A
       very strong called "Farmhouse Tilsit" is made from raw milk and is aged 5 months.

       •    Timbale is a dish of minced meat, or fish cooked in a drum-shaped mould of
       pastry.
       •    Toby is a light mild brewed by Bass.
       •    Toddy is a drink made from the fresh or fermented sap of various species of
       palm.
       •    Toffee is a sweet of sugar, butter and flavourings boiled together and then
       allowed to cool and harden.

       •    Tofu - A low-calorie, high-protein, cholesterol-free food made from curdled soy
       milk. It is creamy white with a sliceable firmness that varies from soft to firm. Tofu
       should be kept refrigerated: the water it is packed in should be changed daily.

   q   Tokay - A famous wine from Tokay, a town in Hungary. Louis XIV said Tokay was
       "the wine of kings and the king of wines." 28 villages in Hungary have the right to
       call the vine they produce "tokay."

       •   Tomatillo - A small fruit, also called the "Mexican tomato," that is related to the
       tomato and the cape gooseberry. Their flavor is said to resemble a cross between
       lemon, apple, and herbs. Used in guacamole and many sauces.

       •   Tomato - A fruit from the nightshade family (like the potato and eggplant). The
       U.S. government classified it as a vegetable for trade purposes in 1893. Tomatoes
       should not be refrigerated--the cold adversely affects the flavor and the flesh.

       •   Tomato Paste - The paste that results from cooking tomatoes for several
       hours, then straining them and reducing them to a thick red, richly flavored
       concentrate.

       •      Tomato Puree - Tomatoes that have been cooked briefly, then strained.


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       •    Tomato Sauce - A slightly thinner tomato puree, often mixed with seasonings
       to facilitate their use in other sauces and dishes.

   q    Tonic - Carbonated water that is sometimes flavored with fruit extracts, sugar, and
        a small amount of quinine, a bitter alkaloid. Tonic water is popular as a mixer. It is
        also called "quinine water."
       •    Top hat is a malty, nutty bitter brewed by Burtonwood PLC at Burtonwood,
       near Warrington.
       •    Topsy-Turvy is a strong ale from the small Berrow brewery at Burnham-on-
       Sea, Somerset.

       •    Torsk - A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also
       called "cusk."

       •     Torte - A rich multi-layered cake made with little or no flour, but with ground
       nuts, breadcrumbs, eggs, sugar, and flavorings. The word "torte" is also used to
       describe some tart-like preparations.
       •     Tortilla is a Latin American thin flat cake made of maize flour and baked on a
       flat piece of stone or iron.
       •     Toss: To mix with a rising and falling action.

       •    Tostada Shell - A flat, crisp-fried flour or corn tortilla shell. This serves as the
       base upon which tostadas are created by adding refried beans, shredded chicken
       or beef, lettuce, tomatoes, cheese, sour cream, guacamole, and other ingredients.

       •    Tournedos is a small piece of fillet beef grilled or sauteed.
       •    T'owd Tup is a dark-coloured, strong old ale from the Dent brewery in the
       Yorkshire Dales.
       •    Traditional ale is a light-brown ale of a range of cask beers from the Larkins
       brewery in Kent. Traditional ale is a smooth, hoppy, copper-coloured bitter with a
       strong malt character and a dry after-taste, produced by Clark brewery in
       Wakefield, West Yorkshire.
       •    Traditional English Ale (TEA) is a light-brown, malty, fruity ale from the Hogs
       Back brewery in Tongham, Surrey.
       •    Trappistine is a liquer prepared by the Trappist monks of certain French
       monasteries. Two varieties are produced; green and yellow.
       •    Treacle is an uncrystallised syrup produced when sugar is refined.

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       •   Tree Fern - Any of various ferns, mostly tropical, that grow as large as trees,
       sending up a straight trunk-like stem.

       •    Tree Oyster Mushroom - This fan-shaped mushroom is often grows on rotting
       tree trunks. This fungus is fairly robust and slightly peppery when raw, but is
       becomes much milder when cooked. Also known as "oyster mushroom."

       •    Trelawny's pride is a light, mild-flavored cask bitter from the St Austell
       brewery, Cornwall.
       •    Trifle is a sweet dish of sponge-cakes flavored with wine or jam and topped
       with custard and whipped cream.

       •    Tripe - The stomach lining of beef, pork, or sheep. Beef tripe is the most
       commonly available. Tripe is tough and requires long cooking. It is the prime
       ingredient for menu do (tripe soup).

   q   Triple Sec - A strong, clear liqueur with an orange flavor similar to Curacao. It is
       used in making Margaritas.

       •    Triticale - A nutritious hybrid of wheat and rye which contains more protein and
       less gluten than wheat. Normally found in health food stores, it is available as whole
       berries, flakes, and flour. Used in cereals, casseroles, and pilafs.

       •    Triticale Flour - The flour made from triticale. Because this flour is low in
       gluten, bread made from triticale flour is very heavy. For this reason, it is usually
       combined half-and-half with wheat flour.

       •   Trout - A delicately flavored fish that belongs to the same family as salmon
       and whitefish. Most are freshwater, but some are marine (sea trout). The very
       popular "rainbow trout" has been transplanted from California to many different
       countries.

       •   Truss: To bind poultry for roasting with string or skewers.
       •   Tsipouro is a rough Greek spirit resembling raki, sometimes flavoured with
       mastic gum.

       •      Tumeric - A slightly bitter spice taken from the root of a plant in the ginger

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      family. Usually available ground, this spice is used to flavor baked goods, curries,
      fish, poultry, gravies, salads, and dressings.

      •    Tun is a large cask for holding liquids, especially wine, ale or beer. A tun is
      also a measure of capacity, equivalent to 252 wine gallons. In London a tun of beer
      was two butts.

      •   Tuna - A saltwater fish related to the mackerel. Probably the most popular fish
      used in canning today. Tunas have a distinctive rich-flavored flesh that is
      moderately high in fat and has a firmly textured flaky but tender flesh.

      •    Tunka - The melon-like fruit of a tropical Asian vine belonging to the gourd
      family. Also called "white gourd."

      •    Turbinado Sugar - A raw sugar that has been steam-cleaned. The coarse
      crystals are blond in color and have a delicate molasses flavor.

      •   Turkey - An American game bird from the pheasant family that has been
      domesticated. Self-basting turkeys have been injected with butter or vegetable oil.
      "Roaster-fryers" (6 - 8 lb. birds), are becoming more popular for everyday fare.

      •    Turnip - A cool-weather, white-fleshed root vegetable that is easy to grow. The
      so-called "yellow turnip" is actually a rutabaga. Choose smaller turnips because
      young turnips have a delicate, somewhat sweet flavor that becomes stronger with
      age.

      •    Turnip Greens - The green tops of the turnip plant. These greens start out
      slightly sweet, but become stronger-tasting and tougher with age. These greens
      may be served boiled, sautéed, steamed, or stir-fried.

      •    Turnip-Rooted Parsley - A parsley subspecies grown for its beige carrot-like
      root which tastes somewhat like a cross between a carrot and celery. Used in stews
      and soups. Also eaten as a vegetable. Also called "parsley root."

      •    Turtle - Any of several varieties of shelled reptiles that live on land, in
      freshwater, or in the sea. Turtles can weigh over 1,000 pounds. Sea or Green
      Turtles are best known as food.



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      •    Turtle Beans - Also known as "black beans" and "black turtle beans," these
      beans have black skin, cream-colored flesh, and a sweet flavor that forms the base
      for black bean soup.

      •    Tusk - A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also
      called "cusk."

      •    Tybo Cheese - A mild-flavored Danish Cow's milk cheese. It features a cream-
      colored inside that is dotted with holes. This cheese goes well with sandwiches,
      salads, sauces, and many cooked dishes. Sometimes flavored with caraway seeds.

      •  Tzimmes is a Jewish stew of sweetened vegetables or vegetables and fruit,
      sometimes with meat.
                                                                      U
      •       Udon - This is the Japanese word for "noodle."

      •   Umbel ale is a coriander-spiced beer from the Nethergate brewery in Glare,
      Suffolk. There is also a stronger version, Umbel Magna.
      •   Unsaturated fat: A kind of fat that is in liquid form at room temperature.
      •   Ushers best bitter is a golden-brown, hoppy bitter from the Ushers Wiltshire
      brewery.
                                                                      V
      •   Valiant is a golden, slightly fruity bitter with a bitter hops flavour, from the
      Bateman brewery in Lincolnshire.

      •    Vanilla - There are over 20,000 types of orchid, but only one produces
      anything edible--the vanilla plant. "Vanilla extract" comes from macerating beans
      into an alcohol/water solution. "Imitation vanilla" comes from treated wood-pulp
      byproducts.

      •   Varsity is a cask beer with a good balance of sweet and bitter tastes, from the
      Morrells brewery, Oxford.

      •    Veal - Calves that are slaughtered from 1 - 3 months of age. "Milk-fed" veal are
      unweaned calves. "Bob veal" is under a month old; "baby beef" is 6 - 12 months
      old. To keep their flesh from darkening, these animals are not fed grains or grasses.

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       •   Vegetable Marrow - This edible squash-like gourd, also known as "marrow
       squash," is related to the zucchini. It has a bland flavor and is often stuffed with a
       meat filling.

       •    Vegetable Oil - Any of a wide variety of non-animal oils. Most vegetable oils--
       with the exception of coconut and palm oils--are lower in saturated fats than are
       animal-derived oils.

       •     Vegetable Oyster Plant - Also known as "salsify," this biennial herb is
       cultivated for its root which is used as a vegetable. Its taste hints of a delicately
       flavored oyster. Can be found in the U.S. in Spanish, Italian, and Greek markets.

       •   Veloute: (French) A sauce made with veal stock, cream, and tightened with a
       white roux.

       •   Venison - This term covers the meat from antelope, caribou, elk, deer, moose,
       and reindeer. Venison is probably the most popular large game meat eaten today.

       •   Verjuice is the name given to the harsh juice of the unripe grapes used in wine
       making.

       •   Vermicelli - Italian for "little worms." Vermicelli is a very thin spaghetti-shaped
       pasta.

   q    Vermouth - A white wine that has been steeped with an infusion of herbs, plants,
        roots, leaves, peels, seed, and flowers. It has a aroma and taste designed to be
        served as an apértif (appetizer).
       •    Vert: (French) Green.
       •    Viande: (French) Meat.
       •    Vice Beer is a wheat beer brewed by Bunces brewery, Wiltshire.
   q    Vichy - A sparkling mineral water from Vichy, France.

       •      Vienna Sausage - A small frankfurter, often served as an hors d'oeuvre.

       •   Viking is a hoppy, malty, cask beer with a fruity finish, from the Rudgate
       brewery, near York.
       •   Village bitter is a light, hoppy bitter brewed by Archers of Swindon.

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       •   Vinaigrette - A basic oil-and-vinegar dressing that includes salt and pepper.
       More elaborate variations include herbs, shallots, onions, mustard, and spices.

       •    Vine Spinach - An edible leaf from a tropical plant that is cultivated in certain
       parts of France. Vine spinach may be prepared in any manner appropriate for
       spinach. Also called "basella."

       •   Vinegar - A weak solution of acetic acid and water used in pickling, preserving,
       tenderizing, and to add a sour flavor to foods. Cleopatra dissolved a perfect pearl in
       vinegar and drank it in front of Mark Antony as a demonstration of her wealth.

   q   Vodka - A clear, colorless, almost odorless unaged liquor made from potatoes, and
       sometimes from corn, rye, or wheat.
                                                                   W
       •   Waffle - Pancake batter cooked in a special hinged cooking utensil called a
       "waffle iron" which cooks both sides at once and gives waffles their honeycombed
       syrup-catching surface. Belgian waffles are often heaped with fruits and whipped
       cream.

       •      Waggle dance is a golden honey beer brewed by Ward's of Sheffield for Vaux.

       •   Wakami - A dried seaweed. Wakami is soaked in cold water before it is
       served. It is often served with cucumbers, miso, and vinegar. Also used in soups.
       Popular in Japanese cooking.

       •   Waldorf Salad: A salad made with apples, celery, nuts, whip cream, and
       mayonnaise on a bed of lettuce.
       •   Wallop is a fresh, fruity, light bitter with a hoppy finish, from the Whitby
       brewery, North Yorkshire.

       •    Walnut Oil - This expensive oil is pressed from walnuts and has a distinctive
       nutty flavor and fragrance. Used in salad dressings, sauces, baked goods, and for
       sautéing.

       •   Ward's mild is a malty cask ale brewed by Ward's, a traditional Sheffield
       brewery.

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      •    Wasabi - A Japanese horseradish that is dried, powdered, and made into a
      pale green paste with a sharp, pungent, extremely potent flavor. Often mixed with
      soy sauce and served as a condiment to sushi, sashimi, and other Japanese
      specialties.

      •    Wassail is a full-bodied draught and bottled beer from Ballard's, Sussex.
      Wassail is a spiced beverage prepared from roasted apples, sugar, toast, nutmeg
      and other spices and old ale. During the Anglo-Saxon and early English period
      wassail played an important part on all great festive occassions, such as Wassails.
      •    Wat Tyler is a dark brown coloured, hoppy, strong real ale from the Itchen
      Valley Brewery in Hampshire.

      •   Water Buffalo - A buffalo native to the Old World tropics with large flattened
      horns. Also called "water ox."

      •    Water Chestnut - The nut-like kernel of a water plant that grows in southeast
      Asia. The flesh is white, crisp, and juicy and has a bland, somewhat sweet nutty
      flavor. Their crunchy texture makes them popular in stir-fried dishes.

      •    Water Convulvolus - A perennial herb of the arum family. Its thick leaf stalk is
      used in salads after it has been boiled in two or more changes of water. Also known
      as "swamp cabbage."

      •   Watercress - A member of the mustard family that grows in running water.
      Watercress has small, crisp, green leaves and a pungent flavor with a slightly bitter
      peppery flavor. Use in salads, in cream soups, and to garnish vegetables.

      •   Watermelon - Originally from Africa, this melon has a sweet, moist red flesh.
      Asians roast the seeds, and pickled watermelon rind is popular in some parts of the
      world. If slapping the watermelon returns a resounding hollow thump, it is ripe.

      •   Watermelon - Originally from Africa, this melon has a sweet, moist red flesh.
      Asians roast the seeds, and pickled watermelon rind is popular in some parts of the
      world. If slapping the watermelon returns a resounding hollow thump, it is ripe.

      •    Water-souchy is a dish of fish (usually perch) boiled and served in its own
      liquor.


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      •   Wax Bean - A pale yellow variety of the green bean that is eaten with its pod.
      Also called the "butter bean."

      •   Welsh Onion - A species of onion with a bunching, leek-like interleaved bulb
      and tubular leaves. It is a perennial evergreen with a delicate flavor that can be
      used by breaking off leaves as the plant matures. Also called the "everlasting
      onion."

      •    Welsh Rabbit is a popular savoury of melted cheese on a slice of toast. It is
      often, erroneously, referred to as 'rare-bit'.

      •   Wheat - There are over 30,000 varieties of this ubiquitous grain. Cultivated for
      over 6,000 years, wheat is second only to rice as a grain staple. Wheat contains
      more gluten than other cereals, making it an excellent choice for bread making.

      •    Wheat Bran - The rough outer covering of the wheat kernel. Wheat bran is low
      in nutritional value but high in fiber. Wheat bran is sold separately and is used to
      add flavor and fiber to baked goods.

      •       Wheat Cake - A pancake made of wheat flour.

      •   Wheat Flour - A flour produced by milling the endosperm portion of the wheat
      kernel. "Whole wheat flour," which is more nutritious, is made by milling the entire
      kernel, including the outer covering, or "bran."

      •   Wheat Germ - The tiny nucleus of the endosperm (the inner part of the wheat
      kernel without the outer bran). Wheat germ has a nutty flavor and is a concentrated
      source of oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. Used to add nutrients to various foods.

      •    Wheat Gluten - The protein remaining after wheat flour has been washed to
      remove starch. Gluten helps hold in the gas bubbles produced by leavening agents.
      This is why bread flours contain high levels of gluten and cake flours contain low
      levels.

      •    Wheat Pilaf - A pilaf made from either the wheat berries (whole unprocessed
      kernels) or cracked wheat (the whole berries broken into coarse, medium, and fine
      parts).



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       •   Wheat, Parboiled - A nutritious staple in the Middle East, made of wheat
       kernels that have been steamed, dried, and crushed. It has a tender, chewy texture
       and can be made into a pilaf. Also called "bulghur."

       •    Whelk - A large marine snail that belongs to the mollusk family. The flavorful
       foot-like muscle is rather tough and must be tenderized by pounding. Look for whelk
       in Chinese or Italian markets or specialty food stores.

       •   Whey - The liquid part of milk that remains after the curd is removed. Most
       whey is further separated with the fattier parts used in making butter. Some whey is
       used to make "whey cheese" or "Ricotta cheese."

   q    Whiskey - A liquor produced from the fermented mash of grains such as barley,
        corn, and rye. Popular varieties of whiskey (spelled "whisky" in Canada and
        Scotland) include bourbon, Canadian whisky, Irish whiskey, rye, and scotch.
   q    Whiskey Sour - An alcoholic beverage made from whiskey, lemon juice, and a
        small amount of sugar. Sours can also be made with bourbon, gin, or rum, but the
        whiskey sour is the most popular.
       •    Whisky is an alcoholic beverage made from malted barley.
       •    Whistle belly vengeance is a malty reddish ale from Summerskills of South
       Devon.

       •    White Bean - A rather generic term that refers to any of several dried beans,
       including "marrow beans," "great northern beans," "navy beans," and "pea beans."

       •    White Chocolate - Not a true chocolate at all. It is, rather, a blend of sugar,
       cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin and vanilla. If a product does not contain cocoa
       butter, it isn't "white chocolate."

       •   White dolphin is a fruity wheat beer from the Hoskins & Oldfield brewery in
       Leicester.

       •    White Pepper - White peppercorn is somewhat less pungent than the black
       variety. After ripening, its skin is removed and the berry is dried. White pepper is
       used in light-colored sauces and dishes where black speckles could be unaesthetic.

       •    White Rice - Rice that has had the husk, bran, and germ removed. White rice
       is sometimes called "polished rice."


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   q   White Russian - An alcoholic beverage made by combining vodka, Kahlua (or
       other coffee liqueur), and cream. A Black Russian is similar, but contains no
       cream.

       •   White Sauce - A term for light white or blond sauces. In its simplest form, white
       sauce is cream or milk mixed into a white roux (a combination of butter and flour
       which isn't browned). This basic French sauce is called "béchamel."

       •    Whitefish - A high-fat, mild-flavored member of the salmon family with a firm
       white flesh. The whitefish can be poached, baked, broiled, grilled, pan fried, or
       stuffed. Its roe (eggs) can be cooked or made into caviar by adding salt.

       •    White-Flowered Gourd - A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called
       "bottle gourd" and "Calabash gourd." This gourd is used in the West Indies to
       produce a very popular syrup. Its shell is often used to create bowls and other
       utensils.

       •    White-Flowered Gourd - A common variety of hard-shelled gourd, also called
       "bottle gourd" and "Calabash gourd." This gourd is used in the West Indies to
       produce a very popular syrup. Its shell is often used to create bowls and other
       utensils.

       •   Whiting - A small gray and white saltwater fish sometimes called the "silver
       hake." This low-fat fish, which is related to both the "cod" and the "hake," has a
       tender white fine-textured flesh and a flaky, delicate flavor.

       •    Wild Rice - A plant from the same family as rice, but with a gray and brown
       grain that is about twice the length of ordinary rice grains. Wild rice has a unique,
       almost nutty flavor. Used to stuff game or poultry and served as a side dish.

       •    Willie Warmer is a fruity cask beer produced by Crouch Vale brewery, Essex.
       •    Wilmot's premium is a strong ale brewed by the Butcombe brewery near
       Bristol.
       •    Wiltshire traditional bitter is a dry, malty, hoppy bitter produced by the Gibbs
       Mews brewery in Salisbury, Wiltshire.
   q    Wine - An alcoholic beverage produced through the fermentation of grape juice.
        Other fruit and vegetable juices, such as dandelion and elderberry are also
        occasionally used in winemaking, an art the goes back at least 12,000 years.

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      •   Wine is the fermented juice of fruits, vegetables or flowers. The more important
      wines are fermented from grapes.

      •   Winged Bean - A fast-growing, high-protein legume. Also called the "goa
      bean." This bean is entirely edible, including the shoots, flower, roots, leaves, pods,
      and seeds. Tastes somewhat like a cross between the cranberry bean and the
      green bean.

      •    Winter Radish - A large plant thought to be of Oriental origin. These plants are
      grown chiefly for their pungent peppery root, which can get up to 2 pounds or more.
      This radish is popular in Germany and in the East. Also called "black radish."

      •   Winter Royal is Wethered's famous rich, fruity brew now brewed by Whitbread
      at Castle Eden, County Durham.
      •   Winter Warmer is a red-brown seasonal ale with a rich fruit and malt flavour
      and a sweetish aftertaste, produced by Young's in London.

      •   Witloof Chickory - The largest and most popular variety of "chicory," a
      vegetable with long silvery-white leaves. Used in salads and as a seasoning.

      •  Wobbly Bob is a robust cask beer from the Phoenix brewery, Heywood, near
      Manchester.

      •   Wolf Fish - A firm, white-fleshed saltwater fish with a large head, strong jaws,
      and sharp canine teeth and molars that can grind clams, whelks, and other
      mollusks. Sometimes sold in the U.S. under the confusing name of "ocean catfish."

      •   Won Ton Skin - Paper-thin round or square sheets of dough made from flour,
      eggs, and salt. Used as wrappers to make "won tons" and egg rolls. Won tons are
      small dumplings of thin dough around a minced mixture of meat, seafood, and/or
      vegetables.

      •   Worcestershire Sauce - This thin, dark sauce is made from garlic, soy sauce,
      tamarind, onion, molasses, lime, anchovies, vinegar and seasonings. Used to
      season meats, gravies, soups, and vegetables. It was first bottled in Worcester,
      England

      •       Worthington white shield is a bottle-conditioned, pale ale with a delicate,

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      yeasty, hoppy, malt flavour. It is now brewed at Mitchells and Butlers in
      Binningham. For years White Shield was the only widely available bottled pale ale
      which retained a sediment of yeast. This meant it was a living beer - a brewery in a
      bottle. It developed a complex character and required careful handling. Bar staff
      had to pour the ale steadily into the glass without disturbing the sediment - but
      some drinkers preferred their glass cloudy and added the yeast anyway. It was not
      just a beer but a ritual.
      •    Wye valley bitter is a bitter, hoppy cask bitter from the Wye Valley brewery in
      Hereford.
      •    Wykehams Glory is a brown coloured, malty real ale from the Itchen Valley
      Brewery in Hampshire.
                                                                      X
      •   Ximenia: A small plant found in hot climates in which there fruits are known as
      mountain plums or wild limes.
      •   XL Old Ale is a bottled Christmas beer from Holden's brewery in Woodsetton,
      West Midlands.
      •   XXX is a rare, dark, sweet, mild with a fruity finish, from the Donnington
      brewery near Stowon-the-Weld, Gloucestershire.
      •   XXXB Ale is a complex tasting premium bitter from the Bateman brewery in
      Lincolnshire.
      •   XXXX mild is a dark, malty beer from the St Austell brewery, Cornwall.
                                                                      Y
      •       Yakidofu - Grilled tofu (soybean curd cake).

      •    Yam - There are over 150 species of yams grown throughout the world. Most
      of "yams" sold in the U.S., however, are actually sweet potatoes. Yams are higher
      in sugar that sweet potatoes. Used in soups and stews, mashed, and fried.

      •    Yam Bean Tuber - Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a
      white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty
      flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Jicama."

      •       Yams: Sweet potato.

      •       Yankee Pot Roast - A "pot roast" is a piece of chuck or round cut that is

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      browned, then braised very slowly in a covered pot with a little liquid. A "Yankee pot
      roast" includes vegetables that are added part way through the cooking process.

      •    Yardlong Bean - A pencil-thin legume from the black-eye pea family that looks
      like a very long green bean. These beans can grow a yard long, but are usually
      picked at 18" or less. These beans are slightly less sweet and crispy as the green
      bean.

      •   Yeast - A single-celled organism that breaks its food down into alcohol and
      carbon dioxide in a process known as "fermentation." Brewers capitalize on the
      alcohol. Carbon dioxide gives beer and champagne effervescence and causes
      bread to rise.

      •     Yellow Mombin - The edible fruit of a tropical American tree that is plentiful in
      northeastern Brazil. It is bright yellow, oval, averages an inch long, and features a
      soft, juicy sub-acid pulp surrounding a large seed. Also called "hog plum."

      •   Yellowfin Tuna - These tuna reach about 300 pounds in weight. They feature
      a pale pink flesh that is relatively mild. Also called "ahi."

      •    Yellowtail - A large game fish (up to 100 pounds) from the jack family with a
      flavor and texture resembling tuna. May be prepared in any manner suitable for
      tuna.

      •    Yogurt - A curdled milk product made acid and thickened by adding bacterial
      cultures. Fruit-flavored yogurts account for the biggest share of the yogurt market.
      Originated accidentally by nomadic Balkan tribes, then purposefully to preserve
      milk.

      •     Yokan - A popular Japanese confection made from adzuki-bean paste and
      agar. Adzuki beans are small, dried, russet-colored beans with a sweet flavor. Agar
      is a thickening agent made from seaweed.

      •    Yorkshire pudding: A batter made with flour, eggs, salt, and milk that is baked
      with standing rib roast (prime rib).

      •    Youngberry - A hybrid variety of blackberry with a dark red color and a sweet
      juicy flesh.


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       •   Yuca - The yuca is a root with a crisp white flesh. There are two main
       categories of yuca: sweet and bitter. Bitter yucas are toxic until cooked. Yuca is
       used to make "cassreep" and "tapioca." Also called "cassava."

                                                                       Z
       •   Zabaglione - An ethereal dessert made by whisking egg yolks, Marsala wine,
       and sugar over simmering water to convert the eggs into a foamy custard. Called
       "Sabayon" in France.

       •   Zante Currant - This fruit of the Zante grape is a tiny, dark raisin. It comes
       from Corinth Greece and is used primarily in baked foods. The Zante Currant is
       unrelated to the other fruit called the "currant."

       •    Zest: Citrus rind.
   q    Zinfandel - A dry red wine with a fruity flavor that some compare to the flavor of
        raspberries.

       •      Ziti - Macaroni that has been shaped into long, thin tubes.

   q   Zombie - A very potent alcoholic beverage consisting of two types of rum, two
       types of liqueur, and two or three fruit juices. Normally garnished with slices of
       pineapple and orange and a Maraschino cherry.

       •    Zucchini - Green Italian squash. A popular summer squash with an off-white
       flesh with a light, somewhat bland flavor. Zucchini can be steamed, grilled, sautéed,
       deep-fried, and baked.

       •    Zwieback - "Zwieback" is the German word for "twice baked." Refers to bread
       that has been baked, then sliced and returned to the oven and cooked until very
       crisp and dry. Zwieback is popular for its easy digestibility.




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