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Human Geography By James Rubenstein

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Human Geography By James Rubenstein Powered By Docstoc
					         Human Geography
              By James Rubenstein
                    Chapter 8
                   Key Issue 4
               Why Has Terrorism
                   Increased?
January 23, 2013       S. Mathews   1
                    Terrorism
The systematic use of violence by a
   group in order to intimidate a
 population or coerce a government
     into granting its demands.
  Considered necessary to bring
  publicity to goals and grievances
      not otherwise addressed.
 January 23, 2013      S. Mathews   2
           Terrorism Defined
 The term “terror” is from
 the Latin “to frighten.”
 Victims of terrorism are a
 cross section of citizens who
 happen to be there at the
 time.
January 23, 2013   S. Mathews    3
Terrorism by Individuals
   and Organizations
It took the attack on the World
  Trade Center and Pentagon on
  September 11,2001. for most
  Americans to feel threatened
          by terrorism.

January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   4
                   September 11, 2001




January 23, 2013     S. Mathews     5
       American Terrorists
 Theodore J. Kazynski (the
 Unabomber) killed 3 and
 injured 23 with bombs in the
 mail over a 17 year period.
 Timothy McVeigh and Terry
 Nichols blew up the Oklahoma
 City Federal Building.
January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   6
Oklahoma City Memorial




January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   7
                    Al-Qaeda
 Responsible for the 9-11 attack.
 Network of terrorist founded by
 Osama bin Laden.
 According to current military
 authorities in Iraq, the Al-Qaeda
 in Iraq has little connection to
 that of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
 January 23, 2013     S. Mathews   8
 Al-Qaeda Cell Members
 Responsible for reconnaissance.
 Live in ordinary society.
 No direct contact with each
 other.
 If caught, cannot identify each
 other.
 January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   9
 Osama bin Laden
 One of about 50
    children of
  Mohammed bin
Laden, whose close
connections to the
Saudi Royal family
   made him a
    billionaire.
 January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   10
               Osama bin Laden
 Moved to Afghanistan to fight
 against Soviet army in mid-1980s.
 Returned to Saudi Arabia in
 1989, and expelled in 1991.
 Moved to Sudan and expelled in
 1994.
 Returned to Afghanistan as a
 guest of the Taliban.
 January 23, 2013    S. Mathews   11
                         Fatwa
                    A religious decree.
 Bin Laden issued a declaration of
  war against the United States in
               1996.
Issued a Fatwa in 1998 against the
  U.S because they are responsible
      for maintaining the Saudi
        monarchy and Israel.
 January 23, 2013          S. Mathews     12
            State Support for
                Terrorism
 Providing sanctuary for
 terrorists wanted by other
 countries.
 Supplying weapons, money, and
 intelligence to terrorists.
 Planning attacks using terrorists.
 January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   13
       Colonel Muammar al-
             Qaddafi
After deposing the King of Libya in
  1969, he has provided terrorists
     with financial aid to kill his
 opponents living in exile in Europe.
The 1988 destruction of a Pan Am
   flight over Lockerbie, Scotland
  was conducted by Libyan agents.
 January 23, 2013   S. Mathews    14
                    Afghanistan
 After 10 years of fighting, the
 Soviet Union ended occupation and
 withdrew their troops.
 The Taliban gained control.
 In 2001, the U.S. invaded and
 removed the Taliban after the
 World Trade Center attack.
 January 23, 2013       S. Mathews   15
                   The Gulf War
 In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait
 to get control of the oil
 fields.
 The U.S. led a multination
 invasion and forced Iraq out
 of Kuwait.
January 23, 2013       S. Mathews   16
   The Iraq War of 2003
 The United States invaded Iraq
 without the support of many of
 its allies.
 The expected to find weapons of
 mass destruction.
 Saddam Hussein was captured,
 tried, and executed.
 January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   17
                    Iran
 In 1979, the U.S. supported
 Shah was forced to abdicate by
 fundamentalist Shiite Muslims.
 Militant supporters of the
 Ayatollah Khomeini seized the
 U.S. embassy and held 62
 Americans hostage for over a
 year.
 January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   18
   Ayatollah
   Khomeini
 Fundamentalist
  Shiite leader
  who declared
  Iran to be an
Islamic Republic.


 January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   19
 Mahmoud
Ahmadinejad




January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   20
                   Iran and Iraq
 Fought a war between 1980
 and 1988 over control of the
 Shatt al-Arab waterway.
 1.5 million died in the war.
 The U.S. supported Saddam
 Hussein in its struggle against
 Iran.
January 23, 2013        S. Mathews   21
U.S. War on Terrorism
 Five years of occupation in
 Iraq.
 Isolation of Iran and Syria
 due to suspicion aid to
 insurgency in Iraq.
 Yemen, Sudan, North Korea on
 list of terrorist states.
January 23, 2013   S. Mathews   22

				
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