MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES by dffhrtcv3

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									MICROBIAL
COMMUNITIES
Microbes - used to study
normal biochemical
processes, molecular
genetics, and chemistry in
wastewater treatment
DEFINITION

• Minute forms of life that do not
  fit well
• Viruses, bacteria, fungi,
  protozoa, rotifers, and some
  algae
VIRUSES
• Obligate intracellular parasite

• Nucleic acid

• Nucleocapsid

• 20 to 250 nm
COMMONLY FOUND VIRUSES


• 100 different enterics
• Entero-, rota-, reo-, adeno-, parvo-,
  and hepto-virus
• Polio
     • Sabin
     • Salk
• HIV
     • Riggs 1989
     • Casson, et al. 1992
Prokaryote versus Eukaryote


• Cell division   • Cell division
• Cellular        • Cellular
  organization      organization
• Size            • Size
• Cell wall       • Cell wall
• Locomotion      • Locomotion
• DNA             • DNA
BACTERIA

•   SIZE
•   SHAPE
•   ARRANGEMENT
•   MOTILITY
•   CELL WALL
    – Gram stain
CELL WALL

• Peptidoglycan
  – 20-80nm thick
  – Capsule = slime layer
  – Lipopolysaccharide is
    endotoxin layer: lipid A and O
    antigen portions
 BACTERIA: CONTINUED

• STRUCTURE
• OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS
 –   Facultative
 –   Aerobic = strict
 –   Anaerobic = strict
 –   Microaerophilic
 –   Aerotolerant
PROKARYOTES

• Gram negative rods
  – Zooglea ramigera


• Gram positive cocci

• Gram positive rods
EUKARYOTES
• Filamentous fungi and yeasts

• Protozoa - ciliates
  – Vorticella


• Rotifers
DISEASE CAUSING AGENTS


• Eradication

• Peru 1991

• Japan earthquake 1995
24%
DISEASE

• Infective dose

• Microbial load
SOURCE

• Man - sewage
 • Permanent carriers: Typhoid Mary
 (Mary Mallon, 1900’s)
 • Temporary carriers:
   • Small pox
   • Measles and tuberculosis
COMMONLY FOUND BACTERIA


•   Salmonella - feces
•   Shigella - feces
•   E. coli - feces/mouth
•   Vibrio - feces
•   Campylobacter - feces
•   Mycobacterium tuberculosis -
    feces/mouth
• Legionella - aerosols/water
• Leptospira - urine
COMMON TYPES OF PROTOZOA


• Giardia - flagellate (Rose, 1986)
• Cryptosporidium - oocysts
• Entamoeba hystolytica - adult
HELMINTHS: Worms


•   Characteristics
•   Ascaris
•   Trichurus
•   Taenia
•   Anchylostomas

								
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