In corporate finance and financial economics, capital structure defines how a company finances its investments through some combination of debt, venture capital or a mixed financial stocks. The capital structure is therefore the composition or, indeed capital balance sheet of a company. A capital-structure arbitrageur looks for opportunities initiated by differential pricing of diverse instruments released by a single company. A stock option is part of a convertible bond bearing a measurable value in itself,. While the value of the entire instrument must be the value of the traditional bonds in addition to the surplus value of the option element. Theories of trade-offs determine optimal capital structure, comparing the benefits and costs of debt. And some of the costs and benefits include expected costs of insolvency and tax benefits of debt, costs and benefits of the entity's capital structure, costs of equity and free cash flow. The trade-off theories are based on the assumption that, in the presence of a clutch of some sort in the financial markets, the debt has benefits and costs for an enterprise. The trade-off between costs and benefits leads to optimal capital structure, corresponding to the level of debt that equals the marginal benefits to marginal costs of debt. Theories of trade-offs are not limited to the subject of tax benefits and costs of insolvency; various studies highlighted the benefits and costs. An early example is the work of Myers (1977), which introduces the problem of debt overhang: in the presence of debt, a company acting in the interests of its shareholders could not take advantage of investment opportunities with a net present value. As part of the benefits derived from them should be to the benefit of creditors, without any positive effects for shareholders. This would be a further cost of debt, which should be added to the expected costs of insolvency as proposed by Miller and Modigliani. Some of the forms of company costs that help in illustrating the relevance of capital structure include asset substitution effect, under-investment problem, and free cash flow. Resolving the trade-off between agency costs of equity and debt determines the optimal capital structure. This corresponds to the level of leverage that minimizes the total costs of data from the sum of enterprise costs of equity and debt. The total costs are the sum of the two types of costs, the optimal capital structure reflects the level of leverage that minimizes the total cost.
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