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Databse For Planning and Development in West Bengal Districts of West Bengal by Prof Sachinandan Sau00145

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Databse For Planning and Development in West Bengal  Districts of West Bengal by Prof Sachinandan Sau00145 Powered By Docstoc
					                                     Social Problems in Districts of West Bengal                               433




Table 10.11 Health Index, Income Index, Education Index & Human Development Index in Districts of West
Bengal, 2001
District                        Health index    Income index      Education index         HDI           HDI rank
Darjeeling                         0.73             0.49               0.72               0.65             4
Jalpaiguri                         0.61             0.38                0.6               0.53            10
Coochbehar                          0.5             0.41               0.65               0.52            11
Dinajpur                           0.62             0.39               0.53               0.51            13
Maldah                             0.49             0.36               0.48               0.44            17
Murshidabad                        0.57             0.29               0.52               0.46            15
Birbhum                            0.53             0.27               0.61               0.47            14
Burdwan                            0.74             0.47               0.71               0.64             5
Nadia                              0.65             0.41               0.66               0.57             9
North 24 Parganas                  0.72             0.49               0.76               0.66             3
Hooghly                            0.77             0.46               0.67               0.63             6
Bankura                            0.67             0.26               0.62               0.52            11
Purulia                            0.61             0.18               0.55               0.45            16
Medinipur                          0.68             0.45               0.74               0.62             7
Howrah                             0.77             0.53               0.75               0.68             2
Kolkata                            0.82             0.73                0.8               0.78             1
South 24 Parganas                  0.71              0.4               0.68                0.6             8
West Bengal                         0.7             0.43               0.69               0.61             -
Source: As in Table 10.9

10.5 Poverty
         Poverty is a complex phenomenon with multiple dimensions that can not be comprehended by the use
of a single homogeneous criterion applicable to all strata of the society and regions of a state or a country at all
times. According to the UNDP's Human Development Report (HRD) 1996, income is only part of the human
picture. To quote from this report, "just as human development encompasses aspects of life much broader than
income, so poverty should be seen as having many dimensions". HRD 1996 introduced the concept of
Capability Poverty Measure (CPM) having multidimensional measure of human development. UNDP's
capability poverty measure considered lack of three capabilities. First is represented by the proportion of births
unattended by trained health persons; second, lack of capability to be well nourished and healthy, represented by
the proportion of underweight children of below 5 years; and third is lack of capability to be educated and
knowledgeable represented by female illiteracy. UNDP calculated CPM by taking simple arithmetic mean of all
these three deprivations. Human poverty index is the extension of the concept of CPM to other dimensions of
deprivation. UNDP considered three indicators of the human poverty index considered to be the essential
elements of human life – they are longevity, knowledge and decent standard of living.
     In 1992 the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India (GOI) undertook the task of identifying
below the poverty line (BPL) families through periodic village census. The first such census taken up in 1992
used income criteria and the next census taken up in 1997 in the context of the Ninth Plan used expenditure
criteria. For the Tenth Plan period which began from the year 2002, a new approach was recommended by an
Expert Group. In this approach a thirteen point “score-able” indicators were used to rank the families. In West
Bengal there was urgency to take up and complete the identification process well before the Panchayat elections
of 2003 and, therefore, the same had to be initiated following earlier methodology before the final guideline was
received. The State Government decided to take up a household survey based on twelve score-able indicators in
the year 2005 along with the Economic Census taken up by the GOI. Outcome of the survey was computerized,
which took some time and the same was published at Gram Sansad level for public scrutiny and receiving claims
and objections. The date of submitting claims and objections was extended as per unanimous resolution of the
State Legislative Assembly. The list was finalized during 2007-08 and the same was accepted with effect from
434                                  Database for Planning and Development in West Bengal


the 1st April, 2007. However, the list is supposed to be regularly modified and improved by regularly inviting
claims and objections to be followed by appropriate enquiry and correction of scores.
     As per survey made by the District Rural Development Agency of districts in 2002, percentage of BPL
families was highest in Coochbehar district followed by Darjeeling, the lowest percentage being registered in
Burdwan district (Table 10.12). As per Rural Household Survey conducted by Department of Panchayats and
Rural Development in 2005 percentage of BPL families was highest in Coochbehar (51.81) district followed by
Birbhum (42.33), the lowest percentage being registered in Howrah district (14.89) (Table 10.13).
     Human poverty index (HPI) is estimated to be highest in Purulia district followed by Uttar Dinajpur and
Maldah, the lowest index being registered in Hooghly district. Human poverty index, percentage of BPL
households are related to percentage of utilization of funds by panchayats. Percentage of panchayat funds
utilized was highest in Darjeeling followed by Hooghly, the lowest percentage being registered in Mushidabad.
It is estimated that human poverty ratio is inversely and significantly related to percentage of utilization of
panchayat funds and positively and significantly related to percentage of BPL households. Percentage of
pattadars having lost possession of land and that of bargadars having been evicted of land are shown along with
BPL per cent across districts in Table 10.14.
     There is significant differential between rural and urban areas in respect of consumption expenditure. The
ratio of urban to rural consumption was highest in Purulia (2.15) followed by Bankura (1.83). Rural poverty ratio
was highest in Purulia (78.72 per cent) followed by Bankura (59.62 per cent) (Table 10.15).


Table 10.12 Some Results of BPL Survey in Districts of West Bengal, 2002                                                                                                             (as on October 30)
                                                     Total number of BPL families
                        Total number of Families




                                                                                                                                   Woman headed families


                                                                                                                                                            Physically handicapped




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Agricultural labourers
                                                                                    % of BPL families




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Marginal farmers
                                                                                                                                                                                       Small farmers




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rural artisans
                                                                                                        Rank

                                                                                                                 SC


                                                                                                                          ST




District




Bankura               535766                       227626 42.5 7                                               111501 31,248 14,911 2,050 8,834                                                        24,480               7,902              143177
Birbhum               542536                       238873 44.0 3                                               63093    15,243 30,287 6,053 5,854                                                      17,297 14,801                           25,073
Burdwan               915758                       240276 26.2 18 133,427 32,855 17,872 2,868                                                                                         294              24,756 22,549                           155686
Coochbehar            475119                       218542 46.0 1                                               111140   1114     25,856 1,529 23,308 32,804                                                                 9,000              108886
Darjeeling            97335                        52147 45.0 2                                                 4934    6411     5943                      820                       2600              4445                 2884               13515
Dakshin Dinajpur      262984                       114529 43.5 5                                               34,157   15,418 11,986 3,317                                              -                 -                5,577              11,568
Howrah                483945                       155739 32.2 15                                              42,268    385     10,855                    767                       46,473            1,421                11,587             65,722
Hooghly               672672                       195630 29.1 16                                              98104    15972    15583 3648                                           506              3302                 4925               108135
Jalpaiguri            601635                       215840 35.9 13                                              96020    48,059    NA                       2717                      1,378             62,398               3,484
Murshidabad          1067570 466644 43.3 6                                                                     73988    9730     43275 7816                                          7936              56249                22176              284850
Nadia                 779336                       266721 34.2 14                                              92,649   10,627 23,700 2,675 3,771                                                      6,320                22,842 1,82,414
                                                                                               Social Problems in Districts of West Bengal                                                                                                                                                                            435


Table 10.12 (continued)




                                                                    Total no. of BP families




                                                                                                                                                                              Woman headed families


                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Physically handicapped




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Agricultural labourer
                                          Total no. of families




                                                                                                    % of BPL families




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Marginal Farmer


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Rural artisans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Small farmer
                                                                                                                           Rank

                                                                                                                                             SC


                                                                                                                                                                ST
District




North 24-Parganas                      825401                     311277 37.7 11 137053                                                                  23091            78370                             4449                            722               11533               14053             235483
Purulia                                452092                     197381 43.7 4                                                            40,645        47,666            8,573                           1,676 28,923 42,728 11,303                                                               75291
Purba Medinipur                        702071                     188778 26.9 17 39101                                                                     1824           19927                             3439                            810               23874               8123              139744
Paschim Medinipur                     1,058,290 347945 32.9 15 99,909                                                                                    70,316 38,941 2,984                                                               9,421              21,582 29,096 2,39,323
South 24-Parganas                      1042863                    388033 37.2 12 158147                                                                   8,205          34,355 4,268 23,747 29,166 22,496                                                                                          213570
Siliguri                               84,380                     32,233 38.2 10 12,893                                                                   5,471            2,914                              453                          2,401              9,822               2,420             14,165
Uttar Dinajpur                         427281                     175104 41.0 8                                                            52,532        17,512            7,982                           1,003 12,906 20,729 22,530                                                               39,910
West Bengal                           11,589,942 4251823 36.7 - 1456723 382,995 425,161 55,296 180,924 393,883 253,908 1,809,890
Source: Panchayat & Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal


Table 10.13 Some Results of Rural Household Survey in Districts of West Bengal, 2005
                                                                                                                        No. of houseless



                                                                                                                                             living in kuchha




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              headed families
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           No of marginal
                    No. of families




                                                                                                                                              No. of families



                                                                                                                                                                 No. of families



                                                                                                                                                                                                       No of landless




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               No. of women
                                                                                                                                                                 casual labours
                                                  families (total




                                                                                                                                                                 migrating for




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               No of small
                                                   No. of BPL




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   agricultural
                                                   score<=33)




                                                                                                                                                                                                        households
                                                                                                                            families




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              farmers



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                farmers
                                                                                 BPL %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     labour
                                                                                                                                                  house




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No of
                                                                                  Rank




Districts



                  597817                           309736                                      1                        36418                319334              137692                               324504                              206569               49154               353878             21453
Coochbehar
                 (100.00)                          (51.81)                                                              (6.09)               (53.42)             (23.03)                              (54.28)                             (34.55)              (8.22)              (59.20)            (3.59)
                  673090                           239236                                                               49364                254048               59922                               474277                              137525               40572               340724             24403
Jalpaiguri
                 (100.00)                          (35.54)                                     8                        (7.33)               (37.74)              (8.90)                              (70.46)                             (20.43)              (6.03)              (50.62)            (3.63)
                 234590                             57243                                                               16754                 60169               26951                               157500                               57616               13614                92817              9670
Darjeeling
                  (100)                            (24.40)                                     15                       (7.14)               (25.65)             (11.49)                              (67.14)                             (24.56)              (5.80)              (39.57)            (4.12)
Uttar             490360                           196303                                                               20079                254600               71214                               286074                              131821               48265               256847             10335
Dinajpur         (100.00)                          (40.03)                                     3                        (4.09)               (51.92)             (14.52)                              (58.34)                             (26.88)              (9.84)              (52.38)            (2.11)
Dakshin           364948                           115625                                                               17137                 17743               43241                               188522                              112720               42887               178651              6905
Dinajpur         (100.00)                          (31.68)                                     13                       (4.70)                (4.86)             (11.85)                              (51.66)                             (30.89)             (11.75)              (48.95)            (1.89)
                  662235                           259401                                                               29087                254070              114197                               400274                              178102               57310               353425             17281
Maldah
                 (100.00)                          (39.17)                                     5                        (4.39)               (38.37)             (17.24)                              (60.44)                             (26.89)              (8.65)              (53.37)            (2.61)
                 1157135                           461192                                                               40833                483181              234154                               767331                              253734               90048               631867             32084
Murshidabad
                 (100.00)                          (39.86)                                     4                        (3.53)               (41.76)             (20.24)                              (66.31)                             (21.93)              (7.78)              (54.61)            (2.77)
                  862478                           321064                                                               33462                360420              142604                               589616                              184838               55406               465362             19496
Nadia
                 (100.00)                          (37.23)                                     6                        (3.88)               (41.79)             (16.53)                              (68.36)                             (21.43)              (6.42)              (53.96)            (2.26)

				
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