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					                           Conference Abstracts
            CSA-CSHS-CCA-AIC Conference 2012




                          ―Adapting Crops to Change‖
             ―Technology Transfer in the 21st Century‖

A Joint Meeting of the:
   Canadian Society of Agronomy                 Agricultural Institute of Canada
   Canadian Society for Horticultural Science   North American Fruit Explorer
   Certified Crop Advisors – Prairie Board


        University of Saskatchewan
         Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
             July 16 - 19, 2012
Table of Contents

Presentation Guidelines ................................................................................................................ 1
   Oral Presentation ......................................................................................................................... 1
   Poster Presentations .................................................................................................................... 1
   Poster Guidelines ........................................................................................................................ 1
Oral Presentations ........................................................................................................................ 3
Tuesday July 17, 2012 ................................................................................................................... 3
   Conference Plenary Sessions ...................................................................................................... 3
       PL1: Plenary 1: Adapting Crops to Change .......................................................................... 3
       PL2: Plenary 2: Technology Transfer for the 21st Century .................................................. 5
       Session A1: Crop Development into the Future .................................................................... 6
       Session A2: Media Tools and Extension for the Future ......................................................... 8
Wednesday July 18, 2012 ........................................................................................................... 11
   Canadian Society of Agronomy (CSA) .................................................................................... 11
       Session B1: CSA & Student Competition ........................................................................... 11
       Session B2: CSA Student Competition................................................................................ 17
       Session B3: Borlaug Seminars ―Plant Breeding 150 years after Mendel‖ .......................... 21
   Canadian Society of Horticultural Science (CSHS) ................................................................. 26
       Session C1: CSHS & Student Competition ......................................................................... 26
       Session C2: Mini-Symposium - Biocontrol Methods ........................................................... 31
       Session C3: Mini-Symposium: Northern Greenhouses ....................................................... 34
Thursday July 19, 2012............................................................................................................... 36
   Canadian Society of Agronomy (CSA) .................................................................................... 36
       Session D1: CSA................................................................................................................... 36
   Joint CSHS/ North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX) ......................................................... 41
       Session E: CSHS-NAFEX ................................................................................................... 41
Poster Presentations.................................................................................................................... 44
Tuesday July 17, 2012 ................................................................................................................. 44
   Poster Sessions 1 and 2 ............................................................................................................. 44
       Poster Session 1: CSA & CSHS Student Competitions....................................................... 44


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                                               CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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       Poster Session 2: CSA .......................................................................................................... 50
Wednesday July 18, 2012 ........................................................................................................... 55
   Poster Sessions 3 and 4 ............................................................................................................. 55
       Poster Session 3: CSHS Fruit Science ................................................................................. 55
       Poster Session 4: CSA Adapting Crops to Change ............................................................. 59
Author Index ............................................................................................................................... 65




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Presentation Guidelines

Oral Presentation

At the conference, the time available for each oral presentation is limited to 15 minutes,
including a brief question period. No exceptions will be made.

       Presentations should be in Microsoft PowerPoint [Office 97-2003 (.ppt); Office 2007
       (PC) or 2008 (Mac) versions (.pptx). Please notify the session chair well in advance if
       your presentation is in a different format.

       Please bring your presentation on a USB memory stick or CD. Be sure to CLEARLY
       identify your USB memory stick or CD with your name & the session in which you are
       presenting.

       At the beginning of each day, 30 minutes before the speaker sessions, please submit
       your presentation media to the session chair in the room in which your presentation will
       take place. The session chair (or another volunteer) will be present in each room to help
       you load your presentation on the appropriate computer. Make sure you have already
       pre-scanned your memory device and file so it is virus free.

       At least one (1) hour before your session starts, please check with the session chair for
       scheduling changes and to be sure that your presentation has been loaded.

Please be sure to check your presentation for viruses before uploading and presenting at
the meeting.

Poster Presentations

Attendees can participate through poster submissions. Posters will be available for viewing each
lunch hour during the conference on Tuesday and Wednesday in the Atrium and second floor
walkway area of the Agriculture building. A poster is on display for one day only. On
designated days, authors will stand beside their posters to discuss their poster with interested
persons from 4.30 to 6.00 pm. Students with posters in the Student Presentation Competition
need to be at their posters from 4.00 to 6.00 pm. Poster submissions are made online using the
Abstract Submission Form. Posters must be designated as to society and theme topic as laid out
in the submission form and follow the Poster Guidelines described out below.

Poster Guidelines

Please use the following guidelines and format to prepare your poster:



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       Dimensions of the poster MUST NOT exceed 42‖ wide by 48‖ high.

       Limit the text to about ¼ to ½ of the poster space, and use images, photographs, and
       graphs to present your research. Make a banner to display the title, name, and affiliation
       at top-center of the poster.

       The text should be readable from five feet away. Use a minimum font size of 20 points.

       Lettering for the title should be large (at least 70-point font).

       Use of the following format/sections is suggested :

           o   Title

           o   Author names and affiliation

           o   Abstract

           o   Introduction

           o   Materials and methods

           o   Result/discussion

           o   Conclusions

           o   References

       Bring your own vecro or push pins to attach the poster to the board.

       You are welcome to bring one-page handouts of your poster to give away to interested
       attendees.



Publication in special issue of Canadian Journal of Plant Science

Following peer review, papers submitted under CSA, CSHS, and CCA are eligible for
publication in a special issue of the Canadian Journal of Plant Science (CJPS). The instructions
to submit your paper will be announced soon.




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                                      Oral Presentations

Tuesday July 17, 2012

                               Conference Plenary Sessions

PL1: Plenary 1: Adapting Crops to Change                                    8:35 am – 12:00 pm
                                                                            Neatby Timlin Theatre

PL1.1 Abstract Id 3911

            Adapting Cropping Systems to Change from a Historical Perspective

 Thomas R. Sinclair, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, thomas_sinclair@ncsu.edu

Improved cropping systems in history may offer insights for projecting needed adaptations in the
future. Starting with the first major agricultural societies, Sumeria and Egypt, irrigation from the
Euphrates and Nile rivers provided essential water and nutrients, particularly nitrogen. During
much of the subsequent history of mankind, crop yields were limited to that allowed by natural
nitrogen input. The next major increase in yields did not occur until the 18th century in Great
Britain. The introduction of a crop rotation that included clover provided nitrogen for more than
a doubling in wheat yields. The Green Revolutions following World War resulted in a series of
yield increases, all tied closely to increased nitrogen availability. Future yield increases are now
challenged due to nitrogen's expense, negative environmental impacts, and accumulation
capacity of crops. Future cropping systems will need continued focus on improved husbandry of
nitrogen. Nitrogen needs to be provided to crops to match their ability to accumulate and store
nitrogen in the plant. An important option is to enhance the roles of legumes and their ability to
symbiotically fixed atmospheric nitrogen.

PL1.2 Abstract id 3916

      Pressures On Wheat To Produce Safe, Nutritious And Affordable Quantities At
                 Sustainable Prices For Producers –Adapting to Change

 *R.M. DePauw, Y. He, H. Wang, H. Cutforth, R. Cuthbert, A.K. Singh, R.E. Knox, SemiArid
   Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Box 1030, Swift
                         Current, SK, S9H 3X2, ron.depauw@agr.gc.ca

Projects for population growth, increased demand and costs for crop input, and climate change
are converging to challenge everyone to meet the projected increased requirement for food. It has
been estimated that by 2050, the production of wheat will have to double. In the past 10 years,
global consumption has exceeded production and stocks have been drawn down. Currently, more
than one billion people are in a food deficit situation. In the past four years more than 300
million people have shifted to a food deficit category. If the world‘s food-deficit-people could

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be brought into the economic sphere, this demand for food represents an enormous economic
opportunity for Canada. Climate change projections for Canada include warmer average
temperatures and more weather event variability. The cropping season is expected to extend due
to an earlier date of last killing frost in spring and later date of first fall killing frost. Heat shocks
during critical growth phases result in irreversible damage to yield components. Agronomic
production practices may result in innovations to conserve water, improve water and nutrient use
efficiency. Generally, changes in production practices are coupled with changes in agricultural
machinery. These drivers for change provide an opportunity to develop and employ new tools to
adapt the wheat plant to meet the requirements for safe, nutritious supplies of wheat. The
presentation will elaborate.

PL1.3 Abstract id 3919

                             Adapting to change – a land perspective

    Henry Janzen, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403 - 1 Avenue South PO Box 3000
                 Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1, Henry.Janzen@AGR.GC.CA

The biosphere is changing, partly through the relentless activity of its most capricious species:
humanity. Our growing numbers and powers generate stresses – related to food, water, energy,
biodiversity, waste dispersal, social upheavals, and climate – that foment change at scales and
rates perhaps unprecedented. All of these, one way or another, are tied to land – the interwoven
web of biota enmeshed in their physical habitat. Land is the recipient of global change; and also
the medium by which we adapt to change. To contend with coming pressures, therefore, we will
need in decades ahead to find ways of living more gently on the land. That will demand long and
patient foresight, seeking not merely to conserve our ecosystems as they are now, but instead to
preserve the functions they provide, despite the changes. My objective, therefore, is to ponder
how best to foster such resilience, by proffering some tentative guiding perspectives, merely to
elicit further collective thought. Our legacy, decades hence, may be measured not just in the size
of yield produced, but also in how well we have stewarded land, sustaining its myriad functions,
through the stresses ahead.




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PL2: Plenary 2: Technology Transfer for the 21st Century                  1:15 pm – 5:30 pm
                                                                        Neatby Timlin Theatre

PL2.1 Abstract not available.

                Getting information in the future – a producer’s perspective

                                          Peter Gredig



PL2.2 Abstract id 3921

         Extending agronomic information in the future — an industry perspective

     Jay Whetter, Canola Council of Canada, 205 Autumnwood Dr. Kenora, ON P9N 4H6,
                                whetterj@canolacouncil.org

How will the Canola Council of Canada deliver agronomy information over the next 5 years? It
will be a combination of ―old‖ and ―new.‖ We‘ll continue to use the old standards: printed
material, face to face presentations and crop walks. The CCC has a new stronger presence at the
January trade shows across the Prairies, and paper handouts remain a common way to
disseminate information at these events. The CCC also continues to publish Canola Digest
magazine on behalf of the provincial canola grower associations who pay its way and see it as a
valuable communications tool. CCC agronomists will remain very busy in the winter with
presentation and in the summer on crop tours. New methods are taking over however, especially
as high-speed Internet becomes commonplace across rural areas and as more and more growers
— more than 34% and counting — are using smart phones. The foundation of new delivery will
be the wiki-style canola growers manual, like an online and easy to update canola encyclopedia.
Linking to the manual will be an new diagnostic tool, a massive project we‘re currently working
through, and Canola Watch email newsletters, Canola Watch alerts, and — something I might
not have said even a few months ago — Twitter. We‘ll also expand on webinars, looking toward
virtual clinics and live web conferences. My presentation will give details on how valuable
canola research performed on the Prairies will reach growers, agronomists and retailers through
all these channels.




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                                  Concurrent Sessions (A1 & A2)
Session A1: Crop Development into the Future                               3:00pm – 5:30 pm
                                                                           Arts

A1.1 Abstract Id 3838

       Global Scientific Collaboration on Technology Transfer to increase Food Security

  *Tom Beach, International Program, AIC, 9 Corvus Court, Nepean, Ontario, tbeach@aic.ca
        Dinah Ceplis, International Program, AIC, 9 Corvus Court, Nepean, Ontario,
                                  dina.ceplis@gmail.com

The unique methodology of partnering Canadian and developing country scientific societies to
implement community and agricultural development projects has demonstrated results in
increasing food security and incomes. Through the Agricultural Institute of Canada, and with
financial support from the Canadian International Development Agency, five Canadian scientific
societies partnered with relevant societies in six developing countries and implemented
community and agricultural development projects from 2006 to 2011. Documented results show
how partner organizations supported rural beneficiaries through training sessions, training of
trainers, demonstration sites, field days and participatory research to improve food security and
increase incomes. Farmers (women and men) accessed information and developed skills in
leadership, entrepreneurship, micro credit management, budgeting, record keeping, gender
equality, crop and animal husbandry, climate change, soil conservation and post harvest
management. Technology transfer related to horticultural crops (tomatoes, banana, sweet
peppers), field crops (corn/maize, cassava, sweet potato, rice, peanuts/groundnuts) and cash
crops (sugar cane, spices and tea) with the integration of poultry and livestock to contribute
organic matter and diversify income. Results were accomplished while supporting the broader
goals of gender equality and environmental sustainability. In addition to results in project
countries, Canadian scientists‘ strengthened their understanding of international development
and global development issues.

A1.2     Abstract not available

                                         Brassica carinata

                                         Steven Fabijanski




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A1.3 Abstract not available

        Camelina sativa – an old crop with new prospects in sustainable agriculture
     *Christina Eynck and Jack Grushcow, Linnaeus Plant Sciences Inc., 107 Science Place
                               Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X2 Canada



Camelina sativa (camelina) is an oilseed crop that has gained renewed interest due to an
increasing demand for renewable, plant-based substitutes for petroleum-derived fuels and
feedstocks for industrial applications such as lubricants, polymers, and industrial fluids.
Camelina combines several agronomic attributes that render it well-suited to a wide range of
environments: frost and drought tolerance, a short vegetation period and low input requirements.
It can be grown on poor lands, thus delivering significant reductions in carbon footprint without
reducing acreage dedicated to food production. In an effort to contribute to sustainable
agriculture solutions, Linnaeus Plant Sciences Inc. develops improved camelina germplasm for
use as a dedicated non-food oilseed crop and feedstock for non-fuel biobased products.



A1.4 Abstract not available

                                  Adapting Crops to Change

                                    Marian Stypa, Syngenta




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Session A2: Media Tools and Extension for the Future                           3:00pm – 5:30 pm
                                                                           Neatby Timlin Theatre

A2.1 Abstract id 3920

                Strengthening Communications with Emerging Digital Tools

*Dan Myers, Frank Harrington, Carrie Gates, Division of Media Access and Production (eMAP),
        University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, dan.myers@usask.ca

New digital production and sharing tools are rapidly emerging, providing more opportunities to
improve how you communicate with both internal and external stakeholders. I will present some
of the new technologies that are being used in education and beyond that could have positive
applications in the science and business of agriculture. I will discuss technologies such as
gigapixel photography, cloud computing, e-books, learning simulations, and user produced and
distributed educational video. The presentation will be beneficial to those who want to learn
about some of these new tools and how they can create value in strengthening their
communications.

A2.2 Abstract id 3922

                               Print-based media into the future

 Bruce Barker, HayWire Creative, Box 980, 31 Highlands Terrace, Bragg Creek, AB, T0L 0K0,
                                 bruce@haywirecreative.ca

In this era of Facebook, Twitter, tablets, the interweb, and blogs, is the writing on the wall for
print publications? Print media is 500 years old and is still favoured by many as the medium of
choice for technology transfer. Print media, whether farming magazines, fact sheets, or research
papers, has a long history of success in transferring information and knowledge to farmers. A
recent media study shows that magazines like Top Crop Manager have retained a high rating in
the face of growing popularity of other media, such as the Internet. A 2012 Readex media study
with farmers showed Top Crop Manager retained a 70 to 77 percent rating for usefulness over
the past decade, despite the Internet‘s popularity growing from 18 to 71 percent usefulness over
the same time frame. The strengths of using print to get the message out, how researchers and
agronomists can use print to transfer technology, and tips for working with the media will be
discussed.




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A2.3 Abstract Id 3913

        Communicating Science to the Farm Gate: Challenges and Opportunities…

Guy P. Lafond, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Indian Head Research Farm, RR#1 Gov Rd,
                Box 760, Indian Head, SK, S0G 2K0, guy.lafond@agr.gc.ca

The first scholarly journals appeared in 1665. The estimated number of scholarly journals today
is estimated at 23,570. In 2009, we surpassed 50 Million published scholarly articles. The
volume of information being published today is increasing exponentially. There lies the
challenge for the scientific community. Within the context of agricultural sciences, scientists
should be required to communicate not only to their scientific peers but also to agriculture
stakeholders and this ultimately leads to the farm gate. Each scholarly article can be viewed as a
tile and overtime someone has to take the responsibility of creating the mosaic or story from all
these tiles. We as scientists, all bear some of that responsibility. This will reduce the gap between
the scientific information being generated and the knowledge actually reaching the farm gate.
With the advent of new forms of media technology, it is now easier than ever to communicate
these stories and add value to past and current scientific information. A Soil and Crop
Management e-journal was created in order to allow scientists the opportunity to write these
stories and bridge that gap while also providing for continuing education. Stories on soil and
crop management have to be continually written and updated. We even need to write a story
about the stories.

A2.4 Abstract not available

                               Technology transfer and extension

                                         Sherrilyn Phelps




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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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A2.5 Abstract Id 3912

                         Collecting Science and Delivering to Clients

          Robert Saik, Agri-Trend Group, Bay 6, 4630-61 St, Red Deer AB, T4N 2R2,
                                    rsaik@agritrend.com.

What do Exabytes, Exponentiality, Metcalf‘s Law, Moore‘s Law, AI, Robotics, Sensors and
Dunbar‘s Number have to do with Collecting and Delivering Science to Clients? …
EVERYTHING! Back In 1997 an experiment began with the question – ―Would agriculture
support a KBB (a Knowledge Based Business)?‖ 15 years later the answer to that question is a
resounding YES! This experiment, known as Agri-Trend could not have happened without
harnessing the technology mega trends mentioned in the first sentence. Supported by a bench of
+15 PhD‘s, +20 MSc‘s and 4 Senior Market Analysts, Agri-Trend now offers 6 types of
Professional Agricultural Coaching services to famers. Every day the + 100 Agri-Trend Coaches
work with farmers and agribusiness to combine wisdom and knowledge with information and
data to make a difference in agriculture. Rob will discuss how his team has tackled the
dissemination of information to farm customers throughout North America and Internationally.
He will use examples from his Agri-Trend world to paint a picture of how they use technology to
collect and deliver scientific coaching that helps farmers make better, more profitable decisions.
The talk will examine the MACRO technology drivers hitting agriculture and look at how we
can use technology to help farmers make better decisions through the integration of agronomics,
data and common sense. This will be a ―hair-straight-back‖ session that promises to be a great
close to the day.




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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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Wednesday July 18, 2012

                        Canadian Society of Agronomy (CSA)

                                      Sessions B1, B2, B3

Session B1: CSA & Student Competition                                      8:00 am – 10:00 am
                                                                 Agriculture Building, Rm 2E25

B1.1 Abstract Id 3836

The effect of manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) on barley
  and camelina yield and their nitrogen uptake under controlled greenhouse conditions

     Chunli Li, *Yang Luo, Xiying Hao, AAFC, Lethbridge Research Center, 5403 1Ave S,
      Lethrbidge, AB, lichunli_1978@sina.com, nkyly@163.com, Xiying.hao@agr.gc.ca

        Dried distillers‘ grain with solubles (DDGS) is becoming a valuable livestock feed with
implications for manure composition. This study investigated how the application of manure
from cattle with DDGS in their diet affect barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and camelina (Camelina
sativa) yield and N uptake under controlled greenhouse conditions. Two types of soil were
amended with four types of manure collected from cattle on diets of: (1) (Mt) a typical western
feedlot diet containing 76% barley grain, 20% barley silage and 4% mineral supplement; (2)
(DG25) triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.) DDGS replacing 25% of barley grain in diet (1); (3)
(Mf8) flax seeds replacing 8% barley grain in diet (1); and (4) (DG15Mf8) DDGS replacing 25%
and flax seeds replacing 8% barley grain in diet (1). There were also a commercial fertilizer
(FIRT) and un-amended control (Check) for comparison. Barley and camelina yield were higher
(p<0.05) from amended and FIRT than Check. Similarly, barley and camelina N uptake from
amended and FIRT treatment were higher (p<0.05) than Check with highest value from
DG25Mf8. The highest N uptake from DG25Mf8 for both crops indicate that the total amount of
nitrogen provided by DDGS manure was higher than other amendments.

B1.2 Abstract Id 3834

     Effect of compost source soil type on canola and pea under controlled greenhouse
                                         conditions

    *Yang Luo, Chunli Li, Xiying Hao, AAFC, Lethbridge Research Center, 5403 1 Ave S,
       Lethrbidge, AB, nkyly@163.com, Chunli.Li@agr.gc.ca, Xiying.hao@agr.gc.ca

       Composting is increasingly being adopted as a cattle manure management alternative
because of its lower costs of transporting than fresh manure. This study investigated how
compost applications affect canola and pea yield under controlled greenhouse conditions. We
used four types of composts, two (one high P and one low P contents) from a research feedlot
and two (one high P and one low P content) from a commercial feedlot. A commercial NP

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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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fertilizer and an un-amended control were also included for comparison. Six cycles of seeding
and harvesting were planned with each growth cycle lasting about 7 to 8 weeks. Two types of
soil (one calcareous and one acid) were used. Pea and canola were grown alternately in the
calcareous and acid soil. Preliminary results after four growth cycles indicated pea biomass yield
was not affected by compost applications. Canola biomass yield was higher in compost than in
NP fertilizer amended soil, but only for the first two growth cycles. Two more growth cycles are
under way and more data collection is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

B1.3 Abstract Id 3857

Bloat incidence in cattle grazing alfalfa/sainfoin mixed pastures with new and old sainfoin
                                         populations

 *E. Sottie, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta,
                                    eddie.sottie@uleth.ca
 S. Acharya, T. McAllister, Y. Wang, Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food
     Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta, Surya.Acharya@agr.gc.ca, Tim.McAllister@agr.gc.ca,
                                    Yuxi.Wang@agr.gc.ca
 A. Iwaasa, Swift Current Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current,
                            Saskatchewan, Alan.Iwaasa@agr.gc.ca
     J. Thomas, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge,
                                       thomas@uleth.ca

Alfalfa is a widely adapted forage crop with high nutritive value. Weight gains of cattle on
alfalfa are better than on any other forage and are comparable to gains obtained in feedlots in
western Canada. However, bloat is a major deterrent for grazing of alfalfa-based pasture. Two
experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the Lethbridge Research Centre to investigate
the effect of grazing sainfoin/alfalfa mixed pastures on incidence of bloat in steers. Ten
ruminally fistulated Angus steers were divided into two groups in a cross-over design and grazed
on sainfoin/alfalfa mixed pastures with Nova sainfoin forming 5% and an experimental LRC-
3519 forming 25% of total dry matter forage biomass. Bloat incidences were scored on a 0 to 3
scale where 0 indicated normal with no visible signs of bloat; and 3 indicated severe distension.
Out of the 48 bloat incidences recorded for each year, 90% and 98% incidences occurred in
Nova plots in 2010 and 2011 respectively; while in the LRC-3519, 10% and 2% incidences were
recorded for 2010 and 2011, respectively. The results demonstrate that the new sainfoin
population persist better than Nova in alfalfa stand and help reduce bloat incidence significantly
in grazing cattle.




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B1.4 Abstract Id 3896

     Nitrogen fixation and transfer from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) cultivars to
               companion bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) under field conditions

*R. M. M. S. Thilakarathna, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street,
                              Halifax, NS, thilakarathnam@nsac.ca
Y. A. Papadopoulos, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, PO
                       Box 550, Truro, NS, yousef.papadopoulos@agr.gc.ca
A. V. Rodd, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Charlottetown, PEI, Vernon.Rodd@AGR.GC.CA
           S. A. E. Filmore, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, 32 Main, Kentville, NS,
                                    sherry.fillmore@agr.gc.ca
A. N. Gunawardena, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, Halifax,
                               NS, Arunika.Gunawardena@dal.ca
  B. Prithiviraj, Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, PO
                            Box 550, Truro, NS, bprithiviraj@nsac.ca

In the current study, nitrogen (N) transfer capacity of three diploid (ACChristie, Tapani, CRS15)
and three tetraploid (Tempus, CRS18, CRS39) red clover (RC) cultivars were evaluated under
field conditions. Plants from each cultivar were transplanted into established bluegrass stands at
two sites in 2009. Three harvests were taken during the 2010 growing season and N fixation-
transfer from the RC cultivars to the companion bluegrass was measured using the isotope
dilution technique. There were significant yield differences between the RC cultivars with
Tempus and Tapani having the highest seasonal yields (93.2 and 91.4 g plant-1, respectively). In
general tetraploid cultivars had significantly higher tissue N concentrations compared to the
diploid cultivars (3.25 vs 3.06%, respectively). On average 98% of the clover N was derived
from N fixation. There was no N-transfer from RC to companion bluegrass during the first
harvest, but N-transfer was observed during the second and third harvests averaging 5.7 and
4.2%, respectively. The greatest N-transfer was observed in ACChristie (15.2%) and CRS18
(8.4%) during the second and third harvests, respectively. The results of this investigation
demonstrate the presence of significant variability in N-transfer from RC to companion crops,
suggesting that selection for this trait is an important consideration.

B1.5 Abstract Id 3901

                     Micro-Farming- an amazing opportunity to feed the world

 JessyMarie Hawkes, Worldwide Honors in Agriculture Science, University of Guelph, Lincoln
     University, Swedish University of Agricultural Science (SLU). jhawkes@uoguelph.ca

Micro Farming: Larger farms that are more subdivided; representing multiple smaller farms.
Agricultural food products are a highly valued, and traded commodity. They contribute $87.9
billion dollars to the Canadian economy every year. [Govt. of Canada, 2011]. Due to the low
substitutability of farmed food, traditional methods of agriculture demand revision. Micro
Farming is an amazing opportunity to address crop improvement, applaud farmers and increase
the work force in rural areas. Presently one of human kinds most pressuring concerns is how to

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                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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feed the world. The reality is, we could feed the world now with our current level of production.
We should stop and applaud ourselves for our achievements up till now. We cling to this notion
of ‗over-producing to over consume‘, supply and demand. Produce more to make the product
cheaper and more available, so more is consumed. One thing in nature reflects our gross over-
consuming. We call it Cancer. Current farming methods is resulting in crops and soils
vulnerable to adverse conditions. Soils erosion rates are ten to twenty times above the
sustainability rate [Pimentel, 2005]. Micro farming would allow for more control and flexibility
when faced with potential yield-threatening scenarios. There is a priority to embracing
geographic differences and addressing applicable research. We have to stop fighting against
nature and work with it. The new goals to crop viability is forming symbiotic relationships. We
must take an objective view of our advancements and keep re-evaluating the direction we are
progressing. Agriculture on a smaller scale will allow the comparative advantage of many
localities to shine and increase the transfer of informed information. We consider our science
well developed, but we can make it stronger. Focusing on smaller scales, with a higher
contribution of participants will increase our countries agriculture knowledge. This in turn will
allow for a sustainable future.

B1.6 Abstract Id 3886

 Manipulating crop canopy architecture to manage Mycosphaerella pinodes blight in field
                                          pea

  *Lena Syrovy, Sabine Banniza Steven Shirtliffe Department of Plant Sciences, College of
 Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK,
          ads219@mail.usask.ca, sabine.banniza@usask.ca, steve.shirtliffe@usask.ca

Field studies have been initiated in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, to investigate the effect of
intercropping semileafless and conventional leafed pea varieties on crop canopy microclimate
and Mycosphaerella pinodes development. Semileafless cultivar CDC Dakota and conventional
cultivar CDC Sonata were sown at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0, respectively,
in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Parameters describing canopy
growth, microclimate, and disease severity were measured at regular intervals. Canopies
dominated by conventional leafed peas were significantly taller, with fewer nodes, higher leaf
area indices, increased lodging levels, and higher relative humidity compared with canopies of
primarily semileafless peas. Mycosphaerella blight severity was significantly higher in canopies
comprised of 50%, 75%, and 100% semileafless plants than in the two predominantly
conventional canopies. Higher disease severity was associated with higher number of nodes (r =
0.50, P = 0.02), and shorter, less lodged canopies (r = -0.56 and 0.48, P = 0.01 and 0.03,
respectively), but was not correlated with leaf area index on any dates (r = -0.17 to 0.29, P = 0.21
to 0.92). It is concluded that plant morphology may have played a greater role in epidemic
development than canopy microclimate in the 2011 field season.




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B1.7 Abstract Id 3892

       Weed Dynamics under Changing Cropping Practices in the Canadian Prairies

*Dilshan Benaragama, Steve Shirtliffe Department of Plant Sciences, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 51
           Campus drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. S7N5A8. dib777@mail.usask.ca,
                                  steve.shirtliffe@usask.ca

Transformation of cropping systems in the Canadian Prairies towards sustainable cropping
practices had imposed diverse environmental conditions altering weed community dynamics in
agro-ecosystems. A field study was carried out within the long-term (18-years) alternative
cropping systems (ACS) experiment in Scott, Saskatchewan in 2011 to evaluate weed
abundance, crop-weed competition, and demography of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.).
The experimental design was a split-split plot with four replicates. Four sub-sub plot treatments;
1.weedy (no weed control), 2.weed free (hand weeded), 3.standard weed control, 4. surrogate
weed (tame oat) were randomly allocated into the wheat phase of the three crop diversity levels
(sub-plot factor); low crop diversity (LOW), diversified annual grains (DAG), diversified annual
perennial (DAP) in both organic (ORG) and reduced (RED) input levels (main plot factors).
Diversified annual perennial rotation in ORG had the highest weed density of all systems.
Lambsquarters seed production, plant biomass, and plant height were lowest in DAP in both
input levels. Grain yield loss due to weed competition was lowest 13 % in LOW diversity level
and was highest 49 % in DAG. These results confirmed that overall changes in crop production
has influenced weed dynamics their by subsequent crop yield loss due to weed competition.

B1.8 Abstract Id 3853

  Assessing crop yield on the Canadian Prairies under a changing climate using the FAO
                                    AquaCrop model

   *Manasah S. Mkhabela and Paul R. Bullock; Department of Soil Science, University of
  Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2, Canada. Email: Manasah.Mkhabela@ad.umanitoba.ca

Currently, our understanding of the impacts of climate change on agriculture is limited. Crop
simulation models can assist us project the impact of a changing climate on crops. AquaCrop is a
model that simulates crop yields and soil water using basic crop, soil and weather data. It has
been adapted to simulate crop responses to elevated atmospheric CO2, and it has been calibrated
and validated world-wide for many crops.
Recently, we tested AquaCrop‘s ability to simulate wheat yield and total soil water content using
data collected from 2003-2006 from five sites across Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Results
showed that AquaCrop is capable of simulating both yield and soil water with reasonable
accuracy. Comparison of modelled and observed yield produced a R2 of 0.66 and RMSE of 743
kg ha-1. The difference between observed and modelled yield was 77 kg. Likewise, a
comparison between observed and modelled soil water produced a R2 of 0.90 and RMSE of 49
mm. The difference between observed and modelled soil water was 11 mm.
We intend utilising AquaCrop to (i) forecast future yields of widely-grown grain crops on the
Canadian Prairies under different emission scenarios, (ii) quantify uncertainties in modelled

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yields due to uncertainties in predicted climate changes, and (iii) evaluate possible
adaptation/mitigation strategies.




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Session B2: CSA Student Competition                                      10:30 am – 12:00 pm
                                                                 Agriculture Building, Rm 1E85

B2.1 Abstract Id 3856

 Improvement of crop production and ecosystem sustainability using soil microorganisms.
                        Progress, problems and perspectives.

*Ines E. Garcia de Salamone, Department of Applied Biology and Foods, Faculty of Agronomy,
University of Buenos Aires. Av. San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires, Argentina. igarcia@agro.uba.ar

Soil microorganisms have a great potential for both agriculture use and environmental protection
but it is still reduced contrasting with the significant scientific work and investment provided.
Microbial inoculants represent a technology designed to improve the productivity of agricultural
systems in the long run. Also it is aligned with principles of sustainable agriculture. Several
microorganisms, usually called plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), have the ability to
colonize and establish an ongoing relationship with plants producing increases in biomass, root
growth and commercial yield. Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp. are the most used PGPB.
Positive impacts have been observed in wheat, corn, soybean and rice among other crop
including more than a hundred crops and environmentally important plant species. The
sustainability and profitability analysis requires a detailed knowledge of the interrelationships
that exist between inoculant microorganisms and those within the natural system. Most of the
information corresponds to experiments performed under controlled conditions. It is necessary to
analyze the effects of commercial and new experimental inoculants to obtain better crops and use
of the environmental resources. Data described in here will show that the inoculation with
Azospirillum and Pseudomonas can modify microbial rhizosphere communities and plant growth
in field conditions.

B2.2 Abstract Id 3880

       Fungal endophyte symbiosis facilitates wheat adaptation to heat and drought

  *Michelle Hubbard, Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, College of Agriculture,
         University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
                               michelle.hubbard@usask.ca.
Jim Germida, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan,
            51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, jim.germida@usask.ca.
  Vladimir Vujanovic, Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, College of Agriculture,
         University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
                              vladimir.vujanovic@usask.ca.

Global climate change, particularly heat or drought, affects agricultural productivity and
sustainability. Thus, the development of new scientific approaches to promote abiotic stress
tolerance in food crops such as wheat are urgently needed. One such approach uses indigenous
fungal endophytes. More specifically, wheat seed germination can be improved via a mycobiont-

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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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seed relationship known as mycovitality. This symbiosis later improves the heat and drought
tolerance of mature plants. The hydrothermal time (HTT) model of germination, a conceptual
model used to predict the timing and energy of germination (EG) under a given set of conditions,
showed that endophytic fungi enhance heat or drought tolerance in wheat. When colonised by
the most effective fungal endophyte, the HTT and EG values in wheat seeds exposed to heat
stress resembled those of unstressed seeds. Fungal organisms tested also lowered photosynthetic
stress (PS), and increased the average seed weight (ASW) and yield of plants subjected to stress.
This study highlights the potential of mycovitalism in stress-challenged seeds.

B2.3 Abstract Id 3756

                          AFLP variation in Puccinellia nuttalliana

   Yining Liu, Plant Science, College of Agriculture, University of Saskachewan, 51 Campus
                         Drive, Saskatoon, SK, liy011@mail.usaka.ca

Puccinellia nuttalliana is persistent, salt tolerant bunchgrass and native to western North
America as forage and turf. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were
used to examine the inter-population relationships and to compare variance within and among 24
populations from Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. An analysis of molecular variance
(AMOVA) indicated that among population variation was only 2.79% while the majority (96%)
of the AFLP variance was within populations, which was expected in these outcrossing
populations. The cluster analysis performed on these populations showed no significant
association between geographic origins and genetic distance. These finds are useful for sampling
Puccinellia nuttalliana germplasm from natural populations for turf use and germplasm
conservation.

B2.4 Abstract Id 3899

 Winter-Hardy Spring Wheat Breeding: Analysis of Winter x Spring Wheat Germplasm
                      and the Development of Selection Tools

    *R.J. Larsen, D.E. Falk, Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph,
                     Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1, Jamie.larsen@agr.gc.ca.

Winter wheat breeding is an inherently slower process than spring wheat breeding due to
vernalization requirement. Development of a winter-hardy spring wheat breeding platform has
the potential to increase the gain in selection per year over traditional winter wheat breeding
programs. To make effective use of spring wheat being able to produce three generations per
year, a multi-temperature, indoor cold tolerance screen using chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm)
and visual assessment two weeks after freezing as evaluation parameters was developed.
Evaluation of Ontario-adapted winter and spring wheat varieties demonstrated that the test was
able to differentiate between winter and spring wheat. This data set was used to develop an
indoor freezing survival index (IFSI) and specific varieties from this test served as checks to
normalize data for effective ranking of germplasm in further experiments. To develop a more
efficient winter-hardy spring wheat breeding system, multiple populations with at least one

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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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spring parent were advanced to the F3:4 generation. Winter survival and indoor testing indicated
that no breeding line was better than winter wheat ‗Froid‘, however; IFSI analysis indicated that
several lines had cold tolerance similar to Ontario-adapted winter wheats, indicating that winter-
hardy spring wheat is possible for Ontario. Molecular marker analysis indicated that a
significant level of cold tolerance is associated with the Vrn-B1 allele compared to the Vrn-A1
allele. Generation means analysis of a Froid x Siete Cerros cross indicated that the cold
tolerance due to additive genetic effects.

B2.5 Abstract Id 3909

   Profiling and association mapping of a lentil core collection for nine mineral elements.

  *M. Fedoruk, K. Bett, Marwan, Department of Plant Science, University of Saskatchewan,
        Saskatoon Saskatchewan, corresponding author: Kirstin Bett (k.bett@usask.ca)
 McGee R, Coyne C, United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service,
              Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, Pullman Washington
 Grusak M., United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Children's
  Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston
                                           Texas,

Biofortification of crops is a method being considered for delivery of increased levels of
essential minerals to humans through their daily food. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) is a crop
grown in Western Canada and is consumed throughout the world, especially in south-east Asia.
It has been identified as a crop that could deliver a large portion of the daily mineral nutrients
needed by people. In order to enhance the mineral concentrations through breeding, the natural
variation of minerals first need to be determined. This can then be coupled with the discovery of
the genetic loci responsible for expression of those mineral elements to develop molecular
markers than can be used for marker-assisted selection. Seed from 138 lines from the USDA
lentil core collection was analyzed for the minerals Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, and Zn. We
also genotyped this collection using a 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism Illumina
GoldenGate assay. Population structure analysis separated the accessions into different groups.
Marker-trait association analysis is being used to identify QTLs that are controlling each of the
mineral elements measured. This will result in the development of molecular markers that could
be used by breeders to more efficiently develop even more nutritious cultivars.

B2.6 Abstract Id 3850

             Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Pea Recombinant Inbred Lines

  *Arun S.K Shunmugam, Bunyamin Taran, Kirstin Bett, and Tom Warkentin, Department of
    Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, 51, Campus Drive, Saskatoon,
                             Saskatchewan. ars172@mail.usask.ca

Phytate is the major storage form of phosphorus in crop seeds, but is not well digested by
humans and non-ruminant animals. In addition, phytate chelates several essential micro nutrients
which are also excreted contributing to phosphorus pollution in the environment. The project is
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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

aimed at biochemical and molecular characterization of two low phytate pea mutant lines, 1-150-
81 and 1-2347-144 developed at the Crop Development Center, University of Saskatchewan in
collaboration with Dr. Victor Raboy, USDA, Idaho. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were
developed from crosses between the two mutant lines and CDC Meadow. The RILs were
evaluated in fields in Saskatchewan in 2011 and will again be evaluated in 2012. They were
genotyped using GoldenGate genotyping assay and phenotyped using colorimetric assays. These
data will be used to identify the molecular marker(s) for the trait. Significant potential benefits
that we could expect out of the project include, improved bioavailability of phosphorus, iron and
zinc in foods and feeds, less phosphorus excretion and environmental pollution and a huge
saving in feed costs.




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Session B3: Borlaug Seminars ―Plant Breeding 150 years after Mendel‖ 1:30 pm – 3:00 pm
                                                                Agriculture Building, Rm 2E25

B3.1 Abstract Id 3752

     Expansion of winter wheat production in western Canada: An experiment in crop
                                      adaptation.

   Brian Fowler, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr,
                          Saskatoon, SK, Brian.Fowler@usask.ca

The traditional winter wheat production area in western Canada extended as far north as southern
Alberta and winter survival was considered the main limitation to expansion in the remainder of
the prairies. In the 1970‘s, a research and development program was initiated with the objective
of expanding production north and east into the higher winter stress regions. The development
and adoption of no-till seeding methods for snow trapping reduced the risk of winterkill and
allowed for successful overwintering of wheat when cold hardy cultivars were grown using
recommended management practices. Subsequent plant breeding improvements increased
production potential and winter wheat is now western Canada‘s third largest wheat class.
Average commercial yields of 149, 125, and 118 percent of spring wheat in Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, and Alberta, respectively, have demonstrated the high yield potential that can be
realized while employing environmentally sustainable crop management practices. This
experiment in crop adaptation once again demonstrated that a coordinated approach combining
programs in agronomy, plant breeding/genetics, information transfer, and market development
are required for successful crop adaptation to a new or changing environment.

B3.2 Abstract Id 3918

Transfer of Technology to the Field: Tools to Enhance Development of Field Ready Wheat
                                        Cultivars

Curtis J. Pozniak, Crop Development Centre, Dept. Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan.
51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A8.

In the last five years, remarkable technological innovations in DNA sequencing and
bioinformatics have emerged that can allow plant breeders to characterize their germplasm at the
most fundamental level – the DNA sequence. Using the latest in next generation sequencing
technologies, we are exploring novel strategies to discover allelic variation with the goal of
developing user-friendly DNA markers that can be used by wheat breeders to improve the
efficiency of selection. Specifically, we are pursuing development of novel genotype by
sequencing technologies with the goal of identifying important genes that influence phenotypic
expression and to develop whole genome selection strategies. We have already used these
approaches to develop useful DNA markers for pest resistance, and these are already being
deployed in western Canadian wheat breeding programs. As part of the Canadian funded
―Canadian Triticum Advancement through Genomics (CTAG)‖ project, we are also contributing

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                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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to the sequencing of the 17 Gb genome of wheat as part of the International Wheat Genome
Sequencing Consortium. Examples of how these data are being applied locally, and
internationally to develop useful tools in the development of new wheat cultivars will be
presented.

B3.3 Abstract Id 3914

                    Translational Phenomics from the Pot to the Paddock

 *Robert T. Furbank, Jose Jimenez-Berni, David Deery, Richard Poire and Xavier Sirault, High
             Resolution Plant Phenomics Centre, CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra

The High Resolution Plant Phenomics Centre (HRPPC) is the Canberra node of the Australian
Plant Phenomics Facility (APPF), a $50M national phenotyping capability. The HRPPC has
built a number of non-destructive phenotyping platforms ranging from seedling screens in trays
of 20 plants based on chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, thermal imaging and RGB imaging to
full 3-D reconstruction of plant models in single pots under controlled environments and in plots
in the field. Similar approaches and sensor technologies (multiple RGB camera views, Lidar,
Thermal imaging, chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral reflectance) are used to study plant
responses to environmental conditions in field simulations and full field conditions. A ground
based sensing buggy the Phenomobile is described which was developed to extract canopy
architecture, crop volume, ears and main stems per square metre and crop carbohydrate, pigment
and protein in cereal crops at high spatial resolution. A distributed sensor network, Phenonet,
which monitors canopy temperature and soil moisture content for the entire season at timescales
of minutes is described and its utility in studying crop responses to soil moisture demonstrated.
Examples are shown of how these tools can be used to quantitatively measure agriculturally
relevant traits and build the linkages from genotype to phenotype with a focus on field
measurements for trait based crop breeding.

B3.4 Abstract Id 3910

Improving high-throughput 2D and 3D phenotyping of complete crop plants with state-of-
                         the-art computer vision techniques

     Ben Niehaus, *Stefan Schwartz, Hauke Lasinger, Matthias Eberius, LemnaTec GmbH,
          Schumanstr. 18, 52146 Wuerselen, Germany, ben.niehaus@lemnatec.com

High-throughput plant phenotyping requires an automated, non-destructive system that extracts
desirable biological and agronomical traits from high numbers of screened plants. This text
presents three different state-of-the-art techniques and explains their value for plant phenotyping,
particularly for separating individual plant organs, with the example of corn. The approaches can
also be transferred to other crops and used for multi- and hyper-spectral imaging.
AdaBoost is a supervised machine-learning algorithm that combines several weak classifiers into
a single strong classifier. This way, a weak classifier is only required to be better than random
guessing, being a fast and simple classifier. It can be proven that HaarLike Feature in
combination with AdaBoost can also be used to detect the leaf edges or overlapping leaves of

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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

various plants (e.g. arabidopsis, corn), and thus to separate and acquire information for
individual plant organs.
Space carving is a technique that creates a precise 3D model by using multiple images of the
same object taken with one or more cameras. To do this, a photo-consistency check is performed
for each pixel contained in the captured images. Only eight images are sufficient to create a full
3D model of an entire plant. The resulting model also contains the spectral information of all
underlying frequencies (VIS, NIR, IR, fluorescence or hyperspectral) present in the datasets.
Thinning out the segmented plant will eventually result in a skeletonized image of the organism.
Extracting information for individual leaves such as leaf length and angle is very simple once the
skeleton of the plant is computed.
If a high imaging throughput is the main aim, it is sufficient to take only two or three images to
calculate the approximate organ sizes of segmented plants. In a first step, the plant is segmented
into individual images by using a colour threshold or a more advanced technique (e.g.
Randomwalker). The next step is to determine the leaf edges by means of the proposed algorithm
and to use the skeleton of the plant to determine length angles, projected sizes and additional
spectral and shape parameters.
The methods applied here need a minimum of parameterizing and are suitable for a wide range
of plants, from small, almost 2D Arabidopsis rosettes to mature corn plants, as well as cereals or
dicot plants like tomato, soybean or cotton. This flexibility allows the integration in high-
throughput plant phenotyping systems.

B3.5 Abstract Id 3848

      Winter dicot crops as an adaptation to climate change: The Montana experience

  *Perry Miller and Jeff Holmes, Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State
          University, 334 Leon Johnson Hall, Bozeman, MT, pmiller@montana.edu

One of the most significant proposed adaptations to climate change in the northern Plains is the
switch from spring to fall-sown annual crops. While supportive agronomic and genetic
knowledge is advanced for winter wheat, winter dicot crops remain relatively unexplored. In the
last decade we‘ve been conducting agronomic research near Bozeman with winter growth habits
of canola, lentil, pea, and safflower. Considerable potential exists for all but safflower. Biomass
growth, N fixation, and grain yield of winter legumes was typically greater than or equal to their
spring counterparts in a western Montana environment. Winter canola has shown extraordinary
yield potential with the highest yield yet recorded in small plot studies near 5,000 kg/ha.
However winter survival remains problematic. It appears that winter dicot success is linked to
spring climate, with relatively warm, dry early springs favoring winter dicot survival. Stubble
microclimate effects may also play a significant role. In 2012 we are initiating research into the
role of stubble microclimate and plant disease interaction in conditioning spring survival of
overwintered dicots.




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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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B3.6 Abstract Id 3915

     Spring wheat genotypes differentially alter soil microbial communities and wheat
               breadmaking quality in organic and conventional systems.
                        (2011. Canadian J. Plant Sci. 91:485-495)

   *Nelson, A G, Quideau, S; Frick, B; Niziol, D; Clapperton, J; Spaner, D., Department of
 Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
                                           T6G 2P5

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars may have differential effects on soil microbial
communities and the breadmaking quality of harvested grain. We conducted a field study
comparing five Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown under organic and conventional
management systems for yield, breadmaking quality and soil phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)
profile. Organic yields (2.74 t ha super(-1)) were roughly half of conventional yields (5.02 t ha
super(-1)), but protein levels were higher in the organic system than the conventional system
(16.6 vs. 15.3%, respectively). Soil microbial diversity measures were significantly higher in the
organic system compared with the conventional system, including PLFA richness (31 vs. 27
unique PLFAs per sample, respectively) and PLFA diversity (Shannon diversity indexes of 2.90
and 2.73, respectively). Diversity measures were positively correlated with weed seed yield in
the organic system (0.44 < r < 0.55), indicating that the presence of weeds played some role in
increased microbial diversity. The use of composted dairy manure in the organic system may
also have contributed to differences between the microbial communities in the organic and
conventional systems. In the conventional system, the most recent wheat cultivar, AC Superb,
had higher levels of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil (1.97%) than the other cultivars (1.32 - 1.43).
Our results suggest that breeding efforts in conventionally managed environments may have
resulted in cultivating mycorrhizal dependence in that environment. Cropping systems that
include a diversity of plants, such as polycultures, may increase soil microbial diversity.

Les cultivars de ble (Triticum aestivum L.) pourraient agir differemment sur la microflore du sol
et sur la qualite boulangere du grain. Les auteurs ont entrepris une etude sur le terrain pour
comparer cinq varietes de ble de printemps canadiennes cultivees de maniere biologique ou
classique sur le plan du rendement, de la qualite boulangere et des acides gras phospholipidiques
presents dans le sol (AGPL). Le ble cultive de maniere biologique donne un rendement (2,74 t
par hectare) approximativement egal a la moitie de celui du ble cultive de la maniere usuelle
(5,02 t par hectare), mais la teneur en proteines etait plus elevee chez le premier que le second
(16,6% c. 15,3%, respectivement). Les mesures de la diversite de la population microbienne du
sol sont sensiblement plus elevees pour la culture biologique que pour la culture classique,
notamment la richesse en AGPL (31 c. 27 AGPL uniques par echantillon, respectivement) et la
diversite des AGPL (indices de diversite de Shannon de 2,90 et de 2,73, respectivement). Dans la
culture biologique, les valeurs de la diversite sont positivement correlees au rendement grainier
des adventices (0,44 < r < 0,55), signe que les mauvaises herbes jouent un certain role dans la
diversite de la microflore. L'usage de compost de bovins laitiers dans la culture biologique
pourrait aussi expliquer la variation de la population microbienne entre les deux systemes. Dans
la culture classique, le cultivar de ble le plus recent, AC Superb, etait accompagne d'une
concentration de mycorhizes dans le sol superieure (1,97%) a celle relevee avec les autres

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                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                   Abstracts for Oral Presentations

cultivars (1,32-1,43). Ces resultats laissent croire que les travaux d'hybridation realises dans le
cadre de l'agriculture traditionnelle pourraient avoir debouche sur une dependance aux
mycorhizes dans un tel environnement. Les systemes agricoles incluant une diversite de plantes,
comme la polyculture, pourraient concourir a une meilleure diversite de la microflore.




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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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Wednesday July 18, 2012

                 Canadian Society of Horticultural Science (CSHS)

                                      Sessions C1, C2, C3

Session C1: CSHS & Student Competition                                      8:15 am – 10:00 am
                                                                 Agriculture Building, Rm 1E85

C1.1 Abstract Id 3861

        Studies on establishing wild blueberry ecotypes from Northwestern Ontario

    *T. S. Sahota and L. Luan, Thunder Bay Agricultural Research Station, 435 James St. S,
              Thunder Bay, Ontario, P7E 6S7, Canada, tarloksahota@tbaytel.net.

A systematic field experiment, replicated 24 times, to compare growth, morphology, and fruit
yield of Vaccinium augustifoium, Vaccinium augustifolium var. nigrum, and Vaccinium
mytilloides, commonly accurring low bush wild blueberries in northwestern Ontario, was
established in 2010-‘11 at Thunder Bay Agricultual Research Station (TBARS), Thunder Bay.
Blueberry plants, collected from Escape Lake, Nipigon and Black Sturgeon Lake, were
transplanted at TBARS in late August 2010. Vegetative and reproductive phenological data were
collected throughout the season. Berries from four replications were collected once a week after
first reached maturity. Vaccinium augustifolium var. nigrum developed more rapidly than the
other two types, especially in the early stages. Fruit maturity in the plants collected from Black
Sturgeon Lake (both V. augustifolium and V. myrtilloides) was about a week late as compared to
the ones from Escape Lake and Nipigon. Fresh fruit yields varied from 50-398 kg ha-1 (5-39 g
plant-1) with a mean yield of 150 kg ha-1 (15 g plant-1). Vaccinium mytilloides from all three
origins yielded poorly, but the yields of the other two types varied greatly among locations of
origin. Blueberries from Nipigon had higher fresh fruit yield than those from Escape Lake and
Black Sturgeon Lake.

C1.2 Abstract Id 3760

 Morphology, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium
   angustifolium Ait.) plants as affected by in vitro and ex vitro propagation methods

    *Juran C Goyali, Abir U Igamberdiev, Department of Biology, Memorial University of
      Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth Avenue, St. John‘s, NL, juran_goyali@yahoo.co.in,
                                   igamberdiev@mun.ca
  Samir C Debnath, Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food
    Canada, Bldg. 25, 308 Brookfield Road, St. John‘s, NL, Samir.Debnath@AGR.GC.CA




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                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                   Abstracts for Oral Presentations

The lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), a commercially important crop in
Eastern Canada and USA, is native to North America. It is the richest source of antioxidant
compounds and has been reported to be a potential component in reducing incidence of
cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of propagation methods on
morphological characteristics, phenolic content and antioxidant activity (AA). A lowbush
blueberry clone ‗QB 9C‘ collected from Quebec and a cultivar ‗Fundy‘ were studied after being
propagated by conventional softwood cutting (SC) and by tissue culture (TC). A significant
interaction between propagation methods and genotypes was observed for number of stems per
plant, number of branches per plant and for total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and
proanthocyanidin (PAC) contents. After growing in the greenhouses, the TC plants produced
higher number of stems and branches compared to SC plants. TPC, TFC and PAC were found in
similar levels in ‗QB 9C‘ leaves of SC and TC plants. However, ‗Fundy‘ TC leaves showed less
TPC, TFC, PAC and AA compared to those of SC plants. The juvenile characteristics of tissue-
culture lowbush blueberry plants may be responsible for differences in morphological traits and
antioxidant activity.

C1.3 Abstract Id 3837

   The fruit ripening process of Lonicera caerulea L., new metabolites and old favorites.

    *James Dawson, Bob Bors, Doug Waterer Department of Plant Science, Agriculture and
        Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK,
            james.dawson@usask.ca, bob.bors@usask.ca, doug.waterer@usask.ca

     Phytochemical content of the fruit of six important genotypes of Lonicera caerulea L. were
     investigated throughout the fruit development and ripening period. L. caerulea berries were
shown to contain high amounts of quercetin glucosides, chlorogenic acid and anthocyanins. Two
  iridoid glucosides, loganin and secologanin, were identified for the first time in the fruit of this
species. ‗Tundra‘, ‗Borealis‘ and four numbered genotypes were sampled weekly over the 42 day
  ripening period. Phytochemicals were quantified via HPLC using a diode array. The content of
    the majority of phytochemicals decreased as berries matured, while anthocyanin compounds
   increased. Comparisons between genotypes showed high variability for rutin content, ranging
       from 3.5mg/g DW in ‗Tundra‘ to 1.2mg/g DW in ‗3-03‘. Genotypes with high levels of
 chlorogenic acid also had high levels of rutin. Iridoid glucosides were most abundant in the fruit
of ‗77-87‘ which contained approximately 1mg/g DW. This is the first L. caerulea study to track
                levels of specific phytochemicals as the fruit developed over 42 days.

C1.4 Abstract Id 3878

Flower Removal of Organic Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) to Increase Bush Growth and
                            Yield During Establishment

   *David W. Hobson and Andrew Hammermeister, Organic Agriculture Institute of Canada,
                            Truro, Nova Scotia, hobsond@nsac.ca
     Kris Pruski and Derek Lynch, Department of Plant and Animal Sciences, Nova Scotia
                          Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia

                                                 27
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

Many fruit crops are thinned to increase crop yields. Removing flowers of establishing small-
fruit plants can also increase growth of plants which encourages earlier establishment. Fruits are
a major sink for establishing plants and removing this sink could divert resources to other organs
to encourage growth and the following year‘s yield. The first harvest of small fruit is typically
too small to warrant harvesting, so plants commit resources to fruits where growth may be
compromised. Flowers were completely removed from second-year blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum
L.) to test the effects on shoot growth and yield at two sites on Prince Edward Island. Each site
had three replicates with three plants per plot in a randomized block design. Timing of organic
fertility amendments in spring-only, summer-only or split summer/spring had no significant
interaction with deflowering treatments. Plants at one site were larger and deflowering caused
increased yields by 20% but growth did not increase. At the other site yield did not increase from
deflowering, but growth significantly increased by 29 % the first year and by 61 % in the second
year. Deflowering was done here by hand, but a mechanical method to remove flowers is
required to make this technique cost-effective.

C1.5 Abstract Id 3823

  Temperature-Mediated Cell Wall Alterations and Its Roles in Freezing Avoidance and
                        Resistance in Allium fistulosum L.

*Jun Liu, Karen Tanino Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources,
       University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK, Canada, S7N 5A8.
                        jul616@mail.usask.ca, karen.tanino@usask.ca
 Ferenc Borondics, Canadian Light Source, 101 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, S7N
                            0X4. ferenc.borondics@lightsource.ca

Freezing stress resistance is an important research field in order to develop and improve
agricultural production in cold climates. It is well-known that the cell wall is a physical barrier
against various environmental intrusions. Cell wall hardening may be one of the freezing
resistance mechanisms, because the characteristics of cell wall assist cells and plants to survive
freezing and dehydration stress. However, how the mechanism works is still unclear. Allium
fistulosum has a single epidermal layer and large cell size, which permits the direct observation
of the freezing process and localize the functional groups. Therefore, Allium fistulosum provides
a useful system to investigate the changes occurring within the cell wall during cold acclimation.
The cryo-behavior of non-acclimated samples and acclimated plants (12/4 °C day/night four
weeks) were observed in a cryostage. Multiple approaches were taken to conduct the research
including cold acclimation simulation and integrated modeling of Fourier Transform Infrared
(FTIR) spectra plots. Cell wall structure is changed by cold acclimation through the
measurements of the cellulose/pectin region.




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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

C1.6 Abstract Id 3767

                                Drought stress in potato plants

  *Pankaj Banik, Department of Plant Sciences, The University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus
                     Drive, Saskatoon, SK. Email: pkb459@mail.usask.ca
  Helen Tai, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Fredericton, NB. Email: helen.tai@agr.gc.ca
  Karen Tanino, Professor, Department of Plant Sciences, The University of Saskatchewan, 51
                Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK. Email: karen.tanino@usask.ca

A study was undertaken to examine the drought stress resistance in contrasting potato genotypes.
Plants were exposed to cyclic acclimation by withholding water until soil moisture content
reached 10%. Drought stress (0% soil mc) was applied between the stolon elongation and tuber
initiation stage. Treatments were: Not-acclimated and not stressed (NA), not-acclimated and
stressed (NAS), drought-acclimated and stressed (DAS). U1002 genotype was tested over three
generations to determine if previous drought stress history will affect subsequent drought stress
resistance. In another experiment, three contrasting genotypes were evaluated Russet Burbank
(RB), U1002 and Fu12] to understand the mechanism of stress acclimation, resistance and
recovery. Response measurements included leaf water content, stomatal aperture, leaf water loss,
leaf temperature, photosynthetic quantum yield, leaflet water content, leaf cuticle thickness, leaf
trichome density, flowering time, stem diameter, plant height, biomass and yield. U1002
treatments with a previous drought stress history induced more tubers in the 5 - 50g category in
the subsequent generation compared to treatments with no drought stress history. RB, Fu12 and
U1002 showed high resistance, moderate resistance and sensitivity though leaf water loss over as
little as 15 minutes. Other parameters are being evaluated and will be presented.

Cl.7 Abstract Id 3849

                  Phosphorus Management in Polder Vegetable Production

   *Deanna Nemeth, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, 4890 Victoria
              Avenue N, Vineland Station, Ontario. deanna.nemeth@ontario.ca
 Christoph Kessel, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Alexander Hall, 50
               Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario. christoph.kessel@ontario.ca
Donna Speranzini, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 174 Stone Road West, Guelph, Ontario.
                                 donna.speranzini@agr.gc.ca
Ivan O‘Halloran, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus,
         120 Main Street East, Ridgetown, Ontario. iohallor@ridgetownc.uoguelph.ca
Mary-Ruth McDonald, Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East,
                          Guelph, Ontario. mrmcdona@uoguelph.ca

The Bradford, Holland, Colbar and Keswick marshes are significant histosols in Ontario, and are
ideal for polder vegetable production, generating $ 100 million annually in farm revenue. When
first cropped, these soils had low phosphorus (P) availability; but fertilization over time has
increased soil P and the potential for P loss. Currently, the estimated P loss into Lake Simcoe is
an estimated 2 tonnes P y-1. In response, this three year study evaluated improved P

                                                29
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

management in vegetables production by reduced P application rates and P fertilizer placement.
Crop yield, storage quality, lysimeter, tile drain water and P sorption/desorption data was
collected. Results indicated OMAFRA P recommendations of P application for vegetable crops
in histosols were sound. Reduced P application rates showed no yield response or reduction in
crop storage quality. Soil test P, lysimeter and tile water analysis demonstrated the majority of
soil P was soluble and prone to leaching. The first step in mitigating P loss from histosols is to
apply P according to provincial recommendations based on the sodium bicarbonate extraction
method. This project was funded by the Lake Simcoe Clean Up Fund (Environment Canada),
and the Nutrient Management BMP Grant (Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association).




                                                30
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations


Session C2: Mini-Symposium - Biocontrol Methods                          10:30 am – 12:30 pm
                                                                 Agriculture Building, Rm 2E25

C2.1 Abstract Id 3904

     Biopesticides in Agriculture: Can science meet societal demands for greener food
                              production in the 21st Century?
 Karen L. Bailey, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada,
                              S7N 0X2. Karen.Bailey@agr.gc.ca
As urban landscapes encroach upon rural environments, public awareness of environmental and
human health issues surrounding agricultural practices and pesticide use give rise to potential
conflict. The majority of consumers and agricultural producers cite pesticide use as their key
concern related to food consumption and personal safety. However, there is a clear need for pest
management, otherwise more than one half of the crop yield and quality produced would be lost
if grown without any crop protection. Biopesticides which are based on living microorganisms
and their bioactive compounds have been investigated for many years as safer, lower risk
alternatives to synthetic pesticides and as new pest control products for organic production
systems. In Canada, the number of biopesticide registrations has been increasing since the start
of the 21st century with more recent registrations based on agricultural and horticultural uses.
Contans® which is based on the fungus Coniothyrium minitans specifically controls
sclerotoinina disease on canola and beans. In contrast, Serenade®, based on the bacterium
Bacillus subtilis, controls many fungal diseases on soybean, corn, wheat, and specialty crops.
Despite these successes, biopesticides only make up a small percentage of all pest control
products used worldwide. The scientific-development process of moving from a new discovery
to a commercial product has many challenges in order to meet the expectations of many parties
in society (i.e. user, consumer, industry, regulators, and politicians). This paper will further
explore the factors that are advancing the science of biological control to meet our societal
demand for pesticide reduction.

C2.2 Abstract Id 3902

  New Mechanisms and Applications for Plant Secondary Metabolites and non-glandular
                                     Trichomes

*M.Y. Gruber, Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, SK,
                                         S7N0X2 Canada
 Wei, S., School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 20036,
                                               China
      Li, X., College of Plant Sciences, Jinlin University, Changchun Jinlin 130062, China
Alahakoon, U., Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, SK,
S7N0X2 Canada; Dept. Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N5E2 Canada,
  Yu, B., Plant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council, Saskatoon, SK, S7N0W9
 Kadoor, R., Mahmoudi, H., Ben Salah, I., Physiologie et Biochimie de la Tolérance au Sel des
Plantes, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, El Manar II, Tunis 2092, Tunisie.

                                               31
                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                   Abstracts for Oral Presentations

Yu, M., Holowachuk, Nayidu, N., Taheri, A.,Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-
                     Food Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N0X2 Canada;
  Bonham-Smith, P., Dept. Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N5E2,
Hannoufa, A. Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food
                         Canada, London, ON, N5V4T3 Canada
A diversity of phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidin,
and lignin), carotenoids, and several key proteins contribute strongly to the portfolio of
mechanisms that plants use to combat disease, insect pests, and unfavorable growing conditions,
which result in crop damage and loss. As anti-oxidants, these compounds and proteins provide
agricultural/post-harvest management, nutritional, and health benefits to humans and livestock.
Trichomes also contribute to plant defense by forming a physical barrier discourages foraging
insects and animals and guards against water loss in some plants. With changing climate,
limitations on cropping areas, and rising food and fuel demands, knowledge of how to rapidly
select or modify plants for growth on marginal land, tolerance to stress, or with improved yield
and post-harvest traits has become more critical than ever before in history. The genetic
regulation and interplay between these different plant defence strategies, as well as their
relationships to plant development, is being unravelled by a wealth of mutation lines and
decreasing costs for functional genome and metabolome analyses. The presentation will draw
attention to basic and applied research on tolerance to metabolites, salinity, insect resistance, and
bio-industrial products to provide a window into how these pathways can or are being applied to
horticulture and agricultural crops and stewardship of the environment.

C2.3 Abstract Id 3903

                Biological Control of Arthropods in Controlled Environments

   Ken Fry, School of Environment, Olds College, 4500-50th Street, Olds, Alberta, T4H 1R6,
                                   kfry@oldscollege.ca

Greenhouse production is a complicated enterprise with pest management being among the most
complex aspects for any grower. For a grower to successfully implement a biological control
programme or to integrate biological control agents into an integrated pest management
programme several key principles must be adhered to. A grower should approach pest
management from the perspective that any and all plant management practices are, in effect, pest
management practices. Therefore a holistic approach to biological control should be adopted
wherein each and every step taken in the production of plant material can contribute to or impact
the success of a biological control programme. Practical aspects of this approach will be
described and discussed to offer insight into how to best implement a biological control
programme in controlled environments.




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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

C2.4 Abstract Id 3852

  Plant-derived essential oils as an alternative approach to managing post-harvest disease
                                     and quality problems

 *Karen Tanino and *Doug Waterer, Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and
            Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8.
                             This will be a joint presentation.

Essential oils extracted from locally grown dill and caraway (active ingredient S-(+) carvone)
and spearmint (R-(-) carvone) provided effective yet reversible sprout control in stored potatoes,
with no adverse effects on crop quality or flavor. The essential oil treatments also suppressed a
range of storage diseases of potato (Fusarium solani, F. sambucinum, F. culmorum, F.
sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani). Many of these fungal diseases are largely resistant to the
synthetic fungicides registered for post-harvest use on potatoes in Canada. However, the
essential oil treatments appeared to render the potatoes more susceptible to attack by bacterial
soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum). A survey of other essential oils show potential to use
these products to suppress a number of important post-harvest pathogens of horticultural crops
including Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum coccodes, Helminthosporium solani and
Botrytis sp. Additional biocontrol methods under current investigation will also be discussed.




                                                33
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations


Session C3: Mini-Symposium: Northern Greenhouses                         3:30 pm – 5:00 pm
                                                                 Agriculture Building, Rm 1E80

C3.1 Abstract Id 3906

Innovations in agroforestry willow systems for environmental sustainability and bioenergy
                                        purposes
 Bill Schroeder, Chris Stefner, Jaconette Mirck and *Raju Y. Soolanayakanahally, Agroforestry
          Development Centre, AAFC, Indian Head, Saskatchewan, Canada S0G 2K0
Canada has vast areas of uneconomical agriculture land that can be utilized for biomass and
bioenergy production. Use of biomass from agriculture lands can reduce the environmental
footprint (air, water, land) of Canada‘s current energy systems, while achieving long-term
economic and social sustainability. Fast growing shrub willows (Salix spp.) have outstanding
potential to serve as a dedicated biomass feedstock for production of bioenergy and in various
environmental applications such as carbon sequestration, nutrient interception and salt
mitigation. The Agroforestry Development Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada focus
on innovative land management systems to stimulate rural development. The speaker will
highlight some of the advancements in agroforestry practices across Canada (from PEI to
Saskatchewan) in generating biomass from naturally occurring and planted willows. In addition,
a small scale integrated approach to heating with biomass will be discussed.

C3.2 Abstract Id 3908

               Aquaponics – a New Approach to Sustainable Food Production

Nick Savidov, Bio-Industrial Opportunities Branch, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development
 Agri-Food Discovery Place, Building F-83 1-039, 6020 - 118 Street, Edmonton Alberta T6H
                               2V8, Nick.Savidov@gov.ab.ca
Aquaponics is a new emerging technology aiming sustainable and economically viable food
production at economic usage of resources and minimal environmental impact. An aquaponic
operation produces both fish and plants and it is an example of an Integrated Food Production
System or IFPS, where animal waste is converted into plant nutrients and plants grown is soilless
culture utilize nutrients producing clean environment for animal production. The economic
advantage of aquaponics is generating two revenues instead of one as in most conventional
systems. Contrary to the conventional systems based on monoculture and heavy use of chemicals
and synthetic fertilizers, aquaponics recreates relationships between animal, plant and microbial
components typical for natural ecosystems.
Aquaponics research in Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development started in 2002 since
building a pilot-scale aquaponics operation at the Brooks‘ Crop Diversification Centre South.
High-yielding aquaponics developed in Alberta does not use any synthetic fertilizers and
pesticide and produces no waste. It is unique of this kind in the world. The latest generation of
aquaponics utilizes two-loop design responsible for utilization of liquid as well as solid waste
from aquaculture operation. Pure oxygen is used instead of aeration to speed up biological
breakdown of organic waste.
                                               34
                               CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                 Abstracts for Oral Presentations

Several companies in Alberta are in a process of commercialization of aquaponics. Having two
revenues, aquaponics creates an economic incentive for the industry to produce food using
resources more efficiently and in environmentally responsible manner.

C3.3 Abstract Id 3905

      Commercial greenhouse production of vegetable crops from Ontario to Mexico and
                                      now Alberta

      Weizheng (John) Zhang, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, 301 Horticultural
                  Station Rd. E. Brooks, AB, T1R 1E6, john.zhang@gov.ab.ca

Total vegetable greenhouse area in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2011) are 2,924 acres. 1,921 acres
of the greenhouse vegetable production are in Ontario. It has the largest greenhouse operations
in Canada. Ontario greenhouses grow cherry tomatoes, mini cucumbers, spicy peppers, and
eggplants. In 2011, the 100 acres of the new greenhouses were built. Will the low produce price
impact any new expansion in 2012?
In last 15 years, the Mexican greenhouse industry grown rapidly. One of the largest greenhouses
in the world, Bionatur, has 200 acres in central Mexico. 90% of the Mexican greenhouse produce
are exported to USA and Canada.
Alberta has total 127 acres of vegetable greenhouses, concentrated in Redcliff. The main crop is
cucumber. High market demands give the growers better price. Will Redcliff become the next
Leamington in prairies? Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development invested $17 million to
build a Greenhouse Research and Production Complex (GRPC) in Brooks. GRPC is a unique
and one of the most advanced facilities of its kind anywhere in Canada and the world. It has HPS
lightings, fog systems, and swamp coolers.




                                              35
                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                   Abstracts for Oral Presentations

Thursday July 19, 2012

                         Canadian Society of Agronomy (CSA)

Session D1: CSA                                                             8:30 am – 10:00 am
                                                                  Agriculture Building, Rm 1E85

D1.1 Abstract Id 3893

 Climate and photoperiod influence soybean cultivar adaptation in Manitoba and Ontario

              *Malcolm Morrison, ECORC, AAFC, 960 Carling Ave, Ottawa, ON.
                               Malcolm.morrison@agr.gc.ca
               David McAndrew, Morden Reseach Centre, AAFC, Morden, MB,
               Elroy Cober, ECORC AAFC, Ottawa, ON, Elroy.cober@agr.gc.ca

Over the past 35 years, the soybean crop has pushed its way out of the warm-season zone, into
eastern Ontario, western Quebec, southern Manitoba and even Saskatchewan. Manitoba seeded
232,694 ha in 2011 with 323,748 planned for 2012. Daylength and temperature control soybean
development and un-adapted cultivars can result in yield losses. A three year, replicated yield
trial, of a range of early maturing cultivars, differing in maturity group (MG) classification, was
done at Ottawa, and Morden. Cultivars ranged from MG 000.9 to a MG I.3. Data was collected
on phenology and yield. Morden was considerably cooler than Ottawa but averaged only 88
Crop Heat Units (CHU) more time to maturity across the 10 maturity groups. While yield was
higher among the earlier maturing cultivars in Morden than in Ottawa, later maturing cultivars
had lower yields. The highest yields in Ottawa resulted from a MG 0.8 cultivar while in Morden
the highest yielding cultivar was a MG 0.3 cultivar. Greater daylength in Morden resulted in a 19
day delay in flowering compared to Ottawa, but also shorter flowering and pod filling durations.
With warmer growing seasons in Manitoba, higher heat unit cultivars will achieve higher yields.

D1.2 Abstract Id 3884

               A promising variety of Camelina sativa L. Crantz, Line CDI007

 Yunfei Jiang, Department of Plant and Animal Science, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, 50
                    Pictou Road, Truro, Nova Scotia, jiangy206@nsac.ca

Camelina sativa L. Crantz is an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family. It is a versatile, drought-
tolerant and nutrient use efficient crop, and its oil potential offers excellent health benefits and
nutritional value to humans and animals. As an ancient crop, the renewed interest in camelina
has been due to its oil which is rich in omega-3, α-linolenic acid (ALA). One major objective of
the research is to screen selected promising lines of camelina with outstanding agronomy
performance. In 2011, effects of different levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg
N/ha) were evaluated on the resistance towards downy mildew, plant density, seed yield, the

                                                36
                                  CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                    Abstracts for Oral Presentations

contents of fatty acids, protein and glucosinolates of five genotypes of camelina lines CDI002,
CDI005, CDI007, CDI008 and Calena in Nova Scotia (Truro and Canning), New Brunswick and
Saskatchewan. The results showed CDI007 was the most promising line among these five
genotypes. CDI007 was the most resistant to downy mildew, had the highest yield with 1793.4
kg/ha, which was significantly higher than the rest (p<0.0001) and had the lowest amount of
glucosinolates (p=0.0011). In addition, CDI007 seeds were highest in the content of oil (39.59%)
although the protein content was the lowest.

D1.3Abstract Id 3833

                         Managing crop nutrition in a changing climate

Tom Bruulsema, International Plant Nutrition Institute, Guelph, Ontario tom.bruulsema@ipni.net

In early 2012, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a special report (SREX)
on extreme weather events. While its most confident prediction is a global increase in heat
waves, it also states it is likely that the frequency of heavy precipitation or the proportion of total
rainfall from heavy rainfalls will increase in the 21st century over many areas of the globe. In
particular it projects increased heavy rain events in winter months for most of the eastern and
northern portions of the Corn Belt. Producers adapt to increased temperature by choosing crops
and cultivars that tolerate hot weather, and by planting crops earlier. With more intense rain
events, the importance of conservation tillage to protect soil and nutrients from erosion and
runoff increases. This presentation will describe the implications of climate change for managing
the nutrition of crops in Central and Eastern Canada. Important components of 4R Nutrient
Stewardship that contribute to producers‘ ability to adapt include emphases on choices of source,
rate, timing and placement of nutrients, as well as learning from results through adaptive
management.

D1.4 Abstract ID 3859

           Effect of sources and times of N application on timothy and bromegrass

   *T. S. Sahota, Thunder Bay Agricultural Research Station, 435 James St. S, Thunder Bay,
                  Ontario, Canada P7E 6S7, e-mail: tarloksahota@tbaytel.net

A field experiment was conducted in CRBD, replicated four times, at Thunder Bay (2008-'11) to
study comparative effects of fall application of urea (at 15 days interval from September 25 to
November 10) and ESN (105 kg N ha-1 on September 25), and spring application of urea on
timothy and bromegrass (14 treatments). Urea @ 105 kg N ha-1 was applied in two splits (70 kg
N ha-1 in fall/or spring and the rest after the first cut). Application of N fertilizers increased the
forages dry matter yield (DMY) significantly (up to 2000 kg ha-1). There was no interaction
between grass species and fertilizer treatments. Averaged over three years, bromegrass produced
750 kg ha-1 higher DMY than timothy. DMY from September 25 applied ESN (5,214 kg ha-1)
or urea (5,158 kg ha-1) was higher than late fall urea applications and equaled that from spring
applied urea (5,122 kg ha-1). Protein content was over 2 % point higher with ESN than spring
applied urea. Considering the protein benefit and to spread field operations, fall application of

                                                  37
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

ESN to forage grasses could be recommended in northwestern Ontario/and cooler regions of the
world.

D1.5 Abstract Id 3851

  Late-maturing orchardgrass varieties and reduced harvest frequency to increase home-
     grown feed production and reduce the need for feed imports on BC dairy farms

*Shabtai Bittman and Derek Hunt Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agassiz Research Station
 Agric.Canada POB 1000 Agassiz, BC V0M 1A0, bittmans@agr.gc.ca, derek.hunt@agr.gc.ca
 Michael Casler, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1925 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53705,
                                    mdcasler@wisc.edu
        Yousef Papadopoulos, AAFC, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, papadopoulosy@agr.gc.ca
Daniel Undersander, Agronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1575 Linden Dr., University
                   of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, djunders@wisc.edu
  Mary Lou Swift, Alberta Agriculture, Lacombe, AB V0M1A0, Mary-Lou.Swift@gov.ab.ca

Management of forages must be planned to optimize production of feed to ensure whole-farm
nutrient efficiency. BC dairy farmers use early maturing varieties, early first cut and frequent
harvests to maximize yield and quality. The hypothesis of this 3-year orchardgrass experiment
was that reducing the frequency of cutting (from 5 to 3 times year-1) would increase yield and
that the decline in quality would be mitigated with the use of a late maturing variety. The
medium (Chilliwack) and late (Haida) varieties flowered about 6 and 10 days, respectively, later
than the early variety (Cheam). Reducing harvest frequency from 5 to 3 cuts increased yield and
in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) by 1.8 t and 1.5 t ha-1, respectively, for the late variety
compared to only 0.9 and 0 t ha-1, respectively, for the early variety. The 3-cut late variety
treatment (novel) increased IVDDM over the 5-cut early variety treatment (conventional) by 1.7
t ha-1 and yield by 1.6 t ha-1 with little effect on NDF digestibility. On a 100 ha farm with half
grass/ half corn, 10 % increase in grass yield will allow conversion of 5 ha to corn producing an
additional 100 t of high energy feed.

D1.6 Abstract Id 3865

 Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on conventional and organic wheat varieties in north western
                                         Ontario

    T. S. Sahota, Thunder Bay Agricultural Research Station, 435 James St. S, Thunder Bay,
                   Ontario, P7E 6S7, Canada, e-mail: tarloksahota@tbaytel.net

A field experiment, replicated four times, with four wheat varieties; two conventional (Sable and
Superb) and two organic (Red Fife and Kamut) in the main plots split for check and mycorrhizal
fungi seed treatment, was conducted at Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, in 2009-2011. Green
manure and liquid dairy manure were applied, but no agro-chemical was used in this experiment.
The results showed significant difference amongst wheat varieties. Sable equaled/or exceeded
Superb in grain yield and N removal, and both varieties yielded higher than Red fife and Kamut.
Both grain protein content and straw yield varied over the years, but averaged over the three

                                                38
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

years, Sable had the highest grain (4.6 t ha-1 yr-1) and straw (7.1 t ha-1 yr-1) yield and Superb
had the highest grain protein content (17.5 %). Grain yields of Red Fife and Kamut were 58 %
and 52.5 % of Sable grain yield, respectively. Grain protein content in Kamut was as much as in
Sable, but Red Fife had 1. 4 % point lower grain protein content than Sable. The mycorrhizal
fungi seed treatment had no positive effect on grain yield, protein content, N removal and straw
yield in any of the varieties/or years.

D1.7 Abstract Id 3877

         Canada’s Organic Science Cluster : overview and planning for the future.

 *V. Gravel, Organic Agriculture Center of Canada, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, PO Box
                              550, Truro, NS, vgravel@nsac.ca
A. M. Hammermeister,Organic Agriculture Center of Canada, Nova Scotia Agricultural College,
                     PO Box 550, Truro, NS, ahammermeister@nsac.ca
                                      (member of CSA)
 M. Savard, Organic Agriculture Center of Canada, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, PO Box
                              550, Truro, NS, msavard@nsac.ca

The Organic Science Cluster (OSC) started in 2009 in order to respond to the need for a strategic
and science based approach for research in the organic sector. The OSC is part of the Canadian
Agri-Science Clusters Initiative of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada‘s Growing Forward
Framework and is supported by industry partners from across Canada. Based on a consultation
with Canadian farmers in all areas of organic production, research priorities were established and
grouped in 10 sub-projects including fruit horticulture, cereal crop breeding, soil fertility
management, vegetable production, greenhouse production, environmental sustainability, and
food processing. A total of 27 research activities were undertaken by over 80 researchers and
collaborators across the country. Seventeen of those activities were directly related to organic
horticulture. Now that the end of the first OSC is fast approaching, planning is under way for
future partnerships within the next Organic Science Cluster. Work has already begun for defining
research priorities including for the horticultural sector for which 10 potential projects have
already been identified. This next OSC follows the current context where emphasis is put on
directly serving the needs of stakeholders through innovation and increasing efficiency within
organic production systems.

D1.8 Abstract id 3917

   Evaluating Canola Genotypes and Harvest Methods to Reduce Seedbank Inputs and
                                     Longevity

     *Teketel A. Haile, Steven J. Shirtliffe, Department of Plant Sciences, University of
                           Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N5A8
 Robert H. Gulden, Dept. of Plant Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2
 Chris Holzapfel, Indian Head Agricultural Research Foundation, Indian Head, SK, S0G 2K0




                                               39
                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                   Abstracts for Oral Presentations

Seed shatter in canola leads to a considerable yield loss and the dispersal of canola seeds into the
soil seedbank. The volunteer canola can then create weed problem in the subsequent crops and
result in crop yield loss. Gene dispersal in time particularly from genetically modified volunteer
canola can be another undesirable consequence. Studies were conducted in Saskatchewan in
2010 and 2011 to determine the average seedbank inputs of canola from swathing and straight
cutting operations in commercial fields and to evaluate the importance of variety selection,
harvest methods and pod sealant products to reduce seed loss in canola. A total of 66 canola
fields were surveyed within 3 weeks of harvest. These fields were sampled using a vacuum
cleaner and seed loss per unit area was determined for each field. In a separate small-plot
experiment the effect of harvest methods (swathed, Pod Ceal treated straight cut, Pod-Stik
treated straight cut and untreated straight cut) on seed loss in five canola genotypes (InVigor
5440 LL, 4362 RR, 45H26 RR, InVigor 5020 LL and juncea 8571 CL) was evaluated. The
average seed loss was found to be 184 kg ha-1, which is equivalent to 7.3% of the total yield and
resulted in seedbank addition of approximately 5821 viable seeds per m2. Seed loss among
producers ranged from 4.9 to 9% of the total yield and resulted in seedbank addition which is
many times more than the normal seeding rate of canola. There was a significant difference in
seed shatter among the evaluated canola genotypes. Selecting canola genotypes with less seed
shatter can be effective to reduce the incidence of volunteer canola in western Canada. Pod Ceal
and Pod Stik did not have effect on the yield as well as seed loss in canola. There was no
difference in yield and seed loss between swathed and straight cut canola on commercial fields
but swathed canola had lower yield and higher seed loss than the straight cut canola in the small-
plot experiment. This indicates that straight cutting can be a viable option to harvest canola in
western Canada.



D1.9 Abstract not available

Pest Management Student presentation




                                                 40
                               CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                 Abstracts for Oral Presentations

Thursday July 19, 2012

             Joint CSHS/ North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX)

                                     (CSHS abstracts only)

Session E: CSHS-NAFEX                                                    8:30 am – 4:45 pm
                                                                Agriculture Building, Rm 2E25

E1.3 Abstract Id 3907

  Preservation of Fruit Genetic Resources at the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry

         Artem Sorokin, 42-44, B. Morskava Street, St. Petersburg, Russia 190000, art-
                                    sorokin@yandex.ru

Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) at the N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry are
conserved ex situ. More than 20,000 accessions of fruit trees, berries and ornamental crops are
maintained at nine experimental stations in Russia. As these are vegetatively propagated plants
they have to be preserved ex situ in a field genebank. Field genebanks containing collection
accessions include gardens of PGR samples, shelterbelts, irrigation systems, lands for crop
rotation, propagation and quarantine nurseries. Ex situ collections serve as backup collections
including in vitro and cryopreservation facilities, so they can facilitate the distribution of
germplasm or DNA-analysis.
N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry along with other genebanks worldwide, as well
as Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have adopted ―The Genebank
Standards for the Conservation of Non-Orthodox Seeds and Clonally Propagated Plants‖. These
standards include guidelines for sustainable conservation and help ensure availability of plant
genetic resources for plant breeders, researchers and other users. The standards cover the
following activities: in vitro, cryopreservation, maintaining accessions identity and plants to
ensure propagation ability, genetic integrity, germplasm health, availability and use of
germplasm and information, physical security of collections and proactive management of
genebanks.

E2.1 Abstract Id 3835

            Resveratrol production potential among select Vitis riparia hybrids

  *Tyler Kaban and Bob Bors, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51
      Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, SK, S7N 5A8, tyk742@mail.usask.ca
Resveratrol production potential could not be predicted based on percentage of V. riparia M in
grape pedigree. However, most hybrids descended from this North American species were higher
producers than classic V. vinifera L cultivars. Fourteen grape genotypes were analysed with
varying amounts of V. riparia in their pedigrees. Cold-hardy wine cultivars included ‗Foch‘,
‗Marquette‘, ‗LaCrescent‘ and three clones of ‗Frontenac‘. Hardy juice cultivar ‗Valiant‘ and
                                              41
                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                   Abstracts for Oral Presentations

pure V. riparia selections were also compared to V. vinifera cultivars ‗Riesling‘, ‗Pinot Noir‘ and
‗Cabernet Sauvignon‘. Resveratrol production was elicited with UVC light (254 nm) placed
above and below detached berries. On average, the fifth day of incubation post-irradiation
produced a fifty-fold increase in resveratrol concentration compared to non-elicited berries. The
V. vinifera cultivars and interspecific hybrid ‗Marquette‘ had the lowest trans-resveratrol
production averaging around 138 µg g-1 fresh weight. Of the cultivars tested, V. riparia x F1
hybrid ‗Valiant‘was the highest producer with an average of approximately 693 µg g-1 fresh
weight. Other high producers included ‗Foch‘ and ‗Frontenac‘ at approx. 245 and 352 µg g-1
fresh weight respectively. The ‗gris‘ and ‗blanc‘ anthocyanin-deficient mutants of ‗Frontenac‘
have similar capacity to produce resveratrol as the original cultivar.

E2.2 Abstract Id 3822

     Molecular markers for genetic fidelity during in vitro propagation of berry crops

  Samir C. Debnath, Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food
      Canada, Bldg. 25, 308 Brookfield Road, St. John‘s, NL A1E 0B2, Canada, e-mail:
                                  samir.debnath@agr.gc.ca

Current techniques for in vitro propagation of plants and the ready acceptance of
micropropagated plants by commercial sectors globally, have allowed for continued growth
within the micropropagation industry. Micropropagation has now become a multibillion dollar
industry, practised all over the world. However, True-to-type propagules and genetic stability are
prerequisites for the application of micropropagation. Scaling up of any micropropagation
protocol can be hindered by somaclonal variation that can result from genetic changes due to
mutation, epigenetic changes or a combination of both. Molecular markers have been introduced
in tissue culture research. This review describes the use of molecular markers in
micropropagated plants for the assessment of genetic fidelity, uniformity, stability and trueness-
to-type. The relative merits and shortcomings of the various molecular markers applied are
presented. Further I describe the potential of such tools for improving berry crops of horticultural
importance.

E2.3 Abstract Id 3843

   Indoor Low Light Tolerant Citrus for the Home Environment---31 years of Breeding

 *M.P.M. Nair, Canadian Low Light Indoor Plants & Products Research (CLLIPPR) Inc., 4461
            Clarence Ave. South, Grasswood, SK S7T 1A7, mpmnair@msn.com
 Karen K. Tanino, Dept. Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of
                           Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8.

Growing edible indoor plants is an effective and highly energy efficient means of maintaining
quality of indoor air, removing the carbon footprint while addressing food safety and security
issues, especially if low light tolerant plants can be developed for this purpose. For over 31
years, new citrus hybrids and edible plants adapted to produce under low light conditions of
average home environments are under breeding and selection. Selection criteria for citrus

                                                42
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Oral Presentations

includes: fruit size, dwarfing habit, blooming cycle, seedlessness, yield, mesocarp thickness,
acidity, etc. History and characteristics of promising citrus lines and edible plants will be
presented.

E2.4 Abstract Id 3832

  Growth and development of raspberry as affected by in vitro and ex vitro propagation
                                     methods

   *S. C. Debnath, Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food
           Canada, Blgd. 25, 308 Brookfield Road, St. John‘s, NL A1E 0B2, Canada,
                                  Samir.debnath@agr.gc.ca
   C. Kempler, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agassiz Site, Agriculture and Agri-Food
          Canada, 6947 # 7 Highway, P.O. Box 1000, Agassiz, BC V0M 1A0, Canada
  A. R. Jamieson, Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food
                   Canada, 32 Main Street, Kentville, NS B4N 1J5, Canada
  S. Khanizadeh, Horticultural Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food
            Canada, 430 Blvd. Gouin, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC J3B 3E6, Canada

Multiple buds and shoots were produced in vitro from leaf segments of red raspberry cultivars
Festival, Heritage and Latham in a shoot induction medium containing 4.5 µM thidiazuron
(TDZ). TDZ supported rapid shoot proliferation at low concentrations (1 -2 µM) in a bioreactor
system, but shoot elongation was improved in medium containing 4 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA).
BA-induced, elongated shoots rooted in the bioreactor vessel containing the same medium, but
without any plant growth regulators. The growth and development of these micropropagated
plants were compared with those obtained by conventional root cuttings. After 3 years of growth,
the in vitro-derived plants produced more shoots and leaves per plant than the conventional
cuttings. In vitro culture on nutrient medium apparently induces the juvenile branching
characteristics. This increase in vegetative growth of in vitro-derived plants over root cuttings
varied among genotypes.




                                                43
                               CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                Abstracts for Poster Presentations


                                   Poster Presentations

Tuesday July 17, 2012

                                 Poster Sessions 1 and 2

Poster Session 1: CSA & CSHS Student Competitions                        4:30 pm – 6:30 pm
                                        Kenderdine Gallery, C/D wing, Agriculture Building

P1 Abstract Id 3764

    Identifying wild and cultivated cranberries and evaluating their relationships using
                      morphology, and EST-PCR and ISSR markers.

 *Dong An, Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada,
   Bldg. 25, 308 Brookfield Road, St. John‘s, NL A1E 0B2, Canada; Department of Biology,
Memorial University of Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth Avenue, St. John‘s, NL A1B 3X9, Canada
Natalia Bykova, Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth
                          Avenue, St. John‘s, NL A1B 3X9, Canada
  Samir C. Debnath, Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food
          Canada, Bldg. 25, 308 Brookfield Road, St. John‘s, NL A1E 0B2, Canada;
       studentandong@yahoo.com.cn, nbykova@mun.ca, Samir.Debnath@AGR.GC.CA

The cranberry (Vaccinium marcrocarpon Ait.) is a woody, evergreen perennial vine with great
potential for medical and health benefits. Genetic and morphological diversity and relationship
among four cranberry cultivars and 105 wild clones collected from four Canadian provinces
were studied. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), expressed sequence tag- simple sequence
repeat (EST-SSR) and EST-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers were used to study genetic
diversity. The degree of diversity and genetic relationship were investigated by the unweighted
pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and the principal coordinate (PCO)
analysis. Molecular markers combined with morphological characters detected a sufficient
degree of variation to differentiate among cranberry genotypes, making these technologies
valuable for cultivar identification and for the more efficient choice of parents in the current
cranberry breeding program

P2 Abstract Id 3869

  Characterizing the epigenetic control of gene expression in strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

   *Jihua Xu, Dept. Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, 51 Campus Dr,
 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8. jihua.xu@usask.ca (member of CSHS)
 Steve Robinson, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, 107 Science
                  Place Saskatoon, SK, S7N OX2, steve.robinson@agr.gc.ca


                                               44
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                 Abstracts for Poster Presentations

 Karen Tanino, Dept. Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, 51 Campus Dr,
  University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A8, karen.tanino@usask.ca (member of
                                           CSHS)

Fragaria vesca, (2n=14) is an important model Rosaceae species and the completion of its
genome sequence heralds the beginning of the post-genomics era for horticultural crops. Gene
expression is highly regulated involving multiple transcriptional and post-transcriptional
modifications. Additional layers of regulation are encoded by DNA methylation, histone
modifications and non-coding RNA molecules, these epigenetic marks reinforce one another and
are not manifested in the primary DNA sequence.
Future crop improvement strategies such as increasing abiotic stress resistance will need to fully
capture and exploit all sources of phenotypic variation. However, traits under epigenetic control
have remained elusive since mechanisms affecting the heritability of their marks are poorly
understood. Strawberry is able to reproduce through sexual and vegetative propagation, ideal to
address the efficacy of the inheritance of these epigenetic marks. This study focuses on the
inheritance of DNA methylation changes induced chemically and through exposure to abiotic
stress, providing new insights for future crop improvement.
Here we describe the generation and initial characterization of a population of highly inbred
seeds treated with 5-azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase. This treatment results in
hypomethylation of DNA and altered gene regulation revealing greater levels of variation in
morphological and physiological characters.

P3 Abstract Id 3842

                           Iron Bioavailability in Low Phytate Pea

 *Xiaofei Liu, 51 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Plant Sciences,
                     CDC, Saskatoon, Canada, xil044@mail.usask.ca
   Raymond Glahn, 538 Tower Road, USDA-ARS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
  Henry Classen, 51 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Animal and
                           Poultry Science, Saskatoon, Canada
 Kirstin Bett, 51 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Plant Sciences,
                                 CDC, Saskatoon, Canada
Tom Warkentin, 51 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Plant Sciences,
                      CDC, Saskatoon, Canada (the member of CSA)

Phytate can reduce the availability of phosphorus, iron and other nutrients in diets. The low
phytate peas may have increased iron bioavailability compared to the normal phytate peas. In a
previous study, in order to increase the phosphorus concentration, two low phytate pea lines (1-
2347-144 and 1-150-81) were developed from CDC Bronco at the Crop Development Centre,
University of Saskatchewan. In this project, the iron bioavailability of pea seeds of the two low
phytate lines, CDC Bronco, CDC Meadow and CDC Golden, derived from 3 replicate field
experiments conducted in 2009 and 2010, will be assessed using the Caco-2 mammalian cell
bioassay. The results show that the two low phytate lines have significantly higher iron
bioavailability and higher phosphorus compared with other three normal phytate cultivars. In the
future, the seeds from these varieties will be increased for the in vivo chicken study. The low

                                                45
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                 Abstracts for Poster Presentations

phytate line 1-2347-144 and CDC Meadow were crossed to develop recombinant inbred lines
(RILs). The inheritance of iron bioavailability will be tested by evaluating RILs and their parents
using in vitro Caco-2 mammalian cell bioassay.

P4 Abstract Id 3845

       The stability of health-beneficial phytochemicals in asparagus during cooking

*Jenna Drinkwater, Department of Plant Agriculture, Ontario Agricultural College, University of
            Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, jdrinkwa@uoguelph.ca;
Ronghua Liu, Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road
                       West, Guelph, Ontario, ronghua.liu@agr.gc.ca;
 Rong Cao, Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 93 Stone Road
                        West, Guelph, Ontario, rong.cao@agr.gc.ca;
  David Wolyn, Department of Plant Agriculture, Ontario Agricultural College, University of
             Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, dwolyn@uoguelph.ca

     Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a commonly consumed vegetable rich in health-
      beneficial phytochemicals. Rutin, a flavonoid known for its antioxidant properties and
   contributions to cardiovascular health, is found in high concentrations in asparagus spears.
  Cooking has been shown to affect phytochemical contents in vegetables through degradation
   and/or leaching, however, information for asparagus is lacking. In this study, the effects of
  baking, boiling, grilling, microwaving, pan-frying, and steaming on rutin concentration were
   determined. For each method, three time periods were used to simulate cooking by a home
 consumer. Rutin concentration in spears did not significantly change for all cooking treatments
   compared to the uncooked control, except for spears pan-fried in oil for 14 minutes, where
values decreased by 23%. Analysis of residual cooking liquid suggests that leaching of rutin does
    occur during water-based cooking methods. These results suggest that the potential health
benefits of asparagus can be preserved by most cooking methods and readily benefit consumers.

P5 Abstract Id 3846

    Fertilization with nitrogen, sulfur and boron to optimize canola nutrition in Quebec

  *Jinghan Su, Joann K Whalen, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University
  Baoluo Ma, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
           Dave Poon, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University

Canola has high demands on nitrogen (N), sulfur (S) and boron (B) for optimum yield. Fertilizer
use efficiency may be increased by splitting N application and by applying B to foliage, but this
   needs to be verified under field conditions. A field trial was conducted in Sainte-Anne-de-
Bellevue, Quebec, in 2011 to evaluate canola response to combinations of pre-plant broadcast N
  (0, 50, 100, 150 kg/ha), broadcast S (0 and 20 kg/ha) and B (0, 0.5 kg/ha to foliage, 2 kg/ha
broadcast) fertilizers. Split application of N (50 kg/ha pre-plant broadcast, 50 or 100 kg/ha side-
  dressed six weeks later) was also evaluated. The N concentration in aboveground tissue was
    analyzed at 20% flowering stage as an indicator of canola nutrition. The N concentration

                                                46
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                 Abstracts for Poster Presentations

    increased from N0 to N100, but not between N100 and N150 in both broadcast and split
   applications. Fertilization with S and B (soil and foliar applied) did not increase tissue N
concentration. In conclusion, N fertilization with 100 kg N/ha in a single pre-plant application
will effectively increase the tissue N concentration for canola oilseed production, but this needs
                            to be confirmed with additional site-years.

P6 Abstract Id 3879

        Weed Management of Establishing Organic Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum L.)

*David W. Hobson and Andrew Hammermeister Organic Agriculture Institute of Canada, Truro,
                              Nova Scotia, hobsond@nsac.ca
     Kris Pruski and Derek Lynch Department of Plant and Animal Sciences, Nova Scotia
                          Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia

Weed control is essential for establishment of small fruits. Organic fruit crops rely on non-
herbicide strategies for weed management, and mulches are commonly used to reduce the labour
requirements for traditional methods like cultivation. Plots with newly planted blackcurrants
(Ribes nigrum L.) were either cultivated, mowed, mulched with a black, porous landscape fabric,
mulched with a non-permeable tree-grade black plastic, mulched with a white, porous, reflective
fabric or cultivated and sprayed with acetic acid to control weeds in a randomized block design
with four blocks. One site was established in 2010 and the other in 2011 in Truro, Nova Scotia
and growth, soil moisture and temperature and costs were calculated for the first year to find the
most cost-effective weed management strategy. Black plastic provided the best weed control at
the lowest cost per plant growth. The Cultivated treatment provided good weed control, but was
the most expensive as it was very labour-intensive. Plants were significantly smaller in the
Mowed treatment and some plants died from moisture stress. Acetic acid was very expensive and
poor at controlling perennial weeds. Overall black plastic was the most effective treatment in
terms of the efficacy and cost of weed control.

P7 Abstract Id 3888

   Ecophysiology of Cow Cockle (Saponaria vaccaria L) Germination, a Summer Annual
                              Weed under Domestication

*Hema Duddu, Steve J. Shirtliffe, Yuguang Bai, Christian Willenborg, Dept. of Plant Sciences,
  College Of Agriculture and Bioresources, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, SK,
         hsn045@mail.usask.ca, steve.shirtliffe@usask.ca, yuguang.bai@usask.ca,
                                 chris.willenborg@usask.ca.

Cow cockle (Saponaria vaccaria L), is an introduced summer annual weed of Northern Great
Plains. It is being considered for domestication because of its high quality starch, cyclo-peptides
and saponins. Seed dormancy is considered as one of the important character of its domestication
syndrome. The objective of present investigation is to determine the effect of temperature and
photoperiod on cow cockle seed dormancy. Fifteen genotypes were germinated at five
temperatures (5, 7.5, 10, 15 & 20 ⁰C) with two temperature regimes (Constant & Alternating).

                                                47
                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Poster Presentations

This test was conducted both in light and dark. Significant effect of temperature and light on
seed dormancy was observed (P<0.0001). The variability for seed dormancy among the
genotypes ranged from 4% to 62%. Mongolia was identified as low or no dormancy genotype.
Among the mean temperatures, 10 ⁰C was proved to be optimal germination temperature. Under
similar mean temperature, individually, light germination (41%) and fluctuating regime (42%)
were more effective in breaking seed dormancy. However, at 10 and 15 ⁰C light interacts with
constant regime and at remaining temperatures dark interacts with alternating regime to reduce
the seed dormancy in cow cockle. Temperature regime and photoperiod has little or no effect of
seed dormancy under optimal germination temperatures.

P8 Abstract Id 3868

  Determination of Photoperiod-Sensitivity Phases in Some Selected Chickpea Genotypes

                   *Ketema Daba, Tom Warkentin and Bunyamin Taran
      51 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Plant Sciences, Crops
                Development Center, Saskatoon, SK, :kea530@mail.usask.ca

In chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) photoperiod sensitivity, delayed flowering under short days
compared to long days, may change with the growth stages of the crop. These changes could be
best identified by experiments in which individual plants are transferred in a time series from
long day (LD) to short day (SD) and vice versa. Eight chickpea genotypes representatives of
different photoperiod sensitivity groups were evaluated to determine the photoperiod sensitivity
phases. The genotypes were grown in two separate growth chambers adjusted to LD (16/8 h) and
SD (10/14 h) and (22/16 ºC) day and night respectively. The genotypes were arranged in RCD
with seven replicates and control pots grown continuously under the respective photoperiods.
Reciprocal transfers between SD and LD and vice versa were made seven times after sowing at
various time intervals for each genotype. Days to flowering was recorded as number of days
from seeding to first flower on each plant. There was no significant difference in days to
flowering under LD and SD and subsequent transfers for two day neutral genotypes. For the rest
of the genotypes, the results indicated that day length sensitivity phase exists in chickpea and this
sensitive phase extends after flower initiation.

P9 Abstract Id 3894

  Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) bud break and flowering phenology in coastal
                                   British Columbia

*Eric M. Gerbrandt, Karen K. Tanino, Ravindra N. Chibbar and Robert H. Bors, Plant Sciences,
  Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Room 4D36
               Agriculture Building, Saskatoon, SK, emg690@umail.usask.ca,

The blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) is a circumpolar shrub species in the
Caprifoliaceae family. The potential health benefits of the fruit have motivated breeding efforts
in primarily cool, northern climates of Asia, Europe and North America. A range of accessions
from Japan, Russia and the Kuril Islands, representing three of the known subspecies

                                                 48
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                 Abstracts for Poster Presentations

(emphyllocalyx, edulis and kamtschatica) and another uncharacterized yet distinct phenotypic
group, were selected from the University of Saskatchewan‘s germplasm collection. Along with
hybrids between Russian, Japanese and Kuril types, the selected accessions present a broad range
of climatic adaptation. Multiple clones were established at three locations in the temperate
coastal climate of British Columbia‘s Fraser Valley in 2010/2011. In the winter and spring of
2012, bud break and flowering were monitored to characterize phenological diversity and
provide a preliminary assessment of adaptation to this novel climatic region. This assessment
produced insight into the adaptation of blue honeysuckle germplasm to a temperate climate,
providing inference for future directions in breeding for similar regions. Specifically, mean daily
temperatures during flowering onset, comparison of phenology to regionally important crops
(blueberry, raspberry and strawberry), and an evaluation of fruit set for various bloom times are
provided.

P10 Abstract Id 3875

            Newly developed sainfoin populations perform well in alfalfa pasture

  S. Acharya, *E. Sottie Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB,
              Canada T1J 4B1, Surya.Acharya@agr.gc.ca, eddie.sottie@uleth.ca
         A. Iwaasa, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2,
                                    Alan.Iwaasa@agr.gc.ca
              B. Coulman, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A8
 T. McAllister, Y. Wang Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB,
             Canada T1J 4B1, Tim.McAllister@agr.gc.ca, Yuxi.Wang@agr.gc.ca
          P. Jefferson, Western Beef Development Center, Humboldt, SK, S0K 2A0

Alfalfa causes bloat in grazing cattle while condensed tannin in sainfoin is known to eliminate
bloat. Earlier studies have shown that 15% or more sainfoin in an alfalfa mixture can eliminate
risk of pasture bloat. However, in mixed stand old sainfoin cultivars do not persist or re-grow at
the same rate as alfalfa after cutting or grazing and in pure stand produce less forage yield than
alfalfa. Lethbridge forage breeding program has developed number of sainfoin populations with
improved forage yield, regrowth potential and persistence in mixed stands. At several locations
in western Canada, it was observed that the new sainfoin populations produce more forage yield
than Nova in pure stands and some populations produce as much biomass as high yielding
alfalfa. Under simulated grazing, mixed alfalfa and new sainfoin populations produced more
biomass and maintained higher proportion of biomass (> 15%) than Nova throughout the
growing season even in the 3rd production year. These results and high nutritional quality of
mixed stands indicate that the newly developed sainfoin populations can be used in high
performance grazing systems in western Canada without fear of pasture bloat or reduction in
forage production.



P11 Abstract Id 3828          Abstract Withdrawn




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Poster Session 2: CSA                                                     4:30 pm – 6:30 pm
                                           Kenderdine Gallery, C/D wing, Agriculture Building

P12 Abstract Id 3871

Abstract Withdrawn



P13 Abstract Id 3830

 Competitiveness of a transgenic rice (CPPO06) resistant to protoporphyrinogen oxidase
                                  inhibiting herbicides

                    *Kee Woong Park, Sung Min Han, and Sang Un Park
                   Department of Crop Science, Daejeon, parkkw@cnu.ac.kr

A new trait of transgenic plants may alter competitive ability and consequently increase the
possibility of weediness of the plants. This study was conducted to determine competitiveness of
herbicide resistant transgenic rice (CPPO06) over-expressing protoporphyrinogen oxidase
(Protox) gene of Myxococcus xanthus. Competition between CPPO06 and its non-transgenic
parental variety, Dongjin rice, was evaluated using a set of replacement series experiment with
five ratios and four plant densities. The plant biomass per pot of the CPPO06 and Dongjin rice
was similar and corresponded to the theoretical response of two plants having equal
competitiveness. ANOVA for individual plant height, tiller number, and shoot dry weight
showed no ratio effect in the mixtures indicating no competition between CPPO06 and Dongjin
rice. These results suggest that the trait producing Protox of M. xanthus is not associated with
competitive ability in rice. So, the chance of weediness or invasiveness of CPPO06 is unlikely to
be greater than those of Dongjin rice.

P14 Abstract Id 3825

               Flower and fruit abortion due to heat stress in field grown pea.

Mohammad Tahir, Janet Pritchard, *Rosalind Bueckert Department of Plant Sciences, University
         of Saskatchewan, mot205@mail.usask.ca, Rosalind.bueckert@usask.ca

Heat stress causes yield reduction in field pea. Development of heat stress tolerant pea cultivars
is, therefore, desired. We investigated the phenology and reproductive organ abortion (ROA) of
twelve field pea cultivars with the objective to identify cultivars with heat tolerance and least
ROA. The cultivars were grown at different seeding times at three environments in
Saskatchewan and included potential heat tolerant, susceptible and check cultivars. Significant (P
< 0.05) differences were observed in node development rates, number of total nodes, nodes
involved in reproduction, time in reproductive development, days to flowering, ROA, height and
yield of pea cultivars. The node development rates varied from 2.74-4.1 days per node. The

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number of total nodes and reproductive nodes ranged from 25.5-16.7 and 5.81-8.6, respectively.
The number of days in reproductive development, days to flowering and ROA varied from 15.9-
25.5, 47.7-52.3 and 25.5-60.9%, respectively. ROA was observed in all cultivars; however, the
fraction of aborted reproductive organs was significantly higher in late sown pea cultivars due to
heat stress which resulted in lower yield of pea cultivars. Development of heat tolerant pea
cultivar may require an extensive assessment and selection for heat tolerance trait and the
subsequent use in pea breeding program.

P15 Abstract Id 3831

                           Effect of seeding rate on spelt production

 *Denis Pageau, Centre de recherche et de developpement sur les sols et les grandes cultures,
        Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Normandin (Quebec), Canada G8M 4K3,
                                  denis.pageau@agr.gc.ca
Anne Vanasse, Université Laval, Département de phytologie, 2425 rue de l‘Agriculture, Quebec
                                    (Quebec), G1V 0A6
  Yves Dion, CÉROM, 2700 rue Einstein, bureau D1 300.24A, Quebec (Quebec), G1P 3W8
                        Sophie Martel, La Milanaise, Milan (Quebec)
   Elizabeth Vachon, Moulins de Soulanges, 485, rue St-Philippe, Saint-Polycarpe, Quebec
                                     (Quebec) J0P 1X0

This project was conducted to evaluate the effect of different seeding rate of spring spelt grown
under cool growing condition of Eastern Canada. This trial was conducted in 2011, at three
experimental sites in the province of Quebec. The experimental setup consisted of a factorial
experiment (randomized complete block design with two factors: cultivars and seeding rates).
Three cultivars and one line of spring spelt (CDC Nexon, CDC Zorba, CDC Origin and
04Spelt49) were seeded at five seeding rates: 250, 300, 350, 400 and 450 seeds m-2. The effect
of cultivar was significant at all locations. At the three locations, the highest grain yields
(covered grains) were obtained with the cultivar Origin with an average of 3700 kg ha-1. The
line 04spelt49 had also high grain yields at two of the three locations. Low grain yields were
obtained with the cultivar CDC Nexon at two locations. It seems that low grain yields were
associated with high lodging. The seeding rate had little or no effect on grain yields (hulled and
dehulled grain). Grain quality for all cultivars was very good with an average protein content
that ranged from 14.7% (04spelt49 and Nexon) to 15.3% (Zorba) and 15.8% (Origin).

P16 Abstract Id 3841

             Multiple species grass-legume mixtures in semiarid Saskatchewan

  *Michael P. Schellenberg, Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and
         Agrifood Canada, Box 1030, Swift Current, SK mike.schellenberg@agr.gc.ca
 B. Biligetu, Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and Agrifood Canada,
                        Box 1030, Swift Current, SK biligetu@agr.gc.ca



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    Increased diversity in seeded mixtures has been suggested as a means to increase yields and
       mediate effects of changing climate. The question arises what would be the appropriate
     combination? From a forage standpoint, the mixture should include grazable plants such as
  legumes and grasses. In 2009, a full factorial random block design with 4 replicates study was
initiated at Swift Current to examine the potential benefit of combining 2 grass species (western
  wheatgrass, green needle grass) with two legume species (alfalfa and purple prairie clover) in
   mixtures ranging from monocultures to all four species. The 2010 and 2011 dry matter yield
results are presented. With these two years having above normal precipitation, alfalfa dominated
     plots in which it was seeded (P<0.05). Examination of functional group (legume vs. grass)
 indicates having 2 legumes has the greatest benefit for dry matter production. Seeding legumes
 resulted in greater production than grasses alone (P<0.05). The mixtures had trace element and
forage quality differences that indicated marked differences based on the presence of legumes or
   grasses (P<0.0001). This would suggest the usual recommendation of having a single legume
with grasses needs to be reconsidered from a production stand point as well as nutritional quality.

P17 Abstract Id 3873

 Genetic diversity of side-oats grama grass wild populations, source identified variety and
     selected population as determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism

   *B. Biligetu, M. P. Schellenberg Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Center (SPARC),
                 AAFC-AAC, Box 1030, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2, Canada
  Y.B. Fu, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, 107 Science Place,
                               Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X2, Canada.

Side-oats grama grass (Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.) is a warm-season grass widely
distributed in North America. Side-oats grama is an excellent forage and considered an important
grass for reclamation in drier regions. To facilitate the development of new cultivar, amplified
fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to assess genetic diversity of nine
original collected populations of side-oats grama grass, and its corresponding source identified
variety, and one selected population. Five AFLP primer pairs were employed to genotype 157
plants, and 312 AFLP bands were analyzed. The assayed plants displayed 5.8% of AFLP
variation among the populations, but maintained a high level (94%) of AFLP variation within
populations. This finding indicated the source identified variety and selected population still had
high genetic diversity with potential to further genetic enhancement.

P18 Abstract Id 3897

               Adapting Lentils (L. culinaris) to Changing Biotic Environments

  *Abebe Tullu, Kirstin Bett, Ehsan Sari, Rajib Podder, Shyamali Saha, Sabine Banniza, and
Albert Vandenberg, Crop Development Centre (CDC), Department of Plant Sciences, University
                      of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr., Saskatoon SK.

Climatic conditions are expected to enter a period of rapid change, creating a need to adapt crops
to environmental shifts. Lentil is not indigenous to Canadian prairies where cultivation started in

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the 1970s. Canada has emerged as the world leader in lentil production and exports. The
objectives of our breeding program is diversifying the genetic base in anticipation of the need to
adapt to future climatic volatility, including heat and moisture. The need for better disease
management will be intensified as existing pathogens will change in virulence and newer
pathogens will appear. Lentil wild species are useful tools to tackle these challenges. They
exhibit a larger genetic diversity than cultivated species. Wild relatives evolved in environments
considered marginal for cultivated lentil. They differ in morphology and physiology compared to
cultivated lentil. Examples include bushiness, prostrate habit, small seed size, day length
sensitivity, resistance, etc. Wild lentils are generally smaller than their cultivated cousin, but
interspecific progenies have genes to produce transgressive segregants. Our work at CDC has
shown the impact of wild species on accumulation of favorable genes for increased seed size,
and resistance to anthracnose, ascochyta blight and stemphylium blight. Evidence of
transgressive segregation for these traits will be presented

P19 Abstract Id 3885

Integrating the building blocks of agronomy and biocontrol into an IPM strategy for wheat
                                        stem sawfly.

   *B. L. Beres and H. A. Cárcamo, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research
            Centre, 5403 1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, T1J 4B1
  D. K. Weaver, Montana State University Department of Land Resources and Environmental
              Sciences, P.O. Box 173120, Bozeman, Montana, USA 59717-3120
L. M. Dosdall, University of Alberta Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science,
                410 Ag/Forestry Building, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5
 M. L. Evenden, B. D. Hill, University of Alberta Department of Biological Sciences, CW405,
                  Biological Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9
 R. H. McKenzie, R.-C. Yang and D. M. Spaner, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development,
    Lethbridge Research Centre, 100, 5401 1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1J 4V6.
                      corresponding author email: brian.beres@agr.gc.ca

The wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton [Hymenoptera: Cephidae]) is a serious threat to
wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the northern Great Plains. Studies in Alberta, Canada assessed
the response of wheat stem sawfly and its natural enemies to cultivar selection, residue
management, seeding rates, fertility regimes, and harvest management. Solid-stemmed cultivars
are usually agronomically superior to susceptible cultivars when sawflies are present. The
stubble disturbance associated with residue management and direct-seeding in a continuous
cropping system can reduce sawfly populations compared to a wheat-fallow system. Increased
seeding rates can optimize yield, but an inverse relationship between pith expression (stem
solidness) and higher seeding rates may occur. Positive yield responses are typically observed
with N rates > 30 kg N ha-1, but increased stem cutting by sawfly can occur with higher N rates.
Increasing cutter bar heights during combine harvest can conserve natural enemies. In summary,
an integrated strategy to manage wheat stem sawfly consists of diligent pest surveillance,
planting solid-stemmed cultivars, continuous cropping with appropriate residue management,
seeding rates no greater than 300 seeds m-2, 30 to 60 kg N ha-1, and harvest cutting heights of at
least 15 cm to conserve parasitoids.

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P20 Abstract Id 3889

 Identification and quantification of carotenoids in Saskatchewan grown pea and chickpea

*Ashokkumar Kaliyaperumal, Gene Arganosa, Bert Vandenberg, Bunyamin Tar‘an, Kirstin Bett
 and Tom Warkentin, Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK,
                            Canada, ashok.kumar@usask.ca

Traditionally, pulse crops have been used for human consumption around the world. Pulse crops
are known to be important dietary sources of carotenoids. The present study was carried out to
evaluate the effects of genotype, environment, and their interaction on carotenoid accumulation
in pea and chickpea whole seeds. In field pea 12 cultivars grown at 4 locations in Saskatchewan
in 2009 and 2010 were evaluated, and analyzed by HPLC. Pea cultivars were highest in lutein
followed by zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene. Green cotyledon pea cultivars (14-24
µg/g) had approximately 2X more total carotenoids than yellow cotyledon pea cultivars (7-12
µg/g). In chickpea, 5 kabuli and 3 desi cultivars grown at 3 locations in Saskatchewan 2009 and
2 locations in 2011 were evaluated. Chickpea cultivars were highest in lutein followed by
zeaxanthin, β-carotene and violaxanthin. Desi cultivars (16-20 µg/g) had greater concentration of
total carotenoids than kabuli cultivars (11-13 µg/g). In another study, a limited set of pea and
chickpea varieties were evaluated for carotenoid profile in individual tissues, i.e., whole seed,
seed coats, cotyledons and embryo axes. Cotyledons had a greater concentration of individual
and total carotenoids than other tissues in both pea (10-24 µg/g) and chickpea (14-32 µg/g).




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Wednesday July 18, 2012

                                   Poster Sessions 3 and 4

Poster Session 3: CSHS Fruit Science                                       4:30 pm – 6:30 pm
                                           Kenderdine Gallery, C/D wing, Agriculture Building


P21 Abstract Id 3824

                        Seabukthorn productivity in Northern Quebec

  *Julie Lajeunesse and Raynald Drapeau, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Farm,
              1468 Saint-Cyrille St., Normandin, QC, julie.lajeunesse@agr.gc.ca.
  Martin Trépanier and Jacques-André Rioux, Centre de Recherche en Horticulture, Université
                            Laval, 2480 Hochelaga, Quebec, QC.

The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean area (Northern Quebec) is host of a variety of wild fruit species
that are well adapted to the climatic conditions of this region. Some of these species, like
blueberries and cranberries, are grown and contribute greatly to the economy of the region. There
is a growing interest in the cultivation of some other species, such as Hippophae rhamnoides
(seabuckthorn), that seems to offer a high potential for production. The objective of this study
was to evaluate the adaptation, the development and the productivity of H. rhamnoides in
Northern Quebec. Eleven female and five male cultivars were planted in 2006 for a total of 240
plants. Fruits were harvested by cutting the fruit-bearing branches from the shrubs. These
branches were frozen to separate the berries. Fruit yields in 2010 ranged between 2446 kg ha-1
and 14762 kg ha-1 and between 1599 kg ha-1 and 11993 kg ha-1 in 2011. The cultivar Russian
Sunshine had high fruit yields with 12983 kg ha-1 and 11993 kg ha-1 of fruits in 2010 and 2011
respectively.

P22 Abstract Id 3826

                Haskap: A New Berry Crop with High Antioxidant Capacity

 Li Juan Yu, Khushwant Bhullar and H.P.Vasantha Rupasinghe, Department of Environmental
 Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Room 219-3 Cox Building, 50 Pictou Road (PO
           Box 550),Truro, Nova Scotia, B2N 5E3, Canada. vrupasinghe@nsac.ca
    *Bob Bors, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr.,
                          Saskatoon, Canada, bob.bors@usask.ca

This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content as well as total flavonoid
content of three haskap cultivars, ‗Borealis‘, ‗Indigo Gem 915‘ and ‗Tundra‘ grown in
Saskatchewan with comparison to six other commercial fruits using ferric reducing antioxidant
power (FRAP) assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-

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picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, the aluminum chloride colorimetric
method and the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method, respectively. The results indicated that haskap
berries, especially cv. ‗Borealis‘ possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic
contents, specifically total flavonoid among tested fruits and could be used as a promising fruit
source of natural antioxidants. The nutritional values of the fruits were also assessed using
proximate analysis. Strawberry possessed the highest amount of most minerals and nutrients
whereas the nutritional values for the three haskap cultivars were among the average.

P23 Abstract Id 3844

  Fruit Yield Performance of Saskatchewan-Sourced Strawberry Crowns for Export - A
                                 Fifteen-Year Odyssey

 *Karen K. Tanino, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK,
                                Canada, karen.tanino@usask.ca
  Craig Chandler, University of Florida, Tampa, FL, USA;3South Coast Research Station, UC
                                    Davis, Irvine, CA,USA
           Kirk Larson, South Coast Research Station, UC Davis, Irvine, CA,USA
  James Lokken and Gary Sorey, Bioresource Policy, Business and Economics, University of
                                         Saskatchewan
                Ruojing Wang, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Saskatoon
    Manjula S. Bandara, Crop Diversification Centre South, Alberta Agriculture and Rural
                             Development, Brooks, AB, Canada.

Northern Vigour was initially observed in seed potatoes where seed potatoes sourced from
northern regions (Saskatchewan, Canada) outperformed seed potatoes sourced from more
southern sites. Subsequently, the potential Northern Vigour response in strawberries (Fragaria x
ananassa Duch.) was examined with the primary objective to develop Saskatchewan as a
supplier of high quality, superior yielding planting material for national and international
markets. Twelve greenhouse and field studies were conducted over a fifteen year period. The
project coordinated research between several U.S. cooperators and up to nine Canadian sites.
‗Camarosa‘ , ‗Festival‘, and ‗Treasure‘ crowns were produced in Saskatchewan and tested in
California and Florida for Northern Vigour potential. Due to space limitations, only fruit yield
and modeling results will be presented. Saskatchewan-sourced crowns expressed higher fruit
yields (40-60%) in the first two months of marketable fruit production compared to other
sources. This response was most consistent in Florida. Modeling studies identified the optimum
crown harvest date and temperature parameters which were associated with subsequent high fruit
yield. Strawberry crown production in Saskatchewan can provide higher quality planting
material for the export market, however, knowledgeable growers with access to labour and sandy
loam soil are among the requirements to launch this industry.




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P24 Abstract Id 3874

  Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and a Root Endophyte on the Biomass and
        Root Morphology of Selected Strawberry Cultivars under Salt Conditions

  Grant Sinclair and Christiane Charest, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,
                                         ON, K1N 6N5
Yolande Dalpé, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada,
                          960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0C6
 *Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Horticulture Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-
     Food Canada, 430 Boulevard Gouin, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC, J3B 3E6, Canada.
                                shahrokh.khanizadeh@agr.gc.ca

The influence of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus arenarium, G. caledonium, G.
irregulare, and G. mosseae) and a Sebacinales root-endophyte species (Piriformospora indica)
was investigated on four strawberry cultivars (‗Charlotte‘, ‗Mara‘, ‗Albion‘, and ‗Seascape‘) for
their tolerance to salt stress. All cultivars were grown under greenhouse conditions and subjected
to three NaCl levels (0, 50, and 100 mmol/L), 40 days after inoculation. Our results from plant
biomass and root morphology suggest that AMF symbiosis enhanced salt tolerance of strawberry
plants. ‗Seascape‘ appears to be the most resistant to salt stress. The proportion of brown or
wilting leaves increased with increasing salinity, but decreased with the inoculum. Fruit, shoot
and root dry mass decreased with increasing salinity but increased with AMF; Glomus irregulare
alleviated the salt stress effect to a higher degree than the other AMF species. The root to shoot
ratio decreased with the increasing salt level. Root morphology parameters such as length,
surface area, diameter, and volume decreased overall with the increasing salinity, especially from
50 to100 mM. AMF symbiosis tended to increase root length, surface area, and volume, but
decreased average root diameter. In summary, the AMF symbiosis tended to benefit strawberry
plants in their tolerance to salinity.

P25 Abstract Id 3876

  Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils and its Commercial Formulation Against Botrytis
                                           cinerea.

     Oyeboade Adebayo, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Horticultural Research and
Development Centre, , 430, Gouin Blvd., Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC, J3B 3E6 and National
                Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B 5432, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Thao Danga, André Bélangera and *Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada,
Horticultural Research and Development Centre, , 430, Gouin Blvd., Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu,
                       QC, J3B 3E6, Shahrokh.khanizadeh@agr.gc.ca

Increasing concern for food safety has brought about the need for the development of safe plant
disease control strategies. The study was aimed at finding alternative to synthetic fungicides
currently used in the control of Botrytis cinerea Pers, the causal agent of grey mold disease of
strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch). Antifungal activities of essential oil (EO) from Origanum
vulgare L, Monarda didyma L and a commercial formulation of thyme oil vs control were

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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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investigated. Contact phase effects of different concentrations of the EO and the commercial
formulation were found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea. Complete growth inhibition of the
pathogen was recorded at 150 µg/ml of Gloves Off. Reduced pathogen growth was recorded at
the highest concentration of the essential oil of O. vulgare and M. didyma tested at 12.8 µg/ml.
Spore germination and germ tube elongation were also inhibited by the essential oil and Gloves
Off. It seems that the essential oils caused morphological degenerations such as cytoplasmic
coagulation, hyphal shrivelling and protoplast leakage of the fungal hyphae. It seems that
essential oil of Origanum vulgare L and Monarda didyma L have potential and promising
antifungal activity against B. cinerea similar to the commercial formulation ‗Gloves Off‘.

P26 Abstract Id 3854

  LEaDing the way towards more efficient lighting sources in greenhouse and controlled
                                    environments

 Pierre J. Hucl, Crop Development Centre, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University
       of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, pierre.hucl@usask.ca
 Adam C. Harrison, Controlled Environment Facility, College of Agriculture and Bioresources,
             University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
                                    adam.harrison@usask.ca
 *Doug R. Waterer and Gordon R. Gray, Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture
   and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
                           doug.waterer@usask.ca, gr.gray@usask.ca

While plant physiological and developmental responses to light quantity are well understood,
less is known about the effects of light quality. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are emerging as an
alternative to the fluorescent or metal halide lamps that have traditionally been used as
supplemental light sources in greenhouses or the primary light sources in controlled environment
facilities. LEDs operate at lower temperatures and have greater efficiency of conversion of
energy to light than other supplemental light sources. Individual LEDs emit radiation within a
narrow band of the light spectrum which allows growers to custom select light qualities that meet
specific crop requirements. However it can be challenging to develop LED lighting systems that
provide all the wavelengths required for normal plant growth and development. The nature of
this challenge is illustrated by the substantial differences in growth of many crop species
observed following a recent change over of light sources in The Controlled Environment Facility
at the University of Saskatchewan. Relatively small changes in spectral distribution between the
previous and current light sources have caused significant changes in crop growth rates, plant
morphology, flowering, nutrient uptake and yield. LED supplementation may provide a cost-
effective alternative to correct this problem.




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Poster Session 4: CSA Adapting Crops to Change                                  4:30 pm- 6:30 pm
                                              Kenderdine Gallery, C/D wing, Agriculture Building

P27 Abstract Id 3891

   Seed Dormancy Breakage and Germination: The Role of Biological Stratification and
                                  Mycovitality

Vladimir Vujanovic, Prasada Daida and *Xiakun Yuan, Food and Bioproduct Sciences, College
   of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
      vladimir.vujanovic@usask.ca, prasaddaida@yahoo.com, yuan.shaquwen@usask.ca
      Jim Germida, Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of
               Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. jim.germida@usask.ca

Stratification is the exposure of seeds to cold conditions in order to break dormancy and enhance
germination. As stratification is presently limited to the role of abiotic factors, this study aims to
render the definition more inclusive by recognizing the role of biotic factors using mycovitality
as a model. This acknowledges the existence of both cold and biological stratifications.
Germination of wheat seeds subjected to cold stratification at 4 ⁰C was compared to that of
inoculated wheat seeds at room temperature. Seeds were inoculated with endophytic SMCD
isolates. Changes in the seed‘s expression pattern of plant growth promoting genes‘ regulators
(RSG and KAO) of phytohormonal gibberellins (GAs); and acquired resistance genes (MYBs) in
abiotic vs. biotic conditions, during the early breakage of seed dormancy and germination, were
assessed. Measurements were made in the coleorhiza tissue using qRT-PCR. The results indicate
that the RSG and KAO genes, coding for enzymes promoting biosynthesis of GAs, and the
MYBs resistance genes are up-regulated in inoculated seeds; whereas dormancy-related abscisic
acid (ABA) genes are down-regulated. Mycovitality, thus, demonstrates a reprogramming effect
in pre- and post-germination events of wheat seed towards enhanced dormancy breakage and
germination, effectively contributing to the prenatal care of cereal crops.

P28 Abstract Id 3847

                         The benefits of pea crops to subsequent barley

*J. R. King, S. M. Ross. Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of
    Alberta, 4-10 Agriculture-Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Jane.King@ales.ualberta.ca).

A rotational study investigated the effects of pulse crops on subsequent crops at two sites in
central Alberta (Barrhead and St Albert). In year 1 of the rotation (YR1), pea, faba bean, lupin,
barley (with and without N fertilizer), and canola (with and without N fertilizer) were grown.
Year 2 (YR2) crops were pea, barley, canola, CPS wheat, CWRS wheat, flax, perennial ryegrass
and triticale. Barley was seeded in 2010 and 2011 as Year 3 (YR3) of the rotation. YR2 crop had
dramatic effects on YR3 barley yield and N yield, and minor effects on grain protein. Following
YR2 pea, barley yields were 30% higher at Barrhead and 48% higher at St Albert than following
cereals (barley, wheat and triticale). Barley N yields were 32% higher at Barrhead and 45%

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                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
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higher at St Albert following pea than following cereals. Results indicated that growing peas in
cropping systems can improve the grain and protein yields of subsequent barley.

P29 Abstract Id 3887

                 Temporal dynamics of nitrogen rhizodeposition of field pea

    Melissa Arcand and Richard Farrell, Dept. of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan,
                Saskatoon, SK, melissa.arcand@usask.ca, r.farrell@usask,ca.
                               Presented by *J.Diane Knight

Completing the N balance of pulse cropping systems requires better quantification of
belowground contributions of N to soil, including those from rhizodeposits. This greenhouse
study used the stem-wick method to 15N-label pea (Pisum sativum) continuously with 15N-
enriched urea to determine N rhizodeposition at the vegetative stage, early flowering, and
maturity of pea. Recovery of the added 15N label ranged from 83 to 92% over all growth stages,
with a higher proportion of 15N recovered in the aboveground plant components â€― an artifact
of the stem-wick labeling technique. Enrichment of rhizosphere soil with 15N decreased as
plants matured with a concomitant increase in rhizodeposits recovered in the bulk soil with time,
suggesting translocation of root derived N outside of the rhizosphere. Belowground plant N
(roots, nodules, and rhizodeposits) comprised 47, 26, and 12% of total plant N at vegetative,
flowering, and maturity. At each growth stage, rhizodeposition comprised a higher proportion of
belowground N than roots and nodules. Moreover, in this study 82% of total plant N was
removed in the pea grain at maturity, while 9.6% remained in straw, chaff and intact roots and
8.4% recovered in rhizodeposits, highlighting the importance of rhizodeposits to the total plant N
balance.

P30 Abstract Id 3872

      The effect of hydrogen production in legume nodules on nitrous oxide emissions

Morgan Sather and Richard Farrell, Dept. Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,
                      SK, mls639@mail.usask.ca, r.farrell@usask.ca
                               Presented by *J.Diane Knight

Hydrogen gas (H2) is a byproduct of legume biological nitrogen fixation. Hydrogen is thought to
create soil conditions favouring denitrification, resulting in N2O production. When legume-
rhizobium symbioses possess the hydrogenase uptake (HUP+) enzyme, most of the H2 gas is
recycled. When the HUP enzyme is lacking (HUP-), the H2 diffuses into the rhizosphere. A
tenfold increase in N2O emissions from soils treated with H2 compared to air-treated soils was
reported recently (Golding and Dong, 2010, Environ. Chem. Lett. 8: 101-121).
The objective of this study was to determine if HUP- symbiosis in pea (Pisum sativum) increased
N2O production compared to HUP+ symbiosis. Pea plants were inoculated with HUP+ or HUP-
Rhizobium leguminosarum. Gas samples were collected from the rhizosphere and soil surface to
quantify amounts of N2O and H2 produced and emitted. Results showed that HUP- rhizobia in
nodules produced significantly more H2 than HUP+ or un-inoculated pea roots. However, the

                                                60
                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                  Abstracts for Poster Presentations

increased H2 did not translate into increased N2O emissions from HUP- treatments. In contrast,
the HUP- treatments produced less N2O than the control and HUP+ treatments. This suggests
that H2 from HUP- rhizobia may not be linked to increased N2O emissions from legumes.

P31 Abstract Id 3858

                 Wheat Grain Nutrient Content as Affected by Environment

  Thomas Jensen, NGP Region, International Palnt Nutrition Institute, 102-411 Downey Road,
                            Saskatoon, SK, tjensen@ipni.net

The mineral nutrients in the harvested portion of a wheat crop originate from the soil along with
any added nutrient source such as fertilizer or bio-solids. In most cropping systems if fertilizers
are added to the soil only three or four mineral nutrients are added, for example nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium and sulfur. However there are all the other are used by the plant and a
portion of total uptake of these nutrients are translocated to the grain. This poster will report the
results of a study comparing plant available nutrients in the soil, as measured by soil analysis
before planting, to the concentration of those nutrients in the harvested grain of wheat. The study
design consisted of ten different wheat genotypes (five bread wheat , three durum and two feed
cultivars) grown at six different locations in 2010. The correlation between soil test nutrient
availability level and nutrient content of the harvested grain was different for each nutrient.

P32 Abstract Id 3866

             Impact Foliar Fertilization of Canola with a Nitrogen-Zinc Product

    *R. E. Karamanos, Viterra Inc., 10517 Barlow Trail SE, Calgary, AB, Canada T2C 4M5,
                                   rigas.karamanos@viterra.com
       N. A. Flore, Viterra Inc., 10517 Barlow Trail SE, Calgary, AB, Canada T2C 4M5,
                                      norm.flore@viterra.com
                                      J.T. Harapiak, deceased.

This study is a record of 40 experiments from the Westco annals that were carried out over a
period of six years (1989-94) and involved application of a foliar product (NZn) on canola. The
experiment at each experimental site was set as a split-plot design with and without application
of NZn as the main plot and a variety of other treatments as sub-plots. In total, thirteen different
experimental designs were employed involving rates and method of application of nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) or their combination. Soil samples were taken from 0 to 15
and 15 to 30 and 30 to 60 cm depths of all plots. Foliar application of NZn was employed at the
flowering stage. Numerically, a response to the foliar application was obtained in 85% of the
time; however, statistically this occurred only in 60% of the cases. Statistically significant yield
increases varied between 84 and 672 kg ha-1. These findings suggest that follow up tests with
current canola cultivars should be conducted to ascertain the benefit of such a product in current
agriculture.



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                                  CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                   Abstracts for Poster Presentations

P33 Abstract Id 3900

            Genetic Enhancement of Perennial Cereal Rye for Biomass and Grain

  *Beasely, D., Acharya, S.N., Graf, R.J., Randhawa, H.S., Laroche, A., Eudes, F., and Larsen,
    R.J., Lethbridge Research Centre, 5403 1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1
Perennial cereal rye variety ACE-1 was developed and released for forage producers in Western
Canada. Although not commercially successful, this preliminary breeding effort provided proof
of concept that perennial cereal rye can be selected for adaptation in Western Canada. Using
ACE-1 as a building block, further efforts are being pursued to improve perennial cereal rye,
including: traditional breeding efforts to expand the current adaptation range, increase biomass
yield and quality and increased grain yield, as well as, exploring novel approaches to break up
chromosome pairing problems resulting from the interspecific derived genetic background. The
ultimate goal of this research program is to improve all aspects of perennial cereal rye and then
use it as a source of perenniality to create perennial triticale. Perennial triticale developed by this
breeding program will couple with the Canadian Triticale Biorefinery Initiative (CTBI) currently
ongoing at the Lethbridge Research Centre and across Canada. This presentation will outline the
history of perennial cereal rye, difficulties involved in improving it, proposed methodology that
will be used to improve it, and future goals and traits that are targeted by perennial cereals
biomass breeding program at Lethbridge.

P34 Abstract Id 3840

  In Vitro Fibre Digestibility of Annual Forage from the Field Crop Development Centre

 *P. Juskiw, M.L. Swift, J.H. Helm, J. Nyachiro, M. Aljarrah, Field Crop Development Centre,
  Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lacombe, AB patricia.juskiw@gov.ab.ca mary-
           lou.swift@gov.ab.ca, james.helm@gov.ab.ca, joseph.nyachiro@gov.ab.ca,
                                  mazen.aljarrah@gov.ab.ca

Small grain cereals can be important forage sources for ruminant animals. Little was known
about the in vitro forage digestibility (IVFD) of the barley and triticale lines under development
at the Field Crop Development Centre (FCDC) prior to this project. Tests were run from 2008 to
2011 to see the effects of locations on the forage quality of barley and triticale lines in advance
yield trials. While forage quality differed between the two locations, little GxE interaction was
found for the barley lines tested with ranges of fibre digestibility from 44 to 51. A good range of
variability was found in the different classes of barley without negative associations to other
yield and quality traits. For the triticales, not only were the locations different, but the GxE
interaction was often significant. For the triticales lines tested, IVFD ranged from lows of 37 to
highs of 50. The triticale lines were generally lower in IVFD than the barley lines, but there was
still a range in this trait within the triticale germplasm. We should be able to select within the
naturally occurring variation for improved IVFD within all classes of barley and triticale if IVFD
is set as a selection priority.




                                                  62
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                 Abstracts for Poster Presentations

P35 Abstract Id 3808

        Effect of Heat on Pea Yield and Reproductive Performance in Variety Trials

 *Rosalind Bueckert, Plant Sciences, Univ. Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK,
                                rosalind.bueckert@usask.ca;
Tom Warkentin, Crop Development Centre, Univ. Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon,

Canada is a leading exporting nation of field pea. Pea cultivars are generally heat-sensitive so our
goal was to investigate how weather impacted growth and yield in recent cultivars in the Co-
operative pea yield trials (2000 to 2009) for a dryland (Saskatoon) and an irrigated location
(Outlook). We explored relationships between days to maturity, days spent in reproductive
growth (flowering to maturity), yield and various weather factors. Yield and the length of
reproductive growth increased with seasonal rainfall. Pea was sensitive to heat but heat units did
not satisfactorily describe growth and yield in all environments. Strong relationships were
observed with crop growth and mean maximum daily temperature experienced during
reproductive growth, as well as mean minimum temperature. The higher the mean maximum
temperature (>25.5 °C), the less days (<35) spent in reproductive growth at the dryland site. At
Outlook, 35 to 40 days in reproductive growth occurred in a much wider temperature range from
24.5 to 27 °C. More than 20 days in the season above 28 °C were associated with less time in
reproductive growth and less yield for dryland pea. Future research will investigate pea nodal
development, flowering and abortion patterns in a range of pea cultivars in summer conditions.

P36 Abstract Id 3883

              Evaluation of Barley Varieties for Forage and Grain Production

   Tarlok Sahota, Thunder Bay Agricultural Research Station, 435 James St. S, Thunder Bay,
                  Ontario, P7E 6S7, Canada, e-mail: tarloksahota@tbaytel.net

A replicated field experiment in CRBD was conducted at Thunder Bay to evaluate ~12 barley
varieties during 2009-‘11. In 2009, Bentley (7,642 kg ha-1) and CDC Coalition (7,235 kg ha-1)
had the highest forage dry matter yield (DMY). CDC Coalition (6,405 kg ha-1), Chapais (6,375
kg ha-1), and Trochu (6,115 kg ha-1) topped in grain yield. In 2010, CDC Coalition (7,202 kg ha-
1
  ) surpassed Bentley (6,901 kg ha-1) in forage DMY. Grain (5,848 kg ha-1) and straw yields
(7,642 kg ha-1) were highest with Cyane and Bentley, respectively. In 2011, CDC Coalition
(5,942 kg ha-1)/Bentley (5,901 kg ha-1) had the highest grain yield; followed by Cyane (5,587 kg
ha-1), that had the highest silage yield (5,829 kg ha-1) Bentley (5,772 kg ha-1), Conlon (5,696 kg
ha-1), Major (5,649 kg ha-1) and CDC Coalition (5,617 kg ha-1). Cyane, Millhouse, CDC
Coalition, Bentley, and Chigwell were common in all the years. Averaged over three years,
Cyane and CDC Coalition tied for grain yield (5,485 kg ha-1); whereas CDC Coalition and
Bentley had the highest forage yields. CDC Coalition could be a good dual purpose variety!
Chigwell had the highest protein in grain (12.0%) and silage (12.2%); Millhouse had the highest
straw yield.



                                                63
                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                 Abstracts for Poster Presentations

P37

                       Pedigree history of spring wheat, western Canada

                             R. Cuthbert et al – no abstract available



P38

               Will Foliar Fungicides Increase the Quality and Yield of Oats?

    W.E. May1, R. B. Irvine, H. R. Kutcher, G.P. Lafond, C. McCartney and S.J. Shirtliffe
1
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Indian Head Reseach Farm, Indian Head, SK, S0G 2K0,
william.may@agr.gc.ca

Prophylactic fungicide applications are increasingly being recommended to oat growers.
Reports coming out of Manitoba suggest yeild response in oats to fungicides in the absence of
crown rust. Growers need to know if they are spending their money wisely. In this project we
hope to provide growers, using current cultivars and agronomic practices, with better information
on the timing and level of severity of crown rust infection on oats that warrant a fungicide
application. The second objective is to provide growers with independent information on the
benefits of a fungicide application on oats in the absence of crown rust in their geographic area
and how it differs among regions in western Canada.divers as you move from region to another.
To do this three agronomic practices were examined,seeding date (mid may and early june),
cultivar (AC Morgan, CDC Orrin, CDC Boyer and Leggett) and fungicide use (Headline or no
headline). The study was conducted at 6 locations betwee Portage le Priaire, MB to Saskatoon,
SK every year for three years. Seeding date had the largest effect on yield and test weight.
Benefits from fungicides appear to be related to the cultivars susceptibility to crown rust when
crown rust is present in the oat crop. Under normal growing conditions benefits from fungicides
have been limited in the absence of crown rust.



P39 Abstract Id 3772          Abstract Withdrawn

P40 Abstract Id 3773          Abstract Withdrawn

P41 Abstract Id 3755          Abstract Withdrawn

P42 Abstract Id 3754          Abstract Withdrawn




                                                64
                                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                                        Author Index

Author Index

Acharya ......................................... 12, 49, 62                Daida ......................................................... 59
Adebayo .................................................... 57             Dalpé ......................................................... 57
Aljarrah ..................................................... 62           Danga ........................................................ 57
An.............................................................. 44         Dawson ..................................................... 27
Arcand ....................................................... 60           Debnath ......................................... 42, 43, 44
Arganosa ................................................... 54             Deery ......................................................... 22
Bai ............................................................. 47        DePauw ....................................................... 3
Bailey ........................................................ 31          Dion........................................................... 51
Bandara ..................................................... 56            Dosdall ...................................................... 53
Banik ......................................................... 29          Drapeau ..................................................... 55
Banniza ............................................... 14, 52              Drinkwater ................................................ 46
Barker .......................................................... 8         Duddu........................................................ 47
Beach........................................................... 6          Eberius ...................................................... 22
Beasely ...................................................... 62           Eudes ......................................................... 62
Bélangera .................................................. 57             Evenden..................................................... 53
Ben Salah .................................................. 31             Eynck .......................................................... 7
Benaragama............................................... 15                Fabijanski .................................................... 6
Beres ......................................................... 53          Falk ........................................................... 18
Bett .......................................... 19, 45, 52, 54              Farrell ........................................................ 60
Bhullar....................................................... 55           Fedoruk ..................................................... 19
Biligetu ................................................ 51, 52            Filmore ...................................................... 13
Bittman ...................................................... 38           Flore .......................................................... 61
Bonham-Smith .......................................... 32                  Fowler ....................................................... 21
Borondics .................................................. 28             Frick .......................................................... 24
Bors ......................................... 27, 41, 48, 55               Fry ............................................................. 32
Bruulsema ................................................. 37              Fu .............................................................. 52
Bueckert .............................................. 50, 63              Furbank ..................................................... 22
Bullock ...................................................... 15           Garcia ........................................................ 17
Bykova ...................................................... 44            Gates ........................................................... 8
Cao ............................................................ 46         Gerbrandt .................................................. 48
Cárcamo .................................................... 53             Germida............................................... 17, 59
Casler ........................................................ 38          Glahn ......................................................... 45
Ceplis .......................................................... 6         Goyali ........................................................ 26
Chandler .................................................... 56            Graf ........................................................... 62
Charest ...................................................... 57           Gravel ........................................................ 39
Chibbar...................................................... 48            Gray........................................................... 58
Clapperton ................................................. 24             Gredig ......................................................... 5
Classen ...................................................... 45           Gruber ....................................................... 31
Cober ......................................................... 36          Grusak ....................................................... 19
Coulman .................................................... 49             Grushcow .................................................... 7
Coyne ........................................................ 19           Gulden ....................................................... 39
Cutforth ....................................................... 3          Gunawardena ............................................ 13
Cuthbert....................................................... 3           Haile .......................................................... 39
Daba .......................................................... 48          Hammermeister ............................. 27, 39, 47

                                                                       65
                                                 CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                                         Author Index

Han ............................................................ 50          Lynch .................................................. 27, 47
Hannoufa ................................................... 32              Ma ............................................................. 46
Hao ............................................................ 11          Mahmoudi ................................................. 31
Harapiak .................................................... 61             Martel ........................................................ 51
Harrington ................................................... 8             Marwan ..................................................... 19
Harrison..................................................... 58             May........................................................... 64
Hawkes ...................................................... 13             McAllister ........................................... 12, 49
He ................................................................ 3        McAndrew ................................................ 36
Helm .......................................................... 62           McCartney..................................................64
Hill ............................................................ 53         McDonald ................................................. 29
Hobson ................................................ 27, 47               McGee ....................................................... 19
Holmes ...................................................... 23             McKenzie .................................................. 53
Holowachuk .............................................. 32                 Miller......................................................... 23
Hubbard..................................................... 17              Mirck ......................................................... 34
Hucl ........................................................... 58          Mkhabela................................................... 15
Hunt........................................................... 38           Morrison .................................................... 36
Igamberdiev .............................................. 26                Myers .......................................................... 8
Irvine..........................................................64           Nair ........................................................... 42
Iwaasa ................................................. 12, 49              Nayidu ....................................................... 32
Jamieson.................................................... 43              Nelson ....................................................... 24
Janzen.......................................................... 4           Nemeth ...................................................... 29
Jefferson .................................................... 49            Niehaus ..................................................... 22
Jensen ........................................................ 61           Niziol......................................................... 24
Jiang .......................................................... 36          Nyachiro .................................................... 62
Jimenez-Berni ........................................... 22                 O‘Halloran ................................................ 29
Juskiw ....................................................... 62            Pageau ....................................................... 51
Kaban ........................................................ 41            Papadopoulos ...................................... 13, 38
Kadoor....................................................... 31             Park ........................................................... 50
Kaliyaperumal ........................................... 54                 Phelps .......................................................... 9
Karamanos ................................................ 61                Podder ....................................................... 52
Kempler..................................................... 43              Poire .......................................................... 22
Kessel ........................................................ 29           Poon .......................................................... 46
Khanizadeh ......................................... 43, 57                  Pozniak...................................................... 21
King........................................................... 59           Pritchard .................................................... 50
Knox............................................................ 3           Prithiviraj .................................................. 13
Kutcher..................................................... .64             Pruski .................................................. 27, 47
Lafond ................................................... 9, 64             Quideau ..................................................... 24
Lajeunesse ................................................. 55              Raju ........................................................... 34
Laroche ..................................................... 62             Randhawa .................................................. 62
Larsen .................................................. 18, 62             Rioux ......................................................... 55
Lasinger..................................................... 22             Robinson ................................................... 44
Li ..........................................................11, 31          Rodd .......................................................... 13
Liu ........................................... 18, 28, 45, 46               Ross ........................................................... 59
Lokken ...................................................... 56             Rupasinghe ................................................ 55
Luan .......................................................... 26           Saha ........................................................... 52
Luo ............................................................ 11          Sahota ...................................... 26, 37, 38, 63


                                                                        66
                                                CSA-CSH-CCA-AIC Saskatoon 2012
                                                        Author Index

Saik ........................................................... 10         Tanino ................... 28, 29, 33, 42, 45, 48, 56
Sari ............................................................ 52        Tar‘an ........................................................ 54
Sather ........................................................ 60          Taran ................................................... 19, 48
Savard ....................................................... 39           Thilakarathna ............................................ 13
Savidov ..................................................... 34            Thomas ...................................................... 12
Schellenberg ........................................ 51, 52                Trépanier ................................................... 55
Schroeder .................................................. 34             Tullu .......................................................... 52
Schwartz .................................................... 22            Undersander .............................................. 38
Shirtliffe ............................ 14, 15, 39, 47, 64                  Vachon ...................................................... 51
Shunmugam .............................................. 19                 Vanasse ..................................................... 51
Sinclair .................................................. 3, 57           Vandenberg ......................................... 52, 54
Singh ........................................................... 3         Vujanovic ............................................ 17, 59
Sirault ........................................................ 22         Wang ......................................... 3, 12, 49, 56
Soolanayakanahally .................................. 34                    Warkentin .......................... 19, 45, 48, 54, 63
Sorey ......................................................... 56          Waterer .......................................... 27, 33, 58
Sorokin ...................................................... 41           Weaver ...................................................... 53
Sottie ................................................... 12, 49           Wei ............................................................ 31
Spaner ................................................. 24, 53             Whalen ...................................................... 46
Speranzini ................................................. 29             Whetter ........................................................ 5
Stefner ....................................................... 34          Willenborg ................................................ 47
Stypa ........................................................... 7         Wolyn ........................................................ 46
Su .............................................................. 46        Xu .............................................................. 44
Swift .................................................... 38, 62           Yang .......................................................... 53
Syrovy ....................................................... 14           Yu .................................................. 31, 32, 55
Taheri ........................................................ 32          Yuan .......................................................... 59
Tahir .......................................................... 50         Zhang ........................................................ 35
Tai ............................................................. 29




                                                                       67

				
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