抵押品评估与信用风险管理 - PowerPoint Presentation - Explicit by leader6


									Collateral Evaluation and
Credit Risk Management

1. Why is Collateral Evaluation Important? 为什么抵押品评估重要
2. Types of Collateral and Regulatory Pitfalls 抵押品种类和法规缺陷
3. Evaluation of Collateral (Real Estate) 抵押品评估(房产)
4. Evaluation of Collateral (Other Assets) 抵押品评估(其他资产)
5. Protection of Collateral 抵押品保护
       Creation of Security Interest 担保利益的创立
       Perfection of Security Interest 担保利益的完善
6. Collateral Management 抵押品管理
       Collateral Management for Credit Risk Management 信用风险管理
       Safeguarding the Enforcement 维护强制执行
7. Enforcement of Collateral 抵押品的强制执行
8. Extinguishing Security Interest in Collateral 抵押品利益的终止
1. Why is Collateral
 Evaluation Important?
            Why is Collateral Evaluation Important?
          The more accurate the evaluation, the more enhanced credit risk
           management in place. 对抵押品的评估越是准确,信贷风险的管理的准确性就越高
          Large actual loan loss exceeding the estimated LGD could lead to a
           serious depletion of bank’s equity capital. 实际贷款损失如果大大超过预计的违

                     Value Added价值增加                                By reducing loss
                                                                    given default, the

              Expected Loss (PD × LGD) 预计损失                         bank can reduce

                                                                    the margin without
          Unexpected Loss非预期损失 (Required Return ×                   reducing value added.
                  Allocated Economic Capital)                       通过降低违约损失,银行可以降低

                   Operating Cost运营成本
                                                           EL: Expected Loss预计损失
                                                           PD: Probability of Default违约概率
                    Funding Cost资金成本                       LGD: Loss Given Default违约损失率
                                                           UL: Unexpected Loss非预期损失
     Why is Collateral Evaluation Important?
   LGD is estimated from default-weighted average loss rate during a
    certain time period. 违约损失率可以通过一段时间内的加权平均违约损失率估计出来
   Loss rate is given by: 损失率计算方法
     PV at the default date of recoveries + PV of costs associated with collecting
1-   回收物在违约日的现值+会收的相关成本的现值
                           EAD (Exposure at default)违约风险暴露
                                                         PV: Present value现值

   To reduce average loss rate, banks need to collect on the default
    exposure as much as and as fast as possible.为了降低平均损失率,银行应该尽
   If a bank does not properly estimate collateral values, the collection
    upon default would become smaller and take a longer period of time,
    leading to a depletion of capital and lower profits.如果银行不能准确估计抵押品
 Wrong                                                               Capital Waste
                  Higher          Higher LGD                             资本浪费
Collateral                                            Higher
                 Wright-offs      Estimation                         Lower Profits
Evaluation       更高的坏帐核销                             Provision
错误的抵押品评估                           增高违约损失率                               利润更低
Role of Collateral in Financial Intermediation I
      抵押品在金融中介活动中的作用 I
   Collateral stabilizes financial intermediation抵押品稳定金融中介活动
       Collateral better aligns interests of the lender and borrower
            The lender can maximize the safety of repayment出借方可以使收回借款的可
            The borrower will minimize the risk taking借用方可以使承担的风险最小化
       Without collateral如果没有抵押品:
            The lender will solely rely on borrower’s cash-flow generated by the
             project (business) for the repayment.出借方只能依靠借用方项目(营业)产生的
            The borrower tends to take more risks in the project (business), which
             may cause instability in generating cash-flow.借用方会承担项目(营业)更大
            There will be more vulnerable banks and more risky businesses in the
             economy, otherwise, resulting in shallow financial intermediation.经济环
Role of Collateral in Financial Intermediation II
      抵押品在金融中介活动中的作用 II
   Lender 出借方(specifically)
       Encourage willingness of payment to reduce PL.鼓励出借方进行借款降低损失
       Substitute the repayments to reduce LGD.代替还款降低违约损失率
       Protects against borrower’s over-borrowing.保护出借方不至于过度借债
   Borrower 借用方(specifically)
       Access to credit: let borrowers monetize their illiquid assets to raise funds获
       Cost of Credit: potentially reduce funding costs for the lower EL calculated
        by the lender融资成本:潜在的降低了融资成本,因为出借方计算出的预计损失较低
       Overcoming asymmetric information problems: access to funds even in a
        financially difficult time, or even without audited financial reports解决了信息不对

                                            EL: Expected Loss 预计损失
                                            PD: Probability of Default 违约概率
                                            LGD: Loss Given Default 违约损失率
                                            UL: Unexpected Loss 非预期损失
2. Types of Collateral and
    Regulatory Pitfalls
                    What is Collateral?
   Under modern collateral law systems, collateral can be any asset
    which produces future cash flow directly or indirectly, and can be
    created by any lender and borrower, in any present or future assets
    and in all transactions, to substitute payments for a part or the entire
    outstanding debt upon default. 在现代担保法体系中,抵押品可以是

   Under unreformed collateral law systems, there would be various
    constraints on asset types eligible for collateral, on persons or legal
    persons qualified to collateral agreements, or on the enforceability
    of some collateral, due to the lack of efficacy and integrity of the
    system. 在创新性的担保法体系中,由于系统缺乏有效性和不统一,
             Collateral Laws and Collateral Types
      Collateral Law担保法                                   Goods物品
            Independent and comprehensive                       Consumer goods消费品
             “collateral law” is rare: generally                 Farm products农产品
             collateral law is a system which is                 Inventory存货
             constituted by several relevant laws                Equipment设备
             and regulations.独立和综合的担保法很                          Fixtures固定设备
             少见:通常担保法由一些相关法律和法                                   Accessions添加物
                                                           Intangibles无形资产
                                                                 Negotiable instrument流通票据
      Extent of collateral抵押品范围
            After-acquired property事后取得的财产                      Document of title物权凭证
            Proceeds收益                                          Investment property投资财产
            Supporting obligation相关义务                           Account (book debt)应收款
                                                                 General Intangibles一般无形资产
                                                           Other kinds of collateral其他抵押品
      Unmovable Collateral不动抵押物                                 Deposit accounts存款帐户
            Real Property: Land and Building房地                  Life insurance policy/health-care
             产:土地和建筑物                                             insurance receivable人生保险/应收健康
            Plant and Equipment车间和设备                             保险金
            Natural Reserves自然资源
            Timber to be cut待采伐的木材

Source: Collateral, Collateral Law and Collateral Substitutes, B. Balkenhol and H. Schutte,
Social Finance Programme, Working Paper No. 26, p17来源:抵押品,担保法和担保替代品
3. Evaluation of Collateral
       (Real Estate)

         Principles of Collateral Evaluation
1.   Collateral evaluation is not to find an accurate, unique price, but to
     find a price and logic which are realistic, practical, and acceptable
     by ordinary market participants. 抵押品评估并不是为了寻找一种精
2.   Evaluate collateral on the basis of the market value rather than
     book value. 抵押品的评估是依据市场价值而非帐面价值
3.   Apply the most conservative evaluation method. 采取最保守的评
4.   If possible, collateral property should be located within a distance
     bank officers can take frequent visits. 如果可能,担保资产应该放
5.   Watch the market price if it’s rising fast: a price bubble may be
     developing. 如果市场价格增长很快,那么小心市场价格,可能存
    Basics of Land Collateral Evaluation
   Step 1: Estimate a price par square meter/feet either by:估计每平
         (1) The sales comparison approach 市场比较法
         (2) The income capitalization approach (mainly for lease properties)
         (3) The cost approach (in case of houses and buildings) 成本法(用
   Step 2: Adjust the price by factors unique to the real estate 用房地
         (1) Usage of the property房地产的用途
         (2) Trends of real estate price房地产价格趋势
         (3) Conditions of the property/nature of the surrounding area房地产
         (4) Legal issues法律问题
                Sales Comparison Approach
    If recent transactions or sells prices for the similar real estate are
     available in the city, town or village, the sales comparison approach
     provides good estimates.如果可以获得所在城市、城镇或乡村最近同类房地产的交

                Price B (2,450$/m²)
    Weighted-average                  Unadjusted estimated Price E ($/m²)?
                                      调整前价格
    of A and B (Price D)
    A和B的加权平均价格             50m                                   Price C (1,900$/m²)
                                           150m                     
                                         Note: Each price points should not be
                 Price A (2,000$/m²)     separated by a major street or river,
                                         which affect the price differences
     Sales Comparison Approach: Example
   Evaluate the land price E.估计土地E价格
   Three recent real estate transactions around E.最近E的附近有三个交易
       A: $2,000, B: $2,450, and C: $1,900
   On the map, locate price D between A and B在地图上找到A和B之间的价格D
   Distances between these points are:这些地点的距离
       A-D: 70m, D-B: 30m, D-E: 50m, and C-E 150m.
   Then dollar price par square meter of E will be: E的每平方米价格是

            Price D = (Price A × 30) + (Price B × 70) = 2,315 ($/m²)
                                  70 + 30
            Price E = (Price D × 150) + (Price C × 50)= 2,211 ($/m²)
                                  50 + 150
         Income Capitalization收益还原法 I
   Find a geographically weighted-average rent price per unit of land in
    the same way before. 和市场比较法一样,找到每单位土地的加权平

          Rent price B (320$/month)

Weighted-average                Estimated rent price E估计E出租价 ($/month?)
of A and B (price D)
A和B加权平均价格               10m                      Rent price C (360$/month)
                                       40m                   

                                        Note: Each price points should not be
                                       separated by a major street or river,
          Rent price A (350$/month)     which affect the price differences
                    Income Capitalization II
   Calculate the present value of the rent income for the certain future
                  Annual rent – (maintenance cost + property taxes)
         PV= Σ 年租金-(维护成本+房产税)
                                      ( 1 + r )n
                                                           PV: Present value现值
   Income capitalization approach using rents may be used in a situation
    where a loan officer knows the property concerned has a certain value
    for the market, but there is no way to reasonably estimate and explain
    the value due to the lack of transaction.使用收益还原法时,贷款主管知道土地的
        The estimated value may be much lower than a potential market value
         (additional margin for valuation uncertainty).估计的价值可能远低于潜在的市场价
        It depends on bank’s loan policy, but time horizon should be limited to 10
         to 12 years. 这取决于银行的贷款政策,不过一般的时间跨度应该在10-12年以内
    Income Capitalization Approach: Example
   Evaluate the land price E.估计土地E的价格
   Monthly rents of the three leasing properties are三个出租场地的月租
    金分别为: A: $350, B: $320, and C: $360
   Distances between these properties areE到这三个场地的距离分别是:
    A-D: 30m, D-B: 15m, D-E: 10m, and C-E 40m.
   Using the above information, estimated rent price E will be使用上述
    Rent D = (Price A × 15) + (Price B × 30) = 330 ($/month)
                         30 + 15
    Rent E = (Price D × 40) + (Price C × 10) = 336 ($/month)
                         10 + 40
   Assume the annual maintenance cost including property taxes is
    $300, interest rate is 8%, and you calculate up to 10 years, then
    estimated collateral value is: 假设包括房产税的年维护成本是$300,利率*%,计算10

       PV = Σ Annual rent年租金 (336×12)–(maintenance cost维护成本 300)
            t=1            ( 1+0.08 ) t
           = 25,042 ($)                         PV: Present value现值
               Income Capitalization Approach III
      Basic concept of the capitalization rate收益还原法的基本概念
            “The capitalization rate itself is a function of the investor’s desired return
             and a combination of the costs of debt and equity employed in making
             the investment.” (Bower 2001)还原率是投资者希望获得的收益率,和借款和股权投
      Factors affecting investors’ desired return on real estates影响投资者对
            Culture, economic trends, other investment property type, other
             investment opportunities, etc.文化、经济趋势,其他投资财产,其他投资机会等
      In practice在实践中
            The most simplified way is to use available loan interest rates for such
             an investment as a capitalization rate.最简单的方法是使用类似投资的借款利率
            When interest rates are used as a capitalization rate, loan officers must
             be aware that the interest rate does not include necessary returns for
             taking risks inherent to the investment, hence, the outcome overvalues
             the real estate.如果利率为用作还原率,借款主管必须知道利率中没有包括这项投资

Source: Understanding real estate values in a rising market—Brief Article, Gerald A. Bower, 2001
                        Price Adjustment I
   Usage of the property房产用途
       Own-use residential property自用住宅
            Most useful 最有用的
       Own-use farm and forest land/factory and warehouse自用农场和林
            The income capitalization approach收入还原法
       Residential/business property for lease出租用住宅/商用房产物业
            Income capitalization approach收入还原法
            Rent prices in the neighborhood附近社区的出租价格
            Future occupancy rate estimation未来占用率预计
            Residential leasing property and business leasing property出租住宅物
       For sale出售
            Speculative in nature投机性
                      Price Adjustment II
   Trends of real estate price房地产价格趋势
       Sales and transaction prices销售和交易价格
       Information from neighbors邻近地区的信息
       Information from experts, brokers, sales registries, and mortgage
       Income level of the area该地区的收入水平
       Demand and supply conditions of the market市场的供求情况
       Published land prices and tax rates公布的土地价格和税率
       Regional development plan地区发展计划
       Availability of mortgage loan/foreign land ownership是否存在抵押借款和
                       Price Adjustment III
   Conditions of the property/nature of the surrounding area
       Geographic conditions, such as, close to the coast, river, cliffs, or located
        on tilted land, in a dip, on the weak stratum 地理情况,例如,靠近海滩,
       Size of the real estate房地产的规模
       Shape of the real estate房地产的形状
       Location of the real estate in the block房地产在街区的具体位置
       Accessibility to the public roads是否可以方便地到达公共道路
       Accessibility to public and commercial facilities是否可以方便的到达公共
       Existence of unfavorable facilities是否存在不良设施
       Municipal services available是否有市政服务
                        Price Adjustment IV
   Legal issues法律问题
       Easements: restrictions, encumbrances, leases, reservations,
        covenants, contracts, declarations, special assessments, ordinances, or
        other items of a similar nature.地役权:限制,妨碍,租赁,保留,限制性条款,
       “Eminent domain”: in common law countries, the government may have
        the rights to buy real property without the owner’s consent for the
        purposes of public usage, such as public utilities, highway, airport, and
       Legitimacy of buildings (illegal construction/usage)建筑物的合法性(非法建

    Note: When the above legal issues are involved, the price of the property could
    drop substantially. 注意:当涉及到以上法律问题时,房地产的价格可能会大幅降低

   What are the most major methods to evaluate real estate
    collateral in your country?你们国家最主要的房产抵押评估方法是什么?
4. Evaluation of Collateral
      (Other Assets)

                  Collateral Evaluation I
   Farm Product/Inventory农产品/存货
       Market price basis依据市场价格
       Interview with major buyers采访主要买家
       Market liquidity市场流动性
       Market size市场规模
       Market volatility市场波动幅度
       Perishable products容易腐烂变质的产品
       Dealer listings, market sales reports经销商清单,市场销售报告
       Location of the storage存储场地
                   Collateral Evaluation II
   Mobile Vehicle机动车
       Secondhand car market price basis二手车市场价格
       Interview with experts and dealers采访专家和经销商
       Maker, type, popularity, market, in case of inventory如果是存货:制造商,
       Age, depreciation schedule, unpaid taxes, prior lien, in case of
       Government’s import tax policy or other policies affecting market政府的
                    Collateral Evaluation III
   Intangibles无形资产
       Negotiable instrument: validity of the instrument, obligor, credit rating,
        maturity, type of transaction: collateral/repurchase agreement/discount
       Document of title: bill of lading: validity of the document, location of the
        property, quantity, species/variety, measure/weight, value per unit,
        quality, condition, schedule, as well as marketability and market price.
       Investment Property: issuer, credit rating, market price, market volatility,
        (maturity), OTC/exchange投资财产:发行者,信用等级,市场价格,市场颇动幅
       Account (book debt): obligors, the extent of diversification, the length of
        terms, aging schedule, the past default rate应收款:债务人,多元化程度,
       General intangible: variability of the right (document), terms and
        conditions, restrictions contained in the document, marketability, etc.
5. Protection of Collateral
                     Creation of Security Interest
      Elements to create valid security interest:担保利益产生的要素
           The debtor has rights in the collateral*债务人对抵押品有所有权
           A security agreement must be authenticated by the debtor担保合同必须
           A security agreement must contain a description of the collateral担保合
           A security interest cannot attach unless “value” is given*除非给定“价值”
      “A value” in security agreement担保合同中的“价值”
           A value is set in accordance with an amount intended to cover existing
            or future credit outstanding in part or in total.价值要能够达到现有或将来
      Other Issues其他问题
           Inter-creditor agreement贷款机构间协议
           Pari-passu charge比例平等抵押
      Creation of security interest alone cannot preserve creditor’s priority
       over lien creditors and other secured parties with an interest in the
       same collateral. 仅仅使用担保利益不能保证债权人可以优先于留置债权人和其他对抵

*Based on: Law in a Nutshell: Secured transactions, Richard B. Hagedorn, Thomson West, 2007, p57, 92, 95
                   Perfection of Security Interest
      After perfection the secured party is protected against other
       creditors and transferees of the debtor and in particular, against any
       representative of creditors in insolvency proceedings instituted by or
       against the debtor.*在完善担保利益之后,被担保方的利益对其他债权人和债务人的
      Depending on the jurisdiction, different collateral may have different
       rules for perfection根据权限,不同的抵押物有不同的完善规则
           Perfection upon attachment alone单独附加的完善
           Temporary perfection in certain collateral特定抵押物的暂时完善
           Perfection by pledge or possessory security interest通过抵押或拥有担保利
           Perfection by filing (registration)归档(登记)完善
           Perfection where filing is required under a special law特定法律规定需要通过
           Perfection by public notice (example: news paper advertisement)通过公

*Based on: Law in a Nutshell: Secured transactions, Richard B. Hagedorn, Thomson West, 2007, p123
6. Collateral Management
                  Collateral Management
   Collateral Management抵押品管理
       Collateral management includes two risk management concepts: 抵押品
          (1) Collateral management for credit risk management信贷风险管理的
          (2) Safeguarding the enforceability强制行使权的保护

                 Collateral                        • Record Keeping档案记录
                Management         Credit File     • Revaluation/Reappraisal
                 for CRM           信贷档案            against credit exposure
 Collateral     抵押品管理                              根据信用风险再评估/再评价
抵押品管理           Safeguarding                       • Numbering/Tagging编号/标签
                     the         Safe Custody/     • Maturity Management到期管理
                Enforceability   Collateral Book   • Renewal of security interest
                                 保管/抵押品登记册          更新担保利益
                                                   • Periodical check of inventory
                             Credit File信用档案 I
      Record Keeping档案管理
            Appraiser’s name, the effective date of the evaluation, and
             signature and address (when the evaluation is outsourced)鉴定人
            Description of the collateral抵押品描述
                 Real estate: ownership, location, shape, condition, developments,
                  pictures, maps, neighborhood, usage, a copy of construction
                  approval, attached easement, etc.房地产:所有者,位置,形状,环境,发展
                 Goods: location of the goods, quantity, species/variety,
                  measure/weight, value per unit, quality, condition, schedule
                 Intangibles: pledgor, amount, quantity, third party obligor, attached
                  security interest, etc.无形资产:抵押人,金额,数量,第三方债务人,附加担保利
            Description of the evaluation method employed对所用评估方法的描述
            Description of the source information used in the evaluation评估中
            An estimated value of the collateral and the opinion of the loan
             officer on the evaluation抵押品的估计价值,以及贷款主管的对评估的意见

Source: Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines, FDIC, 1994
                      Credit File信用档案 II
   Reappraisal重新评估
       Collateral should be regularly revalued depending on the
        collateral type.抵押品应该根据担保种类有规律的进行重新评估
       Collateral value should be constantly monitored against credit
       Frequency of reappraisal depends on the market condition重新评估
            Real estate (revaluation): every 6 months or 12 months
            Real estate (on-site survey): every month or 3 months
            Farm product: every week or month depending on the market
            Inventory: depending on the market
            Mobile vehicle: every 3 month or 6 month
            Intangibles: daily basis if mark-to-market is required (depending on
             the type of transaction)
               Credit File: Example信用档案:举例
        After evaluation of land and building the following credit/collateral
         balance table is updated. How do you interpret the table and what
         should be done?在评估了土地和建筑物之后,更新贷款/担保余额表,你怎样理解这张表
 Borrower: ABC Trading Co. Internal Credit Score: 4B External: n/a As of: Mar 08
 借款方:ABC贸易公司, 内部编号:4B,外部:不适用,日期:3月8日
Type of loan     Original    Loan          Loan credit   Type of collateral   Original     Latest       Haircut   Collateral
贷款种类             amount      proceeds      outstanding   抵押品种类                Collateral   Collateral   折扣        Value
                 or credit   outstanding   剩余信用额                              Evaluation   Evaluation             抵押品价
                 line金额/     剩余借款          度                                  出示抵押         最近抵押                   值
                 信用额度                                                         品评估          品评估

Term loan A          50             10            10 Land土地                       110            90        40            54
Term loan B         120             95            95 Building建筑物                   50            40       100             0
Revolving line       30              0            30 Receivable应收款                 40            40        25            30
循环贷款额度                                               Public Guarantee              10            10         0            10
                                                         Time deposits定
                                                                                                 12           0          12
Total                             105       (A)135 Total                                                          (B)106
                                                         Unsecured Balance 不安全余额(A)-(B)                                  29
Thousand $
                Safe Custody/Collateral Book I
   Safe Custody保管
        In order to safeguard and protect the enforceability of security
         interest, (1) collateral agreement and (2) pledged goods and
         documents should be put in a safe custody.为了保管和保护担保利益的
              Collateral agreement (together with other relevant legal documents,
               record of registry, fire insurance policy for collateralized buildings*,
               etc.) may be kept in order by borrower name担保合同(和其他相关法律
              Pledged goods and documents may be kept by type抵押品和文件按种
              Collaterals for which limitation period or maturity date is critical
               should be kept in order by such date.有期限或到期日临近的抵押品应该按
        Limited access to the safe custody应该限制人员接近保管场所
        Protection from natural disaster避免自然灾害
    Note: Fire insurance policy for collateralized building may be kept separately in order
    by expiration date because of the importance of the expiration date management.
               Safe Custody/Collateral Book II
    Collateral Book抵押品登记册
         Role of collateral book includes (1) administrating the collateral
          inventory, and (2) managing the expiration of limitation period and the
          maturity date for certain types of collateral. 抵押品登记册的作用包括:(1)管理担保
             Collateral book should be created separately for each type of
         Collateral book should assign a number for each pledged goods and
          documents for the administrating purpose.出于管理的需要,抵押品登记册应该分配
              Pledged goods should be sturdily tagged with a note indicating
               name of pledgor, borrower number, date, collateral number, etc.抵押
         Collateral book should be managed by senior manager.抵押品登记册应由高级
              Inventory of collateral should be checked against the collateral book
               periodically (once in a month)担保实物应该与登记册进行定期核对(每月一次)
              Adding and removing of pledged goods from the custody should be
               registered in the appropriate collateral book*.保管场所增加或者转移抵押物都
Note: When accepting and returning collateral, receipt should be issued to and received from
the borrower by the bank, which should indicate concerned goods and documents in detail:
type, number/quantity, date, with signature . 注意:当接受和归还抵押品时,应该交给和收回借款方收条,
             Safe Custody/Collateral Book III
   Maturity for certain types of collateral部分抵押品的到期
       Negotiable instruments such as draft, certificate of deposit, and
        promissory note have maturity date. 有到期日的流通票据,例如:支票,定期存
       In accordance with the collateral agreement, such negotiable
        instruments need to be settled without delay.根据担保合同,流通票据应该立刻
   Expiration for certain types of security interest担保利益的到期
       Depending on jurisdiction and on type of collateral, a perfection of
        security interest may expire after a certain period (limitation period
        effects). 根据担无误的权限和种类,担保利益的完善可能在一定时期之后终止(有限
       Such limitation periods should be carefully managed in the collateral
        book. A continuation statement should be filed within a certain period
        before the expiration to renew the perfection of security interest.应该在抵

   How often do you reappraise real estate collateral?你多久进
7. Enforcement of Collateral
               Enforcement of Security Interest I
      Event of default违约情况
           A breach by debtor of any of the terms of the security agreement债务人
           A grace period宽容期

      Rights of secured party被担保方的权利
           Money suit金钱诉讼
           Repossession收回占有权
                 Self-help资助式
                 A pre-repossession notice收回占有权前通知
           Foreclosure丧失抵押品赎回权
                 Strict foreclosure严格丧赎权
                 Deed in lieu of foreclosure取消抵押品赎回权的合约

*Based on: Law in a Nutshell: Secured transactions, Richard B. Hagedorn, Thomson West, 2007, p320-323
              Enforcement of Security Interest II
           Public or private sale公开或私下销售
              If it is applicable, private sale will be encouraged where private sales
               through commercial channels will result in higher realization on
               collateral for the benefit of all parties.*如果私下销售适用的话,通过商
           Application of Proceeds获得款项的使用
              a)   The expenses of retaking and disposing of the collateral, and
                   attorney’s fee and legal expenses (if a country’s law allows)取回
              b)   The debt owed the secured party, including principal, interest or
                   finance charges, and other lawful unpaid charges provided for the
                   security agreement被担保方的贷款,包括本金,利息和罚金,以
              c)   The debt owed by junior secured parties担保级别较低的债权人
              d)   Residual rights剩余债权人

*Based on: Law in a Nutshell: Secured transactions, Richard B. Hagedorn, Thomson West, 2007, p346
8. Extinguishing Security
   Interest in Collateral
               Extinguishing Security Interest
    When all debt is repaid security interest should be terminated:当所有
       by filing a termination statement通过终止生命进行登记

       by returning pledged goods and documents*通过归还抵押物和文件

       by returning the original security agreement 通过归还担保合同原件

    Preserving security interest long after the full repayment may:在得到
         let the borrower consider the lender being ready to provide another loan.
         let the security party face unexpected liability caused by any damage
          incurred to the borrower by not possessing the pledged goods or

Note: When returning pledged goods and documents, receipt with the borrowers signature
should be provided. 注意:当归还抵押物或文件时,借用方应提供有签名的收条
                Useful Documents 有用的文献

   Land Daministration Guidelines, United Nations, 1996
        This document has a slightly different view point but very useful to understand the value of
         land in a society. The document lists conditions of a good land administration system in a
         country, which are: guarantee ownership and security of tenure, support land and property
         taxation, provide security for credit, develop and monitor land markets, protect State land,
         reduce land disputes, facilitate land reform, improve urban planning and infrastructure
         development, support environmental management, and produce statistical data (111 pages)
        Available at: http://www.ica.coop/house/part-2-chapt4-ece-landadmin.pdf
   Valuation Standards: Are we doing it right?, Chris Thorne, IVSC, 2007
        This document tries to explain a new valuation concept for the globalized era. There are four
         dimentions to valuation standards: conduct standards, process standards, definition
         standards, and technical standards. It is useful to see how a leading institution in valuation
         standards consider the challenge of valuation standardization. (11 pages)
        Available at: http://www.ivsc.org/pubs/index.html
   Real Estate Principles: A Value Approach, David C. Ling and Wayne Archer
        A similar type of presentation file which tries to explain how to evaluate real estate. It is
         useful to take a look at other presentations on the similar topic. The authors published a book
         “Real Estate Principles.” (52 slides)
        Available at:

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