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					      

                    Conditional Sentences (If Rules) (Conditionals)
                                 

                                                                                                                .‫( ﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ، ﻟﻭ، ﺇﻥ‬if) ü
                                                                                                                                   ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                                       .‫( ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ‬if)‫ ﹸﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ü
                                                          ‫ﺘ ﻥ ﺎ‬                ‫ﺠ‬         ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬       ‫ﺠ‬         ‫ﻌ‬              ‫ﺘ‬
                                           .‫ ﺸﻴﺌﹰ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﹸﻔﻴﺩ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺔ، ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻟﺘ‬if) ‫ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ü
                                                                                          ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬        ‫ﺠ‬
                .‫ﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﻓﻌل ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﻡ ﺴﻨﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ü
                                                                                             ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬       ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                               :‫ﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ü

                 1-The Zero Conditional                                                     
                                                                             

                  
 1) Form: 

                                                                                        
                                                 
                                   if + Present Simple                                Present Simple
                                                   ‫ﻤ‬
                                          ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬                                             ‫ﻤ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬
 


 2) Usage:
                       
            100  ‫ﺍﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺌﻕ ﺍﻟ‬ü
                                                                 ‫ﺩ‬                   ‫ﺘ‬

         ‫ﻁ ﺠ‬                         ‫ﺠ ﺔ ﻤ‬                   ‫ﺠ‬                                   ‫ﺠ‬
      ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫( ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴ ِ ﺍﻟ‬if) ‫ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻠ ِ، ﺃ‬ ‫ﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻨﻀﻊ ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ ) , ( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟ‬if) ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒـ‬ ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ u
                                                                                                                     .‫ﻓﻼ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬

                                                             Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

      1.   If water freezes, it turns into ice.                                                                  ‫ﻨﻪ ﻭ‬
                                                                                               (‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻠﺞ. )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﺘﺠﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ، ﻓﺈﹼ‬
      2.   If we put sugar in water, it dissolves.                                                           ‫ﻨ‬               ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                              (‫ﻜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ، ﻓﺈﹼﻪ ﻴﺫﻭﺏ. )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟ‬
      3.   If we heat iron, it expands.                                                                                ‫ﻨ‬            ‫ﻨ ﺨ‬
                                                                                                        (‫ﻟﻭ ﹸﺴ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ، ﻓﺈﹼﻪ ﻴﺘﻤﺩﺩ. )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬


                 2.The First Conditional                                                      
                                                                         

                  
 1) Form: 

                                                                                       
                                                 
                                   if + Present Simple                                 Future Simple
                                                   ‫ﻤ‬
                                          ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬                                               ‫ﻤ‬
                                                                                         ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬
                                                                                     shall / will + ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻻ‬
                                                                        .will ‫ ﺃﻭ‬shall ‫ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬can ‫ ﺃﻭ‬may ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬                        ×

       1
  

 2) Usage:
                             ‫ﻱﻤ‬                                       ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬       ‫ﺠ‬         ‫ﻨ‬
  .(Probable) (‫ﺤﺘﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺤـﺩﻭﺙ‬  ‫ﺔ ﻟﻸﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜـﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺤﻘـﻕ )ﺃ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ü
                                                                               
                                                                     50 

                                                       Examples               ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

  1.     If you eat too much, you'll be sick.                                                                             ‫ﺍ‬      ‫ﻜ‬
                                                                                                                 .‫ﻟﻭ ﺘﺄ ﹸل ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ، ﻓﺴﺘﻤﺭﺽ‬
  2.     If he works hard, he will succeed.                                                                                  ‫ﺒ ﺩ‬
                                                                                                                    .‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ِﺠ ٍ، ﻓﺴﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬
  3.     If he works hard, he can succeed.                                                                                 ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                          .‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬
  4.     If he works hard, he may succeed.                                                                                 ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                            .‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬
  5.     You'll fall if you are not careful.                                                                            .‫ﺴﺘﻘﻊ، ﺇﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺤﺫﺭ‬
  6.     If he does not work hard, he will not succeed.                                                                   ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                               .‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬


          3.The Second Conditional                                                           
                                                                    

                  
 1) Form: 

                                                                                  
                                      
                             if + Past Simple                              should / would + ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬
                                      ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬                                             ‫ﻤ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬

                                                                             ‫ﻻ‬
                                                         .would ‫ ﺃﻭ‬should ‫ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬could ‫ ﺃﻭ‬might ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬                              ×
 2) Usage:
                                                                                  ‫ﺸ ﻴ ﺘ‬           ‫ﺠ‬         ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                         -:‫ﺔ ﻟﻠ ﹸﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬                 ü

                                                                                                
 Improbable     
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                   10 
  If he won the prize, he would buy a new car.
                                         ‫ﻤ ﺠ ﻨﻪ‬                 ‫ﻤ‬       ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﺓ‬                       ‫ﺏ‬
                         .(‫ ﺴﻴﻜﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺃ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻤل ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ، ﻓﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﹰ.) ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ / ﻟﻭ ﻜﺴ‬

                                                                                            
         If they had some money, they would stay at a hotel.
  1.
                                            ‫ﻨ‬            ‫ﺍ‬                    ‫ﻕ‬                     ‫ﻨ‬
                       .(‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﹼﻘﻭﺩ، ﻟﻤﻜﺜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺩ ِ. )ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﺩﹰ ﺍﻵﻥ، ﻟﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﹼﻬﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﺜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﺩﻕ‬
         If I were rich, I wouldn't drive an old car.                                              ‫ﺔ‬      ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﻗﺕ‬        ‫ﺕ ﻴﺎ‬
                                                                                                  .‫ﹰ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﹸﺩ ﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﻗﺩﻴﻤ ﹰ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻏﻨ‬
  2.
                 .(‫ﻤﻜﻥ. )ﺃﻱ: ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ ﺯﻤﻥ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺃﹼ‬‫ ( ﻟﹸﺒ‬I ) ‫( ﻤﻊ‬was) ‫( ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬were) ‫ ﺃﹼﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ‬ ♦
                                                             ‫ﻤ‬     ‫ﻨ ﻴ ﻨﻪ‬                       ‫ﻻ‬                      ‫ﻨ‬

  3.     If I were you, I would (I'd) tell the police.                                                     ‫ﺕ ﺸ‬                ‫ﺕ‬
                                                                                                       .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻙ، ﻷﺨﺒﺭ ﹸ ﺍﻟ ﱡﺭﻁﺔ‬
                                                                        ‫ﻻ‬                  ‫ﺎ‬
       .‫(، ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ )ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ( ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬I, He, She, It) ‫( ﻤﻊ‬was) ‫( ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬were) ‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ u

   2
  

                                                       Examples               ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

  1.   If he studied hard, he would (could) succeed.                                                                    ‫ﺩﺭﺱ ﺩ‬
                                                                                               .(‫ ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻟﻨﺠﺢ ) ﻻﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬   ‫ﻟﻭ‬
  2.   If I met a lion, I would climb a tree.                                                               ‫ﺓ‬     ‫ﻠﻕ‬        ‫ﺕ ﺍ‬
                                                                                                           .‫ﻟﻭ ﻗﺎﺒﻠ ﹸ ﺃﺴﺩﹰ، ﻓﺴﺄﺘﺴﹼ ﹸ ﺸﺠﺭ ﹰ‬
  3.   If I were you, I'd take the money.                                                                       ‫ﺕ ﻨ‬
                                                                                                            .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕ ُﻤﻜﺎﻨﻙ، ﻷﺨﺫ ﹸ ﺍﻟﱡﻘﻭﺩ‬
  4.   If I were a car, I would be Mercedes.                                                    ‫ﻉ‬               ‫ﺕ‬       ‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﺕ‬
                                                                                        .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ، ﻟﺭﻏﺒ ﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭ ِ ﻤﺭﺴﻴﺩﺱ‬
  5.   If you found a snake in your room, you should run away.                                             ‫ﺘﻙ‬         ‫ﺎ‬
                                                                                           .‫، ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻬﺭﺏ‬ ِ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻭﺠﺩﺕﹶ ﺜﻌﺒﺎﻨﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺭﻓ‬


            3.The Third Conditional                                                        
                                                                   

                  
 1) Form: 

                                                               
                                 
                        if + Past Perfect                           should have / would have + P.P
                              ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ‬                                                     ‫ﻤ‬
                                                                        ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬

                                                        ‫ﻻﻤ‬
                            .would have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬should have ‫ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ِﻥ‬could have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬might have ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬                                       ü

 2) Usage:

      ‫ﺩ‬        ‫ﺀ‬                                   ‫ﺀﻤ‬            ‫ﺸ ﻴ ﺘ‬          ‫ﻟﺠ‬        ‫ﻨ‬
  ‫ﺙ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲ ٍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤـ‬Impossible) ‫ﺴﺘﺤﻴل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻉ‬ ٍ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﹸ‬                                  ×
                                   
                            0  .‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﺩﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺤﺩﺙ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻨ‬



                                                       Examples               ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

       If he had informed the police, he wouldn't have
  1.                                                                                             َ ‫ﻗﺘ‬                ‫ﺒﺭ ﺸ‬
                                                                                                .‫ ﺍﻟ ﱡﺭﻁﺔ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﹸ ِل‬  ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺨﹶ‬
       been killed.
                                                                             ‫ﺱ ﺩ‬
       If he had studied hard, he would (could) have ‫ ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻨﺠﺢ ) ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺩﺭ‬
  2.
       succeeded.                                                              .( ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺕ‬         ‫ﻪ‬             ‫ﺕ‬           ‫ﺕ‬
       If I had listened to his advice, I wouldn't have lost ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﻌ ﹸ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺘ ٍ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻗـﺩ‬
  3.
       the money.                                                                 ‫ﻨ‬        ‫ﺘﺒ‬        ‫ﺕ ﻨ‬
                                                                              .(‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ ﹸ ﺍﻟﱡﻘﻭﺩ.) ﹸﻌ‬
  4.   If my parents hadn't married, I wouldn't have been born.                            ‫ﻟﺕ‬       ‫ﻜﺕ‬           ‫ﻭ‬       ‫ﻱ‬       ‫ﻜ‬
                                                                                          .‫ﺠﺎ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻭِﺩ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴ ﹸﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺩ‬
  5.   If he had made a mistake, he would have apologized.                                                          ‫ﺄ‬     ‫ﻤ‬
                                                                                                    .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻋ ِلَ ﺨﻁً، ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﺫﺭ‬




   3

                                                                               u
                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                              If

            ‫ﺓ‬          ‫ﺠ‬                                   ‫ﺸ‬
‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﺒﺩﻭﺀ ﹰ ﺒﺄﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬ ‫ (، ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ‬if ) ‫ﺫﻓﺕ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ ﹰ ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺸﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺤ‬     ‫ﻴﺔ‬         ‫ﺠ‬               ‫ﻴ‬                                   ü
                     ‫ﺴ‬                        ‫ﺼ‬          ‫ﺠ‬                                       ‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺅﺍل( )ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻤﻴﺔ )ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻭﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ‬Should - Had - Were) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬
                                                                    ‫ﺭ ﺠ‬
                                                                .‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل(، ﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﺁﺨ ِ ﺍﻟ‬
                     ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬       ‫ﺠ‬                ‫ﻨ‬           ‫ﻨ‬                    ‫ﻻ‬                        ‫ﻴ‬
                   .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬should) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬ (1

   If he studies hard, he will succeed.
1.                                                                                            ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                      (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل‬                         ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                                   .‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻓﺴﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬
   = Should he studies hard, he will succeed.
   If he succeeded, he would join the university.
2.                                                                                        ‫ﺜ‬      ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                      (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ‬        .‫ﻟﻭ ﻨﺠﺢ، ﻓﺴﻴﻠﺘﺤﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬
   = Should he succeeded, he would join the university.

                                        ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬       ‫ﺠ‬
                                      .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬were) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬ (2
                                                                 ‫ﺜ‬     ‫ﻨ‬                  ‫ﻻ‬                        ‫ﻴ‬
     If I were a bird, I would fly.
1.                                                                                                              ‫ﺍ ﻁ ﺕ‬        ‫ﺕﻋ‬
                                                                                                               .‫ﺼﻔﻭﺭﹰ، ﻟ ِﺭ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ‬
     = Were I a bird, I would fly.
     If he bought that car, it would cost him much.                                                 ‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﻠ ﻪ‬         ‫ﻴ‬
                                                                                                   .‫ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ‬ ‫ﺎﺭﺓ، ﻟﻜﹼﻔﺘ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻯ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
2.
     = Were he to buy that car, it would cost him much.                                     ‫ﻻﻤ‬
                                                                                       .if ‫ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ِﻥ‬were…. to ‫ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ‬ 

                                     ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬       ‫ﺜ ﻤ ﺠ‬              ‫ﺜ‬     ‫ﻨ‬                 ‫ﻻ‬                        ‫ﻴ‬
                                   .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﺙ ِﻥ ﺍﻟ‬Had) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬ (3
                                                                                                            ‫ﺜ‬      ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                     .‫ ﺒﻤﻔﺭﺩﻫﺎ‬had ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬                         ü
                                                                           ‫ﺜ‬        ‫ﺘ‬                     ‫ﺜ‬      ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                 .‫ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬had ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬                           ü

      If I had enough money, I would buy a new house.
1.                                                                                          ‫ﺜ‬      ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                        (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ‬       ‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﻻ‬             ‫ﻙ ﻻ ﺎ‬
                                                                                                              .‫ ﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻜﺎﻓﻴ ﹰ، ﻻﺸﺘﺭﻴﺕ ﻤﻨﺯ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﺃﻤﺘﻠ‬
      = Had I enough money, I would buy a new house.
      If he studied hard, he would have succeeded.
2.                                                                                         ‫ﺜ‬      ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                       (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ‬                        ‫ﺩﺭﺱ ﺩ‬
                                                                                                                 .‫ ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻨﺠﺢ‬   ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ‬
      = Had he studied hard, he would have succeeded.
      If they had obeyed me, they would have won the prize.
3.                                                                                               ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                       (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬       .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻁﺎﻋﻭﻨﻲ، ﻟﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺒﺤﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ‬
      = Had they obeyed me, they would have won the prize.

                                                                             ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬       ‫ﺠ‬          ‫ﺜ‬       ‫ﺜ‬            ‫ﻨ‬
                                                          .unless ‫ﺔ ﺘﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫4( ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬

                                   unless = if…..not

                                                             ‫ﺀ‬        ‫ﺎ ﻴﺒ‬
                                                       .‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲ ٍ ﺴﻠﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻁ ﻤﻨﻔﻴﹰ ﺃﻭ‬                                  ü
                     .‫ﺤ ِﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ ﻭﻓﻌل ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫( ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟ‬unless) ‫ﻭﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
                        ‫ﺸ‬                ‫ﺸ‬                           ‫ﻤ ﺩ‬                                                                          ü

     If he does not succeed, he will not join the university.
1.                                                                                                       .‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ، ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻠﺘﺤﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬
     = Unless he succeeds, he will not join the university.
     If he did not work hard, he would not succeed.
2.                                                                                                                       ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                              .‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬
     = Unless he worked hard, he would not succeed.

 4

   If he had not paid money, he would not have received
   the goods.
3.                                                                                      ‫ﺍ‬
                                                             .‫ﻟﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻨﻘﻭﺩﹰ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬
   = Unless he had paid money, he would not have
   received the goods.
   If he did not take this medicine, he would not be better.
4.                                                                      ‫ﺴ‬                 ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                     .‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺀ، ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺄﺨﺫ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬
   = Unless he took this medicine, he would not be better.


                                               Exercise No. 14                   ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I) Choose the correct answer:                                                                                     ‫ﺼ‬
                                                                                                             :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ‬
1.   If she (had – has – have) time, she will visit us.
2.   What (will – would – do) you do if you (has – had – have) a lot of money?
3.   If he (came – come-comes), I (should – shall – would) forgive him.
4.   (Was – Were – Am) I a car, I (will – would – shall) be Ford.
5.   If she (stayed – stays – had stayed) at home, she would have received the telegram.

II) Correct the verbs between brackets:                                                                                   ‫ﺤ‬
                                                                                                 :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬
1.   If she (win) some money, she would have (buy) presents to her friends.
2.   Unless they (obey) me, the work would (stop).
3.   If you (to eat) too much, you will be sick.
4.   Unless he (tell) us the truth, we would not punish him.
5.   If he played well, he (win) the match.




                                                                    



                    Books and friends should be few but good.

                                                                       
                             




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