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Writing Business Reports and Proposals

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					       Writing
Reports and Proposals



                   Chapter 11 - 1
Reports and Proposals

  Effective
   Writing


  Effective
 Visual Aids

                  Chapter 11 - 2
Audience Adaptation
          The “You” Attitude

          Style and Language

           Appropriate Tone

          Cultural Sensitivity
                        Chapter 11 - 3
       Composing Reports
         and Proposals
Introduction         Body          Conclusion

Report Context    Presentation      Main Points

Subject/Purpose     Analysis         Benefits

  Main Ideas      Interpretation   Action Items

 Overall Tone       Support        Action Details
                                          Chapter 11 - 4
Drafting Report Content


    Accurate               Complete



               Clear and     Documented
Balanced
                Logical       Properly


                                      Chapter 11 - 5
 Report Introduction
   Authorization      Opportunity or Purpose

 Scope of Coverage         Background

Sources and Methods   Terms and Definitions

    Limitations        Report Organization
                                     Chapter 11 - 6
       The Report Body
Explanations of problem or opportunity
Facts, statistics, and trends
Results of studies or investigations
Discussion and analysis of potential actions
Advantages, disadvantages, costs, and benefits
                                          Chapter 11 - 7
       The Report Body
Procedures or steps in a process
Methods and approaches
Criteria for evaluating options
Conclusions and recommendations
Support for conclusions and recommendations
                                      Chapter 11 - 8
The Report Closing
             Summary

            Conclusions

          Recommendations

            Action Plans
                     Chapter 11 - 9
  Content of Proposals
        Attention                   Interest


                     Introduction

Solicited                                    Unsolicited
                        Body
Proposal                                      Proposal

                       Closing

            Action                  Desire
                                             Chapter 11 - 10
Strategies for Success
  Demonstrate           Provide
 Your Knowledge    Concrete Examples

    Research            Offer a
 the Competition   Workable Proposal

 Relate to Your        Present an
Audience’s Needs   Attractive Package
                                Chapter 11 - 11
Proposal Introduction

 Background     Solution




   Scope      Organization

                       Chapter 11 - 12
 The Proposal Body

  Solution        Work Plan




Qualifications   Detailed Cost

                          Chapter 11 - 13
The Proposal Closing

 Key Points       Benefits




Qualifications   Commitment

                         Chapter 11 - 14
  Collaborating on Wikis
• Forgo traditional expectations
• Edit and improve each other’s work
• Use templates and formatting options
• Apply the appropriate tools
• Practice in the “sandbox”
                                   Chapter 11 - 15
Three-Step Wiki Process

            Creating a Wiki


            Adding Content


           Revising Content

                        Chapter 11 - 16
Guiding the Readers
Headings      Transitional    Previews
and Links       Devices      and Reviews

 Structure       Words        Introductions


Key Points      Phrases        Overviews


Consistency    Paragraphs     Summaries

                                    Chapter 11 - 17
    Technology for
 Reports and Proposals
                     Embedded and
   Templates
                   Linked Documents

                      Electronic
Electronic Forms
                      Documents

  Multimedia       Proposal-Writing
  Documents           Software
                              Chapter 11 - 18
   The Power of Images
• Enhance textual messages
• Replace verbal messages
• Convey complex information
• Hold people’s attention
• Communicate with diverse audiences
• Convey connotative meaning
                               Chapter 11 - 19
Consistency   Interpret Images   Emphasis




 Contrast
               Visual            Convention
              Literacy

 Balance      Create Images      Simplicity


                                     Chapter 11 - 20
    The Ethics of Visual
      Communication
 Consider All Possible Interpretations

     Provide Appropriate Context

 Do Not Conceal Negative Information

Do Not Exaggerate Support Information
                                   Chapter 11 - 21
    The Ethics of Visual
      Communication
Do Not Oversimplify Complex Situations

    Do Not Imply Cause and Effect

    Avoid Manipulation or Coercion

 Be Careful How You Aggregate Data
                                 Chapter 11 - 22
Choosing Points                  Clear
  to Illustrate
                               Complete

                                Concise

                               Connected

                               Compelling
  The 5 C’s of Visual Design
                                     Chapter 11 - 23
Pick the Right Visuals


 Data and     Concepts
Information   and Ideas



                     Chapter 11 - 24
     The Parts of a Table
                            Multicolumn Head*

Subhead           Subhead           Subhead             Single-Column Head
Row head            XXX               XXX                      XX
Row head
 Subhead             XX               XXX                      XX
 Subhead             XX               XXX                      XX
Total               XXX               XXX                      XX
Source: (In the same format as a text footnote).
*Footnote (for explanation of elements in the table).
                                                                    Chapter 11 - 25
Preparing Data Tables
            Common Units


           Consistent Usage


           Column Headings

                      Chapter 11 - 26
Preparing Data Tables
           Rows and Columns


           Totals and Averages


              Data Sources

                        Chapter 11 - 27
  Line and Surface Charts
70%

                                     Trends
60%



50%                                 Variables

40%

                                  Relationships
      2008   2009   2010   2011

                                         Chapter 11 - 28
                        Average Kiln Temps
                 2500


                 2000
Temperature °F




                 1500


                 1000


                 500


                   0
                        8:00   9:00   10:00 11:00 12:00     1:00       2:00   3:00   4:00    5:00
                         AM     AM     AM    AM   Noon       PM         PM     PM     PM      PM

                                                   Kiln A     Kiln B


                                                                                      Chapter 11 - 29
                     Home Game Ticket Sales
                   90,000

                   80,000

                   70,000
Average Per Game




                   60,000

                   50,000

                   40,000

                   30,000

                   20,000

                   10,000

                       0
                       2005   2006       2007           2008         2009           2010            2011

                                     Other   Students   Families   Alumni   Staff


                                                                                           Chapter 11 - 30
     Using Bar Charts
  Compare Items

  Show Changes

Indicate Composition

Show Relative Sizes
                       Chapter 11 - 31
            CommuniCo
       Staff Computer Skills
100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%                                                                             East


40%

30%

20%

10%

 0%
       E-mail   Instant   Graphics   Spread   Desktop   Database   HTML/XML
                Message              Sheets   Publish   Develop



                                                                     Chapter 11 - 32
       CommuniCo Preferred
       Communication Media
100%

90%
80%

70%

60%
50%

40%
30%

20%
10%

 0%
         Sales                  Engineering                   Admin

            IM   E-mail   Telephone   Text Message   Face-to-Face


                                                                    Chapter 11 - 33
                      CommuniCo Employee
                         Training Costs
             16,000                                                                $8,000

             14,000                                                                $7,000

             12,000                                                                $6,000

             10,000                                                                $5,000




                                                                                             Training Costs
Head Count




              8,000                                                                $4,000

              6,000                                                                $3,000

              4,000                                                                $2,000

              2,000                                                                $1,000

                 0                                                                 $0
                      2006   2007     2008        2009            2010   2011

                                    Head Count   Training Costs


                                                                           Chapter 11 - 34
Using Pie Charts

      Show Distribution


      Show Percentages


      Compare Segments

                    Chapter 11 - 35
Percentage of Time Spent Online
                       By Age Group

                 10%


                                                30%
      15%




        21%

                                           24%

     Age 25-34   Age 35-49   Age 18-24   Age 8-17   Age 50+


                                                              Chapter 11 - 36
Data Visualization

            Data Limits


           Graphic Variety


          Data Complexity

                    Chapter 11 - 37
        Information,
     Concepts, and Ideas
Organization Charts   Flow Charts

      Maps             Drawings

    Diagrams          Photographs

    Animation            Video
                                 Chapter 11 - 38
 Flow Chart of the Report Writing Process

      Keyboard      First        Next
        Input     Hard Copy    Hard Copy


        Edit                     OK?        Yes
Yes
                    Edit
                                  No          Submit
                                              Report
       Add?
                  Keyboard     Keyboard
                  Input/Edit   Input/Edit
         No


      Style and   Style and
      Spelling    Spelling

                                             Chapter 11 - 39
      The Chain of Command
                                        Chief Executive
                                            Officer


      Executive                                                         Executive
                                          President
    Vice President                                                    Vice President


      Vice                 Vice             Vice             Vice              Vice
    President            President        President        President         President


     Region              Region             Region           Region               Region
       1                   2                  3                4                    5


District      District       District       District      District     District       District
   A             B             C              D              E            F             G


                                                                                    Chapter 11 - 40
     Maps as Visual Aids
               Distribution Routes

                 Simple Maps

 Market           Geographic         Facilities
Territories   Information Systems    Locations


               Online Resources

                                     Chapter 11 - 41
Drawings and Diagrams

 Networks     Processes




 Operations   Procedures

                     Chapter 11 - 42
Photographic Images

    Decorative              Functional
      Value                   Value



Copyright        Level of         Ethical
 Issues           Detail         Concerns


                                     Chapter 11 - 43
Animation and Video
 Shapes and Text


Computer Animation


   Digital Video

                     Chapter 11 - 44
Creating Visual Aids

Software    Templates



  Style      Quality

                   Chapter 11 - 45
Integrate Text and Visuals

            Balance Text & Visuals

              Reference Visuals
Maximize                               Minimize
 Access                                Disruption
               Position Visuals

           Titles, Captions, Legends

                                       Chapter 11 - 46
Verifying Visual Quality

  Accuracy

Documentation

  Honesty
                     Chapter 11 - 47
  Writing Business
Reports and Proposals



                  Chapter 11 - 48

				
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