Docstoc

The Wonders of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Document Sample
The Wonders of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Powered By Docstoc
					The Wonders of Omega-3
Ronald Ladrillo Amigo BS in Food Technology III University of the Philippines Visayas

Outline of the Presentation


What are Essential Fatty Acids
  

Nomenclature and Terminology Food Sources Classifications



Omega-3 Fatty Acids
   


 

Chemistry List of n-3 Fatty Acids Biological Significance Health Benefits Health Risks Dietary Sources How to take it?

What are Essential Fatty Acids?
Also known as EFAs  They are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet.


Nomenclature and Terminology

Fatty acids are straightchain hydrocarbons possesing a carboxyl (COOH) group at one end.  The carbon next to the caboxylate is known as α, the next carbon is β, and so forth.


Nomenclature and Terminology

 

The last position is labeled ω. Physiological properties of unsaturated fatty acids largely depend on the position of the first unsaturation relative to the end position (not the COOH). It is signified as ω minus n.

ω-3

Food Sources

Almost all the polyunsaturated fat in the human diet is from EFA

Classifications
The essential fatty acids start with the short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (SC-PUFA):  ω-3 fatty acids:



α-Linolenic acid or ALA (18:3)



ω-6 fatty acids:


Linoleic acid or LA (18:2)

Classifications




They form the starting point for the creation of longer and more desaturated fatty acids, which are also referred to as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA): ω-3 fatty acids:



eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA (20:5) docosahexaenoic acid or DHA (22:6)
gamma-linolenic acid or GLA (18:3) dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid or DGLA (20:3) arachidonic acid or AA (20:4)



ω-6 fatty acids:
  

Points to Ponder
Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids cannot be synthesised by humans, as humans lack the desaturase enzymes required for their production.  ω-9 fatty acids are not essential in humans, because humans generally possess all the enzymes required for their synthesis.


The Omega-3

Chemistry

List of n-3 Fatty Acids
Common name Lipid Name 16:3 (n−3) Chemical name all-cis-7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic acid

α-Linolenic acid (ALA)
Stearidonic acid (STD) (ETE)

18:3 (n−3)
18:4 (n−3) 20:3 (n−3)

all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
all-cis-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid all-cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid all-cis-8,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid

Eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) 20:4 (n−3)

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), Clupanodonic acid Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Nisinic acid)

20:5 (n−3)
22:5 (n−3)

all-cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid
all-cis-7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid

22:6 (n−3) 24:5 (n−3) 24:6 (n−3)

all-cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid all-cis-9,12,15,18,21-docosahexaenoic acid all-cis-6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosenoic acid

Biological Significances

Health Benefits
Clinical studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may be helpful in treating a variety of health conditions. These include the following:

Health Risks

Dietary Sources

Source: George Mateljan Foundation

World's Healthiest Foods ranked as quality sources of: omega 3 fatty acids World's Healthies t Foods Rating excellent very good excellent very good excellent very good very good very good good

Food Flaxseeds Cloves, dried, ground Walnuts Oregano, dried, ground Salmon, chinook, baked/broiled Cauliflower, boiled Mustard seeds Cabbage, shredded, boiled Romaine lettuce

Serving Size 2 tbs 2 tsp 0.25 cup 2 tsp 4 oz-wt 1 cup 2 tsp 1 cup 2 cup

Cals 95.3 14.2 163.5 9.2 261.9 28.5 35.0 33.0 15.7

Amount (g) 3.51 0.20 2.27 0.12 2.09 0.21 0.20 0.17 0.08

DV ( % ) 146.3 8.3 94.6 5.0 87.1 8.8 8.3 7.1 3.3

Nutrient Dens ity 27.6 10.6 10.4 9.8 6.0 5.5 4.3 3.9 3.8

Broccoli, steamed
Brussel sprouts, boiled

1 cup
1 cup 1 cup 4 oz-wt 1 cup 4 oz-wt 1 cup

43.7
60.8 80.0 86.2 36.0 158.8 49.4

0.20
0.26 0.34 0.36 0.15 0.62 0.18

8.3
10.8 14.2 15.0 6.3 25.8 7.5

3.4
3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.7

very good
good good good good good good

Winter squash, baked, cubes
Tofu, raw Summer squash, cooked, slices Halibut, baked/broiled Collard greens, boiled

Spinach, boiled
Kale, boiled Soybeans, cooked

1 cup
1 cup 1 cup

41.4
36.4 297.6

0.15
0.13 1.03

6.3
5.4 42.9

2.7
2.7 2.6

good
good good

Shrimp, steamed/boiled
Turnip greens, cooked

4 oz-wt
1 cup

112.3
28.8

0.37
0.09

15.4
3.8

2.5
2.3

good
good

Cod, baked/broi led Strawberri es Green beans, boiled Snapper, baked/broi led Scallops, baked/broi led Tuna, yellowfin, baked/broi led Raspberrie s Miso

4 oz-wt 1 cup 1 cup

119.1 43.2 43.8

0.32 0.11 0.11

13.3 4.6 4.6

2.0 1.9 1.9

good good good

4 oz-wt

145.2

0.36

15.0

1.9

good

4 oz-wt

151.7

0.35

14.6

1.7

good

4 oz-wt

157.6

0.33

13.8

1.6

good

1 cup 1 oz

60.3 70.8

0.12 0.14

5.0 5.8

1.5 1.5

good good

World's Healthiest Foods Rating excellent very good good DV>=75% DV>=50% DV>=25% OR OR OR

Rule Density>=7.6 Density>=3.4 Density>=1.5 AND AND AND DV>=10% DV>=5% DV>=2.5%

How to take it?
As macronutrients, fats are not assigned Recommended Daily Allowances or RDAs.
Only AI (Acceptable Intake) AMDR (Acceptable Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range)


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:65
posted:9/14/2008
language:English
pages:20