Spotlight on National Defense Technologies VOLUME IV · ISSUE 2 IN THIS ISSUE: NOAA: Observing Locally, Forecasting Globally SPACE: Interview with Retired Vice Adm. Conrad Lautenbacher, NOAA JPL Comes Back to the Future Interview with Dr. Charles Elachi, NASA-JPL Weather: Friend or Foe? PROTECTING THE PLANET, KEEPING THE PEACE Interview with Col. Mike Condray, Air Force Weather Agency A Depth of Understanding Interview with Rear Adm. (Sel) David Titley, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command SPACE: PROTECTING THE PLANET, KEEPING THE PEACE NOAA: Observing Locally, Forecasting Globally 2 NOAA does more than just watch the weather. It’s leading an international effort to link the world’s Earth-observing assets into a shared global network. JPL Comes Back to the Future 8 By studying planetary neighbors, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory has improved our understanding of planet Earth. Weather: Friend or Foe? 14 Today’s military srategists rely on high-tech “weather warriors” for increasingly precise forecasts of the world’s weather. A Depth of Understanding 18 Sailors and Marines use meteorological and oceanographic information to achieve mission objectives. Executive Editor Joseph Militano Managing Editor Kearney Bothwell Art Director Kim Ige Associate Art Director Linda Currey P.O. Box 3064 Cedar Rapids, IA 52406-9851 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2008 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved. Space: The ultimate high ground to keep a watchful eye over planet Earth The crisis began at 9:42 p.m. Saturday, Oct. 20, 2007 Barbara to the U.S.-Mexico border — an area the size when a ﬁre was reported in the Angeles National Forest of Pennsylvania. some 50 miles northwest of Los Angeles. What was not so visible was the work of a number of Veteran ﬁreﬁghters feared the worst as ﬁerce winds federal agencies, fully dedicated to the ferocious battle known as the “Santa Anas” fanned the ﬂames. Within with the forces of nature, ranging from the National 24 hours, those fears were conﬁrmed. Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and The Santa Anas come every year, gathering speed and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to heat as they compress and come blasting down from the departments of Defense and Homeland Security. the Great Basin across the high desert, sucking mois- Nine NOAA Incident Meteorological Teams were on the ture from the vegetation, reducing relative humidity to scene to help ﬁreﬁghters predict when and whether the the teens or lower — turning chaparral into explosive weather would cooperate — or fuel further damage fuel and creating perfect weather for wildﬁres. — and teams of scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Mystery writer Raymond Chandler provided perhaps Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., began supplying satel- the best description of what Southern Californians lite imagery of the ﬁre areas to incident commanders. sometimes call “The Devil Winds,” when he wrote in Augmenting civil space assets that traditionally help bat- the short story “Red Wind,” “Those hot dry winds tle wildﬁres in the United States, the military deployed come down through the mountain passes and curl your some high tech military assets, including a Navy P-3 hair and make your nerves jump and your skin itch. On Orion and a California Air National Guard RC-26 twin nights like that every booze party ends in a ﬁght.” turboprop aircraft, both with full motion video down- Everyone knows when the Santa Anas are coming — link capabilities; two Navy SH-60 helicopters with for- thanks to National Weather Service forecasters whose ward-looking infrared sensors; an Air Force U-2 Dragon satellite eyes spot the conditions that spawn them. Lady carrying a photoreconnaissance system; and an Southern California ﬁre departments issue “Red Flag” Air Force RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle alerts. Then everyone waits and prays. They know the equipped with electro-optical and infrared sensors. truth. As Chandler wrote in “Red Wind,” on those Together, these aircraft and NASA’S Ikhana — a civilian combustible hot dry nights, “anything can happen.” version of the Predator UAV — provided more than Some years the winds are relatively mild, coming in on 16,000 photographs, infrared images, and video of the the low end of their average 35-50 mph range. Other ﬁres, mostly at night when aerial tankers couldn’t ﬂy, so years they are especially vicious with gusts blasting that when daylight came, ﬁre commanders were able through mountain passes with the force of a hurricane. to direct water drops more effectively. The winds of October 2007 were the vicious variety, In this issue, Defender looks at how NASA and NOAA, acting like giant bellows that turned parts of California as well as the Navy and Air Force, keep a watchful into raging infernos with 23 separate ﬁres that charred eye over the weather, water and climate of Earth, and more than 518,000 acres, destroyed nearly 2,200 leverage state-of-the-art technology to achieve mission homes and 900 other structures, caused 14 deaths success. What is common to all is the simple notion that and forced the evacuation of about one million people. Chandler evoked in “Red Wind”: that when it comes Conservative damage estimates exceeded $2 billion. to the weather, nothing can be taken for granted. Any- thing can, and most likely will, happen. Evidence of the ﬁres was visible almost everywhere throughout the 42,000-square mile region from Santa — The editor SPACE 1 SPOTLIGHT RETIRED U.S. NAVY VICE ADM. CONRAD LAUTENBACHER, ADMINISTRATOR, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION NOAA: 2 Volume IV · Issue 2 : A satellite image taken by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- Observing Locally, Forecasting Globally tration released on August 31, 2005, shows Hurricane NOAA does more than just watch the weather. It’s leading an Katrina approaching the Louisiana and international effort to link the world’s Earth-observing assets into Mississippi Gulf Coast. Image courtesy of NOAA. a shared global network. Inset images courtesy of: (top l to r) Annie Griffiths Belt/Corbis and NASA, (bottom l to r) U.S. Air Force and Mike Theiss/ Ultimate Chase/Corbis. SPACE 3 SPOTLIGHT NOAA: OBSERVING LOCALLY, FORECASTING GLOBALLY There are very few good reasons for being ﬁve min- NOAA Incident Meteorological Teams. These weather- utes late for an interview with the administrator of the related SWAT teams, comprised of trained ﬁre weather National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Yet specialists, were on the ground and in the air to antici- one of them could very well be a case of bad weather. pate which way and when the winds might blow, how On the other hand, when retired U.S. Navy Vice Adm. strong they would be — and whether there would be Conrad Lautenbacher checked the forecast for Wash- some badly needed rain. ington, D.C., on the day of this interview, he simply It’s just another day in the collective life of one of got up and arrived at work a little bit earlier to avoid America’s oldest, most relied on, yet perhaps most the rain-induced trafﬁc snarls. He did what millions of taken-for-granted Federal agencies. In fact, the agen- Americans do — and take for granted — every single cies that were melded together in 1970 to form NOAA day of their lives: They rely on information originated were among the ﬁrst in U.S. history: the U.S. Coast and by NOAA to make personal decisions. Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807; the Weather Bureau, Across the United States in Southern California, by formed in 1870; and the Bureau of Fisheries, formed this time on the very same day, wildﬁres had already in 1871. This year, NOAA is celebrating 200 years of swept up and consumed more than 410,000 acres of science and service to society. property and 2,100 homes, causing more than $1 bil- In the new millennium, NOAA is a 24/7 organization lion in damages. As ﬁreﬁghters fought heroically to with myriad responsibilities, all critical to everyday tame the out-of-control beast, working shoulder-to- life — from daily weather forecasts, to severe storm shoulder with them in the immediate vicinity were nine warning and climate monitoring, to ﬁsheries manage- Image courtesy of Stefan Zaklin/epa/Corbis 4 Volume IV · Issue 2 ment, coastal restoration and supporting maritime and The expanding legacy of Vice Adm. Lautenbacher, aviation commerce. The agency not only protects life, it however, extends far beyond U.S. borders. Since the supports vital decision making directly affecting nearly Earth’s environment and ecosystems are tightly con- one-third of the U.S. gross domestic product. nected, and the technological and human resources No doubt the National Weather Service is the best needed to keep a watchful eye over them are relatively known organization within NOAA. Yet it is just one few, it’s critical that the nations of the world work of several units that comprise the agency, among together for the greater beneﬁt of all 6.5 billion human others including the National Marine Fisheries Service, inhabitants. Such is the goal of the rapidly expanding the National Ocean Service, the Ofﬁce of Marine and Global Earth Observation System of systems, an inter- Aviation Operations, the Ofﬁce of Oceanic and national effort to connect the world’s Earth-observing Atmospheric Research and the National Environmental assets into a network-centric environment in which Satellite, Data and Information Service. While indi- information from a wealth of spacecraft and other vidually distinct, together their cumulative mission is, data collection systems can be globally shared. Thus as Vice Adm. Lautenbacher proudly says, to “collect far, 72 nations and 46 United Nations organizations environmental intelligence. NOAA enriches life through have joined the effort, which the United States, behind science by protecting life and property and conserving NOAA and Vice Adm. Lautenbacher, has aggressively and protecting our natural resources. We work to keep promoted. our citizens informed of the changing environment around them.” Vice Adm. Lautenbacher spoke to Defender recently about the critical mission of NOAA, about the people and technology that help all of us make everyday decisions in life, and about the fragile nature of the planet which NOAA proudly defends. Here’s what Vice Adm. Lautenbacher had to say. Defender: Who uses the information provided by NOAA? Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: Everyone — government, the military, industry and everyone in the general pub- lic. Industry uses it as a basis to make decisions on cost structure, transportation, inventory, energy stockpiles and insurance. The military wouldn’t plan a campaign without understanding weather and wind conditions. In the extreme, the very survival of entire societies and governments can be at stake, depending on the envi- ronmental implications. We hear from our customers regularly. NOAA has one of the most sought after Web sites on the Internet. With the (recent) San Diego ﬁres burning, we got more than one million hits per day from that region alone. If there is a major hurricane, we may get as many as 10 million hits per day. There is a huge customer base and demand for NOAA’s products. SPACE 5 SPOTLIGHT NOAA: OBSERVING LOCALLY, FORECASTING GLOBALLY In 2006, Japan launched the second of two dual mission satellites that provide support for air traffic controllers and meteorologists in the Western Pacific region from geostationary orbits above Micronesia. They can provide weather imagery in one visible and four infrared wavelength bands, including the water vapor channel. Imagery courtesy the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team, NASA/GSFC/METI/ ERSDAC/JAROS. Defender: How has technology made it easier to Defender: Do people take for granted the 24 hours/ observe the Earth? 7 days-per-week continuity of weather and environ- Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: Earth observation has mental information that NOAA and the National been revolutionized by spacecraft over the past 30-plus Weather Service provide? years. Ninety percent of our information comes from Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: What people take for satellites. Unmanned aerial vehicles have enormous granted is that there is a “back room” to all of this potential to ﬁll a gap and go places where you could just as there is a back room in a bank or computer not send a person. We have sent UAVs into hurricanes; operation. Continuity of the data stream — integrated, over and around forest ﬁres to look for the initial igni- total, global, continual coverage — is the expectation. tion areas or “hot spots;” and on long-endurance mis- The reliability of our systems is in the high 90 per- sions over the surface of the ocean to patrol the U.S. centiles. We collect data 24/7 from a combination of Exclusive Economic Zone. We are working with NASA satellite, ground, atmospheric, ocean, undersea and to test a Predator variant with a variety of sensors over underearth systems. So the information for most the Paciﬁc Ocean, searching for plumes of moisture people just shows up. Continuity from one genera- in the air known as “atmospheric rivers.” Our inten- tion of technology to the next is another challenge. tion is to procure our own UAVs. NOAA also has nine The infrastructure has to be kept up. Recapitalization unmanned underwater vehicles with sonar and map- of the network, given the up-and-down capital ﬂows, ping capabilities that have tracked undercurrents and demands an intense ﬁnancial focus. We can make an detected undersea habitats. In addition to this rela- investment in ourselves every time we make an invest- tively new technology, we will always need our radars ment in the Earth observation infrastructure. and other monitoring systems to get a full picture of the Earth. Defender: How important is inter-government part- nership to NOAA? Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: Our philosophy is to beg, borrow and partner. That’s the only way to get it all done. 6 Volume IV · Issue 2 Who uses the information provided by NOAA? “Everyone – government, the military, industry and everyone in the general public. Industry uses it as a basis to make decisions on cost structure, transportation, inventory, energy stockpiles and insurance. The military wouldn’t plan a campaign without understanding weather and wind conditions.” Defender: What is the Global Earth Observation Sys- agenda of the G-8 Summit. We were then able to form tem of Systems (GEOSS) and why is it so important? a critical mass with governments in Europe and Asia Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: The Earth is interconnect- and invited others to join. We’re now up to 72 nations ed. The people and ecosystems of the Earth are inter- and 46 U.N. organizations and expect ﬁve to 10 more connected. Understanding how a tsunami works is not to join in the near future. We’re interested in attract- something a single country or person can do alone. ing more participation from the developing world. We It’s something we have to learn about on the global have a 10-year plan (2005-2015), during which we will level. If we are to solve monumental problems related take a series of discrete steps to better integrate the to climate change, we need to understand the oceans, world’s atmospheric and environmental databases to the cryosphere and the poles, combined with an inter- share information. disciplinary understanding of the impact on the chemi- Defender: How would you assess NOAA’s level of cal, physical and biological sciences. The idea of the cooperation with other U.S. government agencies? GEOSS — a comprehensive Earth observing system of systems — is no ﬂash in the night. The idea of sharing Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: An interagency Earth atmospheric information among nations has been in a observation working group has been set up with U.S. lot of heads for a while. Now that satellites have made geological, space and military members. This gener- this possible, we’ve ﬁnally started to make it work. ates an integration effect. We’ve had a standing rela- tionship with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Defender: What provided the jump start to help usher Agency), ﬁrst responders and now DHS (Department in a global system of Earth observing systems? of Homeland Security) to get information rapidly to Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: The organizations like the public in times of disaster. NOAA Weather Radio NOAA within each nation could not individually garner remains one of the nation’s primary warning systems enough political attention to move forward unilater- — not just for the weather, but for chemical spills, ally. Yet there was a tremendous amount of coopera- Amber Alerts of kidnapped children, or anything else tion going on at the scientiﬁc and agency levels among that impacts public safety. As I’ve said, our philosophy nations. In terms of making noise, we were too small at NOAA is to beg, borrow and partner. It’s the only and too dispersed individually, yet loud enough collec- way to get the job done. tively, to get placed on the list of what’s important. We needed a mass. The World Summit on Sustainable Development drew attention to the need for having a basis of solid environmental information as a criti- cal prerequisite to global growth. That enabled us to get Earth observation onto the science and technology SPACE 7 DR. CHARLES ELACHI, DIRECTOR, NASA CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JET PROPULSION LABORATORY Comes Back to the Future By studying planetary neighbors, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory has improved our understanding of planet Earth. Step inside the ofﬁce of Dr. Charles Elachi, director of sensors and radars kept a watchful eye over the recent the NASA-California Institute of Technology Jet Propul- wildﬁres. JPL has even applied its scientiﬁc prowess sion Laboratory, and it’s like walking into a museum to undersea exploration, leveraging its expertise with commemorating the United States’ four decades of supremely reliable robots, central to long-duration interplanetary space travel. There, row after row, lining deep space missions, in yet another domain with harsh multiple credenzas, are replica models of the nation’s conditions and unyielding reliability demands. legendary deep space probes: Explorer. Ranger. Survey- It all ﬁts together in one research center quite neatly, or. Mariner. Viking. Pathﬁnder. The names alone shout says Dr. Elachi, since JPL’s mission is “to explore the uni- out space exploration — to places like Mars, Venus, verse and apply it to a better life here on Earth.” In fact, Saturn, Jupiter and our nearest friend, the moon. he says, there is much to learn about the Earth from Yet a most remarkable aspect of this venerable space its neighbors: “We can learn about the atmosphere and research center, and perhaps its relatively best- from our experiences on Mars. We can learn about the kept secret, is JPL’s groundbreaking work in the ﬁeld of greenhouse effect from our experiences around Venus. Earth science. The same institution that controls mas- We can learn about the effects of methane from our sive dish antennas, nearly as large as a football ﬁeld, experiences around Saturn’s moon.” to send and receive signals from interplanetary probes For the engineers and scientists at JPL’s primary loca- at the edge of the solar system, will soon sponsor a tion in Pasadena, Calif., creating a better life on Earth fact-ﬁnding summit titled the “Southern California is more than a mere set of words. Several volunteered Wildﬁre Initiative” — to learn how to apply its cutting- their services to help the local Rose Bowl Committee edge research on terrestrial problems. While its deep build more reliable ﬂoats for the annual parade. And space probes streamed back images of places far away, if the people of JPL are multi-talented and capable, so closer to home, here on Earth, aircraft with JPL infrared too are the spacecraft. While the center every day adds 8 Volume IV · Issue 2 This synthetic image of the Spirit Mars Exploration rover in the “Columbia Hills” was produced using technology developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Combining visualization and image- processing tools with Hollywood- style special effects, it used a photorealistic model of the rover and an approximately full-color mosaic and was scaled using the size of the rover tracks in the mosaic. Imagery courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech. to its tremendous legacy of studying the solar system, Agency or within NASA. Others are with agencies of the JPL’s 19 spacecraft and six instruments in ﬂight focused solely on Earth, such as the U.S. Geologi- today, more than one-third are focused on studying our cal Survey or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric home planet. CloudSat, launched in April, 2006, can Administration. provide a three-dimensional perspective of the Earth’s A 37-year veteran of Caltech, Dr. Elachi never received clouds to help answer questions about how clouds a paycheck from another employer. His natural curios- form, evolve and affect the weather and climate. ity to press the limits of what is possible began as a At the heart of JPL’s thrust into the Earth sciences are young boy in 1957 when the Soviet Union’s Sputnik the cutting-edge sensor systems that have also been satellite orbited the Earth and exploded into the world’s central to the center’s storied legacy. Spaceborne consciousness. While that may have gotten his creative synthetic aperture radar, passive microwave and spec- juices ﬂowing for the ﬁrst time, today the affable scien- troscopic technologies all have been incubated at JPL. tist, who has degrees in physics, engineering, electrical Two such JPL instruments — the Tropospheric Emission sciences, geology and an MBA, continues to rise to new Spectrometer, an infrared sensor designed to study the challenges. “Every day it’s something new at JPL. We Earth’s troposphere, and the Microwave Limb Sounder, solve a parking problem in our lots one day. We land a sensor to improve our understanding of the ozone — on Mars another.” were launched aboard NASA’s Aura spacecraft in 2004. Asked which of the historic JPL missions are his personal JPL has set a goal to become a world leader in the favorites, Dr. Elachi demurs like a proud parent. “I love research of climate change. them all,” he proclaims. “Of course it’s exciting to ﬂy JPL’s scientiﬁc and mission diversity is reﬂected in its by Saturn or land on Mars, yet each successful mission partnerships. Some are with traditional space-based provides unique value and a building block of different research organizations, such as the European Space clues about the solar system and Earth.” SPACE 9 JPL COMES BACK TO THE FUTURE Dr. Elachi spent time with Defender recently to talk about JPL, about the men and women whose natural curiosity unceasingly draws the world closer to its neighbors, and about the one planet most important to us all … the planet Earth. Here’s what Dr. Elachi had to say. Defender: What was JPL’s role to combat the recent Defender: What is JPL’s broader role in Earth science wildﬁre crisis in California, and how is it related to the and how did it all begin? Southern California Wildﬁre Initiative, which JPL is Dr. Elachi: JPL is one of the largest developers of spearheading? instrumentation onboard NASA’s Earth Observing Dr. Elachi: JPL ﬂew infrared and radar instruments System spacecraft. When you see El Niño or hurricane aboard NASA aircraft to see through the smoke and images, you may be getting the information from JPL look for the hot spots for ﬁreﬁghters to attack. A bene- sensors aboard spacecraft such as QuikSCAT (Quick ﬁcial aspect of today’s technology is that we can obtain Scatterometer), which carries instrumentation to mea- images of what is occurring right now, or within the sure ocean surface winds. In 2008, we will launch last 20 minutes, which makes the information much two Earth observing spacecraft, OSTM (Ocean Surface more useful. We can integrate sensor information, Topography Mission) and OCO (Orbiting Carbon Obser- GPS and other data to locate a ﬁre center down to the vatory). Our participation in the Earth sciences began in meter. Instrumentation from the air and space not only the late 1960s and early 1970s with the use of radar to can see through smoke, it can determine temperatures see through cloud cover over Venus. Someone asked on the ground to help predict where and when a ﬁre about the use of this radar over Earth and of course the might start. Experience has taught us that areas with applications are obvious. In 1978, the Seasat spacecraft high amounts of dry biological mass present a high risk. for the ﬁrst time carried into space JPL instrumentation After a ﬁre, we can also help determine the best place fully dedicated to Earth science. We used imaging radar to seed. The wildﬁre initiative is a chance to bring gov- to study the Earth and seas. Soon after, we began to ernment agencies together to ﬁnd out what they need hire oceanographers and geologists at JPL. and what JPL can do. It’s a chance to listen to better understand what type of instrumentation they can use to reduce risk, prevent wildﬁres and ﬁght them. 10 Volume IV · Issue 2 The scatterometer instrument on the NASA/JPL QuikSCAT satellite shows how Arctic perennial sea ice coverage (in red) has declined each winter from 2001 (top left) through 2006 (bottom right). Replenishment of this sea ice during winter is essential to the maintenance and stability of the Arctic summer ice cover. Images courtesy NASA/JPL. Defender: Tells us more about your partnerships with The Atmospheric Infrared the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic Sounder Experiment onboard NASA’s Aqua spacecraft and Atmospheric Administration. produced this image showing Dr. Elachi: We work closely with the USGS on the average temperatures on Earth for the month of April geological mapping, using radar to obtain scientiﬁc data 2003. Image courtesy NASA/JPL. about the Earth’s solid surface. We work with NOAA on oceanography. The QuikSCAT spacecraft transmits data and information directly to NOAA about ocean winds. When we launch OSTM next year, the ground systems will be operated by NOAA. Our relationships with these agencies are very important to us. Defender: Describe JPL’s contributions to undersea exploration. Dr. Elachi: JPL provides acoustic, imaging and tem- perature sensors and instrumentation for undersea exploration and measurement. We have worked with the University of Washington to deploy a network of sensors on the bottom of the ocean. In addition to the instruments and sensors, we have a lot of experience controlling robots at great distances. If you can control spacecraft a billion miles away, more than likely there is something to offer oceanographers who send robots to the depths of the ocean. You have to build in long-term reliability with systems that have to communicate over long distances. It’s a natural extension. SPACE 11 JPL COMES BACK TO THE FUTURE Active fires are outlined in red in this imagery from the National Defender: How do you build in long-term reliability? Oceanic and Atmospheric Dr. Elachi: JPL applies a number of principles, or Administration’s Geostationary Operational Environmental engineering practices, to build in reliability. We have a Satellite-West during the philosophy, you might say, of how to do it. First, we October 2007 wildfires in Southern California. Vicious “over-design” to ensure that all of the components are Santa Ana winds pushed smoke exceptionally durable. Second, we build redundancy plumes hundreds of miles out to sea. Imagery courtesy NOAA. into the architectural design with back-ups to prevent a single-point failure. It’s always a lively debate about where to add in redundancy vs. how much risk to take. Third, we test beyond the breaking point. It’s not enough to push the systems to the limit. If you have that mentality, then you may be testing right up to the limit without knowing how close you are. So the system would break down under just a little more stress. You can’t just take it right up to the last 1 percent of toler- ance. You have to take it past the breaking point. 12 Volume IV · Issue 2 The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer instrument on the Terra satellite is a coopera- tive effort between NASA and Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry that provides high resolution remote sens- ing imaging capabilities in 14 bands. Above is a simulated natural color ASTER image of Bombetoka Bay in northwestern Madagascar at the mouth of the Betsiboka River. Image courtesy of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/ JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. “Global climate change presents a major set of challenges. Satellite Earth observation is an excellent tool to get credible scientiﬁc data to policymakers so they can have a sound basis on which to make decisions.” Defender: What would JPL further like to contribute to Defender: On a lighter note, which is the greater the science of studying climate change? challenge — landing on Mars or ﬁxing parking prob- Dr. Elachi: The science community has a responsibility lems at JPL’s Pasadena location? to provide credible data and scientiﬁcally sound infor- Dr. Elachi: I have been here for 37 years and we have mation so the political leadership can make informed landed on Mars several times. But we still haven’t decisions about climate change with a clear and totally solved the parking problem. unambiguous understanding of what is happening. NASA is playing a major role, and we should get even more proactive. If you consider what is possible over the next 15 to 20 years, there are a number of opportuni- ties. We should get to the point where you can Google a complete inventory of what is happening to the planet and the reason for it. We should be able to show every city and town and depict where and when carbon dioxide is being emitted and where tempera- tures are rising. Global climate change presents a major set of challenges. Satellite Earth observation is an excel- lent tool to get credible scientiﬁc data to policymakers so they can have a sound basis on which to make decisions. SPACE 13 U.S. AIR FORCE COL. MIKE CONDRAY, COMMANDER, AIR FORCE WEATHER AGENCY Weather: Friend or Foe? Today’s military strategists rely on high-tech “weather warriors” for increasingly precise forecasts of the world’s weather. 14 Volume IV · Issue 2 On June 4, 1944, one day before the planned Allied invasion of France, the visual images in the southern ports of England were astonishing: nearly 2 million men — 4,500 cooks alone — were ready to move out. Robert Slaughter, a soldier in the U.S. 29th Infantry Division, recalled that in the south of Great Britain “every ﬁeld and vacant lot was piled high with mate- riel”: Tanks, trucks, jeeps, weapons carriers, artillery, gasoline and jerry cans. Historian Stephen Ambrose, in his book D-Day, said it was like the entire cities of Green Bay, Racine and Kenosha, Wisc., would be picked up and moved — every man, woman and child, every automobile and truck. At his command headquarters near Portsmouth, England, Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, on whose shoulders the success or failure of the great invasion would rest, paced the ﬂoor and waited for perhaps the most important fore- cast in modern history. Before he would issue the ulti- mate command to launch, Ike needed the best possible information he could get about the one potential adversary — or ally — he could not possibly control: the weather. According to Storm, a book by Victor Boesen, Eisen- hower had to weigh a number of vital considerations: Airplanes carrying troops and supplies needed a ceil- ing of at least 2,500 feet and visibility of three miles; paratroopers could not be dropped in winds greater than 20 miles per hour. Royal Air Force Group Capt. James M. Stagg, the Allied chief meteorologist, would provide the sober news: A low pressure system rolling across the Atlantic would cause a large storm over the English Channel, with heavy rains, wind and fog. On D-Day, June 6, 1944, a land- ing craft just vacated by invasion troops points toward a fortified beach on the Normandy coast. U.S. Coast Guard photo by Chief Photographer’s Mate Robert F. Sargent. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. SPACE 15 WEATHER: FRIEND OR FOE? Yet Eisenhower had something his opponent, Field microwave imagery. The Air Force not only is charged Marshall Erwin Rommel, commander of the German with forecasting terrestrial weather, it must also fore- forces across the channel, didn’t have. Ike had a cast space “weather,” largely related to solar emissions better weather forecast. Because allied forces were that can create electromagnetic anomalies and disrupt extended further west of the designated landing high-frequency communications. areas, they were better able to forecast that a break in The commander of the Air Force Weather Agency, Col. the weather, blowing in from the west, would occur Mike Condray, leads an organization of some 1,350 on June 6. That prompted Eisenhower to postpone the “weather warriors” at 16 locations worldwide. They invasion by one day. Rommel, sufﬁciently conﬁdent provide forecasts for the Air Force, Army, special opera- that the storm would indeﬁnitely postpone an invasion, tions forces and the intelligence community. Even NASA decided to take an unplanned respite and returned uses the service to help plan space shuttle missions. home from France to Germany to celebrate his wife’s To be sure, the stakes are exponentially higher than a birthday. With a more complete forecast in allied rained-out ballgame. “The bottom line,” Col. Condray hands, D-Day, and the liberation of Europe, was about says, “is that we have to get the forecast right. Nothing to begin. we do adds value until we get the right information into Military strategists have been consumed with the the hands of the right warﬁghter at the right time.” weather since some of the earliest days of recorded Col. Condray’s career ambitions, you might say, were battle. In 217 B.C., freezing marshlands allowed as predictable as a spring shower. An early fascination “Today’s U.S. Air Force ‘weather warriors’ are on call 24/7/365, piecing together disparate data from high technology systems and satellites, dispensing information across high-speed communications networks, and creating a composite picture of the world’s weather for military strategists.” with thunderstorms, and a father steeped in military Hannibal to invade Italy with mounted troops. In 1870, history, led the colonel to pursue an ROTC degree in recognizing a growing need, the U.S. Congress called meteorology from Texas A&M University. His avocation for the creation of the ﬁrst organized military weather transitioned from college studies to vocation with the service in history. By the 1930s, once the American speed of a hurricane. Immediately after graduation, he military took to the air, the majority of U.S. military began to practice his science with one of the world’s weather information was being consumed by the Army most cutting-edge weather forecasting organizations, Air Corps. In response, the Army Air Corps Weather the U.S. Air Force. Service, the forerunner of today’s Air Force Weather Agency, was created. Today’s U.S. Air Force “weather warriors” are on call 24/7/365, piecing together disparate data from high technology systems and satellites, dispensing informa- tion across high-speed communications networks, and creating a composite picture of the world’s weather for military strategists. The USAF Weather Agency is, in fact, the primary user of a constellation of mili- tary weather-watching satellites dubbed the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, which uses state- of-the-art sensors to generate detailed infrared and 16 Volume IV · Issue 2 Col. Condray spent some time recently with Defender to discuss the vital service Defender: The Air Force Weather Agency also sup- provided by the U.S. Air Force Weather plies weather information to the U.S. Army. How is that Agency, about the technology that makes different? modern-day forecasting increasingly Col. Condray: One of my early assignments was to precise, and about America’s weather provide weather support for the 2nd Armored Division warriors who work around the clock to out of Ft. Hood. M1 tanks might not care too much ensure that the warﬁghter — whether in about turbulence in the air, yet they really do not like the air or on the ground — gets nothing mud. While the forecasting modes may be similar, ulti- mately you are looking out for different phenomena. less than the most accurate forecast. Here’s what Col. Condray had to say. Defender: Which technologies and systems are most central to military weather forecasting? Defender: What makes military weather operations so Col. Condray: Systems and technologies that help us different from those in the civil arena? sense the battlespace in remote areas, where other Col. Condray: The mission. We’re helping military assets are not always available, are vital to us. Electro- commanders make vital decisions. Getting the right optic and infrared sensors are critical to what we do. forecast into the right hands, in a timely way, can be a For more than 40 years, we have been relying on space- matter of life or death. We can also help commanders craft to collect weather information. Unmanned aerial exploit weather conditions. During the early phases of vehicles hold out promise as data collection platforms Operation Iraqi Freedom, U.S. ground troops were able as well. We rely on machine-to-machine interfaces and to anticipate a severe sand storm that impacted vision. the ability to create optimum forecasts by leveraging Our troops were ready with infrared technology and information automation and sharing. High-speed data systems to see the enemy. The enemy, by contrast, was and communications networks enable us to get our virtually blind and thought that the sand storm would information into the right hands at the right time. In conceal them. When they moved, they became vul- a network-centric environment, it’s critical that we nerable. We are a versatile organization. We can help integrate and exploit the information and get it faster predict the difﬁculty with which a terrorist group can and deeper into the organization. resupply a mountain base during snowstorms, or help ensure that relatively routine tasks, such as in-ﬂight Defender: Please explain the role of advanced atmospher- refueling of aircraft, are not impacted by weather- ic models to create precise military weather forecasts. related turbulence. All of it is central to war planning. Col. Condray: Atmospheric models are used to inte- grate data to shape an environmental assessment and Defender: How does the Air Force Weather Agency ultimately to generate a forecast. We have come to real- speciﬁcally support air campaigns? ize that the Air Force does not always need unique fore- Col. Condray: The Weather Agency helps shape the casting models. We work collaboratively with our civil- master air attack plan. Within 36 hours of a strike, ian partners, including the National Weather Service, to the weather that is forecasted can impact which tar- create and shape the best possible models to integrate gets to strike, which aircraft or weapons systems to and exploit the widest volume of information. use, and, of course, the timing of when to start. We plug data and information into computer models to Defender: What can industry do to help the Air Force help determine “go-no go” decisions. A 10,000-foot Weather Agency accomplish its mission objectives? ceiling might mean a little cloud cover for the family Col. Condray: Industry can help us evolve the state picnic, yet for military planners relying on space-based of the art in sensor technology and data collection assets or laser guided bombs you need to know what systems that are at the heart of what we do. Indus- the clouds will be before you choose what weapons try can improve the machine-to-machine interfaces are right for the mission. We can even help determine and help us shape and create integrated weather whether radio transmissions might be impacted by databases to plug into our atmospheric models. If solar ﬂares. The bottom line is that you wouldn’t plan industry can achieve a deep understanding of our mis- an air strike without a solid weather forecast. Our job is sion objectives and requirements, and translate those to help mitigate the potentially negative effects of the requirements into new capabilities, that would be a weather and maximize the advantages. huge contribution. SPACE 17 U.S. NAVY REAR ADM. (SELECT) DAVID W. TITLEY, NAVAL METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY COMMAND A Depth of Understanding Sailors and Marines use meteorological and oceanographic information to achieve mission objectives. In 1825, at the age of 19, Matthew Fontaine Maury Armed with oceanographic information, a trip from the joined the United States Navy as a midshipman on British Isles to California could be cut by a remarkable board the frigate Brandywine. Maury derived an 30 days. intense personal fascination with the minute character- Today, responsibility in the U.S. military to fully under- istics of the immense, interconnected physical proper- stand, and rapidly communicate, the environmental ties that cover three-fourths of the Earth’s surface: its jiggsaw puzzle of the world’s oceans and seas rests with oceans. Not only were these massive bodies of water the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, connected on the surface, Maury began to understand which traces its ancestry all the way back to Lt. Maury that the currents below, and the winds above, were and the Depot of Charts and Instruments. Historically, broadly interconnected as well. the command’s core mission has been to survey the Maury’s fascination paid off in 1842 when he was sea ﬂoor for safety of navigation, while the meteorol- named the ﬁrst superintendent of the Depot of Charts ogy side of its mission developed when naval aviation and Instruments, the forerunner of today’s United came into being in the early part of the 20th century. States Naval Observatory. According to the Nautical Throughout the Cold War, the command’s deep water Gazette, Maury understood that ship captains learn mission expanded in response to submarine threats. critical lessons about the effects of winds and currents At the helm of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanog- on the path and progress of a ship each time they set raphy Command is Rear Adm. (Select) David W. Titley, sail. Yet, the information was then almost universally a Schenectady, N.Y., native who was commissioned forgotten. At the Naval Observatory, Maury uncovered through the Naval ROTC program at Penn State Uni- thousands of ships’ logs and charts dating back more versity. Having completed seven naval deployments than 50 years. It was a treasure trove of information across the Mediterranean, Indian and Paciﬁc oceans, that told a story about the open seas, and would prove Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley understands the ocean envi- invaluable in the hands of the very same people who ronment, from top to bottom, as well as anyone on had collected it in the ﬁrst place — the captains of Earth. He served as the oceanography ofﬁcer aboard ocean-spanning vessels worldwide. the amphibious assault ship USS Belleau Wood and Maury’s 1855 book, The Physical Geography of the the carrier USS Carl Vinson, attended the Naval Post- Seas, began to reveal the global pattern of ocean cur- graduate School where he received a Master of Science rents, sea surface temperatures and winds, and earned degree in meteorology and oceanography, and in 2005 him the moniker of “father of oceanography.” His was named the ﬁrst commanding ofﬁcer of the Naval research cut sailing times by an order of magnitude. Oceanographic Operations Command. 18 Volume IV · Issue 2 Aerographer’s Mate 3rd Class Eric King and Seaman Olivia Mailander release a weather balloon from the amphibious assault ship USS Boxer during a 2006 exercise off Southern California to gather weather information. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Noel Danseco. SPACE 19 A DEPTH OF UNDERSTANDING Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley spent time recently with Defender to discuss the evolutionary mission of the command, the men and women who convert a fascination with the ocean environment into practical military knowledge, and the sailors and Marines who depend on the command’s information to protect America and its allies on the open seas. Here’s what he had to say. Defender: The modern-day Navy has a uniquely wide spectrum of missions, ranging from humanitarian relief to naval warfare and undersea operations. How does the Navy use meteorological and oceanographic infor- mation to achieve its mission objectives? Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: We use the information to characterize the maritime dimension of the operational environment. This is a critical component of any opera- tion, humanitarian or military. The information enables smart strategic, operational and tactical decision mak- ing based on an environmental advantage or threat. In addition, we must also understand the environmental effects on sensors and platform performance. Defender: With the emphasis on net-centric warfare, and the need for real-time access to meteorological and oceanographic information more compelling today than ever, how can the Navy make most effective use A U.S. Navy crewman prepares to deploy an ocean glider dur- of state-of-the-art information technology? ing the Rim of the Pacific 2006 exercise near Hawaii. The bien- Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: U.S. and coalition joint mari- nial RIMPAC exercise included a time commanders face a dynamic and highly abstract strong focus on antisubmarine naval battlespace. When commanders fully understand warfare, mine countermeasures, amphibious operations, and the predicted structure and evolution of the environ- maritime interception opera- ment, and have conﬁdence in that knowledge, war- tions, all areas that place a high premium on understanding the ﬁghting options for force structure, weaponeering, maritime domain. Photo courtesy targeting, timing and maneuver are optimized. Effec- U.S. Navy. tive use of state-of-the-art information technology supports this competitive advantage by ensuring that critical environmental knowledge is accessible by deci- sion makers in a timely manner. We have embraced 20 Volume IV · Issue 2 Members of a Naval Oceanographic Office’s Fleet Survey Team conduct an opera- tional hydrographic survey to collect data that aids in the safe navigation of U.S. forces and supplies traversing the area. Photo courtesy U.S. Navy. “Organic sensors on our ﬂeet of seven survey ships include state-of-the-art multibeam swath bathymetric sonars to measure the depth of the ocean from full-ocean depths to shallow water. High-resolution side scan sonars identify ‘mine-like’ objects and hazards to navigation.” the tenets of net-centric data, services, and security. depth of the ocean from full-ocean depths to shal- Our approach supports access to meteorological and low water. High-resolution side scan sonars identify oceanographic information through service interfaces “mine-like” objects and hazards to navigation. Seismic linked to major integration points within the enterprise. systems penetrate several hundred meters below the Service interfaces provide several beneﬁts, including bottom of the sea ﬂoor to characterize seabed struc- access to meteorological and oceanographic data, ture and acoustic parameters critical to understanding access to specialized processing capabilities, and rapid long-range sound propagation. We use sensors across integration with warﬁghter work ﬂows and applica- the entire operation to gain and communicate a more tions. Our job is to help the warﬁghter unlock critical complete operational picture. environmental knowledge. Defender: To what extent does the Navy use autono- Defender: Central to meteorological and oceano- mous systems and sensors to understand the maritime graphic data collection is the use of state-of-the-art environment? sensor technology. Please describe how the Navy uses, Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: Our autonomous sensors and pushes forward, the state of the art. include proﬁling ﬂoats and more recently ocean Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: Oceanographic and atmo- gliders, which transmit data and sensor health via spheric sensing is the foundation of how we deliver satellite communications. In addition to temperature information and knowledge to the ﬂeet. Our responsi- and salinity sensors, acoustic sensors can be employed bility is to characterize the environment from space to to characterize the ambient noise. Autonomous un- several hundred meters below the ocean ﬂoor. Space manned vehicles are used to collect bathymetric and sensors provide multi- and hyper-spectral thermal and side-scan (high-resolution sea bottom imagery) data visible imagery. Synthetic aperture radar quantiﬁes and augment our survey ship capability. bathymetry (water depth), bottom sediments, tides, hazards to navigation and currents in the littoral and Defender: In addition to sensors, which other core riverine environments. Radar altimeters measure the technologies are most central to the Navy’s meteoro- sea surface height to centimeter accuracy extracting logical and oceanographic needs? dynamic oceanography, such as currents and three- Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: We leverage core technolo- dimensional temperature ﬁelds. Organic sensors on gies that provide an inherent ability to assimilate sensor our ﬂeet of seven survey ships include state-of-the-art data into our dynamic ocean and atmospheric models multibeam swath bathymetric sonars to measure the to in turn provide a reliable forecast out to 72 hours. SPACE 21 A DEPTH OF UNDERSTANDING “We leverage core technologies that provide an inherent ability to assimilate sensor data into our dynamic ocean and atmospheric models to in turn provide a reliable forecast out to 72 hours.” For example, high performance computing systems are Defender: What does the future hold in store for the used to model patterns in the ocean and atmosphere. people and technology of the Naval Meteorology and Such modeling is critical to our mission. Oceanography Command? Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: We are undergoing a transfor- Defender: How can industry better help the command mation in Naval Meteorology and Oceanography with accomplish its mission objectives? persistent autonomous sensing and use of ﬂeet sensors Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: We have a wide array of augmenting our remote space sensors and dedicated research and development areas in which industry survey platforms. This will mean greater utilization of can contribute. For example, in the area of autono- remotely operated vehicles such as ocean gliders and mous vehicle technology, we have needs for improved AUVs. Now that we have responsibility for the Navy’s vehicle navigation in a submerged mode; improved undersea surveillance mission, we need a signiﬁcant guidance and control; improved communications improvement in our ability to optimize acoustic surveil- between multiple vehicles operating in tandem; lance techniques and sensor placement to ensure the development of low-cost, compact, reliable, safe, long- Navy maintains a strategic advantage in anti-submarine duration energy sources; and improved deployment warfare. From an organizational standpoint, the re- and recovery methods for large and small AUVs. Indus- cent 29 percent reduction in the Naval Oceanography try can help with automation and visualization to exam- Program workforce caused us to implement a matrix ine and exploit large volumes of imagery acoustic data. organizational system to reshape the workforce and We could beneﬁt from the development of inexpen- to shift the organization from a geographic focus to sive, disposable, small, and rapidly deployable oceano- a market structure. All of this will help us better serve graphic instrumentation for real-time reporting. We can our most important customers, the sailors and Marines also use help with ensemble forecasting, which is the who count on us for an accurate picture of the ocean ability to provide a single forecast from multiple models environment. using the strengths from each contributing model. 22 Volume IV · Issue 2 A ROUNDUP OF DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY NEWS Defender Data NPOESS C3S completes transition to Launch-on-demand concept for operations and support team surveillance from space SUITLAND, Md. — Raytheon Company, Northrop EL SEGUNDO, Calif. — A hyperspectral imaging sensor, Grumman Corp. and the National Polar-orbiting developed by Raytheon Company to demonstrate and Operational Environmental Satellite Integrated Program assess military applications from satellites launched Office have successfully completed the transition of on demand, has been delivered to Kirtland Air Force the NPOESS command, control and communications Base, N.M. The delivery marks the ARTEMIS (Advanced segment to the operations and support team. This Responsive Tactically Effective Military Imaging milestone culminated more than four years of develop- Spectrometer) sensor’s first leg of a journey into space ment of the C3S and includes all C3S hardware and scheduled aboard a vehicle known as TacSat-3 from software needed for the NPOESS Preparatory Project the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport on Wallops Island, mission. Additionally, Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, Va., in mid-2008. The ARTEMIS sensor was developed NASA and the NPOESS IPO attained a significant by Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems to help ground segment achievement by successfully sending demonstrate the feasibility of the “responsive space” satellite-commanding instructions from the NPP Mission concept under a $15 million contract from the Air Force Management Center at the NOAA Satellite Operations Research Laboratory. In the responsive space approach, Facility in Suitland, Md., to the NPP spacecraft and sen- satellites and their cargo would be kept in a holding sors at the Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. facility facility where they could be assembled, transported in Boulder, Colo. The MMC was able to receive and rapidly to a convenient launch site, and launched into analyze the NPP satellite telemetry data successfully. orbit 200 miles above the earth within three to seven These tests marked an important achievement because days of a request by a field commander, providing they enable the compatibility of all system elements, data in a user-friendly format while greatly reducing and they confirm that the program can continue on, critical response times and enhancing battle assess- ultimately leading to the NPP launch in late 2009. ment capabilities. Employing commercial-off-the-shelf components and industry standard interfaces, ARTEMIS Raytheon awarded $45.5 million serves as a prototype for systems that can support for sensor netting technology rapid launch requirements in an easy-to-manufacture, low-cost design. Raytheon is working on concept TEWKSBURY, Mass. — The Department of Defense development for a follow-on hyperspectral imaging has announced it is purchasing the Raytheon Solipsys payload with an even wider coverage area for the Naval Tactical Component Network technology under a Research Laboratory. $45.5 million contract for sensor fusion and advanced networking technology. The award follows a similar Raytheon honored for MathMovesU procurement by the Missile Defense Agency earlier in Program the year in support of Ballistic Missile Defense System initiatives. As part of this latest award, Raytheon LOS ANGELES, Calif. — The California Space Authority Solipsys is also providing run-time licensing of its presented its Buzz Aldrin Space Education Award Tactical Display Framework visualization product at no to Raytheon Company during the climax event of cost across all DoD and Missile Defense Agency pro- the 2007 annual Transforming Space Conference in grams. TCN® provides a critical warfighting capability Los Angeles. The award recognized Raytheon for its in the form of a sensor netting framework to achieve MathMovesU program, which provides grants and a single integrated picture and joint interoperability, scholarships to teachers and students in order to and also provides a path forward for a joint framework encourage participation and enthusiasm in doing and to support an interoperable “plug-and-fight” archi- teaching math. Since Raytheon began the program in tecture, needed by the warfighter today. Raytheon 2005, more than 500,000 students and teachers have Solipsys is a wholly-owned subsidiary within Raytheon participated, including about 750 students who have Integrated Defense Systems. received $1,000 scholarships for college and 65 teach- ers who have been presented with MathMovesU Math Hero awards. SPACE 23 A ROUNDUP OF DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY NEWS Defender Data continued Designing next generation GPS First large-scale use of DCGS integration control segment backbone technology WASHINGTON — The U.S. Air Force Space and Missile CHINA LAKE, Calif. — Raytheon Company achieved Systems Center has awarded Raytheon Company a several industry firsts in the sharing of intelligence, $160 million, 18-month contract to develop a new sys- reconnaissance, and surveillance data between coali- tem design for the next-generation Global Positioning tion and NATO countries and the United States using System Control Segment, which will revolutionize GPS the Distributed Common Ground System Integration command, control and mission capabilities and refocus Backbone during the Empire Challenge 2007 demon- operations for the current GPS Block II and all future stration. The exercise showed a first for near real-time GPS satellites on user effects-based operations. The integration and data discovery retrieval for a 19-DIB system will include anti-jam capabilities, improved sys- (DCGS Integration Backbone) enterprise, which was tem security, accuracy and reliability and will be based located across nine sites in six separate countries over on a modern service-oriented architecture to integrate four security domains sharing intelligence data with government and industry open system standards. key coalition partners. Raytheon’s High Speed Guard- Agatiya, the security product that protects information NASA announces details of exchange between different security enclaves, pro- mission to service Hubble vided a secure environment that enabled the vital data sharing. Additionally, Raytheon provided another first AUSTIN, Texas — The National Aeronautics and Space by populating metadata catalogs at coalition partner Administration has released details of a challeng- sites with information extracted from streaming video ing mission to repair and upgrade the Hubble Space from the Global Broadcast System network. Empire Telescope later this year. Set for launch aboard the Challenge is an annual demonstration that evaluates Atlantis space shuttle in August, the 11-day mission intelligence collection and exploitation-dissemination will feature five spacewalks during which astronauts capabilities for joint and coalition operations. will install two powerful new science instruments, a new set of gyroscopes to help stabilize the telescope, First European polar meteorological and batteries and thermal blankets to extend the satellite operational telescope’s operational life until at least 2013. Alan Stern, associate administrator for the Science Mission DARMSTADT, Germany — The European Organisation Directorate at NASA Headquarters, Washington, said, for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites offi- “Hubble is, without exaggeration, a national treasure, cially declared operational Europe’s first polar-orbit- and all of NASA is looking forward to seeing it receive ing meteorological satellite, MetOp-A, after only six this tune-up and upgrade. I think Americans are going months of commissioning. According to EUMETSAT, to be excited when they see the results of this excit- the first scientific data from MetOp-A was received as ing shuttle mission flower into new discoveries about early as two days after the end of the launch and early- the solar system and the larger universe we live in. orbit phase. The European Space Agency, which jointly And let’s face it, it doesn’t get much more exciting developed the satellite with EUMETSAT, said the offi- than sending a team of astronauts and sophisticated cial start of regular operations marked a new milestone high-tech instruments to make the Hubble better than in the ongoing development of the U.S.-European it ever was before.” Raytheon Company produced Initial Joint Polar System — and for the overall global the Hubble’s optical telescope assembly and the fine cooperation between Europe and the U.S. The instru- guidance sensors and is under contract from Northrop ments aboard the satellite are provided by EUMETSAT, Grumman Space Technology for developmental work ESA, the French Space Agency and the U.S. National on the James Webb Space Telescope program. The Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The next JWST is a next-generation successor to the Hubble and satellite in the series, known as MetOp-1 is scheduled is scheduled for launch in 2011. for launch in mid-2008. 24 Volume IV · Issue 2 Mosaic map to revolutionize First responders participate in Raytheon Antarctic landscape research advanced incident command experiment WASHINGTON — A team of researchers from NASA, TEWKSBURY, Mass. — Raytheon Company recently the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Science hosted federal, state and local first responder Foundation and the British Antarctic Survey has agencies in a four-hour advanced incident unveiled a new map — the Landsat Image Mosaic of command experiment to improve procedures, Antarctica — that is expected to revolutionize research protocols, interfaces and systems employed to of the continent’s frozen landscape. “This mosaic of respond to serious incidents. Conducted in high- images opens up a window to the Antarctic that we tech modeling and simulation facilities at Raytheon just haven’t had before,” said Robert Bindschadler, Integrated Defense Systems’ Headquarters Mission chief scientist of the Hydrospheric and Biospheric Center here, the experiment involved reacting to a Sciences Laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight notional tanker truck spill on Interstate 95 within the Center in Greenbelt, Md. “It will open new windows of city limits of Providence, R.I., that had serious safety, opportunity for scientific research as well as enable the medical, health, traffic, and environmental conse- public to become much more familiar with Antarctica quences. Participating in the exercise were officials and and how scientists use imagery in their research. This players from the Providence Fire Department, Rhode innovation is like watching high-definition TV in living Island Emergency Management Agency, Providence color versus watching the picture on a grainy black- Emergency Management Agency and Office of and-white television. These scenes don’t just give us a Homeland Security, United States Coast Guard, snapshot, they provide a time-lapse historical record of Rhode Island State Police, Rhode Island Department how Antarctica has changed and will enable us to con- of Health, Rhode Island Department of Environmental tinue to watch changes unfold.” The realistic, nearly Management, and Narragansett Bay Commission. cloudless map of the continent was created using some 1,100 images captured by Landsat 7 between Improving accuracy of GPS signals 1999 and 2001. over India NOAA to ensure accuracy of Global FULLERTON, Calif. — Raytheon Company recently Navigation Satellite System accomplished an important milestone in the worldwide transition to satellite-based navigation for civil aviation WASHINGTON — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric with the successful completion of the final system Administration announced recently that it will lead an acceptance test of the GPS Aided GEO Augmented international effort to pinpoint the locations of more Navigation-Technology Demonstration System for than 40 global positioning satellites in Earth orbit, India. In the latest test, the Raytheon system demon- which is vital to ensuring the accuracy of GPS data strated that ground elements could successfully inte- that millions worldwide rely upon every day for safe grate with a geosynchronous satellite over India and navigation and commerce. NOAA personnel will com- generate a test signal that conformed to international pile and analyze satellite orbit data from 10 analysis requirements for the Indian flight information region. centers worldwide to ensure the accuracy of GPS Raytheon also demonstrated that the time from signal information. For the next four years NOAA’s National generation to transmission to the satellite and recep- Geodetic Survey will serve as the analysis center tion back on the ground was less than the 6.2-second coordinator for the International Global Navigation requirement. This sets the stage for the Indian Space Satellite Systems Service, a voluntary federation of Research Organisation and Airports Authority of India more than 200 organizations that provide continuous to embark on the next phase of the program, which global satellite-tracking data. The Global Navigation will expand the existing ground network, add redun- Satellite Systems, which include the U.S.-based Global dancy, and produce the certification analysis and docu- Positioning System, the Russian GLONASS system, and mentation for safety-of-flight commissioning. the upcoming European Galileo system, are used for accurately determining the geographic position of any point on Earth. SPACE 25 On the cover: Digital Globe’s commercial Quickbird satellite captured this picture of a wind- whipped wildfire that threatened the city of Santa Clarita, just north of Los Angeles. The fire was one of 23 that ravaged a large portion of Southern California in late October 2007. Image copyright Digital Globe.