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					Spotlight on National Defense Technologies                                        VOLUME IV       ·   ISSUE   2

                                                                                        IN THIS ISSUE:

                                                 NOAA: Observing Locally, Forecasting Globally

                                             Interview with Retired Vice Adm. Conrad Lautenbacher, NOAA
                                                                     JPL Comes Back to the Future
                                                               Interview with Dr. Charles Elachi, NASA-JPL
                                                                            Weather: Friend or Foe?
PROTECTING THE PLANET, KEEPING THE PEACE      Interview with Col. Mike Condray, Air Force Weather Agency
                                                                        A Depth of Understanding
                                                              Interview with Rear Adm. (Sel) David Titley,
                                                        Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command

                                 NOAA: Observing Locally, Forecasting Globally                           2
                                 NOAA does more than just watch the weather. It’s leading an
                                 international effort to link the world’s Earth-observing assets into
                                 a shared global network.

                                 JPL Comes Back to the Future                                            8
                                 By studying planetary neighbors, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
                                 has improved our understanding of planet Earth.

                                 Weather: Friend or Foe?                                                14
                                 Today’s military srategists rely on high-tech “weather warriors”
                                 for increasingly precise forecasts of the world’s weather.

                                 A Depth of Understanding                                               18
                                 Sailors and Marines use meteorological and oceanographic
                                 information to achieve mission objectives.

Executive Editor
Joseph Militano
Managing Editor
Kearney Bothwell
Art Director
Kim Ige
Associate Art Director
Linda Currey

P.O. Box 3064
Cedar Rapids, IA 52406-9851

Copyright © 2008 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.
Space: The ultimate high
ground to keep a watchful
eye over planet Earth

The crisis began at 9:42 p.m. Saturday, Oct. 20, 2007       Barbara to the U.S.-Mexico border — an area the size
when a fire was reported in the Angeles National Forest      of Pennsylvania.
some 50 miles northwest of Los Angeles.                     What was not so visible was the work of a number of
Veteran firefighters feared the worst as fierce winds          federal agencies, fully dedicated to the ferocious battle
known as the “Santa Anas” fanned the flames. Within          with the forces of nature, ranging from the National
24 hours, those fears were confirmed.                        Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and
The Santa Anas come every year, gathering speed and         the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to
heat as they compress and come blasting down from           the departments of Defense and Homeland Security.
the Great Basin across the high desert, sucking mois-       Nine NOAA Incident Meteorological Teams were on the
ture from the vegetation, reducing relative humidity to     scene to help firefighters predict when and whether the
the teens or lower — turning chaparral into explosive       weather would cooperate — or fuel further damage
fuel and creating perfect weather for wildfires.             — and teams of scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion
Mystery writer Raymond Chandler provided perhaps            Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., began supplying satel-
the best description of what Southern Californians          lite imagery of the fire areas to incident commanders.
sometimes call “The Devil Winds,” when he wrote in          Augmenting civil space assets that traditionally help bat-
the short story “Red Wind,” “Those hot dry winds            tle wildfires in the United States, the military deployed
come down through the mountain passes and curl your         some high tech military assets, including a Navy P-3
hair and make your nerves jump and your skin itch. On       Orion and a California Air National Guard RC-26 twin
nights like that every booze party ends in a fight.”         turboprop aircraft, both with full motion video down-
Everyone knows when the Santa Anas are coming —             link capabilities; two Navy SH-60 helicopters with for-
thanks to National Weather Service forecasters whose        ward-looking infrared sensors; an Air Force U-2 Dragon
satellite eyes spot the conditions that spawn them.         Lady carrying a photoreconnaissance system; and an
Southern California fire departments issue “Red Flag”        Air Force RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle
alerts. Then everyone waits and prays. They know the        equipped with electro-optical and infrared sensors.
truth. As Chandler wrote in “Red Wind,” on those            Together, these aircraft and NASA’S Ikhana — a civilian
combustible hot dry nights, “anything can happen.”          version of the Predator UAV — provided more than
Some years the winds are relatively mild, coming in on      16,000 photographs, infrared images, and video of the
the low end of their average 35-50 mph range. Other         fires, mostly at night when aerial tankers couldn’t fly, so
years they are especially vicious with gusts blasting       that when daylight came, fire commanders were able
through mountain passes with the force of a hurricane.      to direct water drops more effectively.

The winds of October 2007 were the vicious variety,         In this issue, Defender looks at how NASA and NOAA,
acting like giant bellows that turned parts of California   as well as the Navy and Air Force, keep a watchful
into raging infernos with 23 separate fires that charred     eye over the weather, water and climate of Earth, and
more than 518,000 acres, destroyed nearly 2,200             leverage state-of-the-art technology to achieve mission
homes and 900 other structures, caused 14 deaths            success. What is common to all is the simple notion that
and forced the evacuation of about one million people.      Chandler evoked in “Red Wind”: that when it comes
Conservative damage estimates exceeded $2 billion.          to the weather, nothing can be taken for granted. Any-
                                                            thing can, and most likely will, happen.
Evidence of the fires was visible almost everywhere
throughout the 42,000-square mile region from Santa                                                    — The editor

                                                                                                           SPACE         1


2           Volume IV · Issue 2
                                                                                   A satellite image
                                                                                   taken by the U.S.
                                                                                   National Oceanic and
                                                                                   Atmospheric Adminis-
    Observing Locally, Forecasting Globally                                        tration released on
                                                                                   August 31, 2005,
                                                                                   shows Hurricane
    NOAA does more than just watch the weather. It’s leading an                    Katrina approaching
                                                                                   the Louisiana and
    international effort to link the world’s Earth-observing assets into           Mississippi Gulf Coast.
                                                                                   Image courtesy of NOAA.
    a shared global network.                                                       Inset images courtesy of:
                                                                                   (top l to r) Annie Griffiths
                                                                                   Belt/Corbis and NASA,
                                                                                   (bottom l to r) U.S. Air
                                                                                   Force and Mike Theiss/
                                                                                   Ultimate Chase/Corbis.

                                                                           SPACE   3


    There are very few good reasons for being five min-         NOAA Incident Meteorological Teams. These weather-
    utes late for an interview with the administrator of the   related SWAT teams, comprised of trained fire weather
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Yet       specialists, were on the ground and in the air to antici-
    one of them could very well be a case of bad weather.      pate which way and when the winds might blow, how
    On the other hand, when retired U.S. Navy Vice Adm.        strong they would be — and whether there would be
    Conrad Lautenbacher checked the forecast for Wash-         some badly needed rain.
    ington, D.C., on the day of this interview, he simply      It’s just another day in the collective life of one of
    got up and arrived at work a little bit earlier to avoid   America’s oldest, most relied on, yet perhaps most
    the rain-induced traffic snarls. He did what millions of    taken-for-granted Federal agencies. In fact, the agen-
    Americans do — and take for granted — every single         cies that were melded together in 1970 to form NOAA
    day of their lives: They rely on information originated    were among the first in U.S. history: the U.S. Coast and
    by NOAA to make personal decisions.                        Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807; the Weather Bureau,
    Across the United States in Southern California, by        formed in 1870; and the Bureau of Fisheries, formed
    this time on the very same day, wildfires had already       in 1871. This year, NOAA is celebrating 200 years of
    swept up and consumed more than 410,000 acres of           science and service to society.
    property and 2,100 homes, causing more than $1 bil-        In the new millennium, NOAA is a 24/7 organization
    lion in damages. As firefighters fought heroically to        with myriad responsibilities, all critical to everyday
    tame the out-of-control beast, working shoulder-to-        life — from daily weather forecasts, to severe storm
    shoulder with them in the immediate vicinity were nine     warning and climate monitoring, to fisheries manage-

                                                                                                                           Image courtesy of Stefan Zaklin/epa/Corbis

4       Volume IV · Issue 2
ment, coastal restoration and supporting maritime and      The expanding legacy of Vice Adm. Lautenbacher,
aviation commerce. The agency not only protects life, it   however, extends far beyond U.S. borders. Since the
supports vital decision making directly affecting nearly   Earth’s environment and ecosystems are tightly con-
one-third of the U.S. gross domestic product.              nected, and the technological and human resources
No doubt the National Weather Service is the best          needed to keep a watchful eye over them are relatively
known organization within NOAA. Yet it is just one         few, it’s critical that the nations of the world work
of several units that comprise the agency, among           together for the greater benefit of all 6.5 billion human
others including the National Marine Fisheries Service,    inhabitants. Such is the goal of the rapidly expanding
the National Ocean Service, the Office of Marine and        Global Earth Observation System of systems, an inter-
Aviation Operations, the Office of Oceanic and              national effort to connect the world’s Earth-observing
Atmospheric Research and the National Environmental        assets into a network-centric environment in which
Satellite, Data and Information Service. While indi-       information from a wealth of spacecraft and other
vidually distinct, together their cumulative mission is,   data collection systems can be globally shared. Thus
as Vice Adm. Lautenbacher proudly says, to “collect        far, 72 nations and 46 United Nations organizations
environmental intelligence. NOAA enriches life through     have joined the effort, which the United States, behind
science by protecting life and property and conserving     NOAA and Vice Adm. Lautenbacher, has aggressively
and protecting our natural resources. We work to keep      promoted.
our citizens informed of the changing environment
around them.”

Vice Adm. Lautenbacher spoke to Defender recently about
the critical mission of NOAA, about the people and technology
that help all of us make everyday decisions in life, and about
the fragile nature of the planet which NOAA proudly defends.
Here’s what Vice Adm. Lautenbacher had to say.

Defender: Who uses the information provided by NOAA?
Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: Everyone — government, the military, industry and everyone in the general pub-
lic. Industry uses it as a basis to make decisions on cost structure, transportation, inventory, energy stockpiles
and insurance. The military wouldn’t plan a campaign without understanding weather and wind conditions.
In the extreme, the very survival of entire societies and governments can be at stake, depending on the envi-
ronmental implications. We hear from our customers regularly. NOAA has one of the most sought after Web
sites on the Internet. With the (recent) San Diego fires burning, we got more than one million hits per day
from that region alone. If there is a major hurricane, we may get as many as 10 million hits per day. There
is a huge customer base and demand for NOAA’s products.

                                                                                                        SPACE         5


                                                                                            In 2006, Japan launched the
                                                                                            second of two dual mission
                                                                                            satellites that provide support
                                                                                            for air traffic controllers and
                                                                                            meteorologists in the Western
                                                                                            Pacific region from geostationary
                                                                                            orbits above Micronesia. They
                                                                                            can provide weather imagery
                                                                                            in one visible and four infrared
                                                                                            wavelength bands, including the
                                                                                            water vapor channel. Imagery
                                                                                            courtesy the U.S./Japan ASTER
                                                                                            Science Team, NASA/GSFC/METI/

    Defender: How has technology made it easier to              Defender: Do people take for granted the 24 hours/
    observe the Earth?                                          7 days-per-week continuity of weather and environ-
    Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: Earth observation has               mental information that NOAA and the National
    been revolutionized by spacecraft over the past 30-plus     Weather Service provide?
    years. Ninety percent of our information comes from         Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: What people take for
    satellites. Unmanned aerial vehicles have enormous          granted is that there is a “back room” to all of this
    potential to fill a gap and go places where you could        just as there is a back room in a bank or computer
    not send a person. We have sent UAVs into hurricanes;       operation. Continuity of the data stream — integrated,
    over and around forest fires to look for the initial igni-   total, global, continual coverage — is the expectation.
    tion areas or “hot spots;” and on long-endurance mis-       The reliability of our systems is in the high 90 per-
    sions over the surface of the ocean to patrol the U.S.      centiles. We collect data 24/7 from a combination of
    Exclusive Economic Zone. We are working with NASA           satellite, ground, atmospheric, ocean, undersea and
    to test a Predator variant with a variety of sensors over   underearth systems. So the information for most
    the Pacific Ocean, searching for plumes of moisture          people just shows up. Continuity from one genera-
    in the air known as “atmospheric rivers.” Our inten-        tion of technology to the next is another challenge.
    tion is to procure our own UAVs. NOAA also has nine         The infrastructure has to be kept up. Recapitalization
    unmanned underwater vehicles with sonar and map-            of the network, given the up-and-down capital flows,
    ping capabilities that have tracked undercurrents and       demands an intense financial focus. We can make an
    detected undersea habitats. In addition to this rela-       investment in ourselves every time we make an invest-
    tively new technology, we will always need our radars       ment in the Earth observation infrastructure.
    and other monitoring systems to get a full picture of
    the Earth.

    Defender: How important is inter-government part-
    nership to NOAA?
    Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: Our philosophy is to beg,
    borrow and partner. That’s the only way to get it all

6       Volume IV · Issue 2
 Who uses the information provided by NOAA?
“Everyone – government, the military, industry and everyone in
 the general public. Industry uses it as a basis to make decisions
 on cost structure, transportation, inventory, energy stockpiles
 and insurance. The military wouldn’t plan a campaign without
 understanding weather and wind conditions.”

 Defender: What is the Global Earth Observation Sys-       agenda of the G-8 Summit. We were then able to form
 tem of Systems (GEOSS) and why is it so important?        a critical mass with governments in Europe and Asia
 Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: The Earth is interconnect-        and invited others to join. We’re now up to 72 nations
 ed. The people and ecosystems of the Earth are inter-     and 46 U.N. organizations and expect five to 10 more
 connected. Understanding how a tsunami works is not       to join in the near future. We’re interested in attract-
 something a single country or person can do alone.        ing more participation from the developing world. We
 It’s something we have to learn about on the global       have a 10-year plan (2005-2015), during which we will
 level. If we are to solve monumental problems related     take a series of discrete steps to better integrate the
 to climate change, we need to understand the oceans,      world’s atmospheric and environmental databases to
 the cryosphere and the poles, combined with an inter-     share information.
 disciplinary understanding of the impact on the chemi-
                                                           Defender: How would you assess NOAA’s level of
 cal, physical and biological sciences. The idea of the
                                                           cooperation with other U.S. government agencies?
 GEOSS — a comprehensive Earth observing system of
 systems — is no flash in the night. The idea of sharing    Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: An interagency Earth
 atmospheric information among nations has been in a       observation working group has been set up with U.S.
 lot of heads for a while. Now that satellites have made   geological, space and military members. This gener-
 this possible, we’ve finally started to make it work.      ates an integration effect. We’ve had a standing rela-
                                                           tionship with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management
 Defender: What provided the jump start to help usher      Agency), first responders and now DHS (Department
 in a global system of Earth observing systems?            of Homeland Security) to get information rapidly to
 Vice Adm. Lautenbacher: The organizations like            the public in times of disaster. NOAA Weather Radio
 NOAA within each nation could not individually garner     remains one of the nation’s primary warning systems
 enough political attention to move forward unilater-      — not just for the weather, but for chemical spills,
 ally. Yet there was a tremendous amount of coopera-       Amber Alerts of kidnapped children, or anything else
 tion going on at the scientific and agency levels among    that impacts public safety. As I’ve said, our philosophy
 nations. In terms of making noise, we were too small      at NOAA is to beg, borrow and partner. It’s the only
 and too dispersed individually, yet loud enough collec-   way to get the job done.
 tively, to get placed on the list of what’s important.
 We needed a mass. The World Summit on Sustainable
 Development drew attention to the need for having
 a basis of solid environmental information as a criti-
 cal prerequisite to global growth. That enabled us to
 get Earth observation onto the science and technology

                                                                                                        SPACE         7

        Comes Back to the Future
        By studying planetary neighbors, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
        has improved our understanding of planet Earth.

        Step inside the office of Dr. Charles Elachi, director of    sensors and radars kept a watchful eye over the recent
        the NASA-California Institute of Technology Jet Propul-     wildfires. JPL has even applied its scientific prowess
        sion Laboratory, and it’s like walking into a museum        to undersea exploration, leveraging its expertise with
        commemorating the United States’ four decades of            supremely reliable robots, central to long-duration
        interplanetary space travel. There, row after row, lining   deep space missions, in yet another domain with harsh
        multiple credenzas, are replica models of the nation’s      conditions and unyielding reliability demands.
        legendary deep space probes: Explorer. Ranger. Survey-      It all fits together in one research center quite neatly,
        or. Mariner. Viking. Pathfinder. The names alone shout       says Dr. Elachi, since JPL’s mission is “to explore the uni-
        out space exploration — to places like Mars, Venus,         verse and apply it to a better life here on Earth.” In fact,
        Saturn, Jupiter and our nearest friend, the moon.           he says, there is much to learn about the Earth from
        Yet a most remarkable aspect of this venerable space        its neighbors: “We can learn about the atmosphere
        and research center, and perhaps its relatively best-       from our experiences on Mars. We can learn about the
        kept secret, is JPL’s groundbreaking work in the field of    greenhouse effect from our experiences around Venus.
        Earth science. The same institution that controls mas-      We can learn about the effects of methane from our
        sive dish antennas, nearly as large as a football field,     experiences around Saturn’s moon.”
        to send and receive signals from interplanetary probes      For the engineers and scientists at JPL’s primary loca-
        at the edge of the solar system, will soon sponsor a        tion in Pasadena, Calif., creating a better life on Earth
        fact-finding summit titled the “Southern California          is more than a mere set of words. Several volunteered
        Wildfire Initiative” — to learn how to apply its cutting-    their services to help the local Rose Bowl Committee
        edge research on terrestrial problems. While its deep       build more reliable floats for the annual parade. And
        space probes streamed back images of places far away,       if the people of JPL are multi-talented and capable, so
        closer to home, here on Earth, aircraft with JPL infrared   too are the spacecraft. While the center every day adds

8           Volume IV · Issue 2
                                                                                     This synthetic image of the Spirit
                                                                                     Mars Exploration rover in the
                                                                                     “Columbia Hills” was produced
                                                                                     using technology developed at
                                                                                     NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
                                                                                     Combining visualization and image-
                                                                                     processing tools with Hollywood-
                                                                                     style special effects, it used a
                                                                                     photorealistic model of the rover
                                                                                     and an approximately full-color
                                                                                     mosaic and was scaled using the size
                                                                                     of the rover tracks in the mosaic.
                                                                                     Imagery courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech.

to its tremendous legacy of studying the solar system,     Agency or within NASA. Others are with agencies
of the JPL’s 19 spacecraft and six instruments in flight    focused solely on Earth, such as the U.S. Geologi-
today, more than one-third are focused on studying our     cal Survey or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
home planet. CloudSat, launched in April, 2006, can        Administration.
provide a three-dimensional perspective of the Earth’s     A 37-year veteran of Caltech, Dr. Elachi never received
clouds to help answer questions about how clouds           a paycheck from another employer. His natural curios-
form, evolve and affect the weather and climate.           ity to press the limits of what is possible began as a
At the heart of JPL’s thrust into the Earth sciences are   young boy in 1957 when the Soviet Union’s Sputnik
the cutting-edge sensor systems that have also been        satellite orbited the Earth and exploded into the world’s
central to the center’s storied legacy. Spaceborne         consciousness. While that may have gotten his creative
synthetic aperture radar, passive microwave and spec-      juices flowing for the first time, today the affable scien-
troscopic technologies all have been incubated at JPL.     tist, who has degrees in physics, engineering, electrical
Two such JPL instruments — the Tropospheric Emission       sciences, geology and an MBA, continues to rise to new
Spectrometer, an infrared sensor designed to study the     challenges. “Every day it’s something new at JPL. We
Earth’s troposphere, and the Microwave Limb Sounder,       solve a parking problem in our lots one day. We land
a sensor to improve our understanding of the ozone —       on Mars another.”
were launched aboard NASA’s Aura spacecraft in 2004.       Asked which of the historic JPL missions are his personal
JPL has set a goal to become a world leader in the         favorites, Dr. Elachi demurs like a proud parent. “I love
research of climate change.                                them all,” he proclaims. “Of course it’s exciting to fly
JPL’s scientific and mission diversity is reflected in its   by Saturn or land on Mars, yet each successful mission
partnerships. Some are with traditional space-based        provides unique value and a building block of different
research organizations, such as the European Space         clues about the solar system and Earth.”

                                                                                                            SPACE           9

     Dr. Elachi spent time with Defender recently
     to talk about JPL, about the men and women whose
     natural curiosity unceasingly draws the world closer
     to its neighbors, and about the one planet most
     important to us all … the planet Earth.
     Here’s what Dr. Elachi had to say.

     Defender: What was JPL’s role to combat the recent           Defender: What is JPL’s broader role in Earth science
     wildfire crisis in California, and how is it related to the   and how did it all begin?
     Southern California Wildfire Initiative, which JPL is         Dr. Elachi: JPL is one of the largest developers of
     spearheading?                                                instrumentation onboard NASA’s Earth Observing
     Dr. Elachi: JPL flew infrared and radar instruments           System spacecraft. When you see El Niño or hurricane
     aboard NASA aircraft to see through the smoke and            images, you may be getting the information from JPL
     look for the hot spots for firefighters to attack. A bene-     sensors aboard spacecraft such as QuikSCAT (Quick
     ficial aspect of today’s technology is that we can obtain     Scatterometer), which carries instrumentation to mea-
     images of what is occurring right now, or within the         sure ocean surface winds. In 2008, we will launch
     last 20 minutes, which makes the information much            two Earth observing spacecraft, OSTM (Ocean Surface
     more useful. We can integrate sensor information,            Topography Mission) and OCO (Orbiting Carbon Obser-
     GPS and other data to locate a fire center down to the        vatory). Our participation in the Earth sciences began in
     meter. Instrumentation from the air and space not only       the late 1960s and early 1970s with the use of radar to
     can see through smoke, it can determine temperatures         see through cloud cover over Venus. Someone asked
     on the ground to help predict where and when a fire           about the use of this radar over Earth and of course the
     might start. Experience has taught us that areas with        applications are obvious. In 1978, the Seasat spacecraft
     high amounts of dry biological mass present a high risk.     for the first time carried into space JPL instrumentation
     After a fire, we can also help determine the best place       fully dedicated to Earth science. We used imaging radar
     to seed. The wildfire initiative is a chance to bring gov-    to study the Earth and seas. Soon after, we began to
     ernment agencies together to find out what they need          hire oceanographers and geologists at JPL.
     and what JPL can do. It’s a chance to listen to better
     understand what type of instrumentation they can use
     to reduce risk, prevent wildfires and fight them.

10       Volume IV · Issue 2
                                                             The scatterometer instrument on
                                                             the NASA/JPL QuikSCAT satellite
                                                             shows how Arctic perennial sea
                                                             ice coverage (in red) has declined
                                                             each winter from 2001 (top left)
                                                             through 2006 (bottom right).
                                                             Replenishment of this sea ice
                                                             during winter is essential to the
                                                             maintenance and stability of the
                                                             Arctic summer ice cover. Images
                                                             courtesy NASA/JPL.

Defender: Tells us more about your partnerships with         The Atmospheric Infrared
the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic          Sounder Experiment onboard
                                                             NASA’s Aqua spacecraft
and Atmospheric Administration.
                                                             produced this image showing
Dr. Elachi: We work closely with the USGS on                 the average temperatures on
                                                             Earth for the month of April
geological mapping, using radar to obtain scientific data     2003. Image courtesy NASA/JPL.
about the Earth’s solid surface. We work with NOAA on
oceanography. The QuikSCAT spacecraft transmits data
and information directly to NOAA about ocean winds.
When we launch OSTM next year, the ground systems
will be operated by NOAA. Our relationships with these
agencies are very important to us.

Defender: Describe JPL’s contributions to undersea
Dr. Elachi: JPL provides acoustic, imaging and tem-
perature sensors and instrumentation for undersea
exploration and measurement. We have worked with
the University of Washington to deploy a network of
sensors on the bottom of the ocean. In addition to the
instruments and sensors, we have a lot of experience
controlling robots at great distances. If you can control
spacecraft a billion miles away, more than likely there is
something to offer oceanographers who send robots to
the depths of the ocean. You have to build in long-term
reliability with systems that have to communicate over
long distances. It’s a natural extension.

                                                                              SPACE               11

     Active fires are outlined in red in
     this imagery from the National        Defender: How do you build in long-term reliability?
     Oceanic and Atmospheric
                                           Dr. Elachi: JPL applies a number of principles, or
     Administration’s Geostationary
     Operational Environmental             engineering practices, to build in reliability. We have a
     Satellite-West during the             philosophy, you might say, of how to do it. First, we
     October 2007 wildfires in
     Southern California. Vicious          “over-design” to ensure that all of the components are
     Santa Ana winds pushed smoke          exceptionally durable. Second, we build redundancy
     plumes hundreds of miles out to
     sea. Imagery courtesy NOAA.           into the architectural design with back-ups to prevent
                                           a single-point failure. It’s always a lively debate about
                                           where to add in redundancy vs. how much risk to
                                           take. Third, we test beyond the breaking point. It’s not
                                           enough to push the systems to the limit. If you have
                                           that mentality, then you may be testing right up to the
                                           limit without knowing how close you are. So the system
                                           would break down under just a little more stress. You
                                           can’t just take it right up to the last 1 percent of toler-
                                           ance. You have to take it past the breaking point.

12         Volume IV · Issue 2
                                                               The Advanced Spaceborne
                                                               Thermal Emission and Reflection
                                                               Radiometer instrument on the
                                                               Terra satellite is a coopera-
                                                               tive effort between NASA and
                                                               Japan’s Ministry of Economy
                                                               Trade and Industry that provides
                                                               high resolution remote sens-
                                                               ing imaging capabilities in 14
                                                               bands. Above is a simulated
                                                               natural color ASTER image of
                                                               Bombetoka Bay in northwestern
                                                               Madagascar at the mouth of the
                                                               Betsiboka River. Image courtesy
                                                               of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/
                                                               JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER
                                                               Science Team.

“Global climate change presents a major set of challenges.
 Satellite Earth observation is an excellent tool to get
 credible scientific data to policymakers so they can have
 a sound basis on which to make decisions.”

 Defender: What would JPL further like to contribute to        Defender: On a lighter note, which is the greater
 the science of studying climate change?                       challenge — landing on Mars or fixing parking prob-
 Dr. Elachi: The science community has a responsibility        lems at JPL’s Pasadena location?
 to provide credible data and scientifically sound infor-       Dr. Elachi: I have been here for 37 years and we have
 mation so the political leadership can make informed          landed on Mars several times. But we still haven’t
 decisions about climate change with a clear and               totally solved the parking problem.
 unambiguous understanding of what is happening.
 NASA is playing a major role, and we should get even
 more proactive. If you consider what is possible over the
 next 15 to 20 years, there are a number of opportuni-
 ties. We should get to the point where you can Google
 a complete inventory of what is happening to the
 planet and the reason for it. We should be able to
 show every city and town and depict where and when
 carbon dioxide is being emitted and where tempera-
 tures are rising. Global climate change presents a major
 set of challenges. Satellite Earth observation is an excel-
 lent tool to get credible scientific data to policymakers
 so they can have a sound basis on which to make

                                                                                                          SPACE        13

         Weather: Friend or Foe?
         Today’s military strategists rely on high-tech “weather warriors”
         for increasingly precise forecasts of the world’s weather.

14           Volume IV · Issue 2
On June 4, 1944, one day before the planned Allied
invasion of France, the visual images in the southern
ports of England were astonishing: nearly 2 million
men — 4,500 cooks alone — were ready to move out.
Robert Slaughter, a soldier in the U.S. 29th Infantry
Division, recalled that in the south of Great Britain
“every field and vacant lot was piled high with mate-
riel”: Tanks, trucks, jeeps, weapons carriers, artillery,
gasoline and jerry cans. Historian Stephen Ambrose,
in his book D-Day, said it was like the entire cities
of Green Bay, Racine and Kenosha, Wisc., would be
picked up and moved — every man, woman and child,
every automobile and truck.
At his command headquarters near Portsmouth,
England, Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower, Supreme
Allied Commander, on whose shoulders the success
or failure of the great invasion would rest, paced the
floor and waited for perhaps the most important fore-
cast in modern history. Before he would issue the ulti-
mate command to launch, Ike needed the best possible
information he could get about the one potential
adversary — or ally — he could not possibly control:
the weather.
According to Storm, a book by Victor Boesen, Eisen-
hower had to weigh a number of vital considerations:
Airplanes carrying troops and supplies needed a ceil-
ing of at least 2,500 feet and visibility of three miles;
paratroopers could not be dropped in winds greater
than 20 miles per hour. Royal Air Force Group Capt.
James M. Stagg, the Allied chief meteorologist, would
provide the sober news: A low pressure system rolling
across the Atlantic would cause a large storm over the
English Channel, with heavy rains, wind and fog.

On D-Day, June 6, 1944, a land-
ing craft just vacated by invasion
troops points toward a fortified
beach on the Normandy coast.
U.S. Coast Guard photo by Chief
Photographer’s Mate Robert F.
Sargent. Courtesy of the Library
of Congress.

                                              SPACE         15

     Yet Eisenhower had something his opponent, Field            microwave imagery. The Air Force not only is charged
     Marshall Erwin Rommel, commander of the German              with forecasting terrestrial weather, it must also fore-
     forces across the channel, didn’t have. Ike had a           cast space “weather,” largely related to solar emissions
     better weather forecast. Because allied forces were         that can create electromagnetic anomalies and disrupt
     extended further west of the designated landing             high-frequency communications.
     areas, they were better able to forecast that a break in    The commander of the Air Force Weather Agency, Col.
     the weather, blowing in from the west, would occur          Mike Condray, leads an organization of some 1,350
     on June 6. That prompted Eisenhower to postpone the         “weather warriors” at 16 locations worldwide. They
     invasion by one day. Rommel, sufficiently confident           provide forecasts for the Air Force, Army, special opera-
     that the storm would indefinitely postpone an invasion,      tions forces and the intelligence community. Even NASA
     decided to take an unplanned respite and returned           uses the service to help plan space shuttle missions.
     home from France to Germany to celebrate his wife’s
                                                                 To be sure, the stakes are exponentially higher than a
     birthday. With a more complete forecast in allied
                                                                 rained-out ballgame. “The bottom line,” Col. Condray
     hands, D-Day, and the liberation of Europe, was about
                                                                 says, “is that we have to get the forecast right. Nothing
     to begin.
                                                                 we do adds value until we get the right information into
     Military strategists have been consumed with the            the hands of the right warfighter at the right time.”
     weather since some of the earliest days of recorded
                                                                 Col. Condray’s career ambitions, you might say, were
     battle. In 217 B.C., freezing marshlands allowed
                                                                 as predictable as a spring shower. An early fascination

     “Today’s U.S. Air Force ‘weather warriors’ are on call 24/7/365,
      piecing together disparate data from high technology systems
      and satellites, dispensing information across high-speed
      communications networks, and creating a composite picture
      of the world’s weather for military strategists.”

                                                                 with thunderstorms, and a father steeped in military
     Hannibal to invade Italy with mounted troops. In 1870,
                                                                 history, led the colonel to pursue an ROTC degree in
     recognizing a growing need, the U.S. Congress called
                                                                 meteorology from Texas A&M University. His avocation
     for the creation of the first organized military weather
                                                                 transitioned from college studies to vocation with the
     service in history. By the 1930s, once the American
                                                                 speed of a hurricane. Immediately after graduation, he
     military took to the air, the majority of U.S. military
                                                                 began to practice his science with one of the world’s
     weather information was being consumed by the Army
                                                                 most cutting-edge weather forecasting organizations,
     Air Corps. In response, the Army Air Corps Weather
                                                                 the U.S. Air Force.
     Service, the forerunner of today’s Air Force Weather
     Agency, was created.
     Today’s U.S. Air Force “weather warriors” are on call
     24/7/365, piecing together disparate data from high
     technology systems and satellites, dispensing informa-
     tion across high-speed communications networks, and
     creating a composite picture of the world’s weather
     for military strategists. The USAF Weather Agency
     is, in fact, the primary user of a constellation of mili-
     tary weather-watching satellites dubbed the Defense
     Meteorological Satellite Program, which uses state-
     of-the-art sensors to generate detailed infrared and

16       Volume IV · Issue 2
Col. Condray spent some time recently
with Defender to discuss the vital service
                                                             Defender: The Air Force Weather Agency also sup-
provided by the U.S. Air Force Weather                       plies weather information to the U.S. Army. How is that
Agency, about the technology that makes                      different?
modern-day forecasting increasingly                          Col. Condray: One of my early assignments was to
precise, and about America’s weather                         provide weather support for the 2nd Armored Division
warriors who work around the clock to                        out of Ft. Hood. M1 tanks might not care too much
ensure that the warfighter — whether in                       about turbulence in the air, yet they really do not like
the air or on the ground — gets nothing                      mud. While the forecasting modes may be similar, ulti-
                                                             mately you are looking out for different phenomena.
less than the most accurate forecast.
Here’s what Col. Condray had to say.                         Defender: Which technologies and systems are most
                                                             central to military weather forecasting?
Defender: What makes military weather operations so
                                                             Col. Condray: Systems and technologies that help us
different from those in the civil arena?
                                                             sense the battlespace in remote areas, where other
Col. Condray: The mission. We’re helping military            assets are not always available, are vital to us. Electro-
commanders make vital decisions. Getting the right           optic and infrared sensors are critical to what we do.
forecast into the right hands, in a timely way, can be a     For more than 40 years, we have been relying on space-
matter of life or death. We can also help commanders         craft to collect weather information. Unmanned aerial
exploit weather conditions. During the early phases of       vehicles hold out promise as data collection platforms
Operation Iraqi Freedom, U.S. ground troops were able        as well. We rely on machine-to-machine interfaces and
to anticipate a severe sand storm that impacted vision.      the ability to create optimum forecasts by leveraging
Our troops were ready with infrared technology and           information automation and sharing. High-speed data
systems to see the enemy. The enemy, by contrast, was        and communications networks enable us to get our
virtually blind and thought that the sand storm would        information into the right hands at the right time. In
conceal them. When they moved, they became vul-              a network-centric environment, it’s critical that we
nerable. We are a versatile organization. We can help        integrate and exploit the information and get it faster
predict the difficulty with which a terrorist group can       and deeper into the organization.
resupply a mountain base during snowstorms, or help
ensure that relatively routine tasks, such as in-flight       Defender: Please explain the role of advanced atmospher-
refueling of aircraft, are not impacted by weather-          ic models to create precise military weather forecasts.
related turbulence. All of it is central to war planning.    Col. Condray: Atmospheric models are used to inte-
                                                             grate data to shape an environmental assessment and
Defender: How does the Air Force Weather Agency
                                                             ultimately to generate a forecast. We have come to real-
specifically support air campaigns?
                                                             ize that the Air Force does not always need unique fore-
Col. Condray: The Weather Agency helps shape the             casting models. We work collaboratively with our civil-
master air attack plan. Within 36 hours of a strike,         ian partners, including the National Weather Service, to
the weather that is forecasted can impact which tar-         create and shape the best possible models to integrate
gets to strike, which aircraft or weapons systems to         and exploit the widest volume of information.
use, and, of course, the timing of when to start. We
plug data and information into computer models to            Defender: What can industry do to help the Air Force
help determine “go-no go” decisions. A 10,000-foot           Weather Agency accomplish its mission objectives?
ceiling might mean a little cloud cover for the family       Col. Condray: Industry can help us evolve the state
picnic, yet for military planners relying on space-based     of the art in sensor technology and data collection
assets or laser guided bombs you need to know what           systems that are at the heart of what we do. Indus-
the clouds will be before you choose what weapons            try can improve the machine-to-machine interfaces
are right for the mission. We can even help determine        and help us shape and create integrated weather
whether radio transmissions might be impacted by             databases to plug into our atmospheric models. If
solar flares. The bottom line is that you wouldn’t plan       industry can achieve a deep understanding of our mis-
an air strike without a solid weather forecast. Our job is   sion objectives and requirements, and translate those
to help mitigate the potentially negative effects of the     requirements into new capabilities, that would be a
weather and maximize the advantages.                         huge contribution.

                                                                                                            SPACE         17

         A Depth of Understanding
         Sailors and Marines use meteorological and oceanographic
         information to achieve mission objectives.

         In 1825, at the age of 19, Matthew Fontaine Maury           Armed with oceanographic information, a trip from the
         joined the United States Navy as a midshipman on            British Isles to California could be cut by a remarkable
         board the frigate Brandywine. Maury derived an              30 days.
         intense personal fascination with the minute character-     Today, responsibility in the U.S. military to fully under-
         istics of the immense, interconnected physical proper-      stand, and rapidly communicate, the environmental
         ties that cover three-fourths of the Earth’s surface: its   jiggsaw puzzle of the world’s oceans and seas rests with
         oceans. Not only were these massive bodies of water         the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command,
         connected on the surface, Maury began to understand         which traces its ancestry all the way back to Lt. Maury
         that the currents below, and the winds above, were          and the Depot of Charts and Instruments. Historically,
         broadly interconnected as well.                             the command’s core mission has been to survey the
         Maury’s fascination paid off in 1842 when he was            sea floor for safety of navigation, while the meteorol-
         named the first superintendent of the Depot of Charts        ogy side of its mission developed when naval aviation
         and Instruments, the forerunner of today’s United           came into being in the early part of the 20th century.
         States Naval Observatory. According to the Nautical         Throughout the Cold War, the command’s deep water
         Gazette, Maury understood that ship captains learn          mission expanded in response to submarine threats.
         critical lessons about the effects of winds and currents    At the helm of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanog-
         on the path and progress of a ship each time they set       raphy Command is Rear Adm. (Select) David W. Titley,
         sail. Yet, the information was then almost universally      a Schenectady, N.Y., native who was commissioned
         forgotten. At the Naval Observatory, Maury uncovered        through the Naval ROTC program at Penn State Uni-
         thousands of ships’ logs and charts dating back more        versity. Having completed seven naval deployments
         than 50 years. It was a treasure trove of information       across the Mediterranean, Indian and Pacific oceans,
         that told a story about the open seas, and would prove      Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley understands the ocean envi-
         invaluable in the hands of the very same people who         ronment, from top to bottom, as well as anyone on
         had collected it in the first place — the captains of        Earth. He served as the oceanography officer aboard
         ocean-spanning vessels worldwide.                           the amphibious assault ship USS Belleau Wood and
         Maury’s 1855 book, The Physical Geography of the            the carrier USS Carl Vinson, attended the Naval Post-
         Seas, began to reveal the global pattern of ocean cur-      graduate School where he received a Master of Science
         rents, sea surface temperatures and winds, and earned       degree in meteorology and oceanography, and in 2005
         him the moniker of “father of oceanography.” His            was named the first commanding officer of the Naval
         research cut sailing times by an order of magnitude.        Oceanographic Operations Command.

18           Volume IV · Issue 2
Aerographer’s Mate 3rd Class
Eric King and Seaman Olivia
Mailander release a weather
balloon from the amphibious
assault ship USS Boxer during
a 2006 exercise off Southern
California to gather weather
information. U.S. Navy photo by
Mass Communication Specialist
3rd Class Noel Danseco.

                   SPACE          19

     Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley spent time
     recently with Defender to discuss
     the evolutionary mission of the
     command, the men and women
     who convert a fascination with the
     ocean environment into practical
     military knowledge, and the sailors
     and Marines who depend on the
     command’s information to protect
     America and its allies on the open
     seas. Here’s what he had to say.

                                           Defender: The modern-day Navy has a uniquely wide
                                           spectrum of missions, ranging from humanitarian relief
                                           to naval warfare and undersea operations. How does
                                           the Navy use meteorological and oceanographic infor-
                                           mation to achieve its mission objectives?
                                           Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: We use the information to
                                           characterize the maritime dimension of the operational
                                           environment. This is a critical component of any opera-
                                           tion, humanitarian or military. The information enables
                                           smart strategic, operational and tactical decision mak-
                                           ing based on an environmental advantage or threat. In
                                           addition, we must also understand the environmental
                                           effects on sensors and platform performance.

                                           Defender: With the emphasis on net-centric warfare,
                                           and the need for real-time access to meteorological
                                           and oceanographic information more compelling today
                                           than ever, how can the Navy make most effective use
     A U.S. Navy crewman prepares
     to deploy an ocean glider dur-        of state-of-the-art information technology?
     ing the Rim of the Pacific 2006
     exercise near Hawaii. The bien-
                                           Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: U.S. and coalition joint mari-
     nial RIMPAC exercise included a       time commanders face a dynamic and highly abstract
     strong focus on antisubmarine
                                           naval battlespace. When commanders fully understand
     warfare, mine countermeasures,
     amphibious operations, and            the predicted structure and evolution of the environ-
     maritime interception opera-          ment, and have confidence in that knowledge, war-
     tions, all areas that place a high
     premium on understanding the          fighting options for force structure, weaponeering,
     maritime domain. Photo courtesy       targeting, timing and maneuver are optimized. Effec-
     U.S. Navy.
                                           tive use of state-of-the-art information technology
                                           supports this competitive advantage by ensuring that
                                           critical environmental knowledge is accessible by deci-
                                           sion makers in a timely manner. We have embraced

20         Volume IV · Issue 2
                                           Members of a Naval
                                  Oceanographic Office’s Fleet
                              Survey Team conduct an opera-
                                 tional hydrographic survey to
                              collect data that aids in the safe
                                 navigation of U.S. forces and
                                   supplies traversing the area.
                                     Photo courtesy U.S. Navy.

“Organic sensors on our fleet of seven survey ships include
 state-of-the-art multibeam swath bathymetric sonars to
 measure the depth of the ocean from full-ocean depths to
 shallow water. High-resolution side scan sonars identify
 ‘mine-like’ objects and hazards to navigation.”

the tenets of net-centric data, services, and security.            depth of the ocean from full-ocean depths to shal-
Our approach supports access to meteorological and                 low water. High-resolution side scan sonars identify
oceanographic information through service interfaces               “mine-like” objects and hazards to navigation. Seismic
linked to major integration points within the enterprise.          systems penetrate several hundred meters below the
Service interfaces provide several benefits, including              bottom of the sea floor to characterize seabed struc-
access to meteorological and oceanographic data,                   ture and acoustic parameters critical to understanding
access to specialized processing capabilities, and rapid           long-range sound propagation. We use sensors across
integration with warfighter work flows and applica-                  the entire operation to gain and communicate a more
tions. Our job is to help the warfighter unlock critical            complete operational picture.
environmental knowledge.
                                                                   Defender: To what extent does the Navy use autono-
Defender: Central to meteorological and oceano-                    mous systems and sensors to understand the maritime
graphic data collection is the use of state-of-the-art             environment?
sensor technology. Please describe how the Navy uses,              Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: Our autonomous sensors
and pushes forward, the state of the art.                          include profiling floats and more recently ocean
Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: Oceanographic and atmo-                    gliders, which transmit data and sensor health via
spheric sensing is the foundation of how we deliver                satellite communications. In addition to temperature
information and knowledge to the fleet. Our responsi-               and salinity sensors, acoustic sensors can be employed
bility is to characterize the environment from space to            to characterize the ambient noise. Autonomous un-
several hundred meters below the ocean floor. Space                 manned vehicles are used to collect bathymetric and
sensors provide multi- and hyper-spectral thermal and              side-scan (high-resolution sea bottom imagery) data
visible imagery. Synthetic aperture radar quantifies                and augment our survey ship capability.
bathymetry (water depth), bottom sediments, tides,
hazards to navigation and currents in the littoral and             Defender: In addition to sensors, which other core
riverine environments. Radar altimeters measure the                technologies are most central to the Navy’s meteoro-
sea surface height to centimeter accuracy extracting               logical and oceanographic needs?
dynamic oceanography, such as currents and three-                  Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: We leverage core technolo-
dimensional temperature fields. Organic sensors on                  gies that provide an inherent ability to assimilate sensor
our fleet of seven survey ships include state-of-the-art            data into our dynamic ocean and atmospheric models
multibeam swath bathymetric sonars to measure the                  to in turn provide a reliable forecast out to 72 hours.

                                                                                                                  SPACE         21

     “We leverage core technologies that provide an inherent
      ability to assimilate sensor data into our dynamic ocean
      and atmospheric models to in turn provide a reliable
      forecast out to 72 hours.”

      For example, high performance computing systems are         Defender: What does the future hold in store for the
      used to model patterns in the ocean and atmosphere.         people and technology of the Naval Meteorology and
      Such modeling is critical to our mission.                   Oceanography Command?
                                                                  Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: We are undergoing a transfor-
      Defender: How can industry better help the command
                                                                  mation in Naval Meteorology and Oceanography with
      accomplish its mission objectives?
                                                                  persistent autonomous sensing and use of fleet sensors
      Rear Adm. (Sel) Titley: We have a wide array of             augmenting our remote space sensors and dedicated
      research and development areas in which industry            survey platforms. This will mean greater utilization of
      can contribute. For example, in the area of autono-         remotely operated vehicles such as ocean gliders and
      mous vehicle technology, we have needs for improved         AUVs. Now that we have responsibility for the Navy’s
      vehicle navigation in a submerged mode; improved            undersea surveillance mission, we need a significant
      guidance and control; improved communications               improvement in our ability to optimize acoustic surveil-
      between multiple vehicles operating in tandem;              lance techniques and sensor placement to ensure the
      development of low-cost, compact, reliable, safe, long-     Navy maintains a strategic advantage in anti-submarine
      duration energy sources; and improved deployment            warfare. From an organizational standpoint, the re-
      and recovery methods for large and small AUVs. Indus-       cent 29 percent reduction in the Naval Oceanography
      try can help with automation and visualization to exam-     Program workforce caused us to implement a matrix
      ine and exploit large volumes of imagery acoustic data.     organizational system to reshape the workforce and
      We could benefit from the development of inexpen-            to shift the organization from a geographic focus to
      sive, disposable, small, and rapidly deployable oceano-     a market structure. All of this will help us better serve
      graphic instrumentation for real-time reporting. We can     our most important customers, the sailors and Marines
      also use help with ensemble forecasting, which is the       who count on us for an accurate picture of the ocean
      ability to provide a single forecast from multiple models   environment.
      using the strengths from each contributing model.

22        Volume IV · Issue 2

Defender Data
NPOESS C3S completes transition to                          Launch-on-demand concept for
operations and support team                                 surveillance from space
SUITLAND, Md. — Raytheon Company, Northrop                  EL SEGUNDO, Calif. — A hyperspectral imaging sensor,
Grumman Corp. and the National Polar-orbiting               developed by Raytheon Company to demonstrate and
Operational Environmental Satellite Integrated Program      assess military applications from satellites launched
Office have successfully completed the transition of        on demand, has been delivered to Kirtland Air Force
the NPOESS command, control and communications              Base, N.M. The delivery marks the ARTEMIS (Advanced
segment to the operations and support team. This            Responsive Tactically Effective Military Imaging
milestone culminated more than four years of develop-       Spectrometer) sensor’s first leg of a journey into space
ment of the C3S and includes all C3S hardware and           scheduled aboard a vehicle known as TacSat-3 from
software needed for the NPOESS Preparatory Project          the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport on Wallops Island,
mission. Additionally, Raytheon, Northrop Grumman,          Va., in mid-2008. The ARTEMIS sensor was developed
NASA and the NPOESS IPO attained a significant              by Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems to help
ground segment achievement by successfully sending          demonstrate the feasibility of the “responsive space”
satellite-commanding instructions from the NPP Mission      concept under a $15 million contract from the Air Force
Management Center at the NOAA Satellite Operations          Research Laboratory. In the responsive space approach,
Facility in Suitland, Md., to the NPP spacecraft and sen-   satellites and their cargo would be kept in a holding
sors at the Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. facility    facility where they could be assembled, transported
in Boulder, Colo. The MMC was able to receive and           rapidly to a convenient launch site, and launched into
analyze the NPP satellite telemetry data successfully.      orbit 200 miles above the earth within three to seven
These tests marked an important achievement because         days of a request by a field commander, providing
they enable the compatibility of all system elements,       data in a user-friendly format while greatly reducing
and they confirm that the program can continue on,          critical response times and enhancing battle assess-
ultimately leading to the NPP launch in late 2009.          ment capabilities. Employing commercial-off-the-shelf
                                                            components and industry standard interfaces, ARTEMIS
Raytheon awarded $45.5 million                              serves as a prototype for systems that can support
for sensor netting technology                               rapid launch requirements in an easy-to-manufacture,
                                                            low-cost design. Raytheon is working on concept
TEWKSBURY, Mass. — The Department of Defense                development for a follow-on hyperspectral imaging
has announced it is purchasing the Raytheon Solipsys        payload with an even wider coverage area for the Naval
Tactical Component Network technology under a               Research Laboratory.
$45.5 million contract for sensor fusion and advanced
networking technology. The award follows a similar          Raytheon honored for MathMovesU
procurement by the Missile Defense Agency earlier in        Program
the year in support of Ballistic Missile Defense System
initiatives. As part of this latest award, Raytheon         LOS ANGELES, Calif. — The California Space Authority
Solipsys is also providing run-time licensing of its        presented its Buzz Aldrin Space Education Award
Tactical Display Framework visualization product at no      to Raytheon Company during the climax event of
cost across all DoD and Missile Defense Agency pro-         the 2007 annual Transforming Space Conference in
grams. TCN® provides a critical warfighting capability      Los Angeles. The award recognized Raytheon for its
in the form of a sensor netting framework to achieve        MathMovesU program, which provides grants and
a single integrated picture and joint interoperability,     scholarships to teachers and students in order to
and also provides a path forward for a joint framework      encourage participation and enthusiasm in doing and
to support an interoperable “plug-and-fight” archi-         teaching math. Since Raytheon began the program in
tecture, needed by the warfighter today. Raytheon           2005, more than 500,000 students and teachers have
Solipsys is a wholly-owned subsidiary within Raytheon       participated, including about 750 students who have
Integrated Defense Systems.                                 received $1,000 scholarships for college and 65 teach-
                                                            ers who have been presented with MathMovesU Math
                                                            Hero awards.

                                                                                                         SPACE         23

     Defender Data continued
     Designing next generation GPS                              First large-scale use of DCGS integration
     control segment                                            backbone technology
     WASHINGTON — The U.S. Air Force Space and Missile          CHINA LAKE, Calif. — Raytheon Company achieved
     Systems Center has awarded Raytheon Company a              several industry firsts in the sharing of intelligence,
     $160 million, 18-month contract to develop a new sys-      reconnaissance, and surveillance data between coali-
     tem design for the next-generation Global Positioning      tion and NATO countries and the United States using
     System Control Segment, which will revolutionize GPS       the Distributed Common Ground System Integration
     command, control and mission capabilities and refocus      Backbone during the Empire Challenge 2007 demon-
     operations for the current GPS Block II and all future     stration. The exercise showed a first for near real-time
     GPS satellites on user effects-based operations. The       integration and data discovery retrieval for a 19-DIB
     system will include anti-jam capabilities, improved sys-   (DCGS Integration Backbone) enterprise, which was
     tem security, accuracy and reliability and will be based   located across nine sites in six separate countries over
     on a modern service-oriented architecture to integrate     four security domains sharing intelligence data with
     government and industry open system standards.             key coalition partners. Raytheon’s High Speed Guard-
                                                                Agatiya, the security product that protects information
     NASA announces details of                                  exchange between different security enclaves, pro-
     mission to service Hubble                                  vided a secure environment that enabled the vital data
                                                                sharing. Additionally, Raytheon provided another first
     AUSTIN, Texas — The National Aeronautics and Space         by populating metadata catalogs at coalition partner
     Administration has released details of a challeng-         sites with information extracted from streaming video
     ing mission to repair and upgrade the Hubble Space         from the Global Broadcast System network. Empire
     Telescope later this year. Set for launch aboard the       Challenge is an annual demonstration that evaluates
     Atlantis space shuttle in August, the 11-day mission       intelligence collection and exploitation-dissemination
     will feature five spacewalks during which astronauts       capabilities for joint and coalition operations.
     will install two powerful new science instruments, a
     new set of gyroscopes to help stabilize the telescope,     First European polar meteorological
     and batteries and thermal blankets to extend the           satellite operational
     telescope’s operational life until at least 2013. Alan
     Stern, associate administrator for the Science Mission     DARMSTADT, Germany — The European Organisation
     Directorate at NASA Headquarters, Washington, said,        for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites offi-
     “Hubble is, without exaggeration, a national treasure,     cially declared operational Europe’s first polar-orbit-
     and all of NASA is looking forward to seeing it receive    ing meteorological satellite, MetOp-A, after only six
     this tune-up and upgrade. I think Americans are going      months of commissioning. According to EUMETSAT,
     to be excited when they see the results of this excit-     the first scientific data from MetOp-A was received as
     ing shuttle mission flower into new discoveries about      early as two days after the end of the launch and early-
     the solar system and the larger universe we live in.       orbit phase. The European Space Agency, which jointly
     And let’s face it, it doesn’t get much more exciting       developed the satellite with EUMETSAT, said the offi-
     than sending a team of astronauts and sophisticated        cial start of regular operations marked a new milestone
     high-tech instruments to make the Hubble better than       in the ongoing development of the U.S.-European
     it ever was before.” Raytheon Company produced             Initial Joint Polar System — and for the overall global
     the Hubble’s optical telescope assembly and the fine       cooperation between Europe and the U.S. The instru-
     guidance sensors and is under contract from Northrop       ments aboard the satellite are provided by EUMETSAT,
     Grumman Space Technology for developmental work            ESA, the French Space Agency and the U.S. National
     on the James Webb Space Telescope program. The             Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The next
     JWST is a next-generation successor to the Hubble and      satellite in the series, known as MetOp-1 is scheduled
     is scheduled for launch in 2011.                           for launch in mid-2008.

24       Volume IV · Issue 2
Mosaic map to revolutionize                                 First responders participate in Raytheon
Antarctic landscape research                                advanced incident command experiment
WASHINGTON — A team of researchers from NASA,               TEWKSBURY, Mass. — Raytheon Company recently
the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Science            hosted federal, state and local first responder
Foundation and the British Antarctic Survey has             agencies in a four-hour advanced incident
unveiled a new map — the Landsat Image Mosaic of            command experiment to improve procedures,
Antarctica — that is expected to revolutionize research     protocols, interfaces and systems employed to
of the continent’s frozen landscape. “This mosaic of        respond to serious incidents. Conducted in high-
images opens up a window to the Antarctic that we           tech modeling and simulation facilities at Raytheon
just haven’t had before,” said Robert Bindschadler,         Integrated Defense Systems’ Headquarters Mission
chief scientist of the Hydrospheric and Biospheric          Center here, the experiment involved reacting to a
Sciences Laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight          notional tanker truck spill on Interstate 95 within the
Center in Greenbelt, Md. “It will open new windows of       city limits of Providence, R.I., that had serious safety,
opportunity for scientific research as well as enable the   medical, health, traffic, and environmental conse-
public to become much more familiar with Antarctica         quences. Participating in the exercise were officials and
and how scientists use imagery in their research. This      players from the Providence Fire Department, Rhode
innovation is like watching high-definition TV in living    Island Emergency Management Agency, Providence
color versus watching the picture on a grainy black-        Emergency Management Agency and Office of
and-white television. These scenes don’t just give us a     Homeland Security, United States Coast Guard,
snapshot, they provide a time-lapse historical record of    Rhode Island State Police, Rhode Island Department
how Antarctica has changed and will enable us to con-       of Health, Rhode Island Department of Environmental
tinue to watch changes unfold.” The realistic, nearly       Management, and Narragansett Bay Commission.
cloudless map of the continent was created using
some 1,100 images captured by Landsat 7 between             Improving accuracy of GPS signals
1999 and 2001.                                              over India

NOAA to ensure accuracy of Global                           FULLERTON, Calif. — Raytheon Company recently
Navigation Satellite System                                 accomplished an important milestone in the worldwide
                                                            transition to satellite-based navigation for civil aviation
WASHINGTON — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric           with the successful completion of the final system
Administration announced recently that it will lead an      acceptance test of the GPS Aided GEO Augmented
international effort to pinpoint the locations of more      Navigation-Technology Demonstration System for
than 40 global positioning satellites in Earth orbit,       India. In the latest test, the Raytheon system demon-
which is vital to ensuring the accuracy of GPS data         strated that ground elements could successfully inte-
that millions worldwide rely upon every day for safe        grate with a geosynchronous satellite over India and
navigation and commerce. NOAA personnel will com-           generate a test signal that conformed to international
pile and analyze satellite orbit data from 10 analysis      requirements for the Indian flight information region.
centers worldwide to ensure the accuracy of GPS             Raytheon also demonstrated that the time from signal
information. For the next four years NOAA’s National        generation to transmission to the satellite and recep-
Geodetic Survey will serve as the analysis center           tion back on the ground was less than the 6.2-second
coordinator for the International Global Navigation         requirement. This sets the stage for the Indian Space
Satellite Systems Service, a voluntary federation of        Research Organisation and Airports Authority of India
more than 200 organizations that provide continuous         to embark on the next phase of the program, which
global satellite-tracking data. The Global Navigation       will expand the existing ground network, add redun-
Satellite Systems, which include the U.S.-based Global      dancy, and produce the certification analysis and docu-
Positioning System, the Russian GLONASS system, and         mentation for safety-of-flight commissioning.
the upcoming European Galileo system, are used for
accurately determining the geographic position of any
point on Earth.

                                                                                                            SPACE         25
On the cover: Digital Globe’s
commercial Quickbird satellite
captured this picture of a wind-
whipped wildfire that threatened
the city of Santa Clarita, just north
of Los Angeles. The fire was one of
23 that ravaged a large portion of
Southern California in late October
2007. Image copyright Digital Globe.