islamic civilization by mahmoudeng1991


									                                                                                368–369 Nabeel Turner/Getty Images
Muslims gather around the Kaaba
at the Great Mosque in Makkah.

            A.D. 600          A.D. 900           1200              1500
        c. A.D. 610        A.D. 750    c. 1100          1258      c. 1375
        Muhammad           Abbasids    Omar Khayyam     Mongols   Ibn Khaldun
        receives           overthrow   writes the       burn      writes
        prophetic call     Umayyads    Rubaiyat         Baghdad   histories
Chapter Preview                                                                          Chapter Overview Visit
                                                                                for a preview
   A few hundred years after the beginnings of Christianity,                             of Chapter 11.
another important religion arose in the Middle East: Islam.
Followers of Islam conquered much of the Middle East,
northern Africa, and part of Europe. They also made great
cultural contributions to the world.
        View the Chapter 11 video in the World History:
        Journey Across Time Video Program.

                      The Rise of Islam
                       The religion of Islam originated in Arabia. It was
                       based on the teachings of Muhammad.

                      Islamic Empires
                       Followers of Islam, called Muslims, conquered
                       or converted people as they spread their faith
                       throughout the Middle East and the Mediterranean.

                      Muslim Ways of Life
                       Muslims were skilled traders and builders. They
                       established large cities and made many advances
                       in mathematics, science, and the arts.

                                Categorizing Information Make the following foldable to organize information
                                about the people and places of Islamic civilization.

 Step 1 Collect two sheets                 Step 2 Fold down the top edges                Reading and Writing
 of paper and place them                   of the paper to form four tabs.               As you read, use your
 about 1 inch apart.                                                                     foldable to write down
                                                                                         what you learn about
                                                                                         Islamic civilization.
                                                                        This makes all
                                                                         the tabs the
                                                                                         Write facts under each
                          Keep the                                        same size.     appropriate tab.

 Step 3 When all the tabs are the
                                               Islamic Civilization       Staple
 same size, crease the paper to hold
 the tabs in place and staple the sheets       The Rise of Islam        along the
 together. Turn the paper and label
                                              The Muslim Ways of Life
 each tab as shown.

Main Idea

                  Main Ideas and Details
                      Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph,
                  section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples
                  that explain the main idea. Read the following paragraph from
                  Section 3 and notice how the author explains the main idea.

                            Several things explain the
                         success of Muslim trade. When
                         Muslim empires expanded, they
                         spread the Arabic language. As
                         a result, Arabic became the lan-
                         guage of trade. Muslim rulers
                         also made trade easier by provid-
                         ing merchants with coins.
                                                     —from page 388

                   st sente
   Often , the fir       ll
               raph wi
   in a parag           dea.
                                        Supporting          Main Idea             Supporting
             a main i                     Detail                                    Detail
    contain         details
     Su ppor ting following
                e in
      will com .                                            Supporting

Using a Graphic                                                Read to Write
                                                                   “The famous Mogul
Organizer                                                          ruler Akbar could not
                                                                   read, yet he set up a
   Read the following paragraph, and find the main idea            large library because he
and supporting details. Create a graphic organizer like the        valued education, books,
one that appears at the bottom of page 370.                        and art.” Write a letter
                                                                   to Akbar telling him
                                                                   about your favorite book
                                                                   and why it should be
                                                                   included in his library.

            Times were good in India under
         Akbar. Farmers and artisans pro-
         duced more food and goods than
         the Indians needed. As a result,
         trade increased. Muslim merchants
         brought paper, gunpowder, and fine
         porcelain from China to India. In
         addition, Muslim architects intro-
         duced new building styles, such as
         the arch and dome, to India.
                                 —from page 386

                                             As you read Chapter 11, create your
                                             own graphic organizer to show the
                                             main idea and supporting details
                                             from at least one paragraph.
                                                              Paul Dupuy Museum, Toulouse, France/Lauros-Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock
                               The Rise of Islam

                        What’s the Connection?                            Locating Places
                             Previously, you learned about                Makkah (MAH • kuh)
                        early empires in southwest Asia.                  Kaaba (KAH • buh)
                        During the A.D. 600s, people called               Madinah (mah • DEE • nah)
                        Arabs began a new empire in the
                        region. The driving force behind                  Meeting People
                        their empire building was the religion            Bedouin (BEH • duh • wuhn)
                        of Islam.                                         Muhammad (moh • HAH • muhd)

                        Focus on the                                      Building Your Vocabulary
                        • The deserts, coastline, and oases of            oasis (oh • AY • suhs)
                         Arabia helped shape the Arab way                 sheikh (SHAYK)
                         of life. (page 373)                              caravan (KAR • uh • VAN)
                        • The prophet Muhammad brought the                Quran (koh • RAHN)
                         message of Islam to the people of
                         Arabia. (page 374)                               Reading Strategy
                                                                          Organizing Information Use a
                        • The Quran provided guidelines for               diagram like the one below to identify
                         Muslims’ lives and the governments               the Five Pillars of faith.
                         of Muslim states. (page 377)
                                                                                       Five Pillars

                                 A.D. 550                          A.D. 600                           A.D. 650
                                     A.D. 570                    c. A.D. 610                  A.D. 630
                                     Muhammad                    Muhammad receives            Makkah surrenders
      Madinah                        is born                     prophetic call               to Muhammad

372              CHAPTER 11   Islamic Civilization
Daily Life in Early Arabia                                   Bedouins lived in tents and ate dried
                                                         fruits and nuts. They drank the milk of their
              The deserts, coastline, and oases of       animals. Only rarely would they eat meat.
Arabia helped shape the Arab way of life.                Their animals were much too valuable to be
Reading Focus Do you ever think about how rainfall       used as food.
shapes your life? Read on to find out how lack of rain
helped shape the Arabs’ way of life.                     Trade and Towns      Many Arabs lived in vil-
                                                         lages where they farmed or raised animals.
    Desert stretches over most of the Arabian            These villages were near oases or in the
peninsula. The heat is intense, and a sand-              mountain valleys.
storm can blind any traveler. Water is found                 Some of the villagers were merchants
only at oases (oh AY seez), green areas fed by           who transported goods across the desert. To
underground water. Not all of Arabia is dry,             fend off attacks by Bedouins, many traveled
however. In the mountains of the south-                  in a caravan (KAR • uh• VAN), or group of trav-
west, enough rain falls to support plants                eling merchants and animals.
such as juniper and olive trees.                             By about A.D. 500, Arabian merchants
    To survive, early Arabs organized into               handled most trade between India and the
tribes who were very loyal to one another.               Mediterranean Sea. As their trade grew,
The head of the tribe was called a sheikh                Arab merchants founded towns along the
(SHAYK).                                                 trade routes in Arabia. Makkah (MAH • kuh),
                                                         also known as Mecca, became the largest
Who Are the Bedouins?    Some Arabs were                 and richest of them all. It was a crossroads
desert herders. To water and graze their                 for merchants, and it was also an important
camels, goats, and sheep, they went from                 religious site. The holiest place in Arabia was
oasis to oasis. They were called Bedouins                in this city.
(BEH • duh • wuhnz).

   Today, many Bedouins still roam the desert and
   live in tents. Where did Bedouins graze their
   animals in the desert?

                                                                            Bedouin woman
                                                                            making bread

                                                                               (l)DiMaggio/Kalish/CORBIS, (r)Kevin Fleming/CORBIS
                          The Middle East, c. A.D. 600                               Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet
                                                                                                  The prophet Muhammad brought the
          KEY                                     E                                  message of Islam to the people of Arabia.
      Byzantine Empire                    S
      Persian Empire
                                                                                     Reading Focus Have you ever heard someone speak
                                                                                     and been moved to tears? The following paragraphs tell
                         Black Sea CA                                                about a prophet who moved the Arab people with his

                                       SM                                            words.
                                                              an S
                     ASIA                  .                                  40°N
                                                                  ea                 Muhammad’s Message

                                                                                                                In A.D. 570 a man

Mediterranean  SYRIA
                                               s R.

     Sea Damascus                                                                    named Muhammad (moh • HAH • muhd) was
                                      E                             PERSIA
                                                      Baghdad                        born in Makkah. An orphan, he was raised

Alexandria                   Jerusalem

                                                  sR                                 by an uncle. As a teenager, he worked in

                                                     .                 Persepolis
                                                                                     the trusted job of caravan leader and even-

                                                             si a

                                                                n                    tually became a successful merchant. He
                le R


 SAHARA                            Yathrib

                                                                                     married and had children.

 0                 500 mi.                  ARABIAN                                      Despite his success, Muhammad was
 0         500 km                  Makkah P E N I N S U L A
 Lambert Azimuthal                 (Mecca)                                    20°N   dissatisfied. He felt that the wealthy town
 Equal-Area projection
                                                                                     leaders should return to the old ways. He
                                              YEMEN                      Arabian     thought they should honor their families,
                                                                                     be fair in business, and help the poor.
                                                                                         Muhammad went into the hills to pray.
           Islam, one of the world’s major                                           In about A.D. 610, he said he was visited by
           religions, began in the Arabian                                           an angel and told to preach Islam. Islam
           Peninsula.                                                                means “surrendering to the will of Allah.”
           1. Which empire was located                                               Allah is the Arabic word for “God.”
              north and west of the Arabian
              Peninsula?                                                                 Inspired, Muhammad returned to
           2. About how far is it from Makkah                                        Makkah. Everywhere he went, he told
              to Yathrib?                                                            people to destroy statues of false gods and
           Find NGS online map resources @                                           to worship only Allah, the one true God.
                                                                                         Muhammad also preached that all peo-
                                                                                     ple were equal and that the rich should
                                                                                     share their goods. In Makkah, where most
   In the middle of Makkah was the Kaaba                                             people lived humbly, this vision of a just
(KAH buh), a low square building sur-                                                society was very powerful. Muhammad
rounded by statues of gods and goddesses.                                            was saying that wealth was not as impor-
Arabs believed that the great stone inside                                           tant as leading a good life. When the Day of
the Kaaba was from heaven. Pilgrims, peo-                                            Judgment arrived, he said God would
ple who travel to a holy place, flocked to                                           reward the good people and punish the
Makkah. Arabians worshiped many gods,                                                evildoers.
but the most important was Allah. Allah
was considered to be the creator.                                                    Opposition to Islam  Slowly Muhammad
                                   Analyze How did geography                         convinced people that his message was
shape life in Arabia?                                                                true. At first, only his family became

374                        CHAPTER 11                 Islamic Civilization
Muslims, or followers of Islam. Soon, how-           Muhammad’s Government          The people of
ever, many of the poor were attracted to his         Madinah accepted Muhammad as God’s
message that goods should be shared.                 prophet and their ruler. Muhammad
    Wealthy merchants and religious lead-            proved to be an able leader. He applied the
ers did not like Muhammad’s message.                 laws he believed God had given him to all
They thought he was trying to take away              areas of life. He used these laws to settle
their power. They made his life difficult and        disputes among the people. Muhammad
beat and tortured his followers.                     created an Islamic state—a government that
    In A.D. 622 Muhammad and his follow-             uses its political power to uphold Islam. He
ers left Makkah. They moved north to a               required all Muslims to place loyalty to the
town called Yathrib (YA • thruhb). The jour-         Islamic state above loyalty to their tribe.
ney of Muhammad and his followers to                     To defend his new government,
Yathrib became known as the Hijrah (HIH •            Muhammad built an army. His soldiers con-
jruh). The word comes from Arabic and                quered Makkah in A.D. 630, and Muhammad
means “breaking off relationships.” Later            then made it a holy city of Islam. Two years
Muslims made the year A.D. 622 the first             later, Muhammad died. By this time, Islam
year of a new Muslim calendar. Yathrib wel-          was spreading to all of Arabia.
comed Muhammad and his followers. Their
                                                                         Explain Why did
city was renamed Madinah (mah • DEE • nah),          Muhammad’s message appeal to the poor?
which means “the city of the prophet.”
                                                   A pilgrimage to Makkah

A Holy Journey
A pilgrimage to the holy city of Makkah often involved a long,
difficult journey across deserts and other rough country.
Muslim travelers carried palm leaves to show that they were
on a pilgrimage. Where was Muhammad born?

                                                                            Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library
                                                                                                              (t)C. Hellier/Ancient Art & Architecture Collection, (b)George Chan/Photo Researchers
MU570–A2 MAD
   H M
                                                   and many
    Muhammad experienced great poverty
                                         Abd Allah, died before
hardships early in his life. His father,
                                             uttalib, took care of
he was born. His grandfather, Abd al-M
                                            e. Abd al-Muttalib felt
Muhammad in Makkah for a short tim
                                           to raise a baby, but he
that Makkah was an unhealthy place
                                           itical leader in the city.
could not leave because he was a pol
                                           e of nomads. They
So he entrusted Muhammad to a trib
                                         home, the desert. When
 took the baby Muhammad to their
                                            ther died. Two years
 Muhammad was six years old, his mo
                                              grandfather also died.
 later, when Muhammad was eight, his
                                            inherit anything, so
 Arab custom did not allow minors to                                              The Mosque of the Prophet
                                              mad’s father    and                 in Madinah contains
 the property and money from Muham
                                            n to him   . To survive,               Muhammad’s tomb.
  grandfather could not be passed dow
                                          of Abu Talib, his uncle
  Muhammad needed the protection
  who now headed the family.
                                                           eled by camel on trading journeys to
      Under  the care of Abu Talib, Muhammad trav                                         mad met a
                                                    about twenty-five years old, Muham
  Syria. On one of these trips, when he was                                            r daughters.
                                               and Muhammad married and had fou
  wealthy woman named Khadijah. She                                                                  to
                                                               t childhood. Muhammad’s marriage
   They also had at least two sons who did not live pas                                       ant class.
                                                       mber of Makkah’s prosperous merch
   Khadijah made him a wealthy man and a me                                           et his early
                                               However, Muhammad could not forg
                                               experiences. His childhood had deeply
                                                                                      tful person. He
                                               Muhammad and made him a though
                                                                                     r Makkah and
                                                often would go up into the hills nea
                                                                                     he would reflect
                                                spend nights in a cave. Alone there,
                                                                                     and the growing
                                                on the problems he saw in Makkah
                                                                                      h great wealth
                                                tension between the few people wit
                                                                                      It was in these
                                                and the many people with nothing.
                                                                                        el told him,
                                                hills that Muhammad claimed an ang
                                                 “You are the Messenger of God.”

                                                                                         d saw in
                                                      Are any of the problems Muhamma
                                                                                            we see
    The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem                 Makkah similar to problems in society
    marks the place where Muhammad                    today? Explain.
     believed to have ascended to heaven.
                                                          Muhammad. For Christians, Jesus was
Islam’s Teachings                                         more than a prophet. He was the son of
               The Quran provided guidelines for          God and therefore divine. In Islam,
Muslims’ lives and the governments of Muslim              Muhammad is seen as a prophet and a very
states.                                                   good person but not as divine.
Reading Focus Do you ever wonder how you should
act in certain situations? In the following paragraphs,   What Is the Quran?       Muslims wrote down
you will learn where Muslims looked for guidance.         the messages that Muhammad said he
                                                          received from Allah. These writings became
    Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have                 the Quran (koh • RAHN), or holy book of
some beliefs in common. Like Jews and                     Islam. For Muslims, the Quran is God’s
Christians, Muslims believe in one God.                   written word. For this reason, Muslims
Muslims believe this one God holds all                    strive to follow the Quran.
power and created the universe. They also                     The Quran instructs Muslims about
believe that God determines right and                     how they should live. Many of its moral
wrong. People are expected to obey God’s                  teachings are like those of the Bible. For
laws if they want to be blessed in the afterlife.         example, Muslims are told to be honest and
    Jews, Christians, and Muslims also                    to treat others fairly. They are to honor their
believe that God spoke to people through                  parents, show kindness to their neighbors,
prophets. For Muslims, early prophets                     and give generously to the poor. Murder,
were Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and finally                   lying, and stealing are forbidden.

                                                                                    A child studies
                                                                                    the Quran
   Muslim pilgrims surround the Kaaba in Makkah. When did
   Muhammad’s soldiers capture the city of Makkah?

                                                            CHAPTER 11    Islamic Civilization                    377
                                                                                                 (l)AFP/CORBIS, (r)ARAMCO
                                                                Many rules in the Quran apply to
      The Five Pillars of Islam                             Muslims’ daily life. According to these rules,
                                                            Muslims should not eat pork, drink liquor,
  Belief            Muslims must declare that
                     there is no god but Allah and          or gamble. The Quran also has rules about
                     that Muhammad is his prophet.          marriage, divorce, family life, property
                                                            rights, and business practices.
  Prayer            Muslims must pray five times
                                                                Muslims are expected to fulfill the Five
                     per day facing toward
                     Makkah.                                Pillars of Islam, or acts of worship. These
                                                            are shown in the chart at the left.
  Charity           Muslims must give to the poor.              Scholars of Islam also created a law code
                                                            that explains how society should be run.
  Fasting           Muslims must not eat from               This code is taken from the Quran and the
                     dawn to dusk during the
                     sacred holiday of Ramadan.             Sunna (SUH • nuh). The Sunna is the name
                                                            given to customs based on Muhammad’s
  Pilgrimage        Muslims must visit Makkah               words and deeds. Islam’s law code covers
                     once in their life.                    all areas of daily life. It applies the teachings
                                                            of the Quran to family life, business, and
   The Five Pillars are acts of worship that all
   Muslims must carry out. How many times                                                Evaluate What role do the
   should Muslims pray each day?                            Quran and Sunna play in Muslim daily life?

                                                                    Study CentralTM Need help with the
                                                                    material in this section? Visit

                                         What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary                          1. What are oases, and why were
                                            they important to Arabs?
                                                                                    4. Conclude Why do you think
                                                                                       Muhammad’s teachings were
Review the
                                         2. Name some activities the                   popular with poorer people?
• In the desert of the Arabian
  Peninsula, the Arab people were           Quran prohibits.                        5. Analyze How did Muhammad
  mostly herders and traders.                                                          link religion and government?
                                         Critical Thinking
                                         3. Compare and Contrast                    6. Expository Writing Suppose
• In the town of Makkah,                    Draw a Venn diagram to                     you are living in Makkah at
  Muhammad began to preach a                compare and contrast Islam,                the time Muhammad began
  new religion, Islam, which soon           Judaism, and Christianity.                 preaching. Write a short news-
  spread to all of Arabia.                                                             paper article that describes
                                                                                       Muhammad’s teachings and
• Muslims believe that Muhammad                                                        the reactions of people in the
  was Allah’s final prophet and that            Islam           Judaism                city to those teachings.
  their holy book, the Quran, is                        Three                       7.                  Main Idea Draw
  Allah’s written word.
                                                                                         a graphic organizer to show the
                                                                                         supporting details for this main
                                                                                         idea: Geography shaped the way
                                                                                         that the early Arabs lived.

378             CHAPTER 11       Islamic Civilization
                                      Islamic Empires
       What’s the Connection?                               Meeting People
           In Section 1, you learned how                    Umayyad (oo • MY • uhd)
       Islam spread from Madinah to                         Sufi (SOO • fee)
       Makkah. In time, Islam’s followers                   Abbasid (uh • BA • suhd)
       brought their beliefs to all of                      Suleiman I (SOO • lay • MAHN)
       Southwest Asia and parts of
                                                            Mogul (MOH • guhl)
       Southeast Asia, Africa, and Europe.
                                                            Akbar (AK • buhr)
       Focus on the
       • Arabs spread Islam through preaching,              Building Your Vocabulary
                                                            caliph (KAY • luhf)
           conquest, and trade. (page 380)
                                                            Shiite (SHEE • eyet)
       • While Muslims split into two groups,               Sunni (SU • nee)
           the Arab Empire reached new heights.
                                                            sultan (SUHL • tuhn)
           (page 382)

       • Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires              Reading Strategy
           in Asia, Africa, and Europe. (page 384)          Cause and Effect Create a diagram
                                                            to show why the Arabs were successful
       Locating Places                                      conquerors.
       Damascus (duh • MAS • kuhs)
       Indonesia (IHN • duh • NEE • zhuh)
       Timbuktu (TIHM • BUHK • TOO)
       Baghdad (BAG • dad)                                      Arabs were successful conquerors.
       Delhi (DEH • lee)

                                         A.D. 500                              1100                              1700
                                                     A.D. 750                    1258                     1526
C´ordoba                                             Abbasids overthrow          Mongols burn             Moguls rule
            Constantinople                           Umayyads                    Baghdad                  India from Delhi

                                                                          CHAPTER 11      Islamic Civilization           379
                                                                                  fought hard for Islam. They wanted to
The Spread of Islam

                                                                                                                                                                     The Art Archive/Hazem Palace Damascus/Dagli Orti
                                                                                  spread Allah’s message to everyone. Under
            Arabs spread Islam through preaching,                                 their rule, the empire expanded to include
conquest, and trade.                                                              all of southwest Asia.
Reading Focus When you come up with a new idea,                                       Expansion continued under the Umayyad
how do you let others know about it? Read on to find                              (oo • MY • uhd) caliphs, who ruled from
out how Arabs spread Islam.                                                       A.D. 661 to A.D. 750. They made their capital
                                                                                  the city of Damascus (duh • MAS • kuhs) in
                                                                                  Syria. Now the Arab Empire included
    When Muhammad died, his followers
                                                                                  North Africa, Spain, and some of India.
chose his successor. He was called a caliph
(KAY • luhf), which meant successor to the                                        The Muslims Build an Empire      Just 100
Messenger of God.                                                                 years after Muhammad’s death, the Islamic
    The first caliph was Muhammad’s father-                                       state became a great empire. Why were the
in-law, Abu Bakr. The first four caliphs ruled                                    Arabs so successful?
from Madinah and were called the Rightly                                              Arabs had always been good on horse-
Guided Caliphs. That is because they tried                                        back and good with the sword, but as
to follow in Muhammad’s footsteps. They                                           Muslims, they also were inspired by their
lived simply, treated others fairly, and also                                     religion. They were fighting to spread

                          The Spread of Islam A.D. 632–750
                                 0                          20 E
                              FRANCE                                                                                     Sea
  40                                                                                                    E
    °N                                                                                       W

           SPAIN                                                                                  S

   C´ordoba                                                               Black Sea

 Strait of                                             Constantinople

 Gibraltar        GRANADA


                                                                                                                                                      Ind u s R.

                                                                         MINOR          SO          r


  MOROCCO                                                                            up OTA

                                                                        SYRIA          h ratM
                                                                                            es          IA     Baghdad                   PERSIA
                                                   Mediterranean Sea Damascus                     R.
                                                                                   Jerusalem                          Pe
                                                                     Cairo                                               r   si a
                                     AFRICA                                                                                         nG
                                                                                                                                         ul f
         0                500 mi.                                  EGYPT
                                                                                             Madinah                                                          20°N
         0         500 km
         Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection                                                  Makkah                                          Arabian





                                                          Islamic territory at
                                                          Muhammad's death, A.D. 632
                                                          Islamic expansion, A.D. 632–661
                                                          Islamic expansion, A.D. 661–750                    After Muhammad’s death, the ter-
                                                          Byzantine Empire, A.D. 750                         ritory in the Arab Empire expanded.
                                                                                                             1. What area of Europe came under
                                                                                                                Muslim control?
                                                        The Umayyad Mosque, also                             2. Describe the territories conquered
                                                        known as the Great Mosque                               by the Arabs by the year A.D. 661.
                                                        of Damascus
                             The Rightly Guided Caliphs
                   Abu Bakr             Umar                   Uthman                   Ali
Relationship to    father-in-law        friend                 son-in-law,              first cousin,
Muhammad                                                       member of the            son-in-law
                                                               Umayyad family

Career            merchant              merchant               merchant                 soldier, writer
Caliphate         A.D.   632–634        A.D.   634–644         A.D.   644–656           A.D.   656–661

Achievements      spread Islam to       spread Islam to    spread Islam        reformed tax
as Caliph          all of Arabia;        Syria, Egypt,      into Afghanistan    collection
                   restored peace        and Persia;        and eastern         and other
                   after death of        redesigned         Mediterranean;      government
                   Muhammad;             government;        organized a navy;   systems; spent
                   created code          paid soldiers;     improved the        most of caliphate
                   of conduct in         held a census;     government;         battling Muawiya,
                   war; compiled         made taxes         built more roads,   the governor
                   Quran verses          more fair; built   bridges, and        of Syria
                                         roads and canals; canals; distributed
                                         aided poor         text of the Quran
                  Islamic glass horse

                                                          Under the caliphs, Islam spread through the
Islam. Muslims believed anyone who died                   Middle East and into North Africa.
in battle for Islam would go to paradise.                 1. Which caliph organized a navy?
                                                          2. Compare What achievements did Umar
    The Arabs were also successful because                   and Ali have in common?
they let conquered peoples practice their
own religion. They called Christians and
Jews “People of the Book,” meaning that
these people, too, believed in one God and               and teaching Islam. They won many fol-
had holy writings. Muslims did not treat                 lowers throughout the Arab Empire.
everyone equally, though. Non-Muslims                        Arab merchants also helped to spread
had to pay a special tax.                                Islam. They set up trading posts throughout
    When a people are conquered, they tend               southeast Asia and taught Islam to the peo-
to adopt the religion and customs of their               ple there. Today, the country of Indonesia
new rulers. In the Arab Empire, many peo-                (IHN • duh • NEE • zhuh) includes more Muslims
ple became Muslims and learned Arabic.                   than any other nation in the world.
The customs of the conquered countries also                  Some Arab merchants crossed the Sahara
influenced the Arabic rulers. Eventually, the            to trade with kingdoms in West Africa. In
term Arab meant only that a person spoke                 the 1300s, the west African city of Timbuktu
Arabic, not that he or she was from Arabia.              (TIHM • BUHK • TOO) became a leading center of
Preaching and Trading        Muslims also                Muslim learning.
spread Islam by preaching. A group called                                       Explain How did Arabs
Sufis (SOO • feez) spent their time praying              spread the religion of Islam through trade?

                                                           CHAPTER 11      Islamic Civilization                     381
                                                                                                  Burstein Collection/CORBIS
Struggles Within Islam                                      to the present day. Today most Muslims are
                                                            Sunnis. Iran and Iraq have the largest pop-
             While Muslims split into two groups,           ulations of Shiites.
the Arab Empire reached new heights.
Reading Focus Have you ever belonged to a club              How Did Islam Split?    Shiites (SHEE • eyets)
whose members could not agree on a leader? Read to          believed that Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law,
find out what happened when Muslims disagreed about         should succeed him and that all future
who should lead them.                                       caliphs should be Ali’s descendants.
                                                            According to the Shiites, the Umayyad
   From the moment Muhammad died,                           caliphs in Damascus had no right to rule.
Muslims began arguing about who had                             Sunnis (SU • nees), who outnumbered
the right to be caliph. The quarrel over                    Shiites, accepted the Umayyad dynasty as
who should succeed Muhammad split the                       rightful caliphs, though they did not always
Muslim world into two groups, the Sunnis                    agree with their policies. Over time, the
and the Shiites. This division has remained                 Shiites and Sunnis developed different reli-
                                                            gious practices and customs.

                                                            Who Were the Abbasids?        The Abbasids
                                                            (uh • BA • suhds) were the dynasty that came
                             Royal Caliphs                  after the Umayyads. The Umayyads lost
   Ibn Khaldun recorded historical events and               power in A.D. 750 because they angered
   his interpretation of them.                              many Muslims, especially in Persia. Persian
   “When one considers                                             Muslims felt that Arab Muslims got
   what God meant the                                              special treatment. They got the best
   caliphate to be, nothing                                        jobs and paid fewer taxes.
   more needs [to be said]
                                                                        When these Muslims rebelled,
   about it. God made the
   caliph his substitute to                                        people all over the empire joined
   handle the affairs of His                                       them. They overthrew the Umayyads,
   servants. He is to make                                         and a new dynasty began. The
   them do the things that                                         new caliph was a descendant of
   are good for them and                                           Muhammad’s uncle. His name was
   forbid them to do those                                         Abu al-Abbas. The new Abbasid
   that are harmful. He has
   been directly told so.
                                                                   dynasty lasted until 1258.
   A person who lacks the      The Great Mosque                 The Abbasids devoted their energies to
   power to do a thing is      of Damascus                  trade, scholarship, and the arts. They also
   never told to do it.”       built by the                 built a new capital, Baghdad (BAG • dad).
                               Umayyad caliphs.
                     —Ibn Khaldun,                              Baghdad prospered because it was
                 “The Muqaddimah”
                                                            beside the Tigris River and near the
                                                            Euphrates River. It was a good location to
                                                            trade since many people used the rivers to
      According to Khaldun, what is the                     ship goods north and south. As a result, the
      relationship between God and the caliph?              Arab Empire grew even wealthier.
                                                                The Abbasid dynasty is also known for
                                                            bringing Persian influence into the empire.

382                    CHAPTER 11    Islamic Civilization
Alison Wright/CORBIS
                  Abbasid Empire A.D. 800
                                                                            W          E
Abbasid empire during reign
of Harun al-Rashid, A.D. 800             Da                                                                       Aral

                                           nu b
                                                  e R.
                                                                                 S                                 Sea
Abbasid capital

                                                           Black Sea                                                              40°N

Former Umayyad capital
Trade route through Baghdad                BYZANTINE



                                                                                                                                         I n d us R

         0°                                                           SYRIA


                                      errane    Damascus

                                            an Se

                                                  a                                    ra
                                                                       Jerusalem            te s
                                                                     PALESTINE                              r   si a
                                               EGYPT                                                                   nG



                                  0                 500 mi.
                                  0         500 km
                                  Lambert Azimuthal
                                  Equal-Area projection
                                20°E                                             40°E

                                                          Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasid empire and an
                                                          important center for trade.
                               A mosque                   1. What empire blocked Abbasid expansion to the northwest?
                               in Baghdad                 2. Does Baghdad appear to be well located for trade? Explain.

Baghdad was very close to Persia, and the                                1055, they boldly took Baghdad itself. The
Abbasid rulers came to know and love the                                 Seljuks were satisfied to rule only the
art and literature of Persia.                                            government and army. They let the Abbasid
                                                                         caliph remain as the religious leader. The
The Seljuk Turks      Time brought many
                                                                         Seljuk ruler called himself sultan (SUHL •
changes in the 500 years of Abbasid rule. In
                                                                         tuhn), or “holder of power.”
Egypt and Spain, the Muslims wanted their
                                                                             For 200 more years, the empire contin-
own caliphs. About the same time, a new
                                                                         ued in this way. The Seljuks ruled, but it
people, the Seljuk Turks of central Asia,
                                                                         was still the Abbasid dynasty. Then, in the
began moving south into the Arab Empire.
                                                                         1200s, another people swept into the
The Abbasids were losing control.
                                                                         empire. These were the fierce Mongols of
    The Seljuk Turks were nomads and
                                                                         central Asia. The Mongols were building
great warriors. When they first moved
                                                                         their own empire and destroying many of
into the empire, the Abbasids hired them as
                                                                         the civilizations they conquered. In 1258
soldiers. Soon, however, the Seljuk Turks
                                                                         they stormed into Baghdad and burned it to
saw how weak the Abbasids were. They
                                                                         the ground. The Arab Empire had ended.
decided to take power for themselves.
    First, the Seljuks took over much of                                                     Contrast What is the dif-
what is now Iran and Turkey. Then, in                                    ference between Shiite and Sunni Muslims?

                                                                           CHAPTER 11                           Islamic Civilization                   383
                                                                                                                                                 Nik Wheeler
Later Muslim Empires

                                                                                                               James L. Stanfield/National Geographic Society Image Collection
                                                          Who Were the Ottomans?            In the late
                                                          1200s, a group of Turks in the northwest
              Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires       corner of Asia Minor began to build a new
in Asia, Africa, and Europe.                              empire. The ruler of these Turks was named
Reading Focus How do you react when someone               Osman, and as a result, these Turks became
treats you unfairly? Read on to find out how Muslims in   known as the Ottoman Turks.
Turkey and India treated the people they conquered.           The Ottomans quickly conquered most
                                                          of the land that today makes up the country
   The Arabs built—and lost—the first                     of Turkey. They attacked the Byzantine
Muslim empire. Later on, other Muslim                     Empire and pushed north into Europe. In
groups created empires in Asia, Africa, and               1453 they seized Constantinople, the
Europe. One of the largest and most power-                Byzantine capital. They changed the city’s
ful of these empires was the Ottoman                      name to Istanbul and made it the center of
empire that began in Turkey. Another was                  their empire.
the Mogul empire in India.                                          Ottoman armies also marched
                                                                south, conquering Syria, Palestine,
                                                                Egypt, Mesopotamia, and parts of
                                                                Arabia and North Africa. They used
                                                                guns and cannons to fight their bat-
                                                                tles and built a large navy to control
                                                                the Mediterranean Sea.
                                                                    Like the Seljuks, the Ottomans
                                                                called their leader a sultan. The most
                                                                famous sultan was Suleiman I (SOO •
                                                                lay • MAHN), who ruled in the 1500s.
                                                                Suleiman was a man of many talents.
                                                                He was enthusiastic about architecture
                                                                and built many schools and mosques.
                                                                    Suleiman was also a brilliant gen-
                                                                eral, who brought Ottoman armies
                                                                north into Europe. He even threatened
                                                                the great European capital of Vienna.
                                                                For all these reasons, Ottomans called
                                                                him Suleiman the Magnificent.
                                                                    After his rule, the Ottoman empire
                                                                began to weaken. Little by little, they
                                                                lost territory. The empire finally col-
                                                                lapsed at the end of World War I.

                                                                Muslims pray beneath the large decorated
                                                                dome of Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey.
                                                                Suleiman built this beautiful mosque for his
                                                                son Selim II. What were some of the reasons
                                                                that Suleiman was called “the Magnificent”?
                                       The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire
                                                    0                                20 E                                              40 E
                                                                                                                        Dnieper R.
             ATLANTIC                                                  ube                      D n ie
                                                                Da n         R.                          ste
              OCEAN                                                               Vienna                       r
                                                  FRANCE AUSTRIA



                                                               ITALY                                                    Black Sea

         N                   SPAIN

             S tr                                                                                                                                         Ti
    S               a it o                                                                                                                                     g
                             f G ibr                                                                                ASIA MINOR

                                       a lt a r    Algiers                             GREECE                                                                                      PERSIA


                                                                                                                                               Eu                         Baghdad
0                               500 mi.                                Med                                                              SYRIA
                                                                           it     e rra n          Crete                 Cyprus                                       .
0           500 km                                                                          ean Sea                                                                                Pe
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection                            Tripoli                                                                 Damascus                                     r si
                                                                                                                                         Jerusalem                                             an
                                                  AFRICA                                                            Cairo                                  ARABIA

                                                                                                                             N ile

                                                       Ottoman lands, c. 1300                                                EGYPT                                  Makkah

                                                   New Territory Gained:                                                                                                                        20°N


                                                       c. 1300–1326 (Osman)
                                                       1520–1566 (Suleiman I)

                                                                                                 The Ottoman empire continued to
        The Ottomans used elite                                                                  expand for almost 400 years.
        soldiers called janissaries.                                                             1. How far west into Europe did the
                                                                                                    Ottoman empire expand?
                                                                                                 2. During what time period did the Ottoman
How Were Non-Muslims Treated?          The                                                          empire expand to the Persian Gulf?
Ottoman empire had many different people,
including Turks, Arabs, Greeks, Albanians,
Armenians, and Slavs. These groups prac-                                                       Who Were the Moguls?             During the
ticed several religions. While many were                                                       1500s, the Moguls (MOH • guhlz) created
Muslims, others were Christians or Jews.                                                       another Muslim empire in India. These
    The government made different laws for                                                     Muslim warriors came from the mountains
non-Muslims. They had to pay a special tax,                                                    north of India. The Moguls used guns, can-
and in return, they were free to practice                                                      nons, elephants, and horses to conquer
their religion. They also could run their                                                      territory. In 1526 they made the city of
own affairs. These groups chose leaders to                                                     Delhi (DEH • lee) the center of their empire.
present their views to the sultan.                                                                 The greatest Mogul ruler was Akbar
    However, the sultan made some                                                              (AK • buhr). He brought peace and order to
demands on the conquered people. For                                                           the part of India he ruled by treating all his
example, Christian families in Eastern                                                         subjects fairly. Most of India’s people were
Europe had to send their sons to Istanbul.                                                     Hindu. He allowed them to practice their
There the boys became Muslims and                                                              religion. Both Hindus and Muslims served
trained as soldiers for the sultan.                                                            in Akbar’s government.

                                                                                                 CHAPTER 11                           Islamic Civilization                                          385
                                                                                 result, trade increased. Muslim merchants
                                                                                 brought paper, gunpowder, and fine porce-
                                                                                 lain from China to India. In addition,
                                                                                 Muslim architects introduced new building
                                                                                 styles, such as the arch and dome, to India.
                                                                                     After Akbar, the Mogul empire began to
                                                                                 decline. Later rulers spent too much money
                                                                                 trying to expand the empire and imposed
                                                                                 heavy taxes on the people. Others tried to
                                                                                 force the Hindus to convert to Islam and
                                                                                 banned the building of Hindu temples.
                                                                                 These policies led to many rebellions, and
                                                                                 parts of the empire broke away.
                                                                                     At the same time the Moguls began los-
                                                                                 ing power over their subjects, they had to
                                                                                 deal with European merchants. The mer-
     Mogul emperor Akbar passing the crown to                                    chants came to India to trade but used their
     his grandson Shah Jahan                                                     military power to take over Mogul territory.
                                                                                 Eventually, the Mogul empire collapsed, and
   Times were good in India under Akbar.                                         Great Britain took control of most of India.
Farmers and artisans produced more food                                                             Describe How did
and goods than the Indians needed. As a                                          Constantinople change in 1453?

                                                                                     Study CentralTM Need help with the
                                                                                     material in this section? Visit

                                                               What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary                                                1. How did the Muslims treat
                                                                  conquered peoples?
                                                                                                     4. Contrast Describe the differ-
                                                                                                        ences between the Shiite and
Review the
                                                               2. How far did the Arab Empire           Sunni Muslims.
• Arab armies spread Islam as far
    west as Spain and as far east as                              spread under the Umayyads?         5. Summarize Besides conquests
    India. Muslim traders helped                                                                        by Arab armies, how was Islam
                                                               Critical Thinking
    spread the religion to southeast                                                                    spread?
                                                               3. Organizing Information
    Asia and west Africa.                                         Draw a chart to organize infor-    6. Evaluate Why was Akbar
• Despite splitting into two groups,                              mation about the Ottoman              considered a great ruler?
    the Sunni and the Shiite, Muslim                              and Mogul empires.                 7. Persuasive Writing Which
    power reached its greatest height                                                                   Muslim empire—the Umayyads,
    under the Abbasids.                                            Ottoman           Mogul              the Ottomans, or the Moguls—
                                                                    Empire           Empire
• In the 1400s and 1500s, two                                                                           treated its non-Muslim subjects
    great Muslim empires, the                                                                           the most fairly? The least
    Ottoman and the Mogul, arose.                                                                       fairly? Write a paragraph to
                                                                                                        defend your answer.

386                            CHAPTER 11              Islamic Civilization
Chester Beatty Library, Dublin/Bridgeman Art Library
                             Ways of Life
What’s the Connection?                   Meeting People
    In Section 2, you learned that       Mamun (mah • MOON)
many Muslim rulers brought peace         al-Razi (ahl • RAH • zee)
and order to their empires. Peace and    Ibn Sina (IH • buhn SEE • nuh)
order helped trade to increase. Trade,   Omar Khayyam
in turn, brought great wealth to the       (OH • MAHR    KY • YAHM)
Muslim empires.                          Ibn Khaldun (IH • buhn   KAL • DOON)

Focus on the                             Building Your Vocabulary
• While Muslim traders enjoyed great     mosque (MAHSK)
 success and cities grew, most
                                         bazaar (buh • ZAHR)
 Muslims lived in villages in the
 country. (page 388)                     minaret (MIH • nuh • REHT]
                                         crier (KRY • uhr)
• Muslims made valuable contributions
 in math, science, and the arts.
 (page 390)
                                         Reading Strategy
                                         Organizing Information Create a
                                         pyramid to show the social classes
Locating Places                          in the early Muslim world.
Granada (gruh • NAH • duh)
Agra (AH • gruh)

              A.D. 800                        1100                                    1400
                   c. A.D. 900                     c. 1100                c. 1375
                   Al-Razi writes                  Omar Khayyam           Ibn Khaldun
                   medical texts                   writes the             writes
                                                   Rubaiyat               histories

                                                        CHAPTER 11    Islamic Civilization                               387
                                                                                (l)Mary Evans Picture Library, (c)Bettmann/CORBIS
Trade and Everyday Life
              While Muslim traders enjoyed great              Web Activity Visit and
success and cities grew, most Muslims lived in vil-           click on Chapter 11—Student Web Activities to
                                                              learn more about Islamic civilization.
lages in the country.
Reading Focus Have you ever visited a mall or a farm
market? These are both places where people gather to
sell goods. Read to learn about Muslim traders and their    spread the Arabic language. As a result,
marketplaces.                                               Arabic became the language of trade.
                                                            Muslim rulers also made trade easier by
   Muslims were the leading merchants in                    providing merchants with coins.
the Middle East and northern Africa until                       Muslim merchants kept detailed records
the 1400s. Their caravans traveled overland                 of their business deals and the money they
from Baghdad to China. Their ships crossed                  made. In time, these practices developed
the Indian Ocean to India and Southeast                     into a new business—banking. Muslims
Asia. They carried spices, cloth, glass, and                respected traders for their skills and the
carpets. On their return, they brought                      wealth they created.
rubies, silk, ivory, gold, and slaves.
                                                            What Were Muslim Cities Like?         Trade
The Success of Muslim Traders      Several                  helped the leading Muslim cities grow.
things explain the success of Muslim trade.                 Baghdad, Cairo, and Damascus were
When Muslim empires expanded, they                          located on trade routes that ran from the
                                                            Mediterranean Sea to central Asia. However,
     Muslims shop at a textile market.                      Muslim cities were not only places of trade.
     What was a bazaar in a Muslim city?

388                     CHAPTER 11   Islamic Civilization
Richard Bickel/CORBIS
                                                                                    They also became important centers of
(t)Jeff Greenberg/Photo Researchers, (b)The Art Archive/Harper Collins Publishers

                                                                                    government, learning, and the arts.
                                                                                        Muslim cities looked very similar. The
                                                                                    major buildings were palaces and mosques.
                                                                                    Mosques (mahsks) are Muslim houses of
                                                                                    worship. They also serve as schools, courts,   Muslim Carpets and Weavings
                                                                                    and centers of learning.                       Carpets were woven in the Middle East
                                                                                        Another important part of every            long before the coming of Islam. They
                                                                                    Muslim city was the bazaar (buh • ZAHR), or    became popular in the Islamic world
                                                                                    marketplace. Stalls and shops made up the      because Muslims used them in their
                                                                                    bazaars. Sellers in the stalls and             daily worship.
                                                                                    shops sold goods from Asia.                                      Carpets were often
                                                                                    Buyers from all over, including                               made of sheep’s wool
                                                                                    Europe, went from stall to stall                              or goat hair. Shepherds
                                                                                    to find goods to take home and                                might knot them by
                                                                                    sell.                                                         hand, or the carpets
                                                                                        Although cities were impor-                               might be made on
                                                                                    tant, most Muslims lived in
                                                                                                                                                  portable looms. Flowers
                                                                                    villages and farmed the land.
                                                                                                                                                  and geometric shapes
                                                                                    Because water was scarce,
                                                                                    Muslim farmers used irrigation
                                                                                                                                                  were popular designs.
                                                                                    to bring water to their crops.                                   The carpets used
                                                                                    They grew wheat, rice, beans,                                 for the Muslim’s daily
                                                                                    and melons in the fields. They                                prayers are called prayer
                                                                                    raised almonds, blackberries,                                 rugs. No matter where
                                                                                    apricots, figs, and olives in                   A Muslim      Muslims live, they pray
                                                                                    their orchards. Some farmers also raised        woman         five times daily. They
                                                                                    flowers for use in perfume.                     weaving a rug
                                                                                                                                                  kneel down on their
                                                                                        At first, Muslim villagers owned small                    prayer rug and pray
                                                                                    farms. Later, wealthy landowners took over     facing toward Makkah. Prayer rugs
                                                                                    some of these farms and formed large           are small and can be folded and
                                                                                    estates. Farmers and enslaved people           carried from place to place.
                                                                                    worked for the landowners.                         Fine carpets of silk and wool
                                                                                                                                   are often hung on the walls of
                                                                                    Muslim Society    The Muslim people fell
                                                                                                                                   mosques and public buildings.
                                                                                    into social groups based on power and
                                                                                    wealth. At the top were government lead-
                                                                                                                                   They are considered fine art.
                                                                                    ers, landowners, and traders. Below them                     Muslim carpet
                                                                                    were artisans, farmers, and workers. The
                                                                                    lowest group was made up of enslaved
                                                                                                                                     Connecting to the Past
                                                                                                                                     1. What animals were needed
                                                                                        As in other civilizations, slavery was          to make carpets?
                                                                                    widespread. Because Muslims could not be         2. What is the main reason Muslim carpets
                                                                                    enslaved, traders brought enslaved people           have continually been in demand?
from non-Muslim areas. Many of these peo-
ple were prisoners of war. They often
                                                                                       Muslim Achievements
served as servants or soldiers and could                                                            Muslims made valuable contributions
buy back their freedom.                                                                in math, science, and the arts.
    Men and women played different roles                                               Reading Focus Did you know that the numbers you
in the Muslim world. As in other parts of                                              use are called Arabic numerals? Read on to find out
the world, men ran government, society,                                                what other contributions Muslims made.
and business. Women, on the other hand,
helped run Muslim families. They also could                                                Arabic was the common language of the
inherit wealth and own property. Many                                                  Muslim empires. You have already read
places had laws requiring women to cover                                               how Arabic language encouraged trade. It
their faces and to wear long robes in public.                                          also helped different people in the empires
                      Explain How did Muslim                                           to share knowledge. For example, in A.D. 830
rulers give their merchants an advantage?                                              the Abbasid caliph Mamun (mah • MOON)

                                                                                                     Modern Muslim women
            The teachings of Muhammad state that
  women’s garments should not attract attention.
  The female Muslim custom of hijab—wearing
  garments that cover the head and body—
  was followed only by upper-class women
  during the first few hundred years
  of Islam. In the Middle Ages, hijab
  became more common.

                                                                                                     Hijab today ranges from
                                                                                           colorful scarves to black robes. Some
                                                                                           women wear hijab, and some do not.
                                                                                          Many wear hijab to follow Muslim
                                                                                        tradition. Others think it allows them to
                                                                                     be judged for themselves and not their bodies.
                                                                                  In certain countries, the government requires
                                                                                women to wear hijab. Why do you think only upper-
                                 Traditional Muslim women                       class women wore hijab in the early centuries of Islam?

390                            CHAPTER 11                    Islamic Civilization
(l)Stapleton Collection, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, (r)David Turnley/CORBIS
founded the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
Mamun staffed his center with Christian,                                                           The Mystery
Jewish, and Muslim scholars. These scholars                                                        of Smallpox
exchanged ideas and rewrote Greek, Persian,                   The Muslim scientist al-Razi urged scientists
and Indian works in Arabic.                                   and doctors to search for the causes of
    Scholars in Muslim lands saved much of                    disease, rather than just treatments.
the learning of the ancient world.                                         “Although [scholars] have certainly
Europeans in the West had                                                  made some mention of the
lost this knowledge after the                                              treatment of the Small-Pox . . .
                                                                           there is not one of them who
Western Roman Empire fell.
                                                                           has mentioned the cause of the
Through Muslim scholars,                                                   existence of the disease, and how
western Europeans found                                                    it comes to pass that hardly any
out about Aristotle and other                                              one escapes it . . .”
ancient Greek thinkers.                                                                               —Al-Razi, “On the Causes
                                                                                                                  of Small-Pox”
Mathematics and Science                                                                Al-Razi’s own theory about the
Muslims made important                                                                 cause of smallpox was incorrect.
advances in mathematics.                                                               His efforts to find the cause,
Later, they passed on these                                                            however, helped change how
discoveries to Europeans.                                                              doctors and scientists investi-
For     example,     Muslims                                                           gated diseases.
invented algebra, a type of            medical
mathematics still taught in            drawing
schools today. The Arabs also
                                                                 Why was al-Razi concerned about previous
borrowed the symbols 0 through 9 from                            scholars’ studies of smallpox?
Hindu scholars in India. These numbers
were later used by Europeans. Today, they
are known as “Arabic numerals.”
    Muslims also made progress in science.                  Other Muslim scientists experimented
Muslim scientists who studied the heavens                with metals and kept records of their work.
perfected the Greek astrolabe. Sailors used              As a result, the Arabs are considered the
this tool to study the stars and then deter-             founders of chemistry. One of the best-
                      mine their location at             known Muslim chemists was al-Razi (ahl •
                      sea. Muslim scientists             RAH • zee), who lived from A.D. 865 to A.D. 925.
                      used the astrolabe to              Al-Razi developed a system for categoriz-
                      measure the size and               ing substances as animal, mineral, or veg-
                      distance around the                etable. He also wrote books for doctors that
                      earth. Based on their              helped them to identify diseases.
                      measurements, they                    Arab doctors were the first to discover
                      realized that the earth            that blood circulates, or moves to and from
                      is round.                          the heart. The Persian doctor Ibn Sina (IH •
                                                         buhn SEE • nuh) showed how diseases spread
                                                         from person to person. As they worked,
                     Muslim astrolabe                    Muslim doctors published their findings.

                                                              CHAPTER 11                  Islamic Civilization                                    391
                                         (t)R & S Michaud/Woodfin Camp & Assoc., (b)Paul Dupuy Museum, Toulouse, France/Lauros-Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock

      and    IBN KHALDUN
                                               Persia—was a
         Omar Khayyam—who was born in
                                            losopher, but he is
      mathematician, astronomer, and phi
                                                that Khayyam
      best known as a poet. Scholars believe
                                              poem, the Rubaiyat,
      wrote only parts of his most famous
                                               verses and the
      but they are certain that at least 120
      main concepts are his. Stanza XII rea
           “ A Book of Verses underneath the Bou
             A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread—and
             Beside me singing the Wilderness—                                           Omar Khayyam
             Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow
                                                      [enough]!  ”
                           —Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat
                                                                                          music before he
                                               Khayyam wrote books on algebra and
                                                                                    ry for 18 years and
                                         was 25 years old. He led an observato
                                         developed a more accurate calenda
                                                                                           Arab scholars.
                                               Ibn Khaldun is one of the most famous
                                                                                     gist, and politician.
                                          He was a historian, geographer, sociolo
                                                                                     the rulers of Tunis
                                          He was born in Tunisia and worked for
                                                                                     sador to one of the
                                          and Morocco. He also served as ambas
                                                                                  Cairo, Egypt. He wrote
                                          Spanish kingdoms and as a judge in
                                                                                      . His best-known
                                          much about social and political change
                                                                                   written in 1375. It is
                                          work is Muqaddimah (Introduction),
                                                                                    bar (universal history).
                                          the first volume of his book Kitab al-I
                                                                                     ntific way to analyze
                                          In this book, he tried to develop a scie
                                                                                   t historians who studied
                                           historical events. He is one of the firs
                                                                                   ure affect history.
                                           how geography, economics, and cult

                                                          The Rubaiyat is a collection of 4-line
                                                                                                m that is
                                                          called quatrains. Find a modern poe
                                                          made up of quatrains.
             Ibn Khaldun

Muslim Writing    The Quran is probably the            wrote in 1375 that all civilizations rise,
most famous collection of writings in the              grow, and then fall. He also was one of the
                                                       first historians to study the effect of geogra-
Muslim world, but Muslims produced
                                                       phy and climate on people.
other famous works, as well. One of the
most well known is The Thousand and One                Art and Buildings       Muslims developed
Nights, also called The Arabian Nights. It             their own form of art based on Islam.
includes tales from India, Persia, and                 Muslims are not allowed to show images of
Arabia. One of the stories tells about                 Muhammad or the events of his life in art.
Aladdin and his magic lamp.                            They believe that such images might cause
    Another Muslim, the Persian poet Omar              people to worship Muhammad instead of
Khayyam (OH • MAHR KY • YAHM), wrote the               Allah. Instead, designs entwined with flow-
Rubaiyat (ROO • bee • AHT) around 1100. Many           ers, leaves, and stars make up most Muslim
consider it one of the finest poems ever               art. Muslims use these designs to decorate
written.                                               walls, books, rugs, and buildings.
    In addition to stories and poems,                      Muslims were known for their beautiful
Muslims wrote history. The great Muslim                buildings. Mosques filled Muslim cities like
historian Ibn Khaldun (IH • buhn KAL • DOON)           Baghdad, Damascus, Cairo, and Istanbul.

Islamic Mosque
      In Islamic cities and towns, mosques were centers of religious
      and daily life. Besides being places of worship, mosques also
      served as meeting places, schools, and courts. What was the
      most striking architectural feature of a mosque?

                                                                        Beneath the dome is a wall that
                         Minarets                                        faces the holy site of Makkah.
            From the mosque’s towers, called                           Muslims pray facing this direction.
          minarets, religious officials call Muslims
                to prayer five times a day.

                                                                                   Worshipers gather in the
                    Well                                                            courtyard for prayers.
   Every mosque has a well or fountain at
 which worshipers can wash their faces, arms,
  hands, and feet to show respect for God.
                                                                        added porches, fountains, and
                                                                        pools. To provide protection, they
                                                                        surrounded the palaces with walls.
                                                                        The most famous example of
                                                                        a Muslim palace is the Alhambra
                                                                        (al • HAM • bruh) in Granada (gruh •
                                                                        NAH • duh), Spain. It was built in the
                                                                             Another famous Muslim build-
                                                                        ing is the Taj Mahal in Agra (AH •
                                                                        gruh), India. The Mogul ruler Shah
    The Taj Mahal took more than 20 years to build.
    Where is the Taj Mahal located?                           Jahan built it as a tomb for his wife after she
                                                              died in 1629. Made of marble and precious
Domes top many of the mosques, but a                          stones, the Taj Mahal is one of the world’s
mosque’s most striking feature is its                         most beautiful buildings.
minarets (MIH • nuh • REHTS). These are towers                   Today, the Muslim empires are gone.
from which a crier (KRY • uhr), or announcer,                 However, Islam is still a major world reli-
calls believers to prayer five times a day.                   gion. About one out of every six persons in
    Islamic rulers lived in large brick palaces.              the world is a Muslim.
These palaces often had courtyards at their                                       Identify What contribu-
center. To cool the courtyards, palace builders               tions did Muslims make in math and science?

                                                                    Study CentralTM Need help with the
                                                                    material in this section? Visit

                                           What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary                            1. Describe the three Muslim
                                                                                    4. Summarize Describe several
                                                                                       factors that made Muslim
Review the                                    social groups.
                                                                                       trade strong.
• There were many Muslim cities            2. What contributions did Muslims
                                                                                    5. Analyze How did the Arabic
   such as Baghdad, Cairo, and                make in the field of medicine?
                                                                                       language and Muslim leaders
   Damascus, but most Muslims
   remained farmers in small
                                           Critical Thinking                           help preserve and advance the
                                           3. Organizing Information                   world’s knowledge?
                                              Draw a chart like the one below.      6. Evaluate Which Muslim
                                              Fill in details about Muslim             contribution do you think had
• Muslim scholars made important              contributions in the areas of            the greatest effect on later
   discoveries in fields such as alge-        math, science, and the arts.             civilizations?
   bra and chemistry, and Muslim
   writers, artists, and architects            Math       Science       Arts        7. Descriptive Writing Imagine
   also produced important works.                                                      you are living in a Muslim city.
                                                                                       Write to a friend describing
                                                                                       a bazaar. Describe what a
                                                                                       bazaar is and some of the
                                                                                       items you might find there.

394                   CHAPTER 11   Islamic Civilization
Galen Rowell/CORBIS
Section       The Rise of Islam
Vocabulary   Focusing on the
oasis        • The deserts, coastline, and oases of
sheikh         Arabia helped shape the Arab way
caravan        of life. (page 373)
Quran        • The prophet Muhammad brought
               the message of Islam to the people
               of Arabia. (page 374)
             • The Quran provided guidelines for
               Muslims’ lives and the governments
               of Muslim states. (page 377)

                                     A child studies
                                     the Quran

Section       Islamic Empires
Vocabulary   Focusing on the
caliph       • Arabs spread Islam through preaching, conquest, and trade. (page 380)
Shiite       • While Muslims split into two groups, the Arab Empire reached new heights.
Sunni         (page 382)
sultan       • Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires in Asia, Africa, and Europe.
              (page 384)

Section       Muslim Ways of Life
Vocabulary   Focusing on the
mosque       • While Muslim traders enjoyed great success and cities grew, most Muslims
bazaar         lived in villages in the country. (page 388)
minaret      • Muslims made valuable contributions in math, science, and the arts.
crier         (page 390)

                                              CHAPTER 11     Islamic Civilization           395
Review Vocabulary                                   Review Main Ideas
Write the key term that completes each sentence.
    a. caravan        f. minaret
                                                    Section 1 • The Rise of Islam
                                                    11. How did geography affect the early Arabs’
    b. caliph        g. sheikh                          way of life?
    c. sultan        h. bazaar
                                                    12. What guidelines did the Quran provide for
    d. mosque         i. Sunnis                         the governments of Muslim states?
    e. Quran          j. Shiites
                                                    Section 2 • Islamic Empires
 1. A crier called Muslims to prayer from the       13. How did the Arabs spread Islam?
    ___ of a mosque.
                                                    14. Why did the Muslims split into two
 2. After Muhammad died, his followers                  groups?
    chose a ___ to lead them.
                                                    Section 3 • Muslim Ways of Life
 3. The most famous ___ was Suleiman.
                                                    15. What scientific advances were made by
 4. In each Muslim city, a ___ sold goods to            early Muslims?
    local and out-of-town merchants.
                                                    16. What is significant about Ibn Khaldun’s
 5. Arab merchants traveling in a ___ used
                                                        recording of history?
    camels to carry goods across the desert.
 6. The Muslim holy book is called the ___.
 7. Each tribe of early Arabs was led by a ___.     Critical Thinking
 8. Each ___ was a house of worship and a           17. Compare How are Islam, Judaism, and
    school.                                             Christianity similar?
 9. The ___ believed that Muhammad’s son-           18. Evaluate Do you think a government that
    in-law should succeed him.                          allows people to practice any religion they
10. According to the ___, the Umayyad                   choose will be stronger than one that does
    dynasty were rightful caliphs.                      not? Explain.

               Main Idea         Main Ideas and Details
   19. Read the paragraph below. Create a graphic organizer to show the main idea and
       supporting details.

               The Muslim people fell into social groups based on power
             and wealth. At the top were government leaders, landowners,
             and traders. Below them were artisans, farmers, and workers.
             The lowest group was made up of enslaved people.

                                                                      To review this skill, see pages 370–371.

396           CHAPTER 11     Islamic Civilization
                                                                                                              Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for
Geography Skills                                                                                              the Chapter Test, visit
Study the map below and answer the follow-
ing questions.
20. Movement Why was the Abbasid empire                                                                     Using Technology
    unable to expand to the Black Sea?                                                                      25. Exploring Language Use the Internet and
21. Region What bodies of water could                                                                           your local library to find English words that
    Abbasid merchants use to trade with                                                                         have their origins in the Arabic language.
    the outside world?                                                                                          Create a chart using your computer show-
                                                                                                                ing English words and their Arabic roots.
22. Place You learned that the Abbasids
    changed the capital city from Damascus
    to Baghdad. Look at the locations of those
                                                                                                            Linking Past and Present
    cities. Which do you think would have been                                                              26. Evaluating Impact Which Islamic inven-
    the best location for a capital city? Why?                                                                  tion or development do you think has the
                                                                                                                greatest effect on the world today? Explain
                                                                                                                your choice.
                              Abbasid Empire
                                                                                                            Building Citizenship Skills
                                                                            Aral       60°E
                                                                                                            27. Analyzing Documents Do research to

   nu b
          e R.                             W            E
                                                                             Sea                                find out how the United States Constitution

                   Black Sea                                                                  40°N              protects religious freedoms. Do you think

  BYZANTINE                                                                                                     the way Muslim empires treated religion

    EMPIRE                                                                                                      would be allowed under the U.S.

                                                                                                                Constitution? Explain.



Mediterranean Damascus

     Sea                  r
                 Jerusalem ates                              R.
                              PALESTINE                               r   si a

                                           Madinah                 0                        500 mi.              In the first stanza of the Rubaiyat, Omar

                                                                   0         500 km                              Khayyam welcomes the morning.

                          R                    Makkah              Lambert Azimuthal

                                                                   Equal-Area projection
                                               (Mecca)                                                           “Wake! for the sun, the shepherd of

                                                                                                                     the sky,
                                               KEY                                                               Has penned [confined] the stars within
                 Abbasid empire during reign                           Abbasid capital                               their fold on high,
                 of Harun al-Rashid, A.D. 800                          Former Umayyad
                                                                       capital                                   And, shaking darkness from his mighty
                                                                                                                 Scatters the daylight from his burning eye.”
Read to Write                                                                                                                     —Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám:
                                                                                                                                             A Paraphrase From
23. Descriptive Writing Suppose you are                                                                                             Several Literal Translations,
    an Arab merchant traveling in the desert                                                                                           by Richard Le Gallienne
    with a caravan. Write three diary entries,
    each describing the events of your day.
    Each day you choose to describe should
    focus on a different aspect of the life                                                                      28. What has been penned up by the sun?
    of a merchant. Share your entries with                                                                       29. Personification is when a writer gives
    the class.                                                                                                       human qualities to something that
                                                                                                                     is not human. How does Khayyam
24. Using Your              Write a poem or                                                                          personify the sun in this stanza?
    short story using the facts from your
    completed foldable.

                                                                                                              CHAPTER 11     Islamic Civilization              397
                                                                         Comparing New
                                                                         Empires and Faiths
                 Compare ancient Rome, early
              Christianity, and early Islam
              by reviewing the information
              below. Can you see how the                                                                               Chapters 8 & 9
              peoples of these civilizations                                                                           Chapter 10
                                                                                                                       Chapter 11
              had lives that were very much
              like yours?

                                                                     Ancient                                             Rise of                 Islamic
                                                                      Rome                                             Christianity            Civilization
                                                                  C ha pte rs 8 & 9                                    Chapt er 10              C hap te r 11
Where did these
                                                    • Began on Italian peninsula                             • Began in Palestine       • Began in Arabia
civilizations                                       • Won control of                                         • Spread throughout the    • Arab Empire stretched
develop?                                               Mediterranean world                                    Roman Empire               from North Africa to
                                                                                                                                         central Asia

                                                    • Cincinnatus                                                                       • Muhammad
Who were some                                          c. 519–438 B.C.                                                                   A.D. 570–632

important                                           • Augustus, ruled
                                                                                                             • Jesus
                                                                                                                                        • Omar Khayyam
people in these                                        27 B.C .–A.D. 14
                                                                                                              c. 6 B.C .–A.D. 30
                                                                                                                                         A.D. 1048–1131

                                                    • Theodora                                                                          • Suleiman I, ruled
civilizations?                                         c. A.D. 500–548
                                                                                                             • Helena                    A.D. 1520–1566
                                                                                                              c. A.D. 248–328
                                                                                                             • Augustine
                                                                                                              A.D.   354–430

                                                    • Farming villages                                       • Ports and cities of
Where did most                                                                                                Mediterranean area        • Desert oases
                                                    • Major cities included
of the people                                          Rome and Alexandria                                                              • Farming villages
live?                                                                                                                                   • Major cities included
                                                                                                                                         Makkah and Baghdad

(t)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (bl)Smithsonian Institution, (bc)Michael Holford, (br)Giraudon/Art Resource, NY
                                       Ancient                                               Rise of                                                 Islamic
                                        Rome                                               Christianity                                            Civilization
                                    C ha p                                                  Chapt er 10                                              C hap te r 11
                                             ter s 8 & 9
What were
                      • Belief in many gods and                               • Belief in one God and                                • Belief in one God (Allah)
these people’s           goddesses                                              Jesus as Son of God and
                                                                                                                                     • Muhammad is
beliefs?              • Emperors honored as
                                                                                the Savior
                                                                                                                                        final prophet
                         gods                                                 • Major groups: Eastern                                • Major groups:
                                                                                Orthodox and Roman
                      • Many local religions                                    Catholic
                                                                                                                                        Sunni and

                      • Rome developed from a                                 • Ranked order of priests,                             • Muhammad founds
What was their           republic into an empire                                bishops, and archbishops                                Islamic state
government            • An emperor                                                    • Bishop of Rome                               • After Muhammad,
like?                    was the
                         chief leader
                                                                                         became head of the
                                                                                         Roman Catholic
                                                                                                                                        leaders called caliphs
                                                                                                                                        held religious and
                                                                                         Church                                         political power
                      • Army played
                         role in

                                                                                      • New Testament of                             • Quran written in Arabic
What was their                                                                           Bible written in
                                                                                                                                     • Arabic was Arab Empire’s
language and          • Latin was official
                         language; Greek spoken
                                                                                                                                        official language
                                                                              • Latin became language of • Persian and Turkish also
writing like?            in empire’s eastern part
                                                                                Roman Catholic Church
                      • Many local languages

                      • Introduced                                            • Christianity became a                                • Islam became a world
What                     ideas about                                            world religion                                          religion
contributions            law and
                                                                              • Shaped beliefs and values                            • Developed ideas in
                                                                                of Western civilization                                 medicine and
did they make?        • Developed                                                                                                       mathematics
                         new styles
                         of building

                                                                              • Christianity is major
How do these                                                                    religion of the West
changes affect        • Latin contributed many
                         words to English
                                                                              • Birth date of Jesus is                               • Islam is a
me? Can you              language
                                                                                starting date for Western                               major religion today
add any?              • Rome’s idea of a republic
                         followed by governments
                                                                                                                                     • Developed algebra
                         today                                                                                                       • Developed game of chess

                 (tl)Stock Montage, (tr)Michael Holford, (c)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (bl)Roy Rainford/Robert Harding/Getty Images, (br)Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library

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