368–369 Nabeel Turner/Getty Images
Muslims gather around the Kaaba
at the Great Mosque in Makkah.
A.D. 600 A.D. 900 1200 1500
c. A.D. 610 A.D. 750 c. 1100 1258 c. 1375
Muhammad Abbasids Omar Khayyam Mongols Ibn Khaldun
receives overthrow writes the burn writes
prophetic call Umayyads Rubaiyat Baghdad histories
Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit
jat.glencoe.com for a preview
A few hundred years after the beginnings of Christianity, of Chapter 11.
another important religion arose in the Middle East: Islam.
Followers of Islam conquered much of the Middle East,
northern Africa, and part of Europe. They also made great
cultural contributions to the world.
View the Chapter 11 video in the World History:
Journey Across Time Video Program.
The Rise of Islam
The religion of Islam originated in Arabia. It was
based on the teachings of Muhammad.
Followers of Islam, called Muslims, conquered
or converted people as they spread their faith
throughout the Middle East and the Mediterranean.
Muslim Ways of Life
Muslims were skilled traders and builders. They
established large cities and made many advances
in mathematics, science, and the arts.
Categorizing Information Make the following foldable to organize information
about the people and places of Islamic civilization.
Step 1 Collect two sheets Step 2 Fold down the top edges Reading and Writing
of paper and place them of the paper to form four tabs. As you read, use your
about 1 inch apart. foldable to write down
what you learn about
This makes all
the tabs the
Write facts under each
Keep the same size. appropriate tab.
Step 3 When all the tabs are the
Islamic Civilization Staple
same size, crease the paper to hold
the tabs in place and staple the sheets The Rise of Islam along the
together. Turn the paper and label
The Muslim Ways of Life
each tab as shown.
Main Ideas and Details
Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph,
section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples
that explain the main idea. Read the following paragraph from
Section 3 and notice how the author explains the main idea.
Several things explain the
success of Muslim trade. When
Muslim empires expanded, they
spread the Arabic language. As
a result, Arabic became the lan-
guage of trade. Muslim rulers
also made trade easier by provid-
ing merchants with coins.
—from page 388
Often , the fir ll
in a parag dea.
Supporting Main Idea Supporting
a main i Detail Detail
Su ppor ting following
will com . Supporting
Using a Graphic Read to Write
“The famous Mogul
Organizer ruler Akbar could not
read, yet he set up a
Read the following paragraph, and find the main idea large library because he
and supporting details. Create a graphic organizer like the valued education, books,
one that appears at the bottom of page 370. and art.” Write a letter
to Akbar telling him
about your favorite book
and why it should be
included in his library.
Times were good in India under
Akbar. Farmers and artisans pro-
duced more food and goods than
the Indians needed. As a result,
trade increased. Muslim merchants
brought paper, gunpowder, and fine
porcelain from China to India. In
addition, Muslim architects intro-
duced new building styles, such as
the arch and dome, to India.
—from page 386
As you read Chapter 11, create your
own graphic organizer to show the
main idea and supporting details
from at least one paragraph.
Paul Dupuy Museum, Toulouse, France/Lauros-Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock
The Rise of Islam
What’s the Connection? Locating Places
Previously, you learned about Makkah (MAH • kuh)
early empires in southwest Asia. Kaaba (KAH • buh)
During the A.D. 600s, people called Madinah (mah • DEE • nah)
Arabs began a new empire in the
region. The driving force behind Meeting People
their empire building was the religion Bedouin (BEH • duh • wuhn)
of Islam. Muhammad (moh • HAH • muhd)
Focus on the Building Your Vocabulary
• The deserts, coastline, and oases of oasis (oh • AY • suhs)
Arabia helped shape the Arab way sheikh (SHAYK)
of life. (page 373) caravan (KAR • uh • VAN)
• The prophet Muhammad brought the Quran (koh • RAHN)
message of Islam to the people of
Arabia. (page 374) Reading Strategy
Organizing Information Use a
• The Quran provided guidelines for diagram like the one below to identify
Muslims’ lives and the governments the Five Pillars of faith.
of Muslim states. (page 377)
A.D. 550 A.D. 600 A.D. 650
A.D. 570 c. A.D. 610 A.D. 630
Muhammad Muhammad receives Makkah surrenders
Madinah is born prophetic call to Muhammad
372 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Daily Life in Early Arabia Bedouins lived in tents and ate dried
fruits and nuts. They drank the milk of their
The deserts, coastline, and oases of animals. Only rarely would they eat meat.
Arabia helped shape the Arab way of life. Their animals were much too valuable to be
Reading Focus Do you ever think about how rainfall used as food.
shapes your life? Read on to find out how lack of rain
helped shape the Arabs’ way of life. Trade and Towns Many Arabs lived in vil-
lages where they farmed or raised animals.
Desert stretches over most of the Arabian These villages were near oases or in the
peninsula. The heat is intense, and a sand- mountain valleys.
storm can blind any traveler. Water is found Some of the villagers were merchants
only at oases (oh AY seez), green areas fed by who transported goods across the desert. To
underground water. Not all of Arabia is dry, fend off attacks by Bedouins, many traveled
however. In the mountains of the south- in a caravan (KAR • uh• VAN), or group of trav-
west, enough rain falls to support plants eling merchants and animals.
such as juniper and olive trees. By about A.D. 500, Arabian merchants
To survive, early Arabs organized into handled most trade between India and the
tribes who were very loyal to one another. Mediterranean Sea. As their trade grew,
The head of the tribe was called a sheikh Arab merchants founded towns along the
(SHAYK). trade routes in Arabia. Makkah (MAH • kuh),
also known as Mecca, became the largest
Who Are the Bedouins? Some Arabs were and richest of them all. It was a crossroads
desert herders. To water and graze their for merchants, and it was also an important
camels, goats, and sheep, they went from religious site. The holiest place in Arabia was
oasis to oasis. They were called Bedouins in this city.
(BEH • duh • wuhnz).
Today, many Bedouins still roam the desert and
live in tents. Where did Bedouins graze their
animals in the desert?
(l)DiMaggio/Kalish/CORBIS, (r)Kevin Fleming/CORBIS
The Middle East, c. A.D. 600 Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet
The prophet Muhammad brought the
KEY E message of Islam to the people of Arabia.
Byzantine Empire S
Reading Focus Have you ever heard someone speak
and been moved to tears? The following paragraphs tell
Black Sea CA about a prophet who moved the Arab people with his
ASIA . 40°N
ea Muhammad’s Message
In A.D. 570 a man
Sea Damascus named Muhammad (moh • HAH • muhd) was
Baghdad born in Makkah. An orphan, he was raised
sR by an uncle. As a teenager, he worked in
the trusted job of caravan leader and even-
n tually became a successful merchant. He
married and had children.
0 500 mi. ARABIAN Despite his success, Muhammad was
0 500 km Makkah P E N I N S U L A
Lambert Azimuthal (Mecca) 20°N dissatisfied. He felt that the wealthy town
leaders should return to the old ways. He
YEMEN Arabian thought they should honor their families,
be fair in business, and help the poor.
Muhammad went into the hills to pray.
Islam, one of the world’s major In about A.D. 610, he said he was visited by
religions, began in the Arabian an angel and told to preach Islam. Islam
Peninsula. means “surrendering to the will of Allah.”
1. Which empire was located Allah is the Arabic word for “God.”
north and west of the Arabian
Peninsula? Inspired, Muhammad returned to
2. About how far is it from Makkah Makkah. Everywhere he went, he told
to Yathrib? people to destroy statues of false gods and
Find NGS online map resources @ to worship only Allah, the one true God.
Muhammad also preached that all peo-
ple were equal and that the rich should
share their goods. In Makkah, where most
In the middle of Makkah was the Kaaba people lived humbly, this vision of a just
(KAH buh), a low square building sur- society was very powerful. Muhammad
rounded by statues of gods and goddesses. was saying that wealth was not as impor-
Arabs believed that the great stone inside tant as leading a good life. When the Day of
the Kaaba was from heaven. Pilgrims, peo- Judgment arrived, he said God would
ple who travel to a holy place, flocked to reward the good people and punish the
Makkah. Arabians worshiped many gods, evildoers.
but the most important was Allah. Allah
was considered to be the creator. Opposition to Islam Slowly Muhammad
Analyze How did geography convinced people that his message was
shape life in Arabia? true. At first, only his family became
374 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Muslims, or followers of Islam. Soon, how- Muhammad’s Government The people of
ever, many of the poor were attracted to his Madinah accepted Muhammad as God’s
message that goods should be shared. prophet and their ruler. Muhammad
Wealthy merchants and religious lead- proved to be an able leader. He applied the
ers did not like Muhammad’s message. laws he believed God had given him to all
They thought he was trying to take away areas of life. He used these laws to settle
their power. They made his life difficult and disputes among the people. Muhammad
beat and tortured his followers. created an Islamic state—a government that
In A.D. 622 Muhammad and his follow- uses its political power to uphold Islam. He
ers left Makkah. They moved north to a required all Muslims to place loyalty to the
town called Yathrib (YA • thruhb). The jour- Islamic state above loyalty to their tribe.
ney of Muhammad and his followers to To defend his new government,
Yathrib became known as the Hijrah (HIH • Muhammad built an army. His soldiers con-
jruh). The word comes from Arabic and quered Makkah in A.D. 630, and Muhammad
means “breaking off relationships.” Later then made it a holy city of Islam. Two years
Muslims made the year A.D. 622 the first later, Muhammad died. By this time, Islam
year of a new Muslim calendar. Yathrib wel- was spreading to all of Arabia.
comed Muhammad and his followers. Their
Explain Why did
city was renamed Madinah (mah • DEE • nah), Muhammad’s message appeal to the poor?
which means “the city of the prophet.”
A pilgrimage to Makkah
A Holy Journey
A pilgrimage to the holy city of Makkah often involved a long,
difficult journey across deserts and other rough country.
Muslim travelers carried palm leaves to show that they were
on a pilgrimage. Where was Muhammad born?
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library
(t)C. Hellier/Ancient Art & Architecture Collection, (b)George Chan/Photo Researchers
Muhammad experienced great poverty
Abd Allah, died before
hardships early in his life. His father,
uttalib, took care of
he was born. His grandfather, Abd al-M
e. Abd al-Muttalib felt
Muhammad in Makkah for a short tim
to raise a baby, but he
that Makkah was an unhealthy place
itical leader in the city.
could not leave because he was a pol
e of nomads. They
So he entrusted Muhammad to a trib
home, the desert. When
took the baby Muhammad to their
ther died. Two years
Muhammad was six years old, his mo
grandfather also died.
later, when Muhammad was eight, his
inherit anything, so
Arab custom did not allow minors to The Mosque of the Prophet
mad’s father and in Madinah contains
the property and money from Muham
n to him . To survive, Muhammad’s tomb.
grandfather could not be passed dow
of Abu Talib, his uncle
Muhammad needed the protection
who now headed the family.
eled by camel on trading journeys to
Under the care of Abu Talib, Muhammad trav mad met a
about twenty-five years old, Muham
Syria. On one of these trips, when he was r daughters.
and Muhammad married and had fou
wealthy woman named Khadijah. She to
t childhood. Muhammad’s marriage
They also had at least two sons who did not live pas ant class.
mber of Makkah’s prosperous merch
Khadijah made him a wealthy man and a me et his early
However, Muhammad could not forg
experiences. His childhood had deeply
tful person. He
Muhammad and made him a though
r Makkah and
often would go up into the hills nea
he would reflect
spend nights in a cave. Alone there,
and the growing
on the problems he saw in Makkah
h great wealth
tension between the few people wit
It was in these
and the many people with nothing.
el told him,
hills that Muhammad claimed an ang
“You are the Messenger of God.”
d saw in
Are any of the problems Muhamma
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Makkah similar to problems in society
marks the place where Muhammad today? Explain.
believed to have ascended to heaven.
Muhammad. For Christians, Jesus was
Islam’s Teachings more than a prophet. He was the son of
The Quran provided guidelines for God and therefore divine. In Islam,
Muslims’ lives and the governments of Muslim Muhammad is seen as a prophet and a very
states. good person but not as divine.
Reading Focus Do you ever wonder how you should
act in certain situations? In the following paragraphs, What Is the Quran? Muslims wrote down
you will learn where Muslims looked for guidance. the messages that Muhammad said he
received from Allah. These writings became
Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have the Quran (koh • RAHN), or holy book of
some beliefs in common. Like Jews and Islam. For Muslims, the Quran is God’s
Christians, Muslims believe in one God. written word. For this reason, Muslims
Muslims believe this one God holds all strive to follow the Quran.
power and created the universe. They also The Quran instructs Muslims about
believe that God determines right and how they should live. Many of its moral
wrong. People are expected to obey God’s teachings are like those of the Bible. For
laws if they want to be blessed in the afterlife. example, Muslims are told to be honest and
Jews, Christians, and Muslims also to treat others fairly. They are to honor their
believe that God spoke to people through parents, show kindness to their neighbors,
prophets. For Muslims, early prophets and give generously to the poor. Murder,
were Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and finally lying, and stealing are forbidden.
A child studies
Muslim pilgrims surround the Kaaba in Makkah. When did
Muhammad’s soldiers capture the city of Makkah?
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 377
Many rules in the Quran apply to
The Five Pillars of Islam Muslims’ daily life. According to these rules,
Muslims should not eat pork, drink liquor,
Belief Muslims must declare that
there is no god but Allah and or gamble. The Quran also has rules about
that Muhammad is his prophet. marriage, divorce, family life, property
rights, and business practices.
Prayer Muslims must pray five times
Muslims are expected to fulfill the Five
per day facing toward
Makkah. Pillars of Islam, or acts of worship. These
are shown in the chart at the left.
Charity Muslims must give to the poor. Scholars of Islam also created a law code
that explains how society should be run.
Fasting Muslims must not eat from This code is taken from the Quran and the
dawn to dusk during the
sacred holiday of Ramadan. Sunna (SUH • nuh). The Sunna is the name
given to customs based on Muhammad’s
Pilgrimage Muslims must visit Makkah words and deeds. Islam’s law code covers
once in their life. all areas of daily life. It applies the teachings
of the Quran to family life, business, and
The Five Pillars are acts of worship that all
Muslims must carry out. How many times Evaluate What role do the
should Muslims pray each day? Quran and Sunna play in Muslim daily life?
Study CentralTM Need help with the
material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary 1. What are oases, and why were
they important to Arabs?
4. Conclude Why do you think
Muhammad’s teachings were
2. Name some activities the popular with poorer people?
• In the desert of the Arabian
Peninsula, the Arab people were Quran prohibits. 5. Analyze How did Muhammad
mostly herders and traders. link religion and government?
3. Compare and Contrast 6. Expository Writing Suppose
• In the town of Makkah, Draw a Venn diagram to you are living in Makkah at
Muhammad began to preach a compare and contrast Islam, the time Muhammad began
new religion, Islam, which soon Judaism, and Christianity. preaching. Write a short news-
spread to all of Arabia. paper article that describes
Muhammad’s teachings and
• Muslims believe that Muhammad the reactions of people in the
was Allah’s final prophet and that Islam Judaism city to those teachings.
their holy book, the Quran, is Three 7. Main Idea Draw
Allah’s written word.
a graphic organizer to show the
supporting details for this main
idea: Geography shaped the way
that the early Arabs lived.
378 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
What’s the Connection? Meeting People
In Section 1, you learned how Umayyad (oo • MY • uhd)
Islam spread from Madinah to Sufi (SOO • fee)
Makkah. In time, Islam’s followers Abbasid (uh • BA • suhd)
brought their beliefs to all of Suleiman I (SOO • lay • MAHN)
Southwest Asia and parts of
Mogul (MOH • guhl)
Southeast Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Akbar (AK • buhr)
Focus on the
• Arabs spread Islam through preaching, Building Your Vocabulary
caliph (KAY • luhf)
conquest, and trade. (page 380)
Shiite (SHEE • eyet)
• While Muslims split into two groups, Sunni (SU • nee)
the Arab Empire reached new heights.
sultan (SUHL • tuhn)
• Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires Reading Strategy
in Asia, Africa, and Europe. (page 384) Cause and Effect Create a diagram
to show why the Arabs were successful
Locating Places conquerors.
Damascus (duh • MAS • kuhs)
Indonesia (IHN • duh • NEE • zhuh)
Timbuktu (TIHM • BUHK • TOO)
Baghdad (BAG • dad) Arabs were successful conquerors.
Delhi (DEH • lee)
A.D. 500 1100 1700
A.D. 750 1258 1526
C´ordoba Abbasids overthrow Mongols burn Moguls rule
Constantinople Umayyads Baghdad India from Delhi
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 379
fought hard for Islam. They wanted to
The Spread of Islam
The Art Archive/Hazem Palace Damascus/Dagli Orti
spread Allah’s message to everyone. Under
Arabs spread Islam through preaching, their rule, the empire expanded to include
conquest, and trade. all of southwest Asia.
Reading Focus When you come up with a new idea, Expansion continued under the Umayyad
how do you let others know about it? Read on to find (oo • MY • uhd) caliphs, who ruled from
out how Arabs spread Islam. A.D. 661 to A.D. 750. They made their capital
the city of Damascus (duh • MAS • kuhs) in
Syria. Now the Arab Empire included
When Muhammad died, his followers
North Africa, Spain, and some of India.
chose his successor. He was called a caliph
(KAY • luhf), which meant successor to the The Muslims Build an Empire Just 100
Messenger of God. years after Muhammad’s death, the Islamic
The first caliph was Muhammad’s father- state became a great empire. Why were the
in-law, Abu Bakr. The first four caliphs ruled Arabs so successful?
from Madinah and were called the Rightly Arabs had always been good on horse-
Guided Caliphs. That is because they tried back and good with the sword, but as
to follow in Muhammad’s footsteps. They Muslims, they also were inspired by their
lived simply, treated others fairly, and also religion. They were fighting to spread
The Spread of Islam A.D. 632–750
0 20 E
C´ordoba Black Sea
Strait of Constantinople
Ind u s R.
MINOR SO r
MOROCCO up OTA
SYRIA h ratM
es IA Baghdad PERSIA
Mediterranean Sea Damascus R.
Cairo r si a
0 500 mi. EGYPT
0 500 km
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Makkah Arabian
Islamic territory at
Muhammad's death, A.D. 632
Islamic expansion, A.D. 632–661
Islamic expansion, A.D. 661–750 After Muhammad’s death, the ter-
Byzantine Empire, A.D. 750 ritory in the Arab Empire expanded.
1. What area of Europe came under
The Umayyad Mosque, also 2. Describe the territories conquered
known as the Great Mosque by the Arabs by the year A.D. 661.
The Rightly Guided Caliphs
Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali
Relationship to father-in-law friend son-in-law, first cousin,
Muhammad member of the son-in-law
Career merchant merchant merchant soldier, writer
Caliphate A.D. 632–634 A.D. 634–644 A.D. 644–656 A.D. 656–661
Achievements spread Islam to spread Islam to spread Islam reformed tax
as Caliph all of Arabia; Syria, Egypt, into Afghanistan collection
restored peace and Persia; and eastern and other
after death of redesigned Mediterranean; government
Muhammad; government; organized a navy; systems; spent
created code paid soldiers; improved the most of caliphate
of conduct in held a census; government; battling Muawiya,
war; compiled made taxes built more roads, the governor
Quran verses more fair; built bridges, and of Syria
roads and canals; canals; distributed
aided poor text of the Quran
Islamic glass horse
Under the caliphs, Islam spread through the
Islam. Muslims believed anyone who died Middle East and into North Africa.
in battle for Islam would go to paradise. 1. Which caliph organized a navy?
2. Compare What achievements did Umar
The Arabs were also successful because and Ali have in common?
they let conquered peoples practice their
own religion. They called Christians and
Jews “People of the Book,” meaning that
these people, too, believed in one God and and teaching Islam. They won many fol-
had holy writings. Muslims did not treat lowers throughout the Arab Empire.
everyone equally, though. Non-Muslims Arab merchants also helped to spread
had to pay a special tax. Islam. They set up trading posts throughout
When a people are conquered, they tend southeast Asia and taught Islam to the peo-
to adopt the religion and customs of their ple there. Today, the country of Indonesia
new rulers. In the Arab Empire, many peo- (IHN • duh • NEE • zhuh) includes more Muslims
ple became Muslims and learned Arabic. than any other nation in the world.
The customs of the conquered countries also Some Arab merchants crossed the Sahara
influenced the Arabic rulers. Eventually, the to trade with kingdoms in West Africa. In
term Arab meant only that a person spoke the 1300s, the west African city of Timbuktu
Arabic, not that he or she was from Arabia. (TIHM • BUHK • TOO) became a leading center of
Preaching and Trading Muslims also Muslim learning.
spread Islam by preaching. A group called Explain How did Arabs
Sufis (SOO • feez) spent their time praying spread the religion of Islam through trade?
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 381
Struggles Within Islam to the present day. Today most Muslims are
Sunnis. Iran and Iraq have the largest pop-
While Muslims split into two groups, ulations of Shiites.
the Arab Empire reached new heights.
Reading Focus Have you ever belonged to a club How Did Islam Split? Shiites (SHEE • eyets)
whose members could not agree on a leader? Read to believed that Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law,
find out what happened when Muslims disagreed about should succeed him and that all future
who should lead them. caliphs should be Ali’s descendants.
According to the Shiites, the Umayyad
From the moment Muhammad died, caliphs in Damascus had no right to rule.
Muslims began arguing about who had Sunnis (SU • nees), who outnumbered
the right to be caliph. The quarrel over Shiites, accepted the Umayyad dynasty as
who should succeed Muhammad split the rightful caliphs, though they did not always
Muslim world into two groups, the Sunnis agree with their policies. Over time, the
and the Shiites. This division has remained Shiites and Sunnis developed different reli-
gious practices and customs.
Who Were the Abbasids? The Abbasids
(uh • BA • suhds) were the dynasty that came
Royal Caliphs after the Umayyads. The Umayyads lost
Ibn Khaldun recorded historical events and power in A.D. 750 because they angered
his interpretation of them. many Muslims, especially in Persia. Persian
“When one considers Muslims felt that Arab Muslims got
what God meant the special treatment. They got the best
caliphate to be, nothing jobs and paid fewer taxes.
more needs [to be said]
When these Muslims rebelled,
about it. God made the
caliph his substitute to people all over the empire joined
handle the affairs of His them. They overthrew the Umayyads,
servants. He is to make and a new dynasty began. The
them do the things that new caliph was a descendant of
are good for them and Muhammad’s uncle. His name was
forbid them to do those Abu al-Abbas. The new Abbasid
that are harmful. He has
been directly told so.
dynasty lasted until 1258.
A person who lacks the The Great Mosque The Abbasids devoted their energies to
power to do a thing is of Damascus trade, scholarship, and the arts. They also
never told to do it.” built by the built a new capital, Baghdad (BAG • dad).
—Ibn Khaldun, Baghdad prospered because it was
beside the Tigris River and near the
Euphrates River. It was a good location to
trade since many people used the rivers to
According to Khaldun, what is the ship goods north and south. As a result, the
relationship between God and the caliph? Arab Empire grew even wealthier.
The Abbasid dynasty is also known for
bringing Persian influence into the empire.
382 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Abbasid Empire A.D. 800
Abbasid empire during reign
of Harun al-Rashid, A.D. 800 Da Aral
Black Sea 40°N
Former Umayyad capital
Trade route through Baghdad BYZANTINE
I n d us R
Jerusalem te s
PALESTINE r si a
0 500 mi.
0 500 km
Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasid empire and an
important center for trade.
A mosque 1. What empire blocked Abbasid expansion to the northwest?
in Baghdad 2. Does Baghdad appear to be well located for trade? Explain.
Baghdad was very close to Persia, and the 1055, they boldly took Baghdad itself. The
Abbasid rulers came to know and love the Seljuks were satisfied to rule only the
art and literature of Persia. government and army. They let the Abbasid
caliph remain as the religious leader. The
The Seljuk Turks Time brought many
Seljuk ruler called himself sultan (SUHL •
changes in the 500 years of Abbasid rule. In
tuhn), or “holder of power.”
Egypt and Spain, the Muslims wanted their
For 200 more years, the empire contin-
own caliphs. About the same time, a new
ued in this way. The Seljuks ruled, but it
people, the Seljuk Turks of central Asia,
was still the Abbasid dynasty. Then, in the
began moving south into the Arab Empire.
1200s, another people swept into the
The Abbasids were losing control.
empire. These were the fierce Mongols of
The Seljuk Turks were nomads and
central Asia. The Mongols were building
great warriors. When they first moved
their own empire and destroying many of
into the empire, the Abbasids hired them as
the civilizations they conquered. In 1258
soldiers. Soon, however, the Seljuk Turks
they stormed into Baghdad and burned it to
saw how weak the Abbasids were. They
the ground. The Arab Empire had ended.
decided to take power for themselves.
First, the Seljuks took over much of Contrast What is the dif-
what is now Iran and Turkey. Then, in ference between Shiite and Sunni Muslims?
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 383
Later Muslim Empires
James L. Stanfield/National Geographic Society Image Collection
Who Were the Ottomans? In the late
1200s, a group of Turks in the northwest
Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires corner of Asia Minor began to build a new
in Asia, Africa, and Europe. empire. The ruler of these Turks was named
Reading Focus How do you react when someone Osman, and as a result, these Turks became
treats you unfairly? Read on to find out how Muslims in known as the Ottoman Turks.
Turkey and India treated the people they conquered. The Ottomans quickly conquered most
of the land that today makes up the country
The Arabs built—and lost—the first of Turkey. They attacked the Byzantine
Muslim empire. Later on, other Muslim Empire and pushed north into Europe. In
groups created empires in Asia, Africa, and 1453 they seized Constantinople, the
Europe. One of the largest and most power- Byzantine capital. They changed the city’s
ful of these empires was the Ottoman name to Istanbul and made it the center of
empire that began in Turkey. Another was their empire.
the Mogul empire in India. Ottoman armies also marched
south, conquering Syria, Palestine,
Egypt, Mesopotamia, and parts of
Arabia and North Africa. They used
guns and cannons to fight their bat-
tles and built a large navy to control
the Mediterranean Sea.
Like the Seljuks, the Ottomans
called their leader a sultan. The most
famous sultan was Suleiman I (SOO •
lay • MAHN), who ruled in the 1500s.
Suleiman was a man of many talents.
He was enthusiastic about architecture
and built many schools and mosques.
Suleiman was also a brilliant gen-
eral, who brought Ottoman armies
north into Europe. He even threatened
the great European capital of Vienna.
For all these reasons, Ottomans called
him Suleiman the Magnificent.
After his rule, the Ottoman empire
began to weaken. Little by little, they
lost territory. The empire finally col-
lapsed at the end of World War I.
Muslims pray beneath the large decorated
dome of Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey.
Suleiman built this beautiful mosque for his
son Selim II. What were some of the reasons
that Suleiman was called “the Magnificent”?
The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire
0 20 E 40 E
ATLANTIC ube D n ie
Da n R. ste
OCEAN Vienna r
ITALY Black Sea
S tr Ti
S a it o g
f G ibr ASIA MINOR
a lt a r Algiers GREECE PERSIA
0 500 mi. Med SYRIA
it e rra n Crete Cyprus .
0 500 km ean Sea Pe
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Tripoli Damascus r si
AFRICA Cairo ARABIA
Ottoman lands, c. 1300 EGYPT Makkah
New Territory Gained: 20°N
c. 1300–1326 (Osman)
1520–1566 (Suleiman I)
The Ottoman empire continued to
The Ottomans used elite expand for almost 400 years.
soldiers called janissaries. 1. How far west into Europe did the
Ottoman empire expand?
2. During what time period did the Ottoman
How Were Non-Muslims Treated? The empire expand to the Persian Gulf?
Ottoman empire had many different people,
including Turks, Arabs, Greeks, Albanians,
Armenians, and Slavs. These groups prac- Who Were the Moguls? During the
ticed several religions. While many were 1500s, the Moguls (MOH • guhlz) created
Muslims, others were Christians or Jews. another Muslim empire in India. These
The government made different laws for Muslim warriors came from the mountains
non-Muslims. They had to pay a special tax, north of India. The Moguls used guns, can-
and in return, they were free to practice nons, elephants, and horses to conquer
their religion. They also could run their territory. In 1526 they made the city of
own affairs. These groups chose leaders to Delhi (DEH • lee) the center of their empire.
present their views to the sultan. The greatest Mogul ruler was Akbar
However, the sultan made some (AK • buhr). He brought peace and order to
demands on the conquered people. For the part of India he ruled by treating all his
example, Christian families in Eastern subjects fairly. Most of India’s people were
Europe had to send their sons to Istanbul. Hindu. He allowed them to practice their
There the boys became Muslims and religion. Both Hindus and Muslims served
trained as soldiers for the sultan. in Akbar’s government.
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 385
result, trade increased. Muslim merchants
brought paper, gunpowder, and fine porce-
lain from China to India. In addition,
Muslim architects introduced new building
styles, such as the arch and dome, to India.
After Akbar, the Mogul empire began to
decline. Later rulers spent too much money
trying to expand the empire and imposed
heavy taxes on the people. Others tried to
force the Hindus to convert to Islam and
banned the building of Hindu temples.
These policies led to many rebellions, and
parts of the empire broke away.
At the same time the Moguls began los-
ing power over their subjects, they had to
deal with European merchants. The mer-
Mogul emperor Akbar passing the crown to chants came to India to trade but used their
his grandson Shah Jahan military power to take over Mogul territory.
Eventually, the Mogul empire collapsed, and
Times were good in India under Akbar. Great Britain took control of most of India.
Farmers and artisans produced more food Describe How did
and goods than the Indians needed. As a Constantinople change in 1453?
Study CentralTM Need help with the
material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary 1. How did the Muslims treat
4. Contrast Describe the differ-
ences between the Shiite and
2. How far did the Arab Empire Sunni Muslims.
• Arab armies spread Islam as far
west as Spain and as far east as spread under the Umayyads? 5. Summarize Besides conquests
India. Muslim traders helped by Arab armies, how was Islam
spread the religion to southeast spread?
3. Organizing Information
Asia and west Africa. Draw a chart to organize infor- 6. Evaluate Why was Akbar
• Despite splitting into two groups, mation about the Ottoman considered a great ruler?
the Sunni and the Shiite, Muslim and Mogul empires. 7. Persuasive Writing Which
power reached its greatest height Muslim empire—the Umayyads,
under the Abbasids. Ottoman Mogul the Ottomans, or the Moguls—
• In the 1400s and 1500s, two treated its non-Muslim subjects
great Muslim empires, the the most fairly? The least
Ottoman and the Mogul, arose. fairly? Write a paragraph to
defend your answer.
386 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Chester Beatty Library, Dublin/Bridgeman Art Library
Ways of Life
What’s the Connection? Meeting People
In Section 2, you learned that Mamun (mah • MOON)
many Muslim rulers brought peace al-Razi (ahl • RAH • zee)
and order to their empires. Peace and Ibn Sina (IH • buhn SEE • nuh)
order helped trade to increase. Trade, Omar Khayyam
in turn, brought great wealth to the (OH • MAHR KY • YAHM)
Muslim empires. Ibn Khaldun (IH • buhn KAL • DOON)
Focus on the Building Your Vocabulary
• While Muslim traders enjoyed great mosque (MAHSK)
success and cities grew, most
bazaar (buh • ZAHR)
Muslims lived in villages in the
country. (page 388) minaret (MIH • nuh • REHT]
crier (KRY • uhr)
• Muslims made valuable contributions
in math, science, and the arts.
Organizing Information Create a
pyramid to show the social classes
Locating Places in the early Muslim world.
Granada (gruh • NAH • duh)
Agra (AH • gruh)
A.D. 800 1100 1400
c. A.D. 900 c. 1100 c. 1375
Al-Razi writes Omar Khayyam Ibn Khaldun
medical texts writes the writes
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 387
(l)Mary Evans Picture Library, (c)Bettmann/CORBIS
Trade and Everyday Life
While Muslim traders enjoyed great Web Activity Visit jat.glencoe.com and
success and cities grew, most Muslims lived in vil- click on Chapter 11—Student Web Activities to
learn more about Islamic civilization.
lages in the country.
Reading Focus Have you ever visited a mall or a farm
market? These are both places where people gather to
sell goods. Read to learn about Muslim traders and their spread the Arabic language. As a result,
marketplaces. Arabic became the language of trade.
Muslim rulers also made trade easier by
Muslims were the leading merchants in providing merchants with coins.
the Middle East and northern Africa until Muslim merchants kept detailed records
the 1400s. Their caravans traveled overland of their business deals and the money they
from Baghdad to China. Their ships crossed made. In time, these practices developed
the Indian Ocean to India and Southeast into a new business—banking. Muslims
Asia. They carried spices, cloth, glass, and respected traders for their skills and the
carpets. On their return, they brought wealth they created.
rubies, silk, ivory, gold, and slaves.
What Were Muslim Cities Like? Trade
The Success of Muslim Traders Several helped the leading Muslim cities grow.
things explain the success of Muslim trade. Baghdad, Cairo, and Damascus were
When Muslim empires expanded, they located on trade routes that ran from the
Mediterranean Sea to central Asia. However,
Muslims shop at a textile market. Muslim cities were not only places of trade.
What was a bazaar in a Muslim city?
388 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
They also became important centers of
(t)Jeff Greenberg/Photo Researchers, (b)The Art Archive/Harper Collins Publishers
government, learning, and the arts.
Muslim cities looked very similar. The
major buildings were palaces and mosques.
Mosques (mahsks) are Muslim houses of
worship. They also serve as schools, courts, Muslim Carpets and Weavings
and centers of learning. Carpets were woven in the Middle East
Another important part of every long before the coming of Islam. They
Muslim city was the bazaar (buh • ZAHR), or became popular in the Islamic world
marketplace. Stalls and shops made up the because Muslims used them in their
bazaars. Sellers in the stalls and daily worship.
shops sold goods from Asia. Carpets were often
Buyers from all over, including made of sheep’s wool
Europe, went from stall to stall or goat hair. Shepherds
to find goods to take home and might knot them by
sell. hand, or the carpets
Although cities were impor- might be made on
tant, most Muslims lived in
portable looms. Flowers
villages and farmed the land.
and geometric shapes
Because water was scarce,
Muslim farmers used irrigation
were popular designs.
to bring water to their crops. The carpets used
They grew wheat, rice, beans, for the Muslim’s daily
and melons in the fields. They prayers are called prayer
raised almonds, blackberries, rugs. No matter where
apricots, figs, and olives in A Muslim Muslims live, they pray
their orchards. Some farmers also raised woman five times daily. They
flowers for use in perfume. weaving a rug
kneel down on their
At first, Muslim villagers owned small prayer rug and pray
farms. Later, wealthy landowners took over facing toward Makkah. Prayer rugs
some of these farms and formed large are small and can be folded and
estates. Farmers and enslaved people carried from place to place.
worked for the landowners. Fine carpets of silk and wool
are often hung on the walls of
Muslim Society The Muslim people fell
mosques and public buildings.
into social groups based on power and
wealth. At the top were government lead-
They are considered fine art.
ers, landowners, and traders. Below them Muslim carpet
were artisans, farmers, and workers. The
lowest group was made up of enslaved
Connecting to the Past
1. What animals were needed
As in other civilizations, slavery was to make carpets?
widespread. Because Muslims could not be 2. What is the main reason Muslim carpets
enslaved, traders brought enslaved people have continually been in demand?
from non-Muslim areas. Many of these peo-
ple were prisoners of war. They often
served as servants or soldiers and could Muslims made valuable contributions
buy back their freedom. in math, science, and the arts.
Men and women played different roles Reading Focus Did you know that the numbers you
in the Muslim world. As in other parts of use are called Arabic numerals? Read on to find out
the world, men ran government, society, what other contributions Muslims made.
and business. Women, on the other hand,
helped run Muslim families. They also could Arabic was the common language of the
inherit wealth and own property. Many Muslim empires. You have already read
places had laws requiring women to cover how Arabic language encouraged trade. It
their faces and to wear long robes in public. also helped different people in the empires
Explain How did Muslim to share knowledge. For example, in A.D. 830
rulers give their merchants an advantage? the Abbasid caliph Mamun (mah • MOON)
Modern Muslim women
The teachings of Muhammad state that
women’s garments should not attract attention.
The female Muslim custom of hijab—wearing
garments that cover the head and body—
was followed only by upper-class women
during the first few hundred years
of Islam. In the Middle Ages, hijab
became more common.
Hijab today ranges from
colorful scarves to black robes. Some
women wear hijab, and some do not.
Many wear hijab to follow Muslim
tradition. Others think it allows them to
be judged for themselves and not their bodies.
In certain countries, the government requires
women to wear hijab. Why do you think only upper-
Traditional Muslim women class women wore hijab in the early centuries of Islam?
390 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
(l)Stapleton Collection, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, (r)David Turnley/CORBIS
founded the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
Mamun staffed his center with Christian, The Mystery
Jewish, and Muslim scholars. These scholars of Smallpox
exchanged ideas and rewrote Greek, Persian, The Muslim scientist al-Razi urged scientists
and Indian works in Arabic. and doctors to search for the causes of
Scholars in Muslim lands saved much of disease, rather than just treatments.
the learning of the ancient world. “Although [scholars] have certainly
Europeans in the West had made some mention of the
lost this knowledge after the treatment of the Small-Pox . . .
there is not one of them who
Western Roman Empire fell.
has mentioned the cause of the
Through Muslim scholars, existence of the disease, and how
western Europeans found it comes to pass that hardly any
out about Aristotle and other one escapes it . . .”
ancient Greek thinkers. —Al-Razi, “On the Causes
Mathematics and Science Al-Razi’s own theory about the
Muslims made important cause of smallpox was incorrect.
advances in mathematics. His efforts to find the cause,
Later, they passed on these however, helped change how
discoveries to Europeans. doctors and scientists investi-
For example, Muslims gated diseases.
invented algebra, a type of medical
mathematics still taught in drawing
schools today. The Arabs also
Why was al-Razi concerned about previous
borrowed the symbols 0 through 9 from scholars’ studies of smallpox?
Hindu scholars in India. These numbers
were later used by Europeans. Today, they
are known as “Arabic numerals.”
Muslims also made progress in science. Other Muslim scientists experimented
Muslim scientists who studied the heavens with metals and kept records of their work.
perfected the Greek astrolabe. Sailors used As a result, the Arabs are considered the
this tool to study the stars and then deter- founders of chemistry. One of the best-
mine their location at known Muslim chemists was al-Razi (ahl •
sea. Muslim scientists RAH • zee), who lived from A.D. 865 to A.D. 925.
used the astrolabe to Al-Razi developed a system for categoriz-
measure the size and ing substances as animal, mineral, or veg-
distance around the etable. He also wrote books for doctors that
earth. Based on their helped them to identify diseases.
measurements, they Arab doctors were the first to discover
realized that the earth that blood circulates, or moves to and from
is round. the heart. The Persian doctor Ibn Sina (IH •
buhn SEE • nuh) showed how diseases spread
from person to person. As they worked,
Muslim astrolabe Muslim doctors published their findings.
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 391
(t)R & S Michaud/Woodfin Camp & Assoc., (b)Paul Dupuy Museum, Toulouse, France/Lauros-Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock
and IBN KHALDUN
Omar Khayyam—who was born in
losopher, but he is
mathematician, astronomer, and phi
best known as a poet. Scholars believe
poem, the Rubaiyat,
wrote only parts of his most famous
verses and the
but they are certain that at least 120
main concepts are his. Stanza XII rea
“ A Book of Verses underneath the Bou
A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread—and
Beside me singing the Wilderness— Omar Khayyam
Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow
—Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat
music before he
Khayyam wrote books on algebra and
ry for 18 years and
was 25 years old. He led an observato
developed a more accurate calenda
Ibn Khaldun is one of the most famous
gist, and politician.
He was a historian, geographer, sociolo
the rulers of Tunis
He was born in Tunisia and worked for
sador to one of the
and Morocco. He also served as ambas
Cairo, Egypt. He wrote
Spanish kingdoms and as a judge in
. His best-known
much about social and political change
written in 1375. It is
work is Muqaddimah (Introduction),
bar (universal history).
the first volume of his book Kitab al-I
ntific way to analyze
In this book, he tried to develop a scie
t historians who studied
historical events. He is one of the firs
ure affect history.
how geography, economics, and cult
The Rubaiyat is a collection of 4-line
m that is
called quatrains. Find a modern poe
made up of quatrains.
Muslim Writing The Quran is probably the wrote in 1375 that all civilizations rise,
most famous collection of writings in the grow, and then fall. He also was one of the
first historians to study the effect of geogra-
Muslim world, but Muslims produced
phy and climate on people.
other famous works, as well. One of the
most well known is The Thousand and One Art and Buildings Muslims developed
Nights, also called The Arabian Nights. It their own form of art based on Islam.
includes tales from India, Persia, and Muslims are not allowed to show images of
Arabia. One of the stories tells about Muhammad or the events of his life in art.
Aladdin and his magic lamp. They believe that such images might cause
Another Muslim, the Persian poet Omar people to worship Muhammad instead of
Khayyam (OH • MAHR KY • YAHM), wrote the Allah. Instead, designs entwined with flow-
Rubaiyat (ROO • bee • AHT) around 1100. Many ers, leaves, and stars make up most Muslim
consider it one of the finest poems ever art. Muslims use these designs to decorate
written. walls, books, rugs, and buildings.
In addition to stories and poems, Muslims were known for their beautiful
Muslims wrote history. The great Muslim buildings. Mosques filled Muslim cities like
historian Ibn Khaldun (IH • buhn KAL • DOON) Baghdad, Damascus, Cairo, and Istanbul.
In Islamic cities and towns, mosques were centers of religious
and daily life. Besides being places of worship, mosques also
served as meeting places, schools, and courts. What was the
most striking architectural feature of a mosque?
Beneath the dome is a wall that
Minarets faces the holy site of Makkah.
From the mosque’s towers, called Muslims pray facing this direction.
minarets, religious officials call Muslims
to prayer five times a day.
Worshipers gather in the
Well courtyard for prayers.
Every mosque has a well or fountain at
which worshipers can wash their faces, arms,
hands, and feet to show respect for God.
added porches, fountains, and
pools. To provide protection, they
surrounded the palaces with walls.
The most famous example of
a Muslim palace is the Alhambra
(al • HAM • bruh) in Granada (gruh •
NAH • duh), Spain. It was built in the
Another famous Muslim build-
ing is the Taj Mahal in Agra (AH •
gruh), India. The Mogul ruler Shah
The Taj Mahal took more than 20 years to build.
Where is the Taj Mahal located? Jahan built it as a tomb for his wife after she
died in 1629. Made of marble and precious
Domes top many of the mosques, but a stones, the Taj Mahal is one of the world’s
mosque’s most striking feature is its most beautiful buildings.
minarets (MIH • nuh • REHTS). These are towers Today, the Muslim empires are gone.
from which a crier (KRY • uhr), or announcer, However, Islam is still a major world reli-
calls believers to prayer five times a day. gion. About one out of every six persons in
Islamic rulers lived in large brick palaces. the world is a Muslim.
These palaces often had courtyards at their Identify What contribu-
center. To cool the courtyards, palace builders tions did Muslims make in math and science?
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material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary 1. Describe the three Muslim
4. Summarize Describe several
factors that made Muslim
Review the social groups.
• There were many Muslim cities 2. What contributions did Muslims
5. Analyze How did the Arabic
such as Baghdad, Cairo, and make in the field of medicine?
language and Muslim leaders
Damascus, but most Muslims
remained farmers in small
Critical Thinking help preserve and advance the
3. Organizing Information world’s knowledge?
Draw a chart like the one below. 6. Evaluate Which Muslim
Fill in details about Muslim contribution do you think had
• Muslim scholars made important contributions in the areas of the greatest effect on later
discoveries in fields such as alge- math, science, and the arts. civilizations?
bra and chemistry, and Muslim
writers, artists, and architects Math Science Arts 7. Descriptive Writing Imagine
also produced important works. you are living in a Muslim city.
Write to a friend describing
a bazaar. Describe what a
bazaar is and some of the
items you might find there.
394 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Section The Rise of Islam
Vocabulary Focusing on the
oasis • The deserts, coastline, and oases of
sheikh Arabia helped shape the Arab way
caravan of life. (page 373)
Quran • The prophet Muhammad brought
the message of Islam to the people
of Arabia. (page 374)
• The Quran provided guidelines for
Muslims’ lives and the governments
of Muslim states. (page 377)
A child studies
Section Islamic Empires
Vocabulary Focusing on the
caliph • Arabs spread Islam through preaching, conquest, and trade. (page 380)
Shiite • While Muslims split into two groups, the Arab Empire reached new heights.
Sunni (page 382)
sultan • Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires in Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Section Muslim Ways of Life
Vocabulary Focusing on the
mosque • While Muslim traders enjoyed great success and cities grew, most Muslims
bazaar lived in villages in the country. (page 388)
minaret • Muslims made valuable contributions in math, science, and the arts.
crier (page 390)
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 395
Review Vocabulary Review Main Ideas
Write the key term that completes each sentence.
a. caravan f. minaret
Section 1 • The Rise of Islam
11. How did geography affect the early Arabs’
b. caliph g. sheikh way of life?
c. sultan h. bazaar
12. What guidelines did the Quran provide for
d. mosque i. Sunnis the governments of Muslim states?
e. Quran j. Shiites
Section 2 • Islamic Empires
1. A crier called Muslims to prayer from the 13. How did the Arabs spread Islam?
___ of a mosque.
14. Why did the Muslims split into two
2. After Muhammad died, his followers groups?
chose a ___ to lead them.
Section 3 • Muslim Ways of Life
3. The most famous ___ was Suleiman.
15. What scientific advances were made by
4. In each Muslim city, a ___ sold goods to early Muslims?
local and out-of-town merchants.
16. What is significant about Ibn Khaldun’s
5. Arab merchants traveling in a ___ used
recording of history?
camels to carry goods across the desert.
6. The Muslim holy book is called the ___.
7. Each tribe of early Arabs was led by a ___. Critical Thinking
8. Each ___ was a house of worship and a 17. Compare How are Islam, Judaism, and
school. Christianity similar?
9. The ___ believed that Muhammad’s son- 18. Evaluate Do you think a government that
in-law should succeed him. allows people to practice any religion they
10. According to the ___, the Umayyad choose will be stronger than one that does
dynasty were rightful caliphs. not? Explain.
Main Idea Main Ideas and Details
19. Read the paragraph below. Create a graphic organizer to show the main idea and
The Muslim people fell into social groups based on power
and wealth. At the top were government leaders, landowners,
and traders. Below them were artisans, farmers, and workers.
The lowest group was made up of enslaved people.
To review this skill, see pages 370–371.
396 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for
Geography Skills the Chapter Test, visit jat.glencoe.com
Study the map below and answer the follow-
20. Movement Why was the Abbasid empire Using Technology
unable to expand to the Black Sea? 25. Exploring Language Use the Internet and
21. Region What bodies of water could your local library to find English words that
Abbasid merchants use to trade with have their origins in the Arabic language.
the outside world? Create a chart using your computer show-
ing English words and their Arabic roots.
22. Place You learned that the Abbasids
changed the capital city from Damascus
to Baghdad. Look at the locations of those
Linking Past and Present
cities. Which do you think would have been 26. Evaluating Impact Which Islamic inven-
the best location for a capital city? Why? tion or development do you think has the
greatest effect on the world today? Explain
Building Citizenship Skills
27. Analyzing Documents Do research to
e R. W E
Sea find out how the United States Constitution
Black Sea 40°N protects religious freedoms. Do you think
BYZANTINE the way Muslim empires treated religion
EMPIRE would be allowed under the U.S.
Jerusalem ates R.
PALESTINE r si a
Madinah 0 500 mi. In the first stanza of the Rubaiyat, Omar
0 500 km Khayyam welcomes the morning.
R Makkah Lambert Azimuthal
(Mecca) “Wake! for the sun, the shepherd of
KEY Has penned [confined] the stars within
Abbasid empire during reign Abbasid capital their fold on high,
of Harun al-Rashid, A.D. 800 Former Umayyad
capital And, shaking darkness from his mighty
Scatters the daylight from his burning eye.”
Read to Write —Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám:
A Paraphrase From
23. Descriptive Writing Suppose you are Several Literal Translations,
an Arab merchant traveling in the desert by Richard Le Gallienne
with a caravan. Write three diary entries,
each describing the events of your day.
Each day you choose to describe should
focus on a different aspect of the life 28. What has been penned up by the sun?
of a merchant. Share your entries with 29. Personification is when a writer gives
the class. human qualities to something that
is not human. How does Khayyam
24. Using Your Write a poem or personify the sun in this stanza?
short story using the facts from your
CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 397
Empires and Faiths
Compare ancient Rome, early
Christianity, and early Islam
by reviewing the information
below. Can you see how the Chapters 8 & 9
peoples of these civilizations Chapter 10
had lives that were very much
Ancient Rise of Islamic
Rome Christianity Civilization
C ha pte rs 8 & 9 Chapt er 10 C hap te r 11
Where did these
• Began on Italian peninsula • Began in Palestine • Began in Arabia
civilizations • Won control of • Spread throughout the • Arab Empire stretched
develop? Mediterranean world Roman Empire from North Africa to
• Cincinnatus • Muhammad
Who were some c. 519–438 B.C. A.D. 570–632
important • Augustus, ruled
• Omar Khayyam
people in these 27 B.C .–A.D. 14
c. 6 B.C .–A.D. 30
• Theodora • Suleiman I, ruled
civilizations? c. A.D. 500–548
• Helena A.D. 1520–1566
c. A.D. 248–328
• Farming villages • Ports and cities of
Where did most Mediterranean area • Desert oases
• Major cities included
of the people Rome and Alexandria • Farming villages
live? • Major cities included
Makkah and Baghdad
(t)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (bl)Smithsonian Institution, (bc)Michael Holford, (br)Giraudon/Art Resource, NY
Ancient Rise of Islamic
Rome Christianity Civilization
C ha p Chapt er 10 C hap te r 11
ter s 8 & 9
• Belief in many gods and • Belief in one God and • Belief in one God (Allah)
these people’s goddesses Jesus as Son of God and
• Muhammad is
beliefs? • Emperors honored as
gods • Major groups: Eastern • Major groups:
Orthodox and Roman
• Many local religions Catholic
• Rome developed from a • Ranked order of priests, • Muhammad founds
What was their republic into an empire bishops, and archbishops Islamic state
government • An emperor • Bishop of Rome • After Muhammad,
like? was the
became head of the
leaders called caliphs
held religious and
Church political power
• Army played
• New Testament of • Quran written in Arabic
What was their Bible written in
• Arabic was Arab Empire’s
language and • Latin was official
language; Greek spoken
• Latin became language of • Persian and Turkish also
writing like? in empire’s eastern part
Roman Catholic Church
• Many local languages
• Introduced • Christianity became a • Islam became a world
What ideas about world religion religion
contributions law and
• Shaped beliefs and values • Developed ideas in
of Western civilization medicine and
did they make? • Developed mathematics
• Christianity is major
How do these religion of the West
changes affect • Latin contributed many
words to English
• Birth date of Jesus is • Islam is a
me? Can you language
starting date for Western major religion today
add any? • Rome’s idea of a republic
followed by governments
• Developed algebra
today • Developed game of chess
(tl)Stock Montage, (tr)Michael Holford, (c)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (bl)Roy Rainford/Robert Harding/Getty Images, (br)Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library