Advantages by vivi07

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									                                                                       Attachment #4 for Teachers


Link #1: http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car.htm

Introduction to How Hybrid Cars Work

Have you pulled your car up to the gas pump lately and been shocked by the high price of
gasoline? As the pump clicked past $20, $30, $40 or even $50, maybe you thought about trading
in your car for something that gets better mileage. Or maybe you're worried that your car is
contributing to the greenhouse effect.
The auto industry has the technology to address these concerns. It's the hybrid car. There are a
lot of hybrid models on the market these days, and most automobile manufacturers have
announced plans to manufacture their own versions.
How does a hybrid automobile work? What goes on under the hood to give you 20 or 30 more
miles per gallon than the standard automobile? And does it pollute less just because it gets
better gas mileage? In this article, we'll help you understand how this technology works, and we'll
even give you some tips on how to drive a hybrid car for maximum efficiency.
Many people have probably owned a hybrid vehicle at some point. For example, a mo-ped (a
motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine
with the pedal power of its rider. In fact, hybrid vehicles are all around us. Most of the
locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids. Cities like Seattle have diesel-
electric buses -- these can draw electric power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they
are away from the wires. Giant mining trucks are often diesel-electric hybrids. Submarines are
also hybrid vehicles -- some are nuclear-electric and some are diesel-electric. Any vehicle that
combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power is
a hybrid.

The Benefits of a Hybrid Car
You might wonder why anyone would build such a complicated machine when most people are
perfectly happy with their gasoline-powered cars. The reason is twofold: to reduce tailpipe
emissions and to improve mileage. These goals are actually tightly interwoven.
Let's take the example of the California emissions standards, which dictate how much of each
type of pollution a car is allowed to emit in California. The amount is usually specified in grams
per mile (g/mi). For example, the low emissions vehicle (LEV) standard allows 3.4 g/mi of carbon
monoxide. The key thing here is that the amount of pollution allowed does not depend on the
mileage your car gets. But a car that burns twice as much gas to go a mile will generate
approximately twice as much pollution. That pollution will have to be removed by the emissions
control equipment on the car. So decreasing the fuel consumption of the car is one of the surest
ways to decrease emissions.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is another type of pollution a car produces. The U.S. government does not
regulate it, but scientists suspect that it contributes to global warming. Since it is not regulated,
a car has no devices for removing CO2 from the exhaust. A car that burns twice as much gas
adds twice as much CO2 to the atmosphere.
Auto makers in the United States have another strong incentive to improve mileage. They are
required by law to meet Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. The current
standards require that the average mileage of all the new cars sold by an auto maker should be
27.5 mpg (8.55 liters per 100 km). This means that if an auto maker sells one hybrid car that gets
60 mpg (3.92 liters per 100 km), it can then sell four big, expensive luxury cars that only get 20
mpg (11.76 liters per 100 km).




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                                                                        Attachment #4 for Teachers


Link #2: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/ipod.htm

Introduction to How iPods Work

In 2001, Apple introduced the iPod, an MP3 player with the unheard-of storage capacity of 5
gigabytes. Five iPod generations later, the device plays songs, movies and photo slideshows,
and you can store up to 80 GB of any type of file you want. The evolution has been a lesson in
consumer electronics marketing and development: Millions of people are so hooked on the iPod,
they continue to buy it and its coordinating Apple products despite quick battery death and
difficult repairs.
The 2005 iPod release, the fifth-generation (5g) iPod video, is more than an MP3 player. It's a
digital audio player, video player, photo viewer and portable hard drive, making it a full-fledged
portable media center. It's available in 30-GB and 80-GB capacities and has a 2.5-inch, color
LCD screen. In addition to the iPod 5G, the current generation of iPod players includes:
       iPod shuffle, with a 1-GB capacity, which only plays songs and has no display
       iPod nano, which plays digital audio, displays digital photos, comes in 2-, 4- and 8-GB
        capacities and has a smaller form factor than the iPod video


iPod Basics
Although the iPod is an Apple product, it works with both Mac and Windows machines. Since it's
the top-selling media player in the United States, probably the big question is: What makes it
different from any other digital media player? The answer will differ depending on who you ask.
Some might say it's the form factor -- the 80-GB iPod video is just over half an inch (1.4 cm)
deep and weighs about 5.5 ounces (156 grams). For comparison, the iRiver PMC-140 (a
Windows-based portable media center) is 1.3 inches (3.3 cm) deep and weighs 9.6 ounces (272
grams), and it only holds 40 GB (but the screen is bigger at 3.5 inches).
Other people might tell you it's the Apple Click Wheel, a touch-sensitive wheel that makes it
incredibly easy to navigate through the various menus and options with just a thumb. According
to Apple CEO Steve Jobs in a Newsweek interview, "It was developed out of necessity for the
Mini, because there wasn't enough room [for the buttons]. But the minute we experienced it we
just thought, 'My God, why didn't we think of this sooner?'" And then, some might tell you the
greatest thing in the world is the super-tight iPod/iTunes integration (which, ironically, others will
curse until the day they die).
iTunes is the integrated jukebox/media-player software that comes with an iPod. It lives on your
computer, and you use it for organizing, playing, converting and downloading files from an
external source to your computer and from your computer to an iPod. This is really no different
from the software than comes with any other portable media player. The thing that makes iTunes
a brilliant invention from a consumer-electronics standpoint is the built-in iTunes Store that
keeps iPod users coming back to Apple on a regular basis.
The iTunes Store lets iPod users purchase music, movies, podcasts, audiobooks and music
videos with a click -- it's an integral part of the iTunes software. The Store offers 3.5 million
songs, tens of thousands of podcasts, 3,000 music videos and 20,000 audiobooks, as well as TV
shows, feature films and iPod video games. You can watch or listen to the files through iTunes
on your computer and download them to your iPod. And you don't even have to drag and drop:
The iTunes software autosyncs with iPod whenever it's connected to your computer through a
USB 2.0 port (you can use FireWire for charging, but not for syncing). Just plug it in, and the iPod
automatically downloads every new file that you added to your iTunes jukebox since the last time
it was connected. It also uploads to iTunes all new data that you added to your iPod since last
the two conversed, like playlists and song ratings.




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                                                                     Attachment #4 for Teachers


Link #3: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/remote-control.htm

Introduction to How Remote Controls Work

The world's first remote controls were radio-frequency devices that directed German naval
vessels to crash into Allied boats during WWI. In WWII, remote controls detonated bombs for the
first time. The end of the great wars left scientists with a brilliant technology and nowhere to
apply it. Sixty years later, some of us spend an hour looking for the remote before we remember
there are buttons on the TV.


Remote-control Features
Today's home-theater remotes do a lot more than turn a component on and off and control the
volume. Here are just a handful of the features you can find on some of the higher-tech remote
controls out there.
Universal capabilities
Different electronics brands use different command codes. Some IR remotes are
preprogrammed with more than one manufacturer's command codes so they can operate
multiple devices (sometimes up to 15) of different brands. If your home-theater setup
incorporates components from, say, three different manufacturers, you can either use three
different remotes to operate your system or use one universal remote. To add functions to a
universal remote, you need to know the command codes for the component you want to control.
You can look these up online or find them in the manual that came with your remote.
Learning
A learning remote can receive and store codes transmitted by another remote control; it can then
transmit those codes to control the device that understands them. For instance, let's say you
have a receiver with its own preprogrammed remote, and you buy a new TV that comes with a
universal learning remote. The learning remote can pick up the signals your receiver remote
sends out and remember them so it can control your receiver, too. You don't need to input the
command codes yourself -- a learning remote picks up and stores the signals another remote
sends out. All learning remotes are considered universal remotes because they can control more
than one device.
Macro commands
A macro is a series of commands that you program to occur sequentially at the push of a single
button. These macros can be anything you want, such as an "activity command." You can set up
a macro that lets you push one button to activate, in order, everything that needs to happen for
you to watch a movie or listen to a CD. (Some remotes come with "activity commands"
preprogrammed, and others let you download macros from the Internet.)
PC connectivity
There are remotes that connect to your PC via the USB port so you can install programming
software and download command codes and personalized graphic icons (for remotes with LCD
screens).
LCD screen
A remote-control LCD screen may simply display data, or it may be a touchscreen that receives
user input.
User interfaces
Most remotes still utilize the simple button-pushing method, but some have more high-tech
manners of inputing commands. You'll find remotes that you operate via an LCD touchscreen, a
joystick (for directional commands) and even voice commands.
RF extenders
Some IR remotes can send out both IR and RF signals. The RF signals aren't meant to control
RF devices (in fact, they can't control them). They're meant to extend the operating range of the
IR remote control from about 30 feet to about 100 feet (give or take) and allow the signal to


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                                                                         Attachment #4 for Teachers

penetrate walls and glass cabinet enclosures. The remote automatically transmits both IR and
RF signals for every command. When you hook up an RF-to-IR converter (sometimes included
with IR/RF remotes, sometimes sold as add-ons) on the receiving end, it receives and converts
the signal back into the infrared pulses the device can understand. Now you've got an IR remote
that can increase the volume on your home-theater stereo from your bedroom upstairs.
Remote controls are steadily increasing the number of devices and functions they can manage.
Some universal remotes intended for home-theater components can learn commands for
wirelessly controlled lights, so they will not only start a movie at the push of a button, but they'll
also dim the lights for you. Full home-automation systems let you use one remote control to
manage lighting, alarm systems and entertainment components by way of a receiver wired
directly into your home's electrical wiring. Chances are it won't be long before you have a single
remote control to manage every electronic device in your life.




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                                                                         Attachment #4 for Teachers


Link #4: http://communication.howstuffworks.com/teleconferencing.htm

Introduction to How Teleconferencing Works

In the past few years, corporations have gotten bigger and more spread out. Many American
employees -- more than 44 million in 2004 -- also do at least some of their work from home [ref].
Since offices and employees can be thousands of miles apart, getting everyone into the same
room for meetings and training has become decidedly impractical for a lot of companies.
That's why teleconferencing -- the real-time exchange of information between people who are
not in the same physical space -- has become such a big industry. The American audio
conferencing industry alone reported $2.25 billion in revenue in 2004 [ref]. Through
teleconferencing, companies can conduct meetings, customer briefs, training, demonstrations
and workshops by phone or online instead of in person.
In this article, we'll look at different types of teleconferencing, from conference calls to online
meetings.
The simplest phone teleconference is a three-way call, available in many homes as a service
from the telephone company. Another very simple (but not necessarily effective) method is to
have two groups of people talk to one another via speakerphone. The limits of three-way calling
and the sound quality of speakerphones make both of these options impractical for most
businesses.
Conference calls let groups of people -- from a few to hundreds -- communicate by phone. Banks
and brokerages often use conference calls to give status reports to large numbers of listeners.
Other businesses use conference calls to help coworkers communicate, plan and brainstorm. To
connect to the call, attendees call a designated number (MeetMe conferencing), or an operator
or moderator calls each participant (ad hoc conferencing).
Conference calls connect people through a conference bridge, which is essentially a server that
acts like a telephone and can answer multiple calls simultaneously. Software plays a large role in
the bridge's capabilities beyond simply connecting multiple callers.
A company can have its own bridge or can contract with a service provider for conference call
hosting. Providers frequently offer add-on features for conference calls, such as:
      Attendee polling
      Call recording
      In-call operators or attendants
Companies using Voice over IP (VoIP) telephones can also host conference calls themselves if
the VoIP software supports them.
Many phone conferencing systems require a login and personal identification number (PIN) to
access the system. This helps protect confidential and proprietary information during the call.
Video phones can add a visual element to conference calls, but businesses often need to share
other visual information.
Teleconferencing Online
Web conferencing allows people to communicate through text and video in addition to audio. The
simplest web conferencing methods use chat and instant messaging programs to host text-based
group discussions. More sophisticated programs exchange visual information with webcams and
streaming video. Some allow people to share documents online.
Companies can either purchase conferencing software and host their meetings themselves or
use a hosting service. Hosting services provide the software and server space on which to
conduct meetings. Either way, the company or the hosting service must have software to
coordinate the meeting and ample server space and bandwidth to accommodate it.




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                                                                    Attachment #4 for Teachers

Web conferencing programs combine tools already common to web pages and Internet
communication. They bundle these tools into one interface to create an interactive meeting
environment. These tools include:
      HTML, XML and ASP markup
      Java scripts
      Flash animation
      Instant messaging
      Streaming audio and video
Some programs are entirely computer- and Internet-based. Others use the telephone system to
distribute audio content. To participate in the online meetings, participants must have:
      A computer
      An Internet connection
      A telephone, if audio content is not provided online
If the conferencing program relies on Internet-based audio chat and webcam feeds, the
participants' PCs should have:
      Microphones
      Webcams
      Video capture cards
In general, every online presentation or meeting has a moderator and attendees. The moderator
sets the time and date of the meeting, prepares the content and makes sure everything works
properly before the meeting begins. Attendees can either view the presentation without giving
feedback or can collaborate, based on the settings and capabilities of the programs. Often,
moderators can record the presentation for later viewing and can pass their moderator
capabilities to attendees during the meeting.
But what can people do in these virtual meeting rooms? Let's find out.
Web Conferencing Features
Web conferencing programs come with a tremendous variety of features and capabilities. Some
can merge with a company's existing e-mail, calendar, messaging and office productivity
applications. Some allow attendees to view the presentation in their regular web browser without
installing any additional software.
Depending on the software, people can:
      View slide presentations from programs like PowerPoint
      Draw or write on a common whiteboard by using their computer mice or typing
      Annotate images and diagrams using the same whiteboard principle
      Transmit still pictures or video to other attendees via a webcam (This increases the
       required bandwidth and can sometimes slow the transfer of the presentation.)
      View information from the moderator's computer desktop using screen sharing
      Share documents, often even if attendees don't have the software that created them,
       using application sharing
      Hold interactive question-and-answer sessions that integrate video and audio
      Send public or private messages through instant messaging
      Annotate or modify documents and spreadsheets from compatible applications
      Transfer files between attendees
      Ask and answer questions through audio chat (as an integrated part of the software) or
       by phone
Since these meetings take place over the Internet, programs include options for security and
encryption. Most programs require moderators and attendees to use a login name and password
to access the meeting. Some use SSL or TLS encryption to protect data. Some companies also
host web conferences on internal servers so that the data stays behind the corporate firewall.



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                                                                     Attachment #4 for Teachers

The moderator or host can monitor who is participating in the conference through sign-in logs
and roll calls.
A Typical Online Meeting
Web conferences can vary dramatically depending on software, hosting and how the moderator
runs the meeting. Here are the basic steps used with many meeting programs:
     1. The moderator gathers content for the meeting, including spreadsheets, documents and
         presentations from other applications.
     2. The moderator sets a time and date for the meeting and uses the meeting software to
         invite attendees via e-mail.
     3. The attendees accept the invitation, and their calendar programs add the meeting to their
         calendars.
     4. The meeting moderator opens the conferencing software before the meeting is
         scheduled to start and makes sure the connections and content are working properly.
     5. When the meeting time arrives, the attendees click on the URL in their invitation email to
         go to the meeting.
     6. The visual portion of the meeting takes place in the meeting software or in a web
         browser.
     7. The moderator and participants communicate by phone, voice chat or instant messenger
         during the meeting.
     8. At the end of the meeting, the moderator and attendees close their programs or browser
         windows and sign off.




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                                                                 Attachment #4 for Teachers


Teachers can use the table below to summarize students’ data on the screen.

   Technology                       Why                                  How


Hybrid cars          1. __________________________ 1. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     2. __________________________ 2. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     3. __________________________ 3. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     4. __________________________ 4. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     5. __________________________ 5. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
iPods                1. __________________________ 1. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     2. __________________________ 2. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     3. __________________________ 3. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     4. __________________________ 4. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     5. __________________________ 5. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
Remote controls      1. __________________________ 1. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     2. __________________________ 2. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     3. __________________________ 3. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     4. __________________________ 4. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________
                     5. __________________________ 5. __________________________
                       __________________________           __________________________



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                                                       Attachment #4 for Teachers


Teleconferencing   1. __________________________ 1. __________________________
                     __________________________    __________________________
                   2. __________________________ 2. __________________________
                     __________________________    __________________________
                   3. __________________________ 3. __________________________
                     __________________________    __________________________
                   4. __________________________ 4. __________________________
                     __________________________    __________________________
                   5. __________________________ 5. __________________________
                     __________________________    __________________________




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