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The Wonder of Omega 3

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									Amigo PAGE 1 Ronald Ladrillo Amigo Professor Marilou Anglopez FT 130 (Food Chemistry I) 15 September 2008

The Wonders of Omega-3

I. Essential Fatty Acids Essential fatty acids, or known as EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be synthesizes within an organism, “generally all reference is to humans” (www.wikipedia.com, 2008), by any chemical means and pathways, and hence must be obtained through the diet. According to Rotella (2006), EFAs are healthy fats which our body requires to function properly and prevent the occurrence of a variety of adverse health conditions. Between 1930 and 1950, arachidonic acid and linolenic acid were named 'essential' because each was more or less able to meet the growth requirements of rats given fat-free diets. Further research has shown that human metabolism requires both ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids (www.wikipedia.com, 2008). Enig (2001) pointed out copious studies showing the importance of omega-3 and omega-6 in the mammalian diet. A 2005 study has shown evidence that gammalinolenic acid, GLA, a product of omega-6, has been shown to inhibit the breast cancer promoting gene of Her2/neu (Menendez et. al., 2005). Essential fatty acids should not be confused with essential oils, which are "essential" in the sense of being a concentrated essence (www.wikipedia.com, 2008). A. Nomenclature and Terminology Fatty acids are straight chain hydrocarbons possessing a carboxyl (COOH) group at one end. The carbon next to the carboxylate is known as α, the next carbon β, and so forth. Since biological fatty acids can be of different lengths, the last position is labeled ω, the last letter in the Greek alphabet. Since the physiological properties of unsaturated fatty acids largely depend on the position of the first unsaturation relative to the end position and not the carboxylate, the position is signified by (ω minus n). The number of carbons and the number of double bonds is also listed (see Figure 1). ω-3 18:4 (stearidonic acid) or 18:4 ω-3 or 18:4 n−3 indicates an 18-

Amigo PAGE 1 carbon chain with 4 double bonds, and with the first double bond in the third position from the CH3 end. ( HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linseed" \o "Linseed" linseed HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linum_usitatissimum" \o "Linum usitatissimum" Linum usitatissimum 55 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cowberry" \o "Cowberry" Lingonberry HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cowberry" \o "Cowberry" Cowberry HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccinium_vitis-idaea" \o "Vaccinium vitisidaea" Vaccinium vitis-idaea 49 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camelina_sativa" \o "Camelina sativa" Camelina HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold-of-pleasure" \o "Gold-of-pleasure" of-pleasure HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camelina_sativa" \o "Camelina sativa" Camelina sativa 36

Gold-

HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portulaca" \o "Portulaca" Purslane HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portulaca" \o "Portulaca" Portulaca HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portulaca_oleracea" \o "Portulaca oleracea" Portulaca oleracea 35 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubus_occidentalis" \o "Rubus occidentalis" Black Raspberry HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubus_occidentalis" \o "Rubus occidentalis" Rubus occidentalis 33 Table 2. n−3 content as the percentage of  HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha linolenic_acid" \o "Alpha-linolenic acid" ALA in the whole food. HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid" \l "cite_note-uos-77#cite_note-uos-77" \o "" [78] HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid" \l "cite_note-ngg78#cite_note-ngg-78" \o "" [79] Common name HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linnaean_name" \o "Linnaean name" Linnaean name % n−3 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flaxseed" \o "Flaxseed" Flaxseed

Amigo PAGE 1 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linum_usitatissimum" \o "Linum usitatissimum" Linum usitatissimum 18.1 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butternuts" \o "Butternuts" Butternuts HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juglans_cinerea" \o "Juglans cinerea" Juglans cinerea 8.7 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walnuts" \o "Walnuts" Walnuts HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juglans_regia" \o "Juglans regia" Juglans regia 6.3 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pecan" \o "Pecan" Pecan nuts HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carya_illinoinensis" \o "Carya illinoinensis" Carya illinoinensis 0.6 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazel" \o "Hazel" Hazel nuts HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corylus_avellana" \o "Corylus avellana" Corylus avellana 0.1

HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid" \l "cite_ref-sofadb_760#cite_ref-sofadb_76-0" \o "" ^ " HYPERLINK "http://sofa.bfel.de" \o "http://sofa.bfel.de" Seed Oil Fatty Acids - SOFA Database Retrieval ". HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid" \l "cite_ref-uos_770#cite_ref-uos_77-0" \o "" ^ DeFilippis, Andrew P.; Laurence S. Sperling. " HYPERLINK "http://www.biovita.fi/suomi/pdf/understanding_omega3.pdf" \o "http://www.biovita.fi/suomi/pdf/understanding_omega3.pdf" Understanding omega-3's " (PDF). Retrieved on HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_21" \o "October 21" 21 October HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007" \o "2007" 2007 . 1. HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid" \l "cite_ref-ngg_780#cite_ref-ngg_78-0" \o "" ^ Wilkinson, Jennifer. " HYPERLINK "http://www.publish.csiro.au/samples/Nut%20Growers%20GuideSample.pdf" \o "http://www.publish.csiro.au/samples/Nut%20Growers%20GuideSample.pdf" Nut Grower's Guide: The Complete Handbook for Producers and Hobbyists " (PDF). Retrieved on HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_21" \o "October 21" 21 October HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007" \o "2007" 2007 .

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