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International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE) ISSN 2320-091X

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					        International Journal for Research in Education
                                     (IJRE)
Sr.                                 Contents                            Pg. No.
No.
1     A Study of Misconceptions and Customs of the Female Students of   1-20
      Women’s Arts College
      Trupti J. Vyas
2     Parallel Life of Students on Social Networking Sites              21-33
      Dr. Harishchandrasingh Rathod, Prof. Digvijay Barot
3     Effect of Yoga Exercises on Achievement, Memory and Reasoning     34-53
      Ability
      Nilesh Gajjar
4     Problems of Teacher Education in India                            54-58
      Dr. Ashok J. Desai
5     Role of a Teacher for Quality in Education                        59-67
      Paragi Shah
      RET ACADEMY FOR INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS OF

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1)    International Journal for Research in Management and Pharmacy
      (IJRMP) ISSN: 2320-0901
2)    International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)
      ISSN: 2320-091X
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 International Journal for Research in Management and Pharmacy (IJRMP)
                               ISSN 2320-0901
International   Journal    for   Research    in   Management       and   Pharmacy      (IJRMP)
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                                     Prof. Sunil Patel

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Dr. J. H. Pancholi                                          Dr. M. K. Yagnik
Dr. K. S. Likhiya                                           Dr.Pallaviben Patel
Dr. Sukeshprabha Sharma                                     Dr. Satishprakash Shukla
Dr. M. L. Joshi                                             Dr. D. M. Chaudhary
Dr. J. I. Patel                                             Dr. Suresh R. Parmar
Dr. M. R. Solanki                                           Dr. V. K. Sapovadia
Dr. D. R. Dodiya




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Vol.1, Issue: 1                           December: 2012               ISSN: 2320-091X
International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)




                            Research Paper-Education



     A STUDY OF MISCONCEPTIONS AND CUSTOMS
                       OF THE GIRL STUDENTS OF
                        WOMEN’S ARTS COLLEGE



                              Trupti J. Vyas
                  Maharshi Dayanand College of Education,
                          Visnagar Di. Mehsana.

ABSTRECT

The researcher felt the need to study on customs or superstitions. In society men and
women give so much importance to these things. The students also come from the
same atmosphere. We live in the jet age today. On one hand man has reached on the
moon and on the other hand man is surrounded by unscientific and illogical thoughts.
The effect of these misconceptions on the mind of the students can be known through
research. The researcher carried out the present study so that superstitious people can
get right direction. Via this study, the researcher tried to know which types of
misconceptions the women of arts colleges suffer from. It is hoped that in today’s fast
changing age, the present study will be useful to bring some positive change in the
society.

Keywords: Misconception, Custom, Belief

INTRODUCTION

The four Vedas, the Vedanta, the Upanishad, and the eighteen Puranas are the real
identity of Indian culture because they are the main pillars on which Indian culture is


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depended. The one of the pioneer founders of this culture is Manu Maharaj. In his
religious book ‘Manusmriti’, Manu has given essential doctrines of life. People can
live happily. With these doctrines, marriage life becomes harmonious. People can
carry out their social dealings harmoniously. In short the purpose of these principles
was that perfect human society should come into existence and social harmony should
take place. He gave certain customs so that man can live his life taking care of his
culture, and can do social dealings. He combined certain things with human life so
that man’s life does not remain dry or uninteresting. He gave certain rules and
activities based on circumstantial needs of human life. But with the passing of time,
man became custom bound. In stead of acquiring complete knowledge and
understanding, he started accepting superficial dealings and he gave more importance
to customs and became traditional.

Man turned towards ignorance through certain customs and traditions. Efforts play an
important role for any costume to become a tradition. For example, the tradition of
looking at god’s idol or singing morning hymns – all these things must have taken lot
of efforts from man’s side. Even in the present days, one tendency is seen that
children are named after the name of lord Rama and lord Krishna. In short, religious
faiths and devotion are also responsible for customs and traditions. For example,
fasting one time on certain day, to do worship at the threshold of the door, not to oil
the hair on Saturday, etc. traditions were not understood properly by people and they
gave special place to these customs and traditions in their life.

Man does his dealings on the basis of trust. Man has deep trust on one or the other
thing in his life. For example one may trust on his son, on his wife, on his brother, on
his friend, on his collogue, on some religious leader etc. When trust becomes intense
it results into faith but this trust or faith does not take much time to result into
misconceptions or superstitions. Today men, women, children, the whole society is
found trapped by misconceptions. People are ready to follow one or the other person
faithfully and blindly. His every word becomes sermon for blind follower. Today
misconception or superstitions have taken control over man’s mind and life. For
example, going to the experts of black arts, believing in ghost and evil spirits, and
considering them as god or goddesses etc. Superstitions arising from fake miracles
done by the cheating ‘sadhoos’ has caught man badly.

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    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

    The objectives of the present study are as under:
    1. To construct a questionnaire to know the effect of the beliefs about the
        misconceptions and the customs prevailing among the girl students of
        women’s arts colleges.
    2. To study the effect of area on the beliefs about misconceptions and customs
        prevailing among the girl students of women’s arts colleges.
    3. To study the effect of Caste category (Open, SEBC, SC, ST) on the beliefs
        about misconceptions and customs prevailing among the girl students of
        women’s arts colleges.

    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

    In the present research the research questions are as under:
    1. Which type of beliefs about misconceptions and customs may be there among
        the girl students of women’s arts college?
    2. Is there the significant difference in the beliefs about misconceptions and

        customs among the girl students of women’s arts colleges because of the

        difference in area?
    3. Is there the significant difference in the beliefs about misconceptions and

        customs among the girl students of women’s arts colleges because of the

        difference in Caste category (Open, SEBC, SC, ST)?

    TYPE OF RESEARCH

    The field of the present research was educational psychology. In the present study,
    the researcher constructed herself one questionnaire and studied the beliefs about
    misconceptions and customs prevailing among the students. The present research
    is of applied type of research.

    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    The aim of the present study was to know the beliefs about the misconceptions
    and the customs prevailing among the girl students of women’s arts colleges so


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    the data regarding the beliefs was collected through questionnaire. This type of
    information can easily be known through survey method. So the researcher
    preferred to use Survey method for the study.

    POPULATION AND SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
          Population
    Population is a very important aspect of research. Findings of the study are not
    possible, until the population and the sample are not defined correctly. The
    population of the present study was the girl students of women’s colleges of
    Mehsana district, the details of which are shown as under:


                                                                             Total No. of
                                                                                 Girl
        No.               Name of College                  Urban   Rural      Students
              Smt. M. S. Shah Women's
        1     Arts College, Kadi                            ✔                           608
              Smt. R. R. H. Patel Women's
        2     Arts College, Vijapur                         ✔                           705
              Nima Girls Arts College,
        3     Gozaria                                               ✔                   416
              Smt. Anandiben Shankarbhai
              Chaudhari Women's Arts and Home
        4     Science College, Mehsana                      ✔                        1510
              Shree J. M. Patel Arts and m. N. Patel
        5     Commerce Women's College, Unjha               ✔                           839
              Smt. C. C. Women's Arts and Sheth C.
        6     N. Commerce college, Visnagar                 ✔                           706

           Sample
    Out of all the women’s colleges of Mehsana district, one college from urban area
    and one college from rural area were selected through randomly. The selection of
    the students was done through Stratified Random sampling method, the details of
    which are as under:


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 Vol.1, Issue: 1                            December: 2012                        ISSN: 2320-091X
  International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


                                                                                   Total No. of
 No.                      Name of College                         Urban   Rural   Girl Students
     1      Nima Girls Arts College, Gozariya                              √            416
            Smt. C. C. Women's Arts and Sheth C. N.
     2      Commerce college, Visnagar                             √                    706
            Total                                                                      1122


 A stated above out of total 1122 girl students from rural and urban women’s colleges,
 584 girl students were given the questionnaire. The details according to area
 and Caste category are as under:


 Caste
 Category                     Urban                                   Rural
                                                                                     Total
                   F.Y.    S.Y.   T.Y.                     F.Y.    S.Y.   T.Y.
 Year              B.A.    B.A.   B.A.         Total       B.A.    B.A.   B.A. Total
 Open                85      51      85          221         24      31     50  105   326
 SEBC                52      50      46          148         28      18     14   60   208
 S.C.                13       13     14           40          1       4      3     8   48
 S.T.                 0        0      1            1          0       1      0     1     2
 Total              150     114     146          410         53      54     67  174   584

CONSTRUCTION OF THE TOOL

Tool of Data Collection
            It is necessary for the researcher to collect certain information to understand
 and to get solution of any problem. For the information the researcher has to plan
 different techniques. To make the techniques easy, certain things are inevitable.
            For data collection in any research selection of proper tool is necessary. For
 different types of research different types of tools can be used which are shown below.
         1. Questionnaire
         2. Opinionnaire
         3. Attitude Scale
         4. Interview
         5. Psychological test
 The present research is an educational survey. The aim of this study was to know the
 beliefs about the misconceptions and the customs prevailing among the girl students



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Vol.1, Issue: 1                           December: 2012                      ISSN: 2320-091X
International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


of Women’s arts colleges. Therefore the researcher decided to use self made
Questionnaire for data collection.
There three main types of Questionnaire.
    1. Closed or fixed Choice Questionnaire
    2. Open form Questionnaire
    3. Pictorial Questionnaire
        For the present study Free form type of questionnaire was selected. The details
    about it are as under:
Free Choice Questionnaire
In the Free form Questionnaire the respondent has freedom to give his or her response
in his or her words and his or her context. This method of data collection provides the
respondents opportunities to present their attitude, beliefs, and thoughts. An example
of this type of questionnaire is as under:
    1. Should monetary presents be given on auspicious occasion of marriage?
    Yes                            No                      don’t know


    -   If yes, then why should monetary presents be given on auspicious occasion of
        marriage?
    __________________________________________________________________
    ____________________________________
    -   If no, then why should not monetary presents be given on auspicious occasion
        of marriage?
    __________________________________________________________________
    ____________________________________


       Construction of the Questionnaire
    1. The researcher consulted the senior citizens of the       society          and
    collected number of statements for the questionnaire.
    2. The experts of the filed were consulted and formed subject          related statements.
    3. The topic was discussed with the friends and classmates and on            that    basis
    certain statements were formed.
    4. With the help and guidance of the research guide some               statements    were
    framed.

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Vol.1, Issue: 1                           December: 2012                     ISSN: 2320-091X
International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


    5. Some statements were obtained through reading of related literature.
    6. The other statements were formed through the experience of the researcher
    herself.

    In this way the researcher collected 50 statements. The all the statements were
    divided in two groups. For the ease of the study the researcher kept two parts of
    the tool according to the subject viz. misconceptions and customs. The other aim
    of the division was proper assessment.

    There were total 35 statements in the questionnaire. According to the guide’s
    suggestions first 1 to 18 statements were about misconceptions and the next 19 to
    35 statements were about customs. Thus the first part was about misconceptions
    and the second part was about customs. The prepared questionnaire was given to
    the 14 experts for their suggestions and opinions. They were requested to give
    their suggestions regarding the questionnaire. The suggestions and opinions could
    be obtained from 10 experts out of the 14 experts.

       Experts’ Suggestions about the questionnaire
    After the preparation of the questionnaire, it was given to the experts by post and
    face to face contact. The list of the experts and their suggestions are shown in the
    following table.
                                        Experts’ Suggestions
    No.                   Expert’s Name                               Suggestions
    1        Prof. Ketanbhai Maheta                        Que. no. 2, 19 and 23 should be
             College of Education, Vadasma.                changed.
    2        Dr. Divyaben Sharma                           Keep the number of items less.
             M. Ed. Department (Education)
             Ganpat Uni., Kherva.
    3        Dr. Sonalben Patel                            Avoid repetition of the questions.
             M.Ed. Department (Education) Ganpat
             Uni., Kherva.




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Vol.1, Issue: 1                           December: 2012                         ISSN: 2320-091X
International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)




    4        Prof. Anilbhai R. Patel                       Add new questions.
             Aaradhana College of Education,
             Sector- 28 Gandhinagar.
    5        Prof. N. M. Daslaaniya                        The Questionnaire is reliable.
             C. C. Women’s Arts College,
             Visnagar.
    6        Prof. J. G. Metiya                            Que. no. 1, 2, 12, 24 and 25 are
             C. C. Women’s’ Arts College,                  not reliable.
             Visnagar.
    7        Prof. Gayatriben Barot                        Keep the questions suitable to the
             Nima Girls’ Arts College, Gozariya            age groups.
    8        Prof. Mahendrabhai Dave                       Frame the questions in such a
             Nima Girls’ Arts College, Gozariya            way    that     the    students    can
                                                           understand them easily.
    9        Prof. Vinod H. Pandya                         Be careful about the rules of word
             Women’s College, Unjha.                       formation.
    10       Dr. Rajendrasinh Vaghela                      Certain   statements      should   be
             Nima Girls’ Arts College, Gozariya            simple.


    As shown in the above table all the suggestions made by the experts were
    followed and changes were made. At last there were 30 questions in the final form
    of the questionnaire. In the final form, question no. 1 to 14 were about
    misconceptions and the question no. 15 to 30 were about customs.

    METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

    In the present study, construction of the questionnaire for checking the beliefs
    about the misconceptions and the customs prevailing among the girl students of
    Women’s arts colleges was important. For data collection the researcher herself
    met the girl students of the selected urban and rural women’s college and
    instructed them how to give their responses in the questionnaire. After the
    evaluation of all those responses, the proper data was collected.



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Vol.1, Issue: 1                           December: 2012                ISSN: 2320-091X
International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


       Methods of Data Analysis
    In the present study, the researcher worked out the simple statistics of percentage
    for analysis and interpretation of the data according to the variables of area and
    caste category.
       Experiences during the Data Collection
    When the researcher started the data collection and visited colleges of urban areas,
    the teaching had been over, so the students were absents. It took a lot of time in
    waiting for the students. One whole week passed for the work. In rural colleges
    the NAAC team was to come in the colleges. Therefore the data collection had to
    be done according to their suitability. Moreover the data was to be collected from
    the students of F. Y. S. Y. and T. Y; the tool had to be administered in different
    classes on different time schedule according to the time table of the college. The
    data from some students could be obtained during the recess time only.
    The students responded to the questionnaire with interest and according to the
    instructions.

    COLLECTION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
       Data Collection
    In the present study one questionnaire was constructed to know the beliefs about
    the misconceptions and the customs prevailing among the girl students of
    Women’s arts colleges. After the construction of the questionnaire, the researcher
    consulted the experts and requested them to check the questionnaire and give
    suggestions. On the basis of the experts’ suggestions corrections were done and
    the final form of the questionnaire was made ready. Then the researcher herself
    met the girl students of the selected urban and rural women’s college and
    instructed them how to give their responses in the questionnaire. After the
    evaluation of all those responses, the proper data was collected.
       Analysis
    In the present study, the researcher worked out the simple statistics of percentage
    for analysis and interpretation of the data according to the variables of area and
    caste category.
       Question no. 1 to 14 are about misconception, while the question no. 15 to 30
    are about customs.

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Vol.1, Issue: 1                           December: 2012                   ISSN: 2320-091X
International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


     Que. 1       Does evil look have evil effect the person?
     During the interpretation it was found that out of total 584 girl students of
     women’s Arts Colleges, 41.95% of the girl students believed that the evil look has
     evil effect on the person. According to them, if someone eats something out of the
     house, it may result into evil look and evil effect on the person. Those girl
     students were also found believing that any good looking person may become the
     victim of evil look.
     Que. 2       Should lemons and green chilies be hung at the      entrance of house
                  or shop on Saturday?
     During the interpretation it was found that out of total 584 girl students of
     women’s Arts Colleges, 29.79% of the girl students believed that lemons and
     green chilies should be hung at the entrance of shop on Saturday. According to
     them, hanging lemons and green chilies at the entrance of house or shop on
     Saturday is a sign of good omen. These lemons and chilies at the entrance can
     raise the income in the shop and also the evil spirits remain away.
     Que. 3       Should the wet clothes of small children or infants be hung out for
     drying them?
     During the interpretation it was found that out of total 584 girl students of
     women’s Arts Colleges, 78.07% of the girl students believed that wet clothes of
     small children or infants should not be hung out for drying them. According to
     them if wet clothes of small children or infants are hung out for drying, somebody
     may do use black magic on those clothes. Moreover, poisonous insects may also
     affect them badly.
     Que. 4       Should the omens of widow or widower be taken?
     During the interpretation it was found that out of total 584 girl students of
     women’s Arts Colleges, 60.62% of the girl students believed that the omens of
     widow or widower should not be taken. According to them, widow or widower
     are a sign of ill omen and because of that widow or widower the work can be done
     successfully and some accident may also take place because of that widow or
     widower.
     Que. 5       If some snake or cat crosses the way, it may create ill omen?
     During the interpretation it was found that out of total 584 girl students of
     women’s Arts Colleges, 41.60% of the girl students believed that if some snake or

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     cat crosses the way, it may create ill omen. They believed that because of crossing
     the way by snake or cat, the work can be done successfully. so the person should
     return.
     Que. 6       Does evil spirit or ghost enter into man’s body?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 42.63% of the girl
     students believed in evil spirit and ghost and they can enter into human body. The
     person dominated by evil spirit or ghost behave abnormally.
     Que. 7       Can a person use the tricks of spell or occultism (black magic)?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 37.5% of the girl students
     believed that one can use the trick of spell or occultism. They believed that some
     people use the tricks of spell or occultism to deprive other person of their progress.
     Que. 8       Should we get our hair cut on Saturday?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 78.41% of the girl
     students believed that people should not get their hair cut on Saturday. Because
     they believed that Saturday is the day of god hanuman.
     Que. 9       Should the garbage of the house be thrown out of the house at
     evening time?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 84.06% of the girl
     students believed that the garbage of the house should not be thrown out of the
     house at evening time. Because of bringing the garbage out, one has to suffer the
     loss of money.
     Que. 10      Should onion be eaten during the month of ‘Shraavan’ (the tenth
     month of a Vikram year) ?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 71.91% of the girl
     students believed that onion should not be eaten during the month of ‘Shraavan’
     (the tenth month of a Vikram year) because according to the hindu religion the
     month of ‘Shraavan’ (the tenth month of a Vikram year) is considered as a holy
     month.
     Que. 11      Should we gamble on ‘Janmaastamee’?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 31.84% of the girl
     students believed that there is nothing wrong in gambling on ‘Janmaastamee’.
     because Lord Shri Krishna also used to play gambling.



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     Que. 12      Do the situation of up-side-down footwear create quarrels?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 25.34% of the girl
     students believed that up-side-down footwear creates quarrels.
     Que. 13      Can we save ourselves from the effect of sins (bad deeds) by taking
     dip in the river Ganga?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 42.80% of the girl
     students believed that one can save himself or herself from the effect of sins (bad
     deeds) by taking dip in the river Ganga because it is the general belief that the
     Ganga is a holy river.
     Que. 14      Does drinking water become unusable after eclipse and should it
     be removed from house in the morning?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 41.95% of the girl
     students believed that drinking water becomes unusable after eclipse therefore that
     water should be removed from the house in the morning because that water
     becomes impure.
     Que. 15      Should widow wear colourful sari?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 49.31% of the girl
     students believed that widow can not wear colourful sari because it is asocial
     barrier.
     Que. 16      Should the book of ‘Garudpuraan’ be read after somebody’s
     death?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 20.89% of the girl
     students believed that the book of ‘Garudpuraan’ should be read after somebody’s
     death. Reading of that book provides peace to that deceased soul and brings fruits
     of righteousness.
     Que. 17      Should the eatables (‘prasad’) be distributed after offering of
     prayer with a sacred lamp to god or goddess?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 75.85% of the girl
     students believed that the eatables (‘prasad’) should be distributed after the
     offering prayer with a sacred lamp to god or goddess because it is considered as
     religious.




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     Que.18        Should market remain closed if somebody dies?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 15.23% of the girl
     students believed that market should remain closed if somebody dies because it is
     a way of manner of offering tribute to the deceased souls of person.
     Que.19        Should there be funeral procession after a person’s death?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 55.82% of the girl
     students believed that there should be funeral procession after a person’s death
     because it is a general social practice.
     Que. 20 Should Indian hemp be drunk on the day of the Mahashivaraatree?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 64.04% of the girl
     students believed that on the day of the Mahashivaraatree Indian hemp should be
     drunk. They believed that Indian hemp is eatables (‘prasad’) of lord Shiva. Even
     lord Shiva also enjoys Indian hemp.
     Que. 21       Should women keep their face covered(hidden) by sari from men?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 34.93% of the girl
     students believed that women should keep their face covered(hidden) by sari from
     men because it is a tradition.
     Que. 22       Should there be a feast of sweet balls (‘laadu’) after man’s death?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 36.30% of the girl
     students believed that there should be a feast of sweet balls (‘laadu’) after man’s
     death because the deceased souls of person gets fruits of righteousness through
     that feast.
     Que. 23       Should there be after death processions?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 61.47% of the girl
     students believed that there should be after death processions because the
     deceased souls of person gets fruits of righteousness through that procession.
     Que. 24       Should the custom of tonsuring the head of a male child
     ceremoniously be followed?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 56.16% of the girl
     students believed that the custom of tonsuring the head of a male child
     ceremoniously should be followed because people believe that it is a kind of
     religious ceremony that should be carried out at the religious temple of the
     specific goddess.

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     Que. 25      Should crows be offered kaagvaas (Prasad for crows) during
     ‘Bhaadrapaksha’ (the eleventh month of the Vikram year)?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 37.5% of the girl students
     believed that crows should be offered kaagvaas (Prasad for crows) during
     Bhaadrapaksha (the eleventh month of the Vikram year) because in this month
     deceased souls of ancestors (‘pitrus’) can get fruits of righteousness through the
     ‘kaagvaas’
     Que. 26      Should the son get his head shaved when his father dies?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 50.61% of the girl
     students believed that the son should get his head shaved when his father dies
     because it is a sign of mourning.
     Que. 27      Should Muslim women wear veil (‘burkha’)?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 41.78% of the girl
     students believed that Muslim women keep veil (‘burkha’) because Muslim
     community believes that women can not show their face to the other than her
     husband. It is a kind of distance keeping.
     Que. 28      Should the custom of mourning songs and breast beating in
     mourning be followed after a person’s death?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 21.57% of the girl
     students believed that the custom of mourning songs and breast beating in
     mourning should be followed because it lessens the grief of death.
     Que. 29      Should there be four water pots on the four sides of the square
     decorated structure where marriage ceremony is performed?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 35.78% of the girl
     students believed that the water pots should be kept on the square decorated
     structure where marriage ceremony is performed because it enhances the beauty
     of the marriage sight.
     Que. 30      Should parents not send their daughter to her husband’s home on
     Wednesday?
     Out of total 584 girl students of women’s Arts Colleges, 78.24% of the girl
     students believed that on Wednesday parents should not send their daughter to her
     husband’s home. It is a tradition.



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     FINDINGS BASED ON RESEARCH QUESTIONS

     1. Which type of beliefs about misconceptions and customs may be there
         among the girl students of women’s arts college?
        Findings regarding Misconceptions
     1. It was found that out of total 584 girl students of women’s arts            college    41.
     95% of the girl students believed in            the     misconception about evil look.
     According to these            girl     students, if some body eats something amid the
     public,      he or she becomes the victim of evil look by somebody else.                 If
     some person is very beautiful, he or            she may also become victim of evil
     look.
     2. Out of all the girl students of the colleges, 70.19% of the         girl students were
     found to believe in the misconception           that wet clothes of small children or
     infants should not be         kept    out    for    drying   them.   These    girl   students
         believed that some person can use the trick of spell or            occultism.
     3. Out of all the girl students of the colleges, 60.62% of the         girl students were
     found to believe in the misconception           that the omen of any widow or widower
     should not be        taken. According to these girl students, because of ill
         omen of any widow or widower, new work can be done                 successfully.
     4. Out of all the girl students of the colleges, 78.41% of the         girl students were
     found to believe in the misconception           that on Saturday we should not get our
     hair cut.    Because it a sign of ill omen.
     5. Out of all the girl students of the colleges, 84.06% of the         girl students were
     found to believe in the misconception           that garbage of the house should not be
     thrown out of        the house at evening time. Because of bringing the garbage out,
     one has to suffer the loss of money.
     Findings regarding Customs
     1. Out of all the girl students of the colleges, 60.04% of the girl students were
         found to believe in the custom that during the festival of the Mahashivaraatree
         Indian hemp should be drunk. Because Lord Shiva used to drink it.
     2. Out of all the girl students of the colleges, 61.47% of the girl students were
         found to believe in the custom that after death or funeral procession should be




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         done. If this procession is done the deceased souls of person gets the fruit of
         righteousness.
     3. Out of all the girl students of the colleges, 78.24% of the girl students were
         found to believe in the custom that on Wednesday parents should not send
         their daughter to her husband’s home. It is a tradition.
     2. Is there significant difference in the beliefs about misconceptions and

         customs among the girl students of women’s arts colleges because of the

         difference in area?
        Findings regarding Misconceptions
     1. The misconception, that evil look by someone works was found among the
         girl students of both rural and urban colleges.
     2. Rural girl students of arts colleges had more misconceptions like spell and
         occultism, the existence of ghost and evil spirit. Rural girl students also
         believe that wet clothes of small children or infants should not be kept out for
         drying them, They students also believe that onion should not eaten in the
         month of Shravana, They also believe that on Janmaastamee, we should
         gamble. Rural girl students also believe that up-side-down footwear creates
         quarrels. They also believe that after the eclipse, drinking water becomes
         unusable so it should not be used but should be removed from the house in the
         morning. In short, these types of misconceptions are found more among rural
         girl students.

     The urban girl students of arts colleges had more misconception like “On every
     Saturday lemon chilly should be hanged at the door or the house or the shop.”
     They also believe that ill omen of widow or widower should not be taken. They
     also believe that it is inauspicious, if a cat or a snake crosses one’s way. Urban girl
     students also believe that it is not good to get hair cut on Saturday. They also
     believe that one can save himself or herself from the effect of bad deeds by taking
     dip in the river Ganga. In short, these types of misconceptions are found more
     among urban girl students.
        Findings regarding Customs
     1. Beliefs in the customs like “a widow can not wear colourful sari”, “Muslim
         women should wear veil”, “On Wednesday, parents should not send their

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          daughter to her husband’s home.” were found more in the girl students of
          urban area.
     2. Beliefs in the customs like “on the day of the Mahashivaraatree Indian hemp
          should be drunk.” “Women should keep their face covered(hidden) by sari
          (hidden) from men.” , “After death a feast of sweet balls (‘laadu’) should be
          organized.”, “The custom of mourning songs and breast beating in mourning
          should be followed.” were found more in the girl students of rural area.
     3. Is there the significant difference in the beliefs about misconceptions and

         customs among the girl students of women’s arts colleges because of the

         difference in Caste category (Open, SEBC, SC, ST)?
         Findings regarding Misconceptions
     1. The girl students of SEBC category were found having more beliefs in
          misconceptions than the girl students of Open and SC category.
         Findings regarding Customs
     1. The girl students of SEBC and SC category were found having more beliefs in
          customs than the girl students of Open category.

     MEJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

          1. It was found that rural girl students believed more in the misconceptions
     than the girl students of urban area.
          2. The girl students of rural area were found to believe in customs more than
     that of urban area.
          3. It was found that the girl students of SEBC category believed more in the
     misconceptions.
          4. The girl students of SEBC category and SC category were found to believe
     more in customs.
          5. Some girl students were found unknown about logic behind misconceptions
     and customs.
          6. Most of the girl students were found socially bound and also accepting
     those restrictions.




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     EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY

     1. Efforts should be made to develop understanding of the logic behind any
     misconceptions and customs among the students.
     2. The students should be made aware about the misconceptions prevailing in the
          society.
     3. The students should be made aware about the hidden meaning and intension
     behind the customs.
     4. The government should make legal provisions to restrict certain misconceptions.
     5. Even the society itself should disregard certain customs.
     6. The visit of some organizations fighting against misconceptions should be
     organized for the students.
     7. The experts of psychology should be invited to make students aware about the
          reality behind the beliefs of ghost or evil spirits.
     8. Realistic thinking about the beliefs of omen or ill omens should be developed
     among the students through examples.
     9. Society and Teachers should make efforts to create realistic attitude among the
     students about different misconceptions and customs.

     SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

     During the study, many questions arose in the researcher’s mind. Study on those
     questions can be carried out. So the suggestions for the further are as under:
     1. A comparative study on the thought about misconceptions and customs among
          the male students of college.
     2. A study on the effect of misconceptions on the students of higher secondary
          schools.
     3. A study on the effect of misconceptions on the students’ mind.
     4. A study on the opinions of the teachers and the guardians about
          misconceptions and customs.
     5. Customs and people’s beliefs – A Study.
     6.   The effect of misconceptions and customs on society – A Study.




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     CONCLUSION

        In the present study, the researcher’s main objective was to know different
     beliefs about misconceptions and customs among the girl students of women’s
     arts colleges. In the study, the researcher has tried to fulfill the objective through
     the analysis and interpretation of the data. The details like ‘What do the girl
     students believe about misconceptions and customs?” and “which types of
     misconceptions and customs do they believe in?” have been discussed in the
     research report. It will be helpful to show the direction and will be useful for
     betterment of the society. This small effort of the researcher would be meaningful
     if it would be useful to the society.


     REFERENCE
                                           Gujarati Books
     1. Uchat, D. A. ane anya. (1998). Sanshodhn Ahevaalnu Lekhan Shii Rite Karsho?
        Rajkot: Shikshn Shastr Bhavan, Saurastra Yuni.

     2. Darajii, G. R. (1985). Shaikshanik Maapan ane Pravidhi. (Pratham Avrutti)

     3. Bhagavatsinhjii. “Bhagavadgomandal” (bhaag- 8) Rajkot: Pravin Prakaashan.

     4. Dr. K. G. Desai ane Shah R. C. „Shaikshnik Paribhaashaa ane Vibhaavanaa”
       Amdavaad: Yunivarsiti Granth Nirmaan Bord, Gujarat raajy.

     5. Dr. K. G. Desai (2000). “Manovaignaanik maapan” (chothii Aavrutti)

        Amadavaad: Yunivarsiti Granth Nirmaan Bord, Gujarat raajy.

     6. Desai H. G. Desai K. G. (1998). Sanshodhn Padhdhatti ane Pravidhi (chothii
       Aavrutti) Amadavaad: Yunivarsiti Granth Nirmaan Bord, Gujarat raajy.

     7. Parekh Bh. U. (1994). Shikshanmaa Aankadaashastra (chothii Aavrutti)
        Amadavaad: Yunivarsiti Granth Nirmaan Bord, Gujarat raajy.

     8. Shahal Di. Bh. (2004). Shaikshanik Sanshodhan. (Pratham Aavrutti)
        Amadavaad: Yunivarsiti Granth Nirmaan Bord, Gujarat raajy.



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     10. Tripaathii, Surendranaath (1930). Pratibhaa ane Srajanaatmaktaa. (Pratham
        Aavrutiti), Mumbai: Dhii Mcmilan Company limited.


                                            English Books
     1. Best, J. W. (1978). Research in Education. New Delhi: Present Hall of India.
        (Pvt.) Ltd.
     2. Betrand, A. (1980). Test Measurement and Evaluation. California: A Dev
        Measurement Addition Westory company.
     3. Borg, W. R. and Gall, M. D. (1983). Educational Research on Introduction.
        New york: Longman book co.
     4. Hopper and Bros. (1958). An Introduction to research Procedure in Education.
        (First edition), New york. an Introduction. New
     5. Sindhu Kulbrsingh (1984). Methodology of Researcher in education. New
        Delhi: Sterling publishers (Pvt.). Ltd.
     6. Skinner, C. E., Essentials of Education Psychology. Bombay: Ashia
        Publishing House.
     7. Sukhia, S. P. and Mehrotra B. V. (1996). Elements of Education. Bombay:
        Allied publisher. (Pvt.) Ltd.
     8. Arther Betrand, Test Measurement Evaluation. California: A Dev Approach
        Addision Westoy Company, 1980.




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                                        Research Paper- Education



                    PARALLEL LIFE OF STUDENTS ON SOCIAL
                                          NETWORKING SITES


                   Dr. Harishchandrasingh Rathod1, Prof. Digvijay Barot1
                                    1
                                      Associate Professor,
                                    NICM, Gandhinagar.

ABSTRACT

Social media tools have become ubiquitous. You can see our students use them all the time.
Among them most popular tools are Facebook, Wiki, YouTube, bulletin board, LinkedIn,
blogging, and twittering. The advancement of modern technologies tries its best to
accommodate the needs from people, especially the younger generation. This paper will share
a research study that was conducted in rise of 2012 in north Gujarat region. The study
investigated student’s use of different social media tools, their usage rate, and their
preference of social networking groups. The study also investigated the awareness level of
students towards cybercrime. The results show that the three top-used social media tools are
Facebook, Yahoo Group and Orkut; the top four reasons for using social media tools are for
social engagement, direction communication, instant messaging, and relationship building.
Even though students aware about cybercrime but most of them are not understand the
meaning of phishing, vishing and cyber squatting. Based on their response, the research
evoked some educational implications of some of these tools as a valuable resource for
teaching and learning.


Key words Cybercrime, Cyber Stalking, Phishing, Vishing, Cyber Squatting, Hacking




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NEED FOR THE STUDY

The main aim of this study is to develop a social network among college students in online
and offline activities, and to find the ways which can form the social networking among
themselves. The study also tries to find out the type of media they are using to contact for the
networking and their preference in online social networking sites. It also finds out how they
are behaving in the groups and associations.

Social networking is important for college students for their future contacts among
themselves. Nowadays, many social networking sites are available around the globe; mainly
college students focused sites like Facebook.com and MySpace. Many college students are
now using different types of media according to their status of life to spend their time, such as
mobile phones, television, the Internet. They are updating their knowledge through online
activities like E-mail, IM, online research, online communities, etc. Previously, college
students used to spend their time in different groups like sports associations, neighborhood
groups like friends' birthday parties and so on. But, nowadays they want to enjoy their
maximum time in the college life with their friends forming a network.


LITERATURE REVIEW

Online social networking and Internet communication is becoming wildly popular with
adolescents        and   young adults (Allen, Evans, Hare,      Mikami, & Szwedo, 2010,
Anderson‐Butcher, Ball, Brzozowski, Lasseigne, Lehnert, & McCormick, 2010; DeGroot,
Ledbetter, Mao, Mazer, Meyer, & Swafford, 2011; Finkelhor, Mitchell, & Wolack, 2002;
Greenfield & Subrahmanyam, 2008; Kramer & Winter, 2008; Regan & Steeves, 2010;
Sheldon, 2008).

In the past five years, social media websites have become ubiquitous, giving young people a
new way to interact with each other and communicate with the world. This new form of
communication depends on user created content, not mass produced messages coming from
large media companies.

According to C. M. Maran, Vol. VIII No. 12, December 2009, Social Networks are online
websites that allow users to create profiles about themselves and link to the profiles of their

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friends. Their profiles include their interests, hobbies, contact information, and pictures about
themselves. Additionally, user-created groups allow users with similar interests to find and
communicate with each other.
The use of collaborative technologies such as blogs and Social Networking Site (SNS) leads
to instant online community in which people communicate rapidly and conveniently with
each other.

Social networking is important for college students for their future contacts among
themselves. Nowadays, many social networking sites are available around the globe; mainly
college students focused sites like Facebook.com and Yahoo.com. Many college students are
now using different types of media according to their status of life. To spend their time they
use the social media, such as mobile phones, television and the Internet.
Students are updating their knowledge through online activities like E-mail, IM, online
research, online communities, etc. Nowadays they want to enjoy their maximum time in the
college life with their friends forming a network.

Cyber crime is a term used to broadly describe criminal activity in which computers or
computer networks are a tool, a target, or a place of criminal activity and include everything
from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks. It is also used to include traditional
crimes in which computers or networks are used to enable the illicit activity.

There are a good number of cyber crime variants. A few varieties are discussed here. “Cyber
Stalking” is use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk someone. This term is used
interchangeably with online harassment and online abuse. Stalking generally involves
harassing or threatening behaviour that an individual engages in repeatedly. "Hacking" is a
crime, which entails cracking systems and gaining unauthorized access to the data stored in
them. “Phishing” is just one of the many frauds on the Internet, trying to fool people into
parting with their money. Phishing refers to the receipt of unsolicited emails by customers of
financial institutions, requesting them to enter their username, password or other personal
information to access their account for some reason. "Phishing" sites which aims at stealing
confidential information such as passwords and credit card details. “Vishing” is the criminal
practice of using social engineering and Voice over IP (VoIP) to gain access to private
.personal and financial information from the public for the purpose of financial reward. The
term is a combination of "voice" and phishing. Vishing exploits the public's trust in landline
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telephone services, which have traditionally terminated in physical locations which are
known to the telephone company, and associated with a bill-payer. “Cyber squatting” is the
act of registering a famous domain name and then selling it for a fortune. This is an issue that
has not been tackled in IT act 2000.

According to Sindhuja, P. N. and Surajith, Ghosh Dastidar, Vol. VIII No. 12,December
2009, the factors influencing the website usability are format, Ease-of-use, Ease-of-
navigation, Information Content, User Support, Privacy and Design. The use of websites are
depends on these factors. “Ease of Navigation” is Ease of finding what one desires and
knowing where one is in the website. “Privacy” is confidentiality concern about the personal
information and content. “User Support” is to improve learn ability and reduce the mental
workload. “Information Content” is is quality and comprehensiveness of the information
provided by the website. “Ease-of-use” refers to design flexibility. “Format” refers to the
logical structure of the website. “Design” refers to aesthetics and language.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

            To know how the various reasons for using social media sites.
            To know the most preferred social media sites.
            To know the awareness level of students to cybercrime.

HYPOTHESES
            H0: Education level and online activities are independent.
            H0: Education level and hours spending online are independent.
            H0: Education level and awareness of cybercrime are independent.
            H0: There is no significant relationship between Education level and purpose of
             using social networking.
            H0: There is no significant relationship between Age and purpose of using social
             networking.
            H0: Educational qualification and Number of hours spent online are independent.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study focuses on the awareness on online social networking of college students in North
Gujarat region. The research design used for the study is descriptive. This study provides


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information about the relationship among the college students after their college life, i.e., how
they are developing social networking among their friends and the families.
The descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The
major purpose of descriptive research is the description of existing state of affairs. In social
science and business research, we quite often use the term ex post facto research for
descriptive research studies. The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are
survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlation methods.

In this study, both primary and secondary data have been used. For the primary data, a
structured questionnaire consisting of close-ended questions to extract the view points of the
respondents has been used. For the secondary data, the data have been extracted from
different magazines, journals, newspapers and websites. The response from sample size of
200, both the college students of under graduation and post graduation from north Gujarat
region, has been collected by adopting quota sampling technique and simple random
sampling in this study. It took nearly three months, i.e., from February to April 2012, to
conduct this study.

To fulfill the objectives of the study, both conventional and non-conventional statistical
techniques have been used. The conventional statistical techniques adopted are percentage
analyses and the non-conventional tools like Kruskal Wallis have been used.


DISCUSSION

        Demographic: The survey was conducted on 50 undergraduate, 50 graduate, 50 post
         graduate and 50 PhD pursuing students in which 139 (69.5%) respondents were male
         and 61 (30.5) were female. Moreover 193 (96%) respondents belongs to 15 to 35 age
         group. Out of 200 respondents 145 (72.5) was unmarried and 55 (27.5) was married.
        Nature of spending time on different media: Study reveals that Mobile, Internet and
         newspaper are the most preferred media for spending their leisure time. (Statistics: 82
         (41%) respondents read newspaper daily, 111 (55.5%) respondents like to watch
         television daily, only 15 (7.5%) respondents used to listen radio daily, 96 (48%)
         respondents use internet daily and 120 (60%) respondents use mobile)
        Hours spending online: Study reveals that most of the students spending at least 1
         hour a day on Internet.
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        Online activities: According to the study usage of social media has been increased
         because of activities like Email, Instant Message, keeping touch with others, study
         and research, getting news are the most important activities etc.
        Awareness of Cybercrime: According to survey 169 (84.5%) respondents are aware
         about the word cybercrime but only 42 respondents know the meaning of phishing. So
         respondents are aware about different activity involved in cybercrime like phishing,
         vishing, and cyber squatting. And therefore after becoming victim of cyber crime 44
         (22%) respondents have deactivated their online account with different social media
         sites.


ANALYSIS

KRUSKAL WALLIS
H0: Educational qualification and Number of hours spent online are independent
H1: Educational qualification and Number of hours spent online are dependent


                     Group-1   Rank    Group-2     Rank    Group-3   Rank    Group-4   Rank
                        1      53.5       2        138.5      2      138.5      1      53.5
                        1      53.5       4        192.5      1      53.5       1      53.5
                        2      138.5      1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5
                        2      138.5      2        138.5      1      53.5       4      192.5
                        2      138.5      2        138.5      3      177.5      3      177.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       2      138.5      1      53.5
                        2      138.5      1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       4        192.5      1      53.5       3      177.5
                        1      53.5       4        192.5      1      53.5       4      192.5
                        1      53.5       4        192.5      1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       2        138.5      2      138.5      4      192.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       1      53.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       1      53.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       1      53.5
                        1      53.5       4        192.5      1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       3        177.5      1      53.5       4      192.5
                        3      177.5      1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       1      53.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       4      192.5      2      138.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       2      138.5      1      53.5
                        3      177.5      1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5
                        2      138.5      1        53.5       2      138.5      1      53.5
                        4      192.5      1        53.5       1      53.5       1      53.5
                        2      138.5      3        177.5      2      138.5      2      138.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       2        138.5      1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       4      192.5      2      138.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5
                        1      53.5       1        53.5       1      53.5       2      138.5

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                       1       53.5       2      138.5    1    53.5    3   177.5
                       1       53.5       1      53.5     3    177.5   4   192.5
                       2       138.5      1      53.5     2    138.5   2   138.5
                       1       53.5       1      53.5     2    138.5   2   138.5
                       1       53.5       1      53.5     1    53.5    2   138.5
                       1       53.5       1      53.5     2    138.5   2   138.5
                       1       53.5       3      177.5    3    177.5   2   138.5
                       1       53.5       2      138.5    2    138.5   2   138.5
                       1       53.5       4      192.5    1    53.5    2   138.5
                       1       53.5       4      192.5    1    53.5    2   138.5
                       1       53.5       3      177.5    1    53.5    1   53.5
                       2       138.5      3      177.5    1    53.5    2   138.5
                       2       138.5      2      138.5    2    138.5   2   138.5
                       1       53.5       3      177.5    1    53.5    2   138.5
                       2       138.5      2      138.5    2    138.5   2   138.5
                       1       53.5       1      53.5     2    138.5   2   138.5
                       1       53.5       1      53.5     1    53.5    4   192.5
                       1       53.5       2      138.5    1    53.5    2   138.5
                       2       138.5      1      53.5     1    53.5    2   138.5
                      Total    3997              5242          4430        6431



By using the Kruskal Wallis test.




K = 0.0002985 (2088744.68)-608



K = 623.49-603

K = 20.49 (df = 4-1 = 3, Chi2 tabulated = 7.815, α = 5%)


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So. Statistics forced to accept the null hypothesis. From that it is to be concluded that
education level and number of spending hour online are dependent and there is a variation
among the groups also.


                   Groups                                           Variability
                   All groups                                       12.60%
                   Between Secondary and Ph.D                       23.34%
                   Between Secondary and Graduates                  5.29%
                   Between Graduates and Post Graduates             2.19%
                   Between Post graduates and Ph. D.                15.12%



         So, from the above table study conclude that there is a major variability of hours
spending online between the Secondary students and the Ph. D. Pursuing students because
schooling students mostly use SNS for the passing their leisure time and Ph. D. Pursuing
students use it for the study and research purpose.

CONCLUSIONS

The study concludes that students spend at least one or less than one hour a day online and
the most popular SNS for them is Facebook. The three top-used social media tools are
Facebook, Yahoo Group and Orkut; the top four reasons for using social media tools are for
social engagement, direction communication, instant messaging, and relationship building.
Even though students aware about cybercrime but most of them are not understand the
meaning of phishing, vishing and cyber squatting.

RESEARCH GAPS

        The geographical scope of the study was limited to colleges located in north Gujarat
         region only.
        Responses of the respondents are biased, and so they may not reveal the true state in
         some conditions.
        Social network is a vast subject, and hence, there is lack of in-depth analysis in this
         study.

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        The study covers only graduates, Post graduates and PhD pursuing student’s social
         network.

REFRENCES
        Allen, J.P., Evans, M.A., Hare, A.L., & Mikami, A.Y. (2010). Adolescent Peer
         Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults’ Communication on
         Social Networking Websites.
        David, Marmaros and Bruce, Sacerdote (2002), "Peer and Social Networks in Job
         Search", European Economic Review, Vol. 46, Nos. 4 and 5, pp. 870-879.
         Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 46‐56. doi: 10.1037/a0017420
        Liu, Y. (2010). Social media tools as a learning resource. Journal of Educational
         Technology Development and Exchange, 3(1), 101-114.
        Muthukumaran, B. (2008, Jan), Criminal Investigation Department Review
        Nick Pernisco, V. (2010). Student journal for media literacy and education, Social
         Media: Impact and Implications on Society, page.1
        Regan, P, & Steeves, V. (2010). Kids R Us: Online Social Networking and the
         Potential for Empowerment. Surveillance & Society, 8(2), 151‐165.
        SNW          Review,            retrived         from:       http://social-networking-websites-
         review.toptenreviews.com/ -18-2-/12
        Social            Media              Usage               Trends,        retrived         from:
         http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2167518/Worldwide-Social-Media-Usage-
         Trends-in-2012
        Social   Media,      retrived    from:     http://www.chillibreeze.com/articles_various/Social-
         Networking.asp
        Social Media Growth, retrived from:http://www.hypebot.com/hypebot/2009/03/rapid-
         growth-in-social-networking-worldwide.html




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QUESTIONNAIRE

     Gender:      [    ]   Male    [    ]    Female

     College/University :

     Age:         [    ]   15-20   [     ] 20-25      [   ]   25-30     [     ]    30-35
                  [    ]   35-40   [     ] 40-45      [   ]   45-50     [     ]    More than 50 years

     Education: [      ]   Secondary & Higher Secondary [           ]   Graduate
                [      ]   Post Graduate                [           ]   Ph. D.

     Marital Status:       [   ]   Married                    [     ]   Unmarried

     1. Nature of spending time on different media.

     Types of Media            Never            Rarely         Sometimes          Often        Always
     Newspaper
     Television
     Radio
     Internet
     Mobile phones

     2. Hours spending online.
        [   ] 1 or less than 1 hour                                     [     ]   2-3 hours
        [   ] 3-4 hours                                                 [     ]   More than 4 hours

     3. Please rate the following activities.

     Activities                 Not at all      Quite             Important       Very         I couldn’t
                                Important       Important                         Important    live
                                                                                               without it
     E – mails
     Instant Messages
     Playing Games
     Keeping in touch with
     others
     Study/Research
     Getting News


     4. Are you member of any social networking sites?
        [   ] Yes                             [    ] No

     5. How many social networking sites do you belong to?
        [  ] One                              [    ] Two
        [  ] More than two                    [    ] Nil




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     6. Which Social Networking sites do you use currently?

                   Sites                   Never          Occasionally       Monthly      Weekly        Daily
         Orkut
         Twitter
         Face book
         Google Group
         Yahoo Group
         LinkedIn

     7. Write the Social networking site you visit most & at which time you mostly visit it?
        (Multiple tick marks possible)
        Social website: __________________________

         [   ] 7 a.m. to 10 a.m.                                         [     ]   10 a.m. to 1 p.m.
         [    ] 1 p.m. to 4 p.m.                                         [     ]   4 p.m. to 7 p.m.
         [   ] 7 p.m. to 10 p.m.                                         [     ]   10 p.m. to 1 a.m.

     8. With whom do you have a maximum contact on social networking sites?

         [   ]    School friends                               [     ]   Relatives
         [   ]    College friends                              [     ]   Colleagues
         [   ]    Unknown person

     9. For what purpose do you visit the social networking sites and what is the importance of that?

     Purpose                    Not at all      Quite              Important       Very           I couldn’t
                                Important       Important                          Important      live
                                                                                                  without it
     Keeping in touch with
     friends
     Time Spending
     Planning Events
     Personal Development
     Making new friends
     Sharing new ideas
     Getting up to date
     information
     Dating


     10. Think about your friends, how many of them are on your social networking site account?

             [    ]   10-20                                              [     ]   20-30
             [    ]   30-40                                              [     ]   40-50
             [    ]   50-60                                              [     ]   60-70
             [    ]   70-80                                              [     ]   More than 80



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     11. Rate the social sites on the basis of given criteria.
                                                    ( 5 - Excellent....................1 - Very poor)

                                                            Google              Yahoo
Factors/Sites                    Facebook       Orkut                                         Twitter     LinkedIn
                                                            Group               Group
Format
Ease-of-use
User Support
Information content
Ease of navigation
Design
Privacy


     12. Rank the following social networking sites according to your preference.
         ( 1 - Least preferred..................6- Most preferred)
         (Write N/A if you are not member in any of the listed social sites)
         [ ] Face book
         [ ] Orkut
         [ ] Google group
         [ ] Yahoo group
         [ ] Twitter
         [ ] LinkedIn

     13. Are you aware about the word “Cybercrime” on Social Network?

          [   ] Yes                                                 [       ]    No

     14. Tick on the words given below related to the Cybercrime, which ever are known to you.
         ( Multiple tick marks possible)

          [    ]   Cyber Stalking (Online Harassment/Abuse)                           [   ]   Phising
          [    ]   Vishing                                                            [   ]   Cyber Squatting
          [    ]   Hacking

     15. Have you ever deactivated your account on Social network?

          [   ]    Yes                                          [       ]       No




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     16. If Yes, Reason for deactivating account....

         [   ]    I have a privacy concern.
         [   ]    I don’t feel safe on S/N.
         [   ]    I spend too much time on S/N.
         [   ]    My Account was hacked.
         [   ]    For temporary bases, I will come back.
         [   ]    I don’t understand how to use S/N sites.
         [   ]    I get too many e-mails, invitations and requests from S/N.
         [   ]    I don’t find S/N sites are useful.
         [   ]    I became the victim of Cybercrime.

         Any other __________________________________




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                                     Research Paper-Education


             EFFECT OF YOGA EXERCISES ON ACHIEVEMENT,
                          MEMORY AND REASONING ABILITY

                                                 Nilesh Gajjar
                      Assistant Prof. SVS Edu. College, P. G. Dept.,
                                           Nagalpur, Mehsana.


      ABSTRECT

      Now, we are living in the world of 21st century which is known as the world of ‘Mental Stress’
      in these circumstances, knowledge amplifies day by day. There is a Knowledge explosion in
      the world, hence each and every person tries to get this Knowledge by new & most recent
      Medias & they also use it. In this direction there is a qualitative growing up in the person for in
      receipt of Knowledge & its use by appreciative. In the same way, we notice the qualitative
      addition in the Educational organization, teachers, & the students, which are going to get
      Knowledge. In these circumstances, teachers & students feel a perplexity. So there is a
      question against us that, this growth in the education organization, teachers & in the students
      will have no proper direction for the Academic achievement of students. If we get an
      affirmative answer of this question, we must do the fundamental change in the teaching
      learning process of Education. In the present day, each person including the students and the
      teachers face anxiety, frustration, etc. Due to these factors, the students cannot keep much
      interest in their study, academic activity & their performance in the entire exam. Consequently,
      in this way it is very essential for the students to keep their eyes in their study & academic
      activity. For the outcome of this predicament, ‘YOGA’ is the recent and excellent way. That is
      why; the investigator has found a research gap, to know the Effect of Yoga Exercises on
      Academic Achievement, Short-term memory and Verbal Reasoning ability.

      Key words: Yoga, Academic Achievement, Reasoning ability, Short-Term Memory, Effect


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       INTRODUCTION

       The more technical linguistic sense of the term "yoga,” describing a system of meditation or
       contemplation with the aim of the cessation of mental activity and the attaining of a "supreme
       state" arises with early Buddhism. In Hindu scripture, this sense of the term "yoga" first
       appears         in   the   middle Upanishads,      such   as   the   Katha    Upanishad. Shvetashvatara
       Upanishad mentions, "When earth, water, fire, air and akasa arise, when the five attributes of
       the elements, mentioned in the books on yoga, become manifest then the yogi's body becomes
       purified by the fire of yoga and he is free from illness, old age and death." (Verse 2.12) More
       importantly in the following verse it mentions, the "precursors of perfection in yoga", namely
       lightness and healthiness of the body, absence of desire, clear complexion, pleasantness of
       voice, sweet odour and slight excretions.

        In Chapter 2 of the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna explains to Arjuna about the essence of Yoga as
        practiced in daily lives:


                                         :                                     ।

                                                  :                                 ।।


                            (yoga-sthaḥ kuru karmani sanyugam tyaktva dhananjay
                             siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhutva samatvam yoga ucyate)
                                                                      - Bhagavad Gita

       Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India. The goal of
       yoga, or of the person practicing yoga, is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight
       and tranquility while meditating on the Supersoul. The word is associated with meditative
       practices in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. Within Hindu philosophy, the word yoga is
       used to refer to one of the six orthodox (Astika) schools of Hindu philosophy. (In Sanskrit
       philosophical literature, "Astika" means "one who believes in the authority of the Vedas" or
       "one who believes in life after death".)

        In the view of this school, the highest attainment does not reveal the experienced diversity of
        the world to be illusion. The everyday world is real. Furthermore, the highest attainment is the
        event of one of many individual selves discovering it; there is no single universal self shared
        by all persons.



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       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

       Today Frustration, Anxiety, Mental Stress etc. Mental related diseases are increasing in our society.
       Due to these diseases many persons including the students feels Isolation, Anger, Confusion,
       Depression, Mood disorders, Attention deficit-hyperactive disorder, Obsessive disorder, Adjustment
       disorder etc. Under the effect of on top of Mental related disorders the level of students’ Exam’s
       Achievements are much low.

       The training of ‘YOGA’ will give the proper direction for the betterment in Exam’s achievements &
       much give positive effect for living peaceful life, the violent competition, peace less & rude tries for
       the betterment of this circumstances & for going on the top.
       This study will provide something to the commerce students like as a proper way, keeping meditation
       in teaching learning process, & Adjustment for Healthy, Clam, Fertile & Qualitative Life. It will also
       helpful to solve study related problems.

       The investigator will also know about the difference between the achievement of boys and girls
       students through this study. The investigator will also know how the effect of ‘YOGA’ touch the
       practice of Education & we will identify furthermore separate that which subjects provide the best
       effect as a result of ‘YOGA’.


      OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

      The objectives of this study are as under.
      (1) To study the effect of Yoga on the Academic Achievement of the student of Commerce stream.
      (2) To study the effect of Yoga on the Verbal Reasoning ability of the student of Commerce stream.
      (3) To study the effect of Yoga on the Short-Term Memory (STM) of the student of Commerce stream.
      (4) To study the effect of Yoga on the Academic achievement, Verbal Reasoning ability & Short-
           Term Memory (STM) of the student of Commerce stream in relation to Sex.

      HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY

      The following Major hypotheses were formulated for the present study.

      (1) There will be no significant difference between Control group & Experimental group on the Mean

           score of Academic achievement post test.

      (2) There will be no significant difference between Control group & Experimental group on the Mean

           score of Verbal Reasoning ability post test.




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      (3) There will be no significant difference between Control group & Experimental group on the Mean

           score of Short-Term Memory (STM) post test.

      (4) There will be no significant difference between Control group & Experimental group on the Mean

           score of Academic achievement, Verbal Reasoning ability, & Short-Term Memory (STM) post test

           in relation to their Sex.


     DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

     The delimitations of the current study are as follows.


         (1) The study was delimited to Gujarati medium School students only.

         (2) The study was delimited to Mehsana Districts’ Higher Secondary Schools’ students.

         (3) The study was delimited to students of standard 11th commerce.

         (4) The study was also delimited to the student studying during 2011-12 academic year only.


     LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

     The limitations of the current study are as follows.
          (1) In this present study, the findings were depended upon the sample of 80 students of standard 11th
                commerce.


     VARIABLES OF THE STUDY

     Following Variables will be taken for the present study.
                No.           Variable                           Type of Variable
                 1              Yoga                               Independent
                 2     Academic Achievement                         Dependant
                 3     Verbal Reasoning ability                     Dependant
                 4       Short-term Memory                          Dependant
                 5               Sex                                 Control



     POPULATION

     The Students who are studying in the Higher Secondary school in the Section of Commerce Streams of
     Mehsana District in the year of 2011-12 were the population of present study.




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     SAMPLE AND TECHNIQUE OF SAMPLE SELECTION

     The researcher took the list of Mehsana Districts’ Higher Secondary schools. Among this list, two
     schools were selected purposively. After selection of schools, the researcher used cluster sample
     selection technique for selection of whole class of 11th commerce for equal group distribution. The
     researcher used the “complete experimental simple equivalent group pre test-post test experiment
     design” and gave Experiment force on the students of Experimental group.


     METHOD OF THE STUDY

     To observe the effect of Yoga exercises on Academic Achievement, Verbal Reasoning ability and
     Short-Term Memory (STM) of the students of commerce stream, thus this entire study is depended on
     Experimental Method. Among this Experimental Method, a “complete experimental simple
     equivalent group pre test-post test experiment design” was applied for data assortments.

     CONSTRUCTION OF TOOLS

     The entire study is based on three tools (i.e. (1) Academic Achievement test (2) Verbal Reasoning
     ability test and (3) Short Term Memory (STM) test). The selection and procedure of the tool construction
     are as under.
         Academic achievement test:
         The researcher has made 50 marks and 1.30 hours objective type Academic achievement test for 11th
        commerce subject with the help of commerce teachers. This test helps for to observe the effect of
        Yoga exercises on Academic achievement of 11th commerce subject students.
         Verbal Reasoning ability test:
        Among above mentioned tools; Verbal Reasoning ability test was readymade and standardized by
        Dr.D.S.Patel for the students belongs to the students of 11th and 12th Arts, Commerce, and Science
        stream. This readymade tool was taken by the researcher.
         Short Term Memory (STM) test:
        Planning of the test :
        The purpose of this test was to examine the effect of Yoga exercises on Short -Term Memory
        of the students of 11th commerce standard. Therefore, the researcher prepared the list of
        Numbers, Pictures, Things, Verbal and Non-Verbal Questions, Objectives, and Short answer
        Questions and Short-term Memory based activities with the help of experts of the background
        (field) of Yoga and Psychology for preparing this STM test. In this way, the researcher
        primarily shaped the STM test.



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        Preliminary test construction :
        To observe the effect of Yoga exercises on Short term memory of 11th commerce standard
        students; the researcher has constructed self made opening STM test, by the hold up of
        experts. This primarily test contains eight Short term Memory based activities, fifty minutes
        and fifty marks for measurement of students STM for pre-primary base.
        Pre Piloting testing :
        The researcher has applied the primarily test to the small group of 30 students of 11th
        commerce standard of Shree Sarvodaya High School, Ambasan. In this way, the researcher
        completed Pre-Piloting testing of the STM test and the researcher had done necessary
        changes, which were found out in Pre-Piloting testing of the STM test.
        Expert’s Opinion :
        After the Pre-Primary try out, the researcher has made necessary changes in the STM test. Then after
        it was sent for expert’s opinion via post, courier, and hand to hand.
       Correction of the test :
        After receiving the STM test by experts, the researcher has made the changes and correction,
        which were suggested by experts and my research Guide. Thus, the tool was ready for its
        Piloting testing.
        Piloting testing :
        The researcher applied the STM test for Piloting study on the 200 students sample among
        following schools of Mehsana and Mehsana District.


                   Sr.No.              Name of the School                           Sample
                   01     Shri S.V.Shah Vidhyavihar, Mehsana.                    50
                   02     Shri Nandasan Higher Secondary School. Di.             100 (class A
                          Mehsana.                                               & B)
                   03     Shri M. G. Chaudhary Kishanbharti Higher               50
                          Secondary Vidyalaya, Mevad.Di.Mehsana.


        Item Analysis:
        After scoring, the answer sheets were sorted out in descending order of the score of
        respondents. Then top 27 % of Upper group students answer sheets and bottom 27 % of
        Lower group students answer sheets were selected for Item analysis. In this way, 54 students
        of upper group and 54 students of lower group were sorted out among total 200 students.




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        PROCEDURE OF EXPERIMENT AND DATA COLLECTION

       Sample Selection:
        The researcher took the list of Mehsana District’s Higher Secondary schools. Among this list, two
        schools were selected purposively. After selection of schools, the researcher has used cluster sample
        selection technique for selection of whole class of 11th commerce for equal group distribution.

        Formation of Equal Group Distribution:
        For the formation of equal group distribution, the research practically collected the score for
        equal group distribution through the readymade memory sharpness test, which contains the
        small picture of 18 different types of things on each chart. In this particular manner, the
        researcher collected the score of the test of 46 students of Shree H. B. Saraswati Vidyalaya,
        Vadasma (rural) and 44 students of Shree M.B.Patel High School; Mehsana (urban). After
        collecting the score, the researcher has arranged it into descending order for both school and
        prepared two equal groups (i.e. control group and experimental group) on the base of memory
        which is the dependant variable of this study.

        Application and collection of Pre-tests scores:
        After equal group distribution, the researcher applied three pre-tests one by one (i.e. Academic
        Achievement test, Verbal Reasoning ability test ,Short Term Memory test) and collected the
        preliminary (initial) level score of three pre-tests.

        Preparation and Application of Experimental force:
        To examine the effect of Yoga exercises on the three independent variable of this study; the
        researcher has prepared the one-hour Yoga exercises programme (the independent variable)
        for 21 days through the guidance and suggestions of Yoga experts. After collection of the
        score of three pre-tests, the researcher has applied the Experimental force on the students of
        Experimental group for both schools.

        Application and collection of Post-tests scores:
        After application of independent variable of Yoga exercises programme on experimental
        group, the researcher has passed one-day transition period before application of post-tests.
        Later then, the researcher applied post-tests and collected its final score.

        USE OF THE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

       The following Statistical techniques were used for the present study.



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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                                December: 2012                    ISSN: 2320-091X
      International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


          An Experimental Method was used to know the effect of Independent Variable for this study.
          In this Method, complete experimental simple equivalent group pre test-post test experiment
          design was introduced for entire study. With the help of both groups’ pre and post test’s score,
          t-test was used for calculation and testing of the hypothesis; with the help of computerized
          MS-Excel software.

         TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

          Current study was carried out with forty-two Null Hypothesis, which are shown in the
          following table.


                                      Table of Hypothesis testing
                                                                                    Significan      H0 is
                                                                       t-             t level     Rejected
H0                                  Hypothesis                                 df
                                                                     value            0.05 &         or
                                                                                       0.01       Accepted
                                        For Rural School
         There is no significant difference of mean score                               Not         H01 is
         between pre test and post test of Academic                                 Significant   Accepted
H01      Achievement of the rural school’s students of control
                                                                      0.17    38
                                                                                     At both       at both
         group.                                                                        level        level
         There is no significant difference of mean score                                           H02 is
                                                                                    Significant
         between pre test and post test of Academic                                               Rejected
H02      Achievement of the rural school’s students of
                                                                      4.85    38     At both
                                                                                                   at both
                                                                                       level
         experiment group.                                                                          level
         There is no significant difference of mean score                               Not         H03 is
         between control group and experiment group of                              Significant   Accepted
H03      Academic Achievement pre test of the rural school’s          1.38    38
                                                                                     At both       at both
         students.                                                                     level        level
         There is no significant difference of mean score                                           H04 is
                                                                                    Significant
         between control group and experiment group of                                            Rejected
H04      Academic Achievement post test of the rural school’s
                                                                      5.16    38     At both
                                                                                                   at both
                                                                                       level
         students.                                                                                  level




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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                                 December: 2012                   ISSN: 2320-091X
       International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)



                                                                                   Significan      H0 is
                                                                        t-           t level     Rejected
H0                                   Hypothesis                               df
                                                                      value          0.05 &          or
                                                                                      0.01       Accepted
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H05 is
          between pre test and post test of Verbal Reasoning                       Significant   Accepted
H05       ability of the rural school’s students of control group.    0.05    38
                                                                                    At both       at both
                                                                                      level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H06 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between pre test and post test of Verbal Reasoning                                     Rejected
H06       ability of the rural school’s students of experiment
                                                                      2.71    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
          group.                                                                                   level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H07 is
          between control group and experiment group of Verbal                     Significant   Accepted
H07       Reasoning ability pre test of the rural school’s
                                                                      0.77    38
                                                                                    At both       at both
          students.                                                                   level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H08 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between control group and experiment group of Verbal                                   Rejected
H08       Reasoning ability post test of the rural school’s
                                                                      3.69    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
          students.                                                                                level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H09 is
          between pre test and post test of Short term Memory of                   Significant   Accepted
H09       the rural school’s students of control group.
                                                                      0.08    38
                                                                                    At both       at both
                                                                                      level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H010 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between pre test and post test of Short term Memory of                                 Rejected
H010      the rural school’s students of experiment group.
                                                                      3.34    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
                                                                                                   level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H011 is
          between control group and experiment group of Short                      Significant   Accepted
H011      term Memory pre test of the rural school’s students.
                                                                      0.91    38
                                                                                    At both       at both
                                                                                      level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H012 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between control group and experiment group of Short                                    Rejected
H012      term Memory post test of the rural school’s students.
                                                                      4.54    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
                                                                                                   level
                                               For Urban School
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H013 is
          between pre test and post test of Academic                               Significant   Accepted
H013      Achievement of the urban school’s students of control
                                                                0.13
                                                                              38    At both       at both
          group.                                                                      level        level



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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                                 December: 2012                   ISSN: 2320-091X
       International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


                                                                                   Significan      H0 is
                                                                        t-           t level     Rejected
H0                                  Hypothesis                                df
                                                                      value          0.05 &          or
                                                                                      0.01       Accepted
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H014 is
          between pre test and post test of Academic                               Significant
                                                                                                 Rejected
H014      Achievement of the urban school’s students of               4.02    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
          experiment group.                                                           level
                                                                                                   level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H015 is
          between control group and experiment group of                            Significant   Accepted
H015      Academic Achievement pre test of the urban school’s         0.12    38
                                                                                    At both       at both
          students.                                                                   level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H016 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between control group and experiment group of                                          Rejected
H016      Academic Achievement post test of the urban school’s
                                                                      3.16    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
          students.                                                                                level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H017 is
          between pre test and post test of Verbal Reasoning                       Significant   Accepted
H017      ability of the urban school’s students of control group.
                                                                      0.11
                                                                              38    At both       at both
                                                                                      level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H018 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between pre test and post test of Verbal Reasoning                                     Rejected
H018      ability of the urban school’s students of experiment
                                                                      2.73    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
          group.                                                                                   level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H019 is
          between control group and experiment group of                            Significant   Accepted
H019      Verbal Reasoning ability pre test of the urban school’s
                                                                      0.40    38
                                                                                    At both       at both
          students.                                                                   level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                       H020 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between control group and experiment group of                                          Rejected
H020      Verbal Reasoning ability post test of the urban
                                                                      3.05    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
          school’s students.                                                                       level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H021 is
          between pre test and post test of Short term Memory                      Significant   Accepted
H021      of the urban school’s students of control group.
                                                                      0.26    38
                                                                                    At both       at both
                                                                                      level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H022 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between pre test and post test of Short term Memory                                    Rejected
H022      of the urban school’s students of experiment group.
                                                                      3.73    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
                                                                                                   level




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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                                 December: 2012                   ISSN: 2320-091X
       International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)



                                                                                   Significan      H0 is
                                                                        t-           t level     Rejected
H0                                  Hypothesis                                df
                                                                      value          0.05 &          or
                                                                                      0.01       Accepted
          There is no significant difference of mean score                             Not        H023 is
          between control group and experiment group of Short                      Significant   Accepted
H023      term Memory pre test of the urban school’s students.
                                                                      0.39    38
                                                                                    At both       at both
                                                                                      level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H024 is
                                                                                   Significant
          between control group and experiment group of Short                                    Rejected
H024      term Memory post test of the urban school’s students.
                                                                      4.11    38    At both
                                                                                                  at both
                                                                                      level
                                                                                                   level
                                          Sex difference in Rural school
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                        H025 is
          between boys of control group and girls of experiment                    Significant
                                                                                                 Rejected
H025      group of the Academic Achievement post test of rural 5.36 18              At both
                                                                                                  at both
          school’s students.                                                          level
                                                                                                    level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                         Significant    H026 is
          between girls of control group and boys of experiment                      At 0.05     Rejected
          group of the Academic Achievement post test of rural                       level &      at 0.05
H026      school’s students.                                       2.39 18              Not       level &
                                                                                   Significant   Accepted
                                                                                     At 0.01      at 0.01
                                                                                       level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                              Not       H027 is
          between girls and boys of experiment group of the                        Significant   Accepted
H027      Academic Achievement post test of rural school’s
                                                                      0.65    18
                                                                                    At both       at both
          students.                                                                    level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                         Significant    H028 is
          between boys of control group and girls of experiment                      At 0.05     Rejected
          group of the Verbal Reasoning ability post test of rural                   level &      at 0.05
H028      school’s students.                                          2.68    18        Not       level &
                                                                                   Significant   Accepted
                                                                                     At 0.01      at 0.01
                                                                                       level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                         Significant    H029 is
          between girls of control group and boys of experiment                      At 0.05     Rejected
          group of the Verbal Reasoning ability post test of rural                   level &      at 0.05
H029      school’s students.                                          2.43    18        Not       level &
                                                                                   Significant   Accepted
                                                                                     At 0.01      at 0.01
                                                                                       level        level




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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                                 December: 2012                       ISSN: 2320-091X
       International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)



                                                                                      Significan        H0 is
                                                                        t-              t level     Rejected
H0                                   Hypothesis                                 df
                                                                      value             0.05 &          or
                                                                                         0.01       Accepted
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                Not        H030 is
          between girls and boys of experiment group of the                           Significant   Accepted
H030      Verbal Reasoning ability post test of rural school’s
                                                                      0.63    18
                                                                                       At both       at both
          students.                                                                      level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                              H031 is
                                                                                      Significant
          between boys of control group and girls of experiment                                      Rejected
H031      group of the Short term Memory post test of rural
                                                                      5.27    18       At both
                                                                                                      at both
                                                                                         level
          school’s students.                                                                           level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                Not           H032 is
          between girls of control group and boys of experiment                       Significant   Accepted
H032      group of the Short term Memory post test of rural
                                                                      1.79    18
                                                                                       At both       at both
          school’s students.                                                             level        level
          There is no significant difference of mean score                                Not           H033 is
          between girls and boys of experiment group of the                           Significant   Accepted
H033      Short term Memory post test of rural school’s students.
                                                                      1.04    18
                                                                                       At both       at both
                                                                                         level        level
                                          Sex difference in Urban school
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                       H034 is
          boys of control group and girls of experiment group of                          Significant    Rejecte
H034      the Academic Achievement post test of urban school’s                       18    At both         d at
                                                                     3.45
          students.                                                                          level        both
                                                                                                          level
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                       H035 is
                                                                                              Not
          girls of control group and boys of experiment group of                                         Accept
                                                                                          Significant
H035      the Academic Achievement post test of urban school’s           1.06        18                   ed at
                                                                                           At both
          students.                                                                                       both
                                                                                             level
                                                                                                          level
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                       H036 is
                                                                                              Not
          girls and boys of experiment group of the Academic                                             Accept
                                                                                          Significant
H036      Achievement post test of urban school’s students.              0.41        18                   ed at
                                                                                           At both
                                                                                                          both
                                                                                             level
                                                                                                          level
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                       H037 is
          boys of control group and girls of experiment group of                          Significant    Rejecte
H037      the Verbal Reasoning ability post test of urban school’s       3.06        18    At both         d at
          students.                                                                          level        both
                                                                                                          level



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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                                 December: 2012                    ISSN: 2320-091X
       International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)



                                                                                                      H0 is
                                                                                       Significan
                                                                                                     Rejecte
                                                                           t-            t level
H0                                    Hypothesis                                  df                  d or
                                                                         value           0.05 &
                                                                                                     Accept
                                                                                          0.01
                                                                                                       ed
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                   H038 is
                                                                                           Not
          girls of control group and boys of experiment group of                                     Accept
                                                                                       Significant
H038      the Verbal Reasoning ability post test of urban school’s       1.44    18                   ed at
                                                                                        At both
          students.                                                                                   both
                                                                                          level
                                                                                                      level
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                   H039 is
                                                                                           Not
          girls and boys of experiment group of the Verbal                                           Accept
                                                                                       Significant
H039      Reasoning ability post test of urban school’s students.        0.55    18                   ed at
                                                                                        At both
                                                                                                      both
                                                                                          level
                                                                                                      level
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                   H040 is
          boys of control group and girls of experiment group of                       Significant   Rejecte
H040      the Short term Memory post test of urban school’s              3.69    18     At both        d at
          students.                                                                       level       both
                                                                                                      level
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                   H041 is
          girls of control group and boys of experiment group of                           Not
                                                                                       Significant   Accept
H041      the Short term Memory post test of urban school’s              2.09    18                   ed at
          students.                                                                     At both
                                                                                          level       both
                                                                                                      level
          There is no significant difference of mean score between                                   H042 is
          girls and boys of experiment group of the Short term                             Not
                                                                                       Significant   Accept
H042      Memory post test of urban school’s students.                   0.32    18                   ed at
                                                                                        At both
                                                                                          level       both
                                                                                                      level


  MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

  The major findings of this present study are as follows.
  About the effect of Yoga exercises on Academic Achievement of the students of
  Rural School:
                   (1) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 levels
                         between pre test and post test of Academic Achievement of the rural school’s
                         students of experiment group. It is indicating that; the Yoga exercises improves
                         the Achievement of the students.


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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                               December: 2012                       ISSN: 2320-091X
     International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


                   (2) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 levels
                       between control group and experiment group of Academic Achievement post
                       test of the rural school’s students. It is point out that; due to Yoga exercises on
                       experimental group, the students are higher than the control group in Academic
                       Achievement.
  About the effect of Yoga exercises on reasoning ability of the students of Rural
  School:
                   (3) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between pre test and
                       post test of Verbal Reasoning ability of the rural school’s students of experiment
                       group. It is point out that; due to Yoga exercises on experimental group, the
                       students are higher than pre test of Verbal Reasoning ability.
                   (4) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between control group
                       and experiment group of Verbal Reasoning ability post test of the rural school’s
                       students. It is indicating that; the Yoga exercises improve the Verbal Reasoning
                       ability of the students.
  About the effect of Yoga exercises on Short Term Memory of the students of
  Rural School:
                   (5) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between pre test and
                       post test of Short-term Memory of the rural school’s students of experiment
                       group. It is point out that; because of Yoga exercises on experimental group, the
                       students are higher than pre test of Short term Memory.
                   (6) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between control group
                       and experiment group of Short-term Memory post test of the rural school’s
                       students. It is indicating that; the Yoga exercises improve the Short term
                       Memory of the students.
  About the effect of Yoga exercises on Academic Achievement of the students of
  Urban School:
                   (7) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between pre test and
                       post test of Academic Achievement of the urban school’s students of experiment
                       group. It is indicating that; the Yoga exercises improve the Achievement of the
                       students.




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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                               December: 2012                      ISSN: 2320-091X
     International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


                   (8) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between control group
                       and experiment group of Academic Achievement post test of the urban school’s
                       students. It is point out that; due to Yoga exercises on experimental group, the
                       students are higher than the control group in Academic Achievement.
  About the effect of Yoga exercises on Reasoning ability of the students of
  Urban School:
                   (9) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between pre test and
                       post test of Verbal Reasoning ability of the urban school’s students of
                       experiment group. It is point out that; due to Yoga exercises on experimental
                       group, the students are higher than pre test of Verbal Reasoning ability.
                 (10) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between control group
                       and experiment group of Verbal Reasoning ability post test of the urban school’s
                       students. It is indicating that; the Yoga exercises improve the Verbal Reasoning
                       ability of the students.
  About the effect of Yoga exercises on Short-Term Memory of the students of
  Urban School:
                 (11) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between pre test and
                       post test of Short-term Memory of the urban school’s students of experiment
                       group. It is point out that; because of Yoga exercises on experimental group, the
                       students are higher than pre test of Short- term Memory.
                 (12) The significant difference has been shown of mean score between control group
                       and experiment group of Short-term Memory’s post test of the urban school’s
                       students. It is indicating that; the Yoga exercises improve the Short-term
                       Memory of the students.
  About the Sex effect of Yoga exercises on Academic Achievement of the
  students of Rural School:
                 (13) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between boys of control group and girls of experiment group of the Academic
                       Achievement post test of rural school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (experiment group) were 43.5 and the mean score of the boys (control group)
                       were 32.8.So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is in favor of
                       girls.



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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                               December: 2012                     ISSN: 2320-091X
     International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


                 (14) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 level between
                       girls of control group and boys of experiment group of the Academic
                       Achievement post test of rural school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (control group) were 38.2 and the mean score of the boys (experiment group)
                       were 42.5.So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is in favor of
                       boys.
  About the Sex effect of Yoga exercises on Reasoning ability of the students of
  Rural School:
                 (15) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 level between
                       boys of control group and girls of experiment group of the Verbal Reasoning
                       ability post test of rural school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (experiment group) were 60.0 and the mean score of the boys (control group)
                       were 47.8.So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is in favor of
                       girls.
                 (16) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 level between
                       girls of control group and boys of experiment group of the Verbal Reasoning
                       ability post test of rural school’s students. The mean score of the girls (control
                       group) were 46.8 and the mean score of the boys (experiment group) were
                       57.1.So, the mean score indicate that, the effect of Yoga exercises is in favor of
                       boys.
  About the Sex effect of Yoga exercises on Short Term Memory of the students
  of Rural School:
                 (17) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between boys of control group and girls of experiment group of the Short term
                       Memory post test of rural school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (experiment group) were 41.55 and the mean score of the boys (control group)
                       were 29.9.So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is in favor of
                       girls.
                 (18) No significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between girls of control group and boys of Experiment group of the Short-term
                       Memory’s post test of rural school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (control group) were 33.55 and the mean score of the boys (experiment group)




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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                               December: 2012                     ISSN: 2320-091X
     International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


                       were 38.8.So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is similarly in
                       favor of boys and girls.
  About the Sex effect of Yoga exercises on Academic Achievement of the
  students of Urban School:
                 (19) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between boys of control group and girls of experiment group of the Academic
                       Achievement post test of urban school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (experiment group) were 44 and the mean score of the boys (control group) were
                       36.5.So, the mean score indicate that, the effect of Yoga exercises is in favor of
                       girls.
                 (20) No significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between girls of control group and boys of experiment group of the Academic
                       Achievement post test of urban school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (control group) were 41.5 and the mean score of the boys (experiment group)
                       were 43.4. So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is similarly in
                       favor of boys and girls.
  About the Sex effect of Yoga exercises on reasoning ability of the students of
  Urban School:
                 (21) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between boys of control group and girls of experiment group of the Verbal
                       Reasoning ability post test of urban school’s students. The mean score of the
                       girls (experiment group) were 60.7 and the mean score of the boys (control
                       group) were 47.0.So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is in favor
                       of girls.
                 (22) No significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between girls of control group and boys of experiment group of the Verbal
                       Reasoning ability post test of urban school’s students. The mean score of the
                       girls (control group) were 58.6 and the mean score of the boys (experiment
                       group) were 63.2. So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is
                       similarly in favor of boys and girls.




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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                               December: 2012                     ISSN: 2320-091X
     International Journal for Research in Education (IJRE)


  About the Sex effect of Yoga exercises on Short Term Memory of the students
  of Urban School:
                 (23) The significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between boys of control group and girls of experiment group of the Short-term
                       Memory post test of urban school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (experiment group) were 40.45 and the mean score of the boys (control group)
                       were 28.85.So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is in favor of
                       girls.
                 (24) No significant difference has been shown of mean score at 0.05 and 0.01 level
                       between girls of control group and boys of experiment group of the Short-
                       term Memory’s post test of urban school’s students. The mean score of the girls
                       (control group) were 33.35 and the mean score of the boys (experiment group)
                       were 39.5.So, the mean score indicate that, the Yoga exercises is similarly in
                       favor of boys and girls.

     IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY
             (1) Yoga improves fitness, lowers blood pressure, promotes relaxation and self-
                   confidence, and reduces stress and anxiety. People who practice yoga tend to have
                   good coordination, posture, flexibility, range of motion, concentration, sleep habits,
                   and digestion. Yoga is a complementary therapy that has been used with
                   conventional therapies to help treat a wide range of health problems, but it is not a
                   cure for any particular disease.
             (2) All branches of yoga mentioned above use three major techniques: breathing,
                   exercise, and meditation. These three techniques have been shown to improve health
                   in many ways:

                Breathing lessons: In yoga, breath work is known as Pranayama. Pranayama
                 increases blood circulation and reduces oxygen consumption. That brings more
                 oxygen to the brain, and improves the way your body uses oxygen. Breathing
                 exercises can also increase how much air you can draw into your lungs. Getting lots of
                 air into your lungs helps you feel alert and focused.
                Asana (postures): Asana provide a gentle-to-intense workout that enhances strength,
                 flexibility, and balance.




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                Meditation: Mediation quiets the mind and brings on both physical and emotional
                 relaxation, which helps reduce blood pressure, chronic pain, anxiety, and cholesterol
                 levels.


             (3) This study helps to the students for doing Yoga exercises daily life.
             (4) Government should encourage the research projects to enhance Memory, Reasoning
                   ability and Yoga of rural areas students.
             (5) Schools should use the materials related to Yoga exercises, Short-term memory test,
                   and Verbal Reasoning ability test for the students who have lower memory and lower
                   reasoning ability.
             (6) The Yoga exercises programme is also helpful for schools curriculum and student’s
                   physical and Psychological issues and mood disorders

     CONCLUSION

     The most important objective of this study was; to examine the effect of Yoga on Academic
     achievement, Reasoning ability and Short-term Memory of the students of commerce stream. In
     this way, total 40-40 students were selected from two schools and “complete experimental
     simple equivalent group pre test-post test experiment design” was introduced for entire study.
     With the help of both group’s pre and post test’s score, t-test was used for calculation and
     testing of the hypothesis, with the help of computerized MS-Excel software.


     BIBLIOGRAPHY


         Agrawal, J. C. (1966). Educational Research - An Introduction. New Delhi:
          Agra Book Depot.
         Buch, M. B. (1997). (Ed.) Fifth Survey of Research in Education. New Delhi:
          NCERT.
         Buch, M. B. (1997). (Ed.) Sixth Survey of Research in Education. New Delhi:
          NCERT.
         Garrett, H. E. (1971). Statistics in Psychology and Education. (6th Reprint).
          Bombay: Vakis fefter and Simons Pvt. Ltd.




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     Vol.1, Issue: 1                               December: 2012       ISSN: 2320-091X
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         Gala, L. R. & Rathod. (2008). P. H. Gala’s Advanced Dictionary. (25th
          Edition). Ahmadabad: Navneet Publication Ltd.
         Mahila, D. S. (1995).Yoga Iiistrated. New Delhi: Patiala House.
         Manroe, W. S.: & Englehart, M. D. (1928).The Techniques of Educational
          Research Urban-III, Bureau of Educational Research, University of Elience,
          Bulletin No. 38.
         Yoga Sudha.: (1998). Vol-9, Bangalore, Vivekmanda Kendra, Yoga
          Prakashan.
         Yoga Mimansa.: (1998). Lonvala Kaivalyadhama, Vol-17.


     Website:
           www.webhealthcenter.com
           www.svyasa.org
           www.info@tehrantimes.com
           www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/heath
           www.authentic-breathing.com/tao-breathing.htm




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                                    Research Article - Education


                                    PROBLEMS OF TEACHER
                                       EDUCATION IN INDIA


                                               Dr. Ashok. J. Desai
                                              Assistant Professor,
                               S.T.T. College of Education, Visnagar


ABSTRECT

Over the last half a century and particularly, in the recent decades, teaching learning has been
undergoing drastic changes. There has been a shift towards student centered classrooms with
teacher’s role more as facilitator of learning rather than an autocratic master. Unlike in the
past when the teacher was entrusted with transferring the contents of curriculum to a passive
audience of students, today new experiments are being tried out in the classroom that
includes project based learning, development of thinking skills, and discovery learning
approaches. As part of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) the textbooks have also been modified
(in my opinion, to make them worse than before in many respects).Many teachers are not
properly trained in implementing the concepts behind the new curriculum and many are not
equipped to properly implement the curriculum.

Key words: Teacher Education, Higher Education, Incompetency, Curriculum

INTRODUCTION

The funniest thing is that the teacher education centers and the curriculum followed in the
teacher education have very little focus on new trends in education. The SSA training
programs have excluded the teacher educators and have been confined to in-service teacher
training alone. The pre-service teacher education sector has been kept away from the SSA

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and therefore, the teacher aspirants passing out of the B.Ed colleges get exposed to the new
curriculum only when they join the schools.

Teacher education institutions have been proliferating and mushrooming all over the State
with profit motives until the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) with its
headquarters in Bangalore, came up with and insisted on mandatory norms and standards for
these institutions. As a result of their intervention, many institutions have constructed
buildings with classrooms and procured infrastructure to meet their standards. These
institutions were even been forced to increase the salary of teacher educators to the basic
amount in the government scale. But later, the effectiveness of NCTE intervention reduced
and the powerful lobby of private education institutions had their way in running their teacher
education shops.
There has been a great expansion of higher education over the years. Today, there are more
than 200 universities and 8000 colleges. Kothari commission remarks "The destiny of India is
being shaped in its classrooms." No doubt education plays a significant role in nation's
development but the quality of education is greatly determined by the quality of teachers,
therefore, great efforts were made and still are being made to improve the quality of teacher
education. Some of the problems concerning teacher education are discussed below:

PROBLEM OF SELECTION

Defects of selection procedure lead to deterioration of the quality of teachers. Better selection
method would not only improve the quality of training but also save the personal and social
wastage. Some suggestions are mentioned:
(a) Candidates should be interviewed (b) Test of General Knowledge should be applied. (c)
Test in school subjects. (d) Test of language (e) Test of intelligence should be administered
(f) Aptitude; interest and attitude inventory should be administered. (g) A well direct
guidance service should be provided.

DEFICIENCIES OF SMALL TIME PERIOD PROVIDED FOR TEACHER'S
TRAINING

In India, this period is of one year after the graduation - the effective session being of eight to
nine months. The main purpose of teacher education programme is to develop healthy



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attitude, broad based interest and values. It is not possible during the short duration of nine
months.

INCOMPETENCY OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS

The existing training programme does not provide adequate opportunities to the student
teachers to develop competency because the organizers of teacher's training programme are
not aware of the existing problems of schools. Therefore there should be a close matching
between the work schedule of the teacher in a school and the programme adopted for teacher
preparation in a training college.

DEFECTS CONCERNING PAPERS

A student teacher should know the meaning of education, its objectives, the socio-cultural
and politico-economics background, the principles that guide construction of curriculum etc.
But a proper preparation towards a good. Orientation is impossible in a short duration.
Following steps may be taken in this connection:
(i) allowing more time to learners for good reading and sound build-up of the intellect and
attitude, (ii) pruning the existing course (iii) arranging for exchange of experience than
merely attending lectures,(iv) changing the mode of testing inputs (v) the content must have
direct implications in the daily school teaching.

PROBLEMS OF PRACTICE TEACHING

Inspire of all kinds of elaborate arrangements regarding practice in teaching, student teachers
are non-serious to the task of teaching, deficient in sense of duty irresponsible, aimless,
indifferent to children, lacking innovative measure in teaching which are great obstacles in
the development of pedagogical skills.

PROBLEM OF SUPERVISION OF TEACHING

The supervisory organizations for practice teaching aims at bringing improvement in the
instructional activity of the student teachers by using various techniques and practical skills
in teaching and help them to develop confidence in facing the classroom situations. This is
done through following types of supervisions:




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Supervision before classroom teaching:
It aims at guiding in planning their lessons, learning to organize contents, formulating
suitable gestures and developing other related skills. At present the lesson plans are checked
superficially and no discussion is made by the subject method specialist.

LACK OF SUBJECT KNOWLEDGE

The B.Ed. programme does not emphasize the knowledge of the basic subject. The whole
teaching practice remains indifferent with regard to the subject knowledge of the student
teacher.

FAULTY METHODS OF TEACHING

In India teacher educators are averse to innovation and experimentation in the use of methods
of teaching. Their acquaintance with modern class-room communication devices is
negligible.

ISOLATION OF TEACHER’S EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

As has been observed by education commission, the teacher education has become isolated
from schools and current development in school education. The schools consider the teacher
education department as an alien institution and not a nursery for the professional
development of school teacher. These departments only observe the formality of finishing the
prescribed number of lessons no caring for the sounders of pedagogy involved in the
procedure.

POOR ACADEMIC BACKGROUND OF STUDENT-TEACHERS

Most of candidates do not have the requisite motivation and an academic background for a
well deserved entry in the teaching profession.

LACK OF PROPER FACILITIES

In India, the teacher education programme is being given a step-motherly treatment. About
20 percent of the teacher education institutions are being run in rented buildings without any
facility for an experimental school or laboratory, library and other equipments necessary for a
good teacher education department. There are no separate hostel facilities for student
teachers.
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LACK OF REGULATIONS IN DEMAND AND SUPPLY

The State Education Department have no data on the basis of which they may work out the
desired intake for their institutions. There is a considerable lag between the demand and
supply of teachers. This has created the problems of unemployment and underemployment.

INADEQUATE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

In India, research in education has been considerably neglected. The research conducted is of
inferior quality. The teacher education programmes are not properly studied before
undertaking any research.

LACK OF FACILITIES FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Most of the programmes are being conducted in a routine and unimaginative manner. Even
the association of teacher educators has not contributed anything towards development of a
sound professionalization of teacher education in the country.


REFERENCE
     1. Chobe, S.P., & Chobe, A. (2006). School Organization. Noida: Mayur Paperbex.
     2. Gupta, A.M. (1999). Educational Management. New Delhi: Bharat Prakashan.
        Publications. University News. Vol. 49, No.09, February 28-March 06.
     3. Usha M.D. (2010). Challenges Before Indian Government (Convocation Address).
     4. Vashist, S.R. (2003). Professional Education of Teachers. Jaipur: Mangal Deep.




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                              Research Paper-Education



          ROLE OF A TEACHER FOR QUALITY IN
                                       EDUCATION


                                           Paragi Shah
                   Assistant Prof. Kakanpur M.Ed. College,
                                   District: Panchmahal


ABSTRECT

We are all interested in quality in education. The future of our country and the world
depends on our children and college students receiving the best instruction. Using the
framework of quality in our school districts, we can design roadmaps for continuous
improvement. When educators understand what continuous improvement is all about,
they gain confidence that they can shape and alter the nature of their schools. Change is
possible! Inside the daily reality of classrooms and educational establishments, the
promotion of quality education for all young people sharply brings to light problems
concerning the role of the teacher and other education providers: their recruitment, the
adequacy of their profile and function, their training, and their social recognition and
status. It is evident that a sufficient number of competent teachers is required in order to
improve the quality of educational processes.

Key words: Education, Quality in Education, Population Education, Sex Education


INTRODUCTION

Population education emerged as an educational response to population and development
issues confronting the society, nation and the world. It aims at making the learners aware

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of the interrelationships between populations. Development, a-sources, environment and
quality of life of the people, inculcating in them positive attitude and responsible
behavior towards population and development issues. The population education
programmes, as being implemented in about 90 countries of the world for the last over
two decades, present a varied picture in terms of concept, content and clientele. They are
known by different names such as population education, family life education, sexuality
education and adolescence education depending upon their special emphasis.

NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION

Realizing the negative effect of rapid population growth on development, many
developing countries have launched family planning programmes. The success of family
planning programmes in some countries has been significant in terms of reducing the rate
of population growth.

There are two main reasons inter alia for the hidden momentum of population growth in
the developing countries. These are (I) the socio-cultural and religious values of the
people, which influence their fertility behavior, and (ii) the large young population of
these countries. Population change is both a biological as well as a socio-cultural
phenomenon- The whole process of reproduction leading to the birth of a child is
biological. However, the decisions behind the birth of a child and size of the family are
governed by socio-cultural values, traditions, and customs. For example, in most of the
developing countries people place a high value on the birth of a child. Similarly, there
are many other pro-natal values, which influence the fertility behavior of the people. In
general, socio-cultural values change slowly over time through a variety of factors; but
one of the most important factors is education. Any coercion in changing the values of
the people can backlash and foil all the efforts. There are a number of studies, which
show a direct relationship between education of the people and their fertility behavior.
For example, a study shows that the rural women with five or more years of education,
bore, on an average, just over half as many children as those with no schooling. Urban
women with 10 or more years of education bore less than 45 per cent as many children as
their counterparts with no schooling. (Also, see Module IV.)

In India, while evaluating the impact of population education program me on school
students and teachers, the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, found
that school students and teachers who were exposed to population education content and
training showed greater awareness about and more positive attitudes towards population

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issues than those students and teachers who were not exposed to such content and
training.

In her inaugural address at the first Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians for
Population and Development held in Delhi from February 17-20, 1984, Mrs. Indira
Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, made a specific reference to the importance of
education in inculcating attitudinal and behavioral changes in the people to accept family
planning. This should be accompanied by organizational arrangements for contraceptive
advice and medical services. She said:

Young people must be in the vanguard of the movement to restrict population growth
and to promote sustained development. In schools and colleges and through non-formal
education they must be made conscious of the dynamics of population growth and its
implications for their own further well-being and that of the nation. Properly planned
population education programmes need to be introduced at various levels so that when
people marry, they are fully aware of their responsibility to themselves, to future
generations and to society. Every occasion and festival is it religious or otherwise, where
people get together, affords excellent opportunity to reach out 10 them to explain the
importance of these programmes.

We must, therefore, educate children at an early age, much before they mature, on the
implications of population change. There is also the need to impart education in human
sexuality, HIV/AIDS, and drug abuse. From the beginning, it must be instilled in their
minds that the ideal of happiness and prosperity lies in limiting the size of the family. If
the child understands the processes and consequences of population growth for him, the
society, the nation, and the world by the time he leaves the secondary school, he may be
in a position to make the right decisions and is likely to be more receptive to the message
of the family planning later. In fact, one of the hidden objectives of population education
is to create demand for family planning services.

Although there is no empirical evidence to show that population education will bring
about the desired changes in the fertility behavior of the future parents, a number of
studies have shown that there is greater awareness among students and teachers and a
positive change in their attitudes towards population issues. If we believe in a non-
coercive and non-propagandist way of changing behavior, probably education is the
major means to help the individuals in making rational decisions for themselves and the
society.

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Historical Background:

Population education has a relatively short history. The first attempt to voice the need for
population education was made, perhaps, by Alva Myrdal in 1941. In her book Nation
and Family, she tried to convince the USA that a conscious population policy was
essential to realize the social policy. She emphasized the role of education in the
development of new population policy. The March 1962 issue of Teachers College
Record, Columbia University, carried an article by Warren S Thomson entitled 'The
Population Explosion", and another article 'Population-Gap in the Curriculum' by Philip
M Hauser. Both these articles drew attention to the need for including population content
in the school curriculum. In 1964, a project to prepare instructional materials related to
population education was undertaken at Teachers College, Columbia University, under
the leadership of Prof Sloan Wayland. The output of this project was two documents -
Teaching Population Dynamics', and •Critical Stage of Reproduction'. These were
designed as proto-type materials for the pre-service training of secondary school
teachers.

The first Director-General of UNESCO, Sir Julian Huxley, in his Annual Report for
1948, emphasized that overpopulation could drastically affect the future civilization and
its rate of advance. He was particularly concerned by the undernourishment of much of
the world's population and with the problems of erosion and depletion of natural
resources. He wrote, "Population must be balanced against resources or civilizations will
perish.” He suggested that UNESCO's task must include educating the peoples of the
world to realize the gravity of the problems involved.

The workshop on Population and Family Education, sponsored by the UNESCO
Regional Office for Education in Asia held at Bangkok in September-October 1970, was
a landmark in (his history of population education. Educators from 13 member states in
Asia addressed themselves to the task of preparing a statement of objectives for
population education, suggesting strategies for organizing programmes, outlining content
for incorporation into school curricula in the social sciences and the natural sciences, and
preparing a set of draft sample instructional materials in mathematics, science, and social
studies. A noteworthy outcome of the workshop was that in course of time several of the
participants played key roles in developing population education programmes in their
own countries.




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After initial resistance, the program me of population education picked up quite fast in
the seventies. Five countries in Asia launched national programmes in population
education after the 1970 Regional Workshop, with financial support from the United
Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and technical assistance from
UNESCO.

India was. Perhaps, the first country to have taken up the task of introducing population
education. The Family Planning Association of India presented a memorandum to the
Government of Maharashtra. Urging that population education be introduced into the
educational system of the state. During the same period a 'White Paper" on educational
reconstruction was published by the Maharashtra government in April 1968. The
proposal was based on the conviction that one of the important ways in which the
educational system can be made a 'powerful instrument of the national development' was
by providing a basic understanding of the dynamics of population growth and how it
affected the daily lives of the people and national welfare.

The first National Seminar on Population Education held in 1969 in Bombay (now
Mumbai) set the pace for the introduction of population education in the school system.
Since 1980. Population education has been launched as a national program me under the
banner of the National Population Education Programme (NPEP) by the Ministry of
Education with the financial support of 1.-NFPA and technical assistance of UNKSCO.
By 1998. 30 states and union territories were implementing the program me- The NPEP
executed by the Neff-RT completed three cycles and entered a new phase in 1998.
During its first cycle, it had sought to institutionalize population education in the formal
school anal teacher training systems. The program me was expanded to non-formal
education, adult education and universities during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1986-90).
The population education program me is now being implemented in many countries at
various levels of education in primary and secondary schools, pre-service and in-service
teacher training, vocational and technical schools, higher education and non-formal and
adult education.

Meaning of Population Education:

Since the population education program, me was initiated to supplement the family
planning program me, it is sometimes understood, both within and outside the
educational system, as another name for sex education and/or family planning education.
This misconception has been one of the hurdles in starting population education

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programmes in some countries. Cultural variations have determined differences in the
concept and scope of population education programmes in different geographical
regions. Sex education is still considered unacceptable in many countries of Asia,
although some other countries such as the Republic of Korea and the Philippines have
included family planning and sexuality as a part of population education curriculum in
schools. In Fiji, sex education is a major component of family life education. Some Latin
American countries place major emphasis on sex education because of the need felt for
the individual to understand himself or herself as a sexual being, which is a prerequisite
to the development of responsible parenthood.

Family Life Education and Population Education:

Family Life Education is an education designed to promote happy family life. It seeks to
prepare young people for a successful married life and responsible parenthood. With
these purposes of family life education, the contents that are generally included in it are
the concept of family structure, types and functions of family, family discords and their
resolution, adolescence and related needs and problems, information about human
sexuality, preparation for marriage, and responsible parenthood. The focus is on family.
In population education, the centre of study is population and its related issues. Some of
the elements of Family Life Education fall in the area of population education, and
therefore, these interfaces lead to an impression that both educations are identical.

Sex Education and Population Education:

Sex education is also at times treated as synonymous with population education. Sex
education is aimed at imparting education in human sexuality, human reproduction,
responsible and healthy sexual!*behavior and related ethical and mural issues. '
With the fast spread of HIV/AIDS, AIDS education has been made an integral part of
population education. As such, inclusion of selected content and information on human
sexuality forms part of population education.
Conceptualization of population education is rather a question of emphasis, rooted in
complex and historical differences. The situation is not expected to remain static. There
are already signs of change in the concept and scope of population education in some
countries. Although some countries do not openly accept any kind of sex education or
family planning education in schools, they do realize the need for including some content
related to these areas in the population education curriculum. A number of surveys
recently conducted in some countries in Asia vouch to this change in the perception of

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and acceptance to include sex education related contents in the framework of population
education.

The concept and scope of population education also differs with the target group.
Although opinions may differ with regard to the nature and content of population
education for the children, there is little difference of opinion so far as the population
education program me for adolescent youth and adults is concerned. The information on
sex and family life is of immediate relevance to this group.

Given the cultural and religious diversities and different target groups, it may be difficult
to give one definition of population education which can he universally accepted.
Definitions also differ in the specific behavioral outcomes, which they specify, such as
acceptance of a small family norm while others adopt a non-directive approach.
In spite of the Difficulties in the perception of population education, many individuals
and many conferences have tried to give a definition of population education. For those
who are interested in definitions, three are given below:

Population education is “an educational programme which provides for a study of the
population situation in the family, country, nation, and the world with the purpose of
development in the students of rational and responsible attitude and behavior towards
                   1
that situation.”       “Population Education is an educational process to develop among
learners an understanding of the interrelationships between population and sustainable
development, causes and consequences of population changes, and criticality of essential
conditions of population stabilization. It inculcates among them rational attitude and
responsible behavior towards population and development issues in individual and social
contexts. So that they can make informed decisions.”2 “It is generally agreed that
population education is the process of helping people understand the nature, causes and
implications of population processes as they affect, and are affected by, individuals,
families, communities and nations. It focuses on family and individual decisions
influencing population change at the micro level, as well as on broad demographic
changes.” 3

As one might notice, in three definitions there is no mention of the needs of adolescents,
reproductive health and skill development, which are now being emphasized in the light
of the ICPD 1994. Though these aspects are subsumed in these definitions, it is felt that
there is a need lo formulate a new definition highlighting the new emphasis in population
education, especially the development of life skills.

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Reconceptualisation:

Prompted by the need to reconceptualise and synthesis various aspects of population
education, the UNESCO Regional Seminar held in Bangkok initiated the exercise way
back in 1984. The process of reconeeptualisalion continued for about a decade with
important inputs from different international conferences, including the UN Conference
on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 known as
the Earth Summit; the Istanbul Declaration and Plan of Action (April 1993); the (ICPD)
held in Cairo in 1994: and the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in
1995- The major focus in the reconceptualisation has been to register a paradigm shift
from a purely demographic or population control approach to a broader interdisciplinary
approach for sustainable development encompassing related issues of environment,
resources, poverty and reproductive health.

The 1994 (IC'PD) has given a broad mandate on development issues than previous
population conferences. Reflecting the growing awareness that population, poverty,
patterns of production and consumption, and the environment are so closely
interconnected that none of them can be considered in isolation. The Programme of
Action recommends a set of important population and development objectives, both
quantitative and qualitative. Among these objectives and goals are sustained
development, education, especially for girls; gender equity and equality; infant, child and
maternal mortality reduction; and the provision of universal access to reproductive health
services, including family planning and sexual health.

In this context, it is important to mention that the National Council of Educational
Research and Training (NCERI) had organized a National Seminar on Adolescence
Education in mid-April 1993. The National Seminar on Adolescence Education had
recommended that sex education and education for preventing HIV/AIDS and drug
abuse should form part of the population education program me for secondary school
students and teachers.

The content areas of population education, namely (I) Population dynamics, (ii)
Population, Environment and sustainable development, (in) Population, development and
quality of life, (iv) Family and gender equality, (v) Maternal and child health, (vi)
Reproductive health and needs of adolescents, and (vii) STD, HIV/AIDS and drug abuse,
reflect the overall consensus and recommendations of the major national and
international conferences and seminars.

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                  Population                                          Population
                  Dynamics                                          Environment &
                                                               Sustainable Development


         Reproductive                                                    Population,
       Health & Needs of                       Content                  Development &
         Adolescents                           Areas of                 Quality of Life
                                              Population
                                              Education

           Maternal &                                                     Family and
           Child Health                                                 Gender Equality

                                           STD, HIV / AIDS &
                                              Drug Abuse



REFERENCE:


1.       UNESCO. (1970). Regional Office for Education in Asia. Population and Family
         Education. Report of an Asian Regional Workshop. Bangkok, 7, September-7,
         October, Bangkok.
2.       NCERT. (1996). Population Education: A reconceptualised Framework... New
         Delhi, NCERT.
3.       Reconceptualisation of Population Education.(1993). Technical Paper, Number 2,
         UNFPA, New York.




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