Diseases of the musculoskeletal system In the twentieth century, with the development of transport services and the increase in the number of private vehicles lifestyle of an individual becoming more sedentary. As a result, the person is walking a short distance from home to the transport and the transport to the workplace. Of course, this is not enough to support the musculoskeletal system in good shape, so the result of this way of life of its functional decline. In combination with dietary and other factors greatly increase the risk of various diseases of the musculoskeletal system, which we can observe in the developed countries. brings to your attention an article gives an idea of the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and describes the basic techniques of self-diagnosis. On first place in prevalence are intervertebral osteochondrosis and spondylosis deformans, which is the most common cause of back pain. In this disease develop degenerative-dystrophic changes in the intervertebral discs of cartilage, which leads to their deformation and convergence of the vertebral bodies. At the edges of the vertebrae in the current long-term illness there are small growths of bone tissue - osteophytes. Most often affects the spine with the greatest functional load: cervical and lumbar. The pain may be unilateral or bilateral, or central. It is enhanced by motion, weight lifting or prolonged standing.At rest, the pain is not worried. On palpation the spine can detect areas palpation pain, often in the spinous processes.There may be a limit spinal mobility mainly in one direction. Intervertebral osteochondrosis may be accompanied by radicular syndrome (sharp pain along the spinal nerve), developing in the infringement or spinal nerve roots due to the strong convergence of the vertebral bodies, or by compression of the osteophytes. defeat of the spine is also in ankylosing spondylitis (ankylosing spondylitis). When Ankylosing spondylitis develops inflammation of the intervertebral joints and spinal ligaments, which is accompanied by the development of pain. The pain spread along the length of the spine or in the projection of the affected department, characterized by constant, increases after a long rest, depending on weather conditions. The pain is often associated with stiffness in the affected department and is more pronounced in the morning. Radicular syndrome can develop when the infringement of spinal nerves from the approximation of the vertebral bodies. With the progression of the disease is spinal deformity and changes in patient posture: forming or "supplicant posture" or "doskoobraznaya back." By following the intervertebral osteochondrosis of the most common include osteoarthritis deformans - a chronic, slowly progressive disease in which the degenerative-dystrophic changes occur in hyaline cartilage mismatch load experienced by cartilage, and its ability to resist it. This discrepancy is caused by either excessive load on the cartilage (in overweight, especially professional activities - loaders, professional athletes), or functional deficiency of the cartilage due to lesions of the synovial membrane of the joint (responsible for food hyaline cartilage), breach of the trophic cartilage (for some metabolic diseases, endocrine, neurological and occupational diseases, in which the pathological process involved in the joints). At the onset of the disease usually affects the large joints of the support: the knee and hip - the process usually unbalanced. Joint pain occur when excessive load on it, amplified by the end of the day. At rest, there is no pain. In the first stage of the disease joint appearance unchanged. With the progression of the disease and the development of synovitis (inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joint) pain becomes constant, the joint may be swollen, hot and painful on palpation. During the deformation of the joint disease develops. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis (see below) there is no morning stiffness, but after a lengthy stay at rest may be some stiffness in the joints. Symptoms of osteoarthritis increases with the evening, and in rheumatoid arthritis symptoms maximum - in the morning. With long this disease develops some restriction in the mobility of the joint, it may cause a crunch when passive movements. Another disease in which the joint disease, is rheumatoid arthritis - a chronic, systemic immuno- inflammatory disease of connective tissue, which develops erosive and destructive polyarthritis with defeat mainly the small joints of hands and feet.The etiology is unknown. In the early stages of the disease develops a symmetrical polyarthritis of small joints of the specified location. Much later and not in all cases the process involved large joints. Least likely to be affected hip and shoulder joints, and sometimes - Temporomandibular Atlanto-axial joint. Joint pain expressed, aching, constant, more pronounced at night and in the morning, aggravated by active and passive movements during the day can weaken.Externally marked swelling of the joints may limit mobility in the joint due to pain. The characteristic feature of rheumatoid arthritis is morning stiffness in the whole body or only in the affected joints. This state lasts for at least an hour and goes after active movements. With further progression of the disease joins muscle atrophy adjacent to the affected joint. The disease is characterized by a steady progression and development of seasonal exacerbations, which are likely to rises in temperature, an increase of inflammatory changes and pain in the affected joints, involvement in the process of new joints.In the course of diseases of the joints deformed and develop persistent contracture, a significant limitation of mobility. The most characteristic is the deformation of the brush in the image of a walrus flippers. Perhaps the formation of instability in the joints and subluxations. Among metabolic diseases, leading to the defeat of the joints, gout is the most important. Disease is much more common in men over 40 than any other age-sex groups. This disease is characterized by impaired uric acid metabolism, which in the form of microcrystals monourata sodium accumulates in the joint cavity. During disease krizovoe, exacerbation is called "Gouty attack" and due to the formation in the joint cavity monourata new crystals. Gouty attack usually occurs at night, on the eve of perhaps eating meat, stress, trauma, alcohol abuse. Typically, the disease begins with acute arthritis first metatarsophalangeal joint. Within hours of developing severe joint swelling, redness, skin is glossy, hot to the touch, hard.Appears searing agony. Develops a fever and worsening health. Duration of attack from several hours to several days. Attack subsided more rapidly when taking NSAIDs. Over the years, the frequency of attacks may increase in the pathological process involved new joints. Prolonged and severe course of the disease is characterized by the generalization of arthritic changes in the spread of the spine, sterno-clavicular joint, tendon. Pain gradually become permanent, having contractions, deformed joints. Change of hand joints may resemble changes in rheumatoid arthritis. Distinguishing these diseases carried by clinical features. considered diseases are the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system. With this information about them, you can self-diagnose themselves with a particular disorder. But you should always keep in mind that in some cases, the clinical picture is not typical for an accurate diagnosis to treatment to the doctor.
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