Diseases of the musculoskeletal system by ludmilabozhko512


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									Diseases of the musculoskeletal system

In the twentieth century, with the development of transport services and the increase in the number of
private vehicles lifestyle of an individual becoming more sedentary. As a result, the person is walking a
short distance from home to the transport and the transport to the workplace. Of course, this is not
enough to support the musculoskeletal system in good shape, so the result of this way of life of its
functional decline. In combination with dietary and other factors greatly increase the risk of various
diseases of the musculoskeletal system, which we can observe in the developed countries.
brings to your attention an article gives an idea of the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal
system, and describes the basic techniques of self-diagnosis.
On first place in prevalence are intervertebral osteochondrosis and spondylosis deformans, which is the
most common cause of back pain. In this disease develop degenerative-dystrophic changes in the
intervertebral discs of cartilage, which leads to their deformation and convergence of the vertebral
bodies. At the edges of the vertebrae in the current long-term illness there are small growths of bone
tissue - osteophytes. Most often affects the spine with the greatest functional load: cervical and
lumbar. The pain may be unilateral or bilateral, or central. It is enhanced by motion, weight lifting or
prolonged standing.At rest, the pain is not worried. On palpation the spine can detect areas palpation
pain, often in the spinous processes.There may be a limit spinal mobility mainly in one
direction. Intervertebral   osteochondrosis may be accompanied by radicular syndrome (sharp pain
along the spinal nerve), developing in the infringement or spinal nerve roots due to the strong
convergence of the vertebral bodies, or by compression of the osteophytes.
defeat of the spine is also in ankylosing spondylitis (ankylosing spondylitis). When Ankylosing spondylitis
develops inflammation of the intervertebral joints and spinal ligaments, which is accompanied by the
development of pain. The pain spread along the length of the spine or in the projection of the affected
department, characterized by constant, increases after a long rest, depending on weather conditions. The
pain is often associated with stiffness in the affected department and is more pronounced in the
morning. Radicular syndrome can develop when the infringement of spinal nerves from the approximation
of the vertebral bodies. With the progression of the disease is spinal deformity and changes in patient
posture: forming or "supplicant posture" or "doskoobraznaya back."
By following the   intervertebral osteochondrosis of the most common include osteoarthritis
deformans - a chronic, slowly progressive disease in which the degenerative-dystrophic changes occur in
hyaline cartilage mismatch load experienced by cartilage, and its ability to resist it. This discrepancy is
caused by either excessive load on the cartilage (in overweight, especially professional activities -
loaders, professional athletes), or functional deficiency of the cartilage due to lesions of the synovial
membrane of the joint (responsible for food hyaline cartilage), breach of the trophic cartilage (for some
metabolic diseases, endocrine, neurological and occupational diseases, in which the pathological process
involved in the joints). At the onset of the disease usually affects the large joints of the support: the knee
and hip - the process usually unbalanced. Joint pain occur when excessive load on it, amplified by the
end of the day. At rest, there is no pain. In the first stage of the disease joint appearance
unchanged. With the progression of the disease and the development of synovitis (inflammation of the
synovial membrane of the joint) pain becomes constant, the joint may be swollen, hot and painful on
palpation. During the deformation of the joint disease develops. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis (see below)
there is no morning stiffness, but after a lengthy stay at rest may be some stiffness in the
joints. Symptoms of osteoarthritis increases with the evening, and in rheumatoid arthritis symptoms
maximum - in the morning. With long this disease develops some restriction in the mobility of the joint, it
may cause a crunch when passive movements.
Another disease in which the joint disease, is rheumatoid arthritis - a chronic, systemic immuno-
inflammatory disease of connective tissue, which develops erosive and destructive polyarthritis with
defeat mainly the small joints of hands and feet.The etiology is unknown. In the early stages of the
disease develops a symmetrical polyarthritis of small joints of the specified location. Much later and not in
all cases the process involved large joints. Least likely to be affected hip and shoulder joints, and
sometimes - Temporomandibular Atlanto-axial joint. Joint pain expressed, aching, constant, more
pronounced at night and in the morning, aggravated by active and passive movements during the day
can weaken.Externally marked swelling of the joints may limit mobility in the joint due to pain. The
characteristic feature of rheumatoid arthritis is morning stiffness in the whole body or only in the affected
joints. This state lasts for at least an hour and goes after active movements. With further progression of
the disease joins muscle atrophy adjacent to the affected joint. The disease is characterized by a steady
progression and development of seasonal exacerbations, which are likely to rises in temperature, an
increase of inflammatory changes and pain in the affected joints, involvement in the process of new
joints.In the course of diseases of the joints deformed and develop persistent contracture, a significant
limitation of mobility. The most characteristic is the deformation of the brush in the image of a walrus
flippers. Perhaps the formation of instability in the joints and subluxations.
Among metabolic diseases, leading to the defeat of the joints, gout is the most important. Disease is
much more common in men over 40 than any other age-sex groups. This disease is characterized by
impaired uric acid metabolism, which in the form of microcrystals monourata sodium accumulates in the
joint cavity. During disease krizovoe, exacerbation is called "Gouty attack" and due to the formation in
the joint cavity monourata new crystals. Gouty attack usually occurs at night, on the eve of perhaps
eating meat, stress, trauma, alcohol abuse. Typically, the disease begins with acute arthritis first
metatarsophalangeal joint. Within hours of developing severe joint swelling, redness, skin is glossy, hot
to the touch, hard.Appears searing agony. Develops a fever and worsening health. Duration of attack
from several hours to several days. Attack subsided more rapidly when taking NSAIDs. Over the years,
the frequency of attacks may increase in the pathological process involved new joints. Prolonged and
severe course of the disease is characterized by the generalization of arthritic changes in the spread of
the spine, sterno-clavicular joint, tendon. Pain gradually become permanent, having contractions,
deformed joints. Change of hand joints may resemble changes in rheumatoid arthritis. Distinguishing
these diseases carried by clinical features.
considered diseases are the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system. With this information
about them, you can self-diagnose themselves with a particular disorder. But you should always keep in
mind that in some cases, the clinical picture is not typical for an accurate diagnosis to treatment to the

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