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                          January | February 2013

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
                                   EXPERT	T●PIC

                                                                                                             EXPERT TOPIC

                                   ARCTIC CHAR
                                                                 Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look
Image courtesy of ©Oddmund Goete

                                                                          at a particular species and how its feed is managed.

                                                  50 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
                                                                                                                                             EXPERT	T●PIC

                          2                                             1 3

1                                                       of	 the	 Arctic	 char	 produced	 in	 Iceland	 is	      optimal	 growth	 temperature.	 Larger	 opera-
                                                        exported	to	Europe	and	North	America.	                 tions	use	high-quality	brackish	water	pumped	

                                                            Today,	 Iceland	 is	 the	 world’s	 largest	 pro-   directly	 from	 onsite	 drill	 holes.	 This	 method	
            rctic	 char	 (Salvelinus alpinus)	 is	      ducer	 of	 Arctic	 char	 with	 more	 than	 50	         has	the	advantage	of	natural	filtering	the	water	
            the	 most	 common	 and	 wide-               percent	of	the	total	population.                       through	layers	of	lava.
            spread	 salmonid	 fish	 in	 Iceland.	           There	 are	 around	 15	 land-based	 Arctic	           More information:
            Aquaculture	of	the	species	began	           char	 farms	 in	 Iceland	 and	 one	 sea	 cage	 farm	
in	the	early	1900s	with	attempts	to	fertilise	          in	the	lagoon	Lon	in	Kelduhverfi	on	the	north-
and	hatch	eggs.	However,	the	first	endeavor	            east	coast.
to	 feed	 Arctic	 char	 did	 not	 come	 until	              Production	 is	 mainly	 in	 land-based	 farms	
1961	 with	 the	 development	 of	 small-scale	          using	ground	water,	with	small-
growing	 facilities.	 In	 the	 1980s,	 researchers	     er	 farms	 using	 geo-
discovered	 that	 low	 optimum	 temperature	            thermal	 water	
requirements,	 made	 Arctic	 char	 a	 suitable	         to	     reach	
candidate	for	farming	in	Iceland’s	cold	waters.	

    The	 number	 of	 farms	 increased	 in	 the	
1990s	 thanks,	 in	 part,	 to	 a	 government	
backed	breeding	programme	initiated	in	1992.	
However,	 the	 operation	 was	 not	 profitable	
and	 several	 of	 the	 country’s	 40	 farms	 went	
out	of	business.	
    The	 country	 produced	 500	 tonnes	 of	
Arctic	 char	 in	 1995	 which	 had	 risen	 to	
3,000	 tonnes	 in	 2009.	 Production	 decreased	
between	 2004-2006	 due	 to	 bacterial	 kidney	
disease	 and	 the	 prohibition	 of	 distribution	 of	
eggs	and	juveniles	from	some	hatcheries.
    In	2008,	the	country	exported	700	tonnes	
of	 whole	 fresh	 Arctic	 char,	 20	 tonnes	 of	
frozen	char,	approx.	600	tonnes	of	fresh	fillets	
and	 about	 500	 tonnes	 of	 frozen	 fillets.	 The	
export	 value	 amounted	 to	 ISK	 1,200	 million	
in	 2008.	 The	 export	 value	 of	 the	 species	
amounted	to	ISL	1,100	million	in	2008.	Most	

                                                   January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 51
              in	experimental	feeds.	                                              The	 effect	 of	 SDP	 in	 salmon	 was	 evalu-             tions,	salmon	fed	SDP6	had	the	most	homo-

                                                                                                                                                                              Aqua News

                  Offshore mariculture industry
                                        ingredients for
                                        aqua feed
                  looks to high seas opportunities
                                                                                                                      • Pro-Bind Plus a nutritional, gelatin

                                                                                                                        based pellet binder, especially for
                             he	 offshore	 aquaculture	 to	 encourage	 these	 develop-                             ulture	 and	 offshore	 energy	 projects	 advances	 in	 net	 pens	 and	 service	
                             industr y	 has	 requested	 ments.”                                                          pelleted (shrimp) feed.
                                                                                                                   such	as	wind	farms,	and	the	prospects	 vessels	 for	 exposed	 Norwegian	
                             that	 United	 Nations’	 FAO	              The	 conference	 heard	 keynote	            and	 need	 for	 macroalgae	protein a fish salmon	 farm	 sites	 were	 presented	
                                                                                                                       • Hydrolyzed feather culture	 in	 meal alter-
                                                                                                                                                                                  by nature
                   conduct	 an	 assessment	 of	 the	 presentations	 from	 Alessandro	                              offshore	locations.	 for carnivorous fishby	 Finn	Willumsen	 of	AquaCulture	
                                                                                                                         native, especially                       species.
                   access	 and	 operational	 frame- Lovatelli,	 FAO	Aquaculture	 Officer;	                           On	the	second	day	of	the	con- Engineering	AS,	 and	Mats	Heide	of	
                                                                                                                       • Muco-Pro® high contents of natural proteins,
                   works	 for	 open	 ocean	 maricul- Paul	 Holthus	 of	 World	 Ocean	                              ference,	 a	 number	 of	 presen- SINTEF	 Fisheries	 and	Aquaculture,	
                   ture	 in	 the	 High	 Seas,	 and	 make	 Council;	 and	Harald	Rosenthal	who	                            amino acids and peptides.
                                                                                                                   tations	 highlighted	 engineering	 respectively.	
                   recommendations	 as	 to	 how	 to	 had	 Chaired	 the	 Bremerhaven	                                                                               On	
                                                                                                                   improvements	to	offshore	net	pen	 binder. the	 final	 day,	 conference	
                                                                                                                       • Gelko a spraydried attractant and
                   better	 encourage	 work	 towards	 Conference.	 Each	 spoke	 of	 the	                            systems,	 including	 dramatic	 video	 attendees	were	give	a	first-hand	look	
                                                                                                                       • Blood meal and Hemoglobin Powder high protein content
                   mariculture	in	waters	beyond	any	 opportunity	and	the	imperative	for	                           footage	of	sharks	trying	in	vain	to	 at	 the	 booming	Turkish	 aquaculture	
ean	pH	         In	 the	 next	 30	 years	statement	 permanent	 move	 to	 the	 US	 to	
                   one	 nation’s	 EEZs.	A	 Allison	                  aquaculture’s	rights	and	responsibil-               and good digestibility, for better feed
                                                                                                                   break	through	Dyneema’s	Pred-X,	 conversion. they	 were	 hosted	 on	 a	
                                                                                                                                                                 industry,	 as	
missions	     p r e d ithis		effect	 was	 drafted	e e d	 take	 up	 a	 professorship	 at	 the	 	
                   to	 c t s t r e m e n d o u s 	 f at	The	 ities	 to	 be	 better	 defined	 in	ABNJ.              and	 AKVA’s	 Econet	 /	 Kikkonet,	 tour	of	fish	processing	facilities;	a	boat	
shellfish	    advances	 including	 “designer	 	 Univer sity	 of	 Washington	 in	
                   Offshore	Mariculture	Conference, Mr	 Holthus	 described	 how	 many	                             along	 with	 data	 demonstrating	 trip	 out	 to	 exposed	 farm	 sites	 for	
 n,	 USA.	    feeds	 that	Izmir,	Turkey,	 over	 three	 September	2013.
                   held	 in	 will	 add	 the	 desired	                international	conventions	and	agree-          the	antifouling	properties	of	brass	 seabass,	 seabream	 and	 tuna;	 and	 a	
 armers,	                                                            ments	 h a n g e ,	b e 	i t 	per sonal,	
                   days	 from	 October	 17-19,	 2012	 W i t h	c regarding	ABNJ	 are	 either	
              nutrients	 for	 the	 people	 who	                                                                    alloy	meshes	                                 walk-through	of	marine	fish	hatchery	
and	 the	          and	 the	 Turkish	 government	 o f e s s i o n a l ,	 s 	or	are	under	dis-
              need	 them,	 similar	 to	 what	 p ralready	established,o c i a l ,	 e n v i -                              Visit also	 included	 reviews	 of	 facilities	in	the	Izmir	area.
                                                                                                                     The	 day	our booth (Y21)
                                                                      n m e n a l ,	 l o c a l 	 real	 consider-
              is	 offered	 to	 formally	 convey	 the	 r ocussion,	twithout	 any	o r 	 g l o b a l	
                   already	 happening	 in	 the	                                                                    new	 developments	 in	 single-point	
                                                                                                                         at the Aquatic during                     The	dates	and	venue	for	the	2014	
 ions	 of	    poultr y	industr y”.	
                   request	to	FAO.                                    m ly 	 of	 	 t h potential	 a,	 aquacul-
                                                                 fi ration	 o n the	e 	 a g e n d for	this 	 is	   mooring	systems	for	self-submerging	 Offshore	 Mariculture	 Conference	
                                                                                                                         the VIV Asia in Bangkok
 or	 the	              a d d i t i o n 	 t o d i s c u s i n the	 e 	 p e n a r y 	 s p e a ker	 who 	 is	
                I n 	 The	 statement		adopted	sat	 g	 o nture,	 land	with	minimal	consultation	                    surface	pens	and	for	shrimp	culture	 will	be	released	shortly.
e	 tech-      changes	 in	 the	 aquaculture,	 the	 n o t 	 a f r a i d 	 t o 	 s h a k e 	 t h i n g s	                  March 13-15
                   conclusion	of	the	conference	drew	 with	industry.	                                              in	Aquapods,	 tension	leg	cages	and	
climate	      show	 marks	 a	 personal	 change	 u p. The	 conference	 was	 officially	
                   from	a	number	of	preceding	decla-                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                   testing	of	more	robust	surface	pens	 More InforMatIon:
  ting	 to	   for	 Allison	 who	 will	 make	 a	
                   rations	–	including	the	2010	Global	 opened	 by	 Dr	 Durali	 Kocak,	 the
                                                                                                       and	unanchored	‘drifter	cages’.	New	          
mate	             Conference	 on	 Aquaculture,	 the	          Director-General	 of	 Fisheries	
have	                                                               January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 19
                  Phuket	Consensus	of	2010,	and	the	          and	Aquaculture	at	the	Turkish	
                  Colombo	Declaration	of	2011,	all	of	        Ministry	 of	 Food,	 Agriculture	
 ison	            which	 have	 emphasised	 the	 critical	     and	 Livestock,	 who	 described	
rsing	            role	 for	 aquaculture	 in	 feeding	 the	   how	 the	Turkish	 government	
	 the	            world,	 stimulating	 economic	 devel-       had	 prioritised	 aquaculture	
  the	            opment,	 providing	 employment	             development.	The	 industry	 in	
 ries,	           and	 reducing	 existing	 negative	          Turkey	 is	 expanding	 at	 a	 phe-
e	 in	            impacts	on	the	marine	environment.	         nomenal	rate,	as	it	indeed	must,	
ova-              Most	 recently,	 the	 Bremerhaven	          to	 meet	 the	 growing	 demand,	
 ems	             Declaration	 of	 2012	 spoke	 spe-          but	 care	 is	 being	 taken	 to	
 eds,	            cifically	 of	 the	 need	 for	 increased	   ensure	 that	 such	 growth	 is	
mate	             research,	 development,	 investment	        within	the	sea’s	ecological	limits,	
onal	             and	 policy	 frameworks	 for	 open	         he	said.
                  ocean	aquaculture.                            O t h e r 	 p r e s e n t a t i o n s	
 gest	                                                        explored	 a	 range	 of	 planning	
  the	            Deeper, and further offshore and	management	tools	that	are	
 y	 of	             	“There	is	growing	interest	from	 being	set	up	around	the	world	                 	
ents	             the	private	sector	in	exploring	the	 to	 better	 integrate	 aquacul-
 s	 as	
                           October 6-10, 2013
                  potential	for	aquaculture	in	waters	 ture	 into	 coastal	 planning	 initi-
                              The tenth deeper,	 and	 atives.	 New	 species	
                  that	 are	 increasingly	of the highly successful series of develop-
 	lots	           further	 offshore”	 says	 conference	 ment,	 provision	 of	 seed	 (fish	
                             symposia that have brought together tilapia
 vate	                         Neil	Anthony	 Sims,	 of	 fingerlings	 or	 bivalve	 spat)	
                  chairman,	biologists, culturists and other stakeholders
ke	 it	           Kampachi	Farms,	 LLC.	“Given	that	 and	 feed	 developments	 for	
                              who review the latest discoveries in tilapia
 ould	                        nutrition, physiology, reproductive biology,
                  many	 nations	 –	 such	 as	 those	 in	 offshore	mariculture	were	also	
 ner-                      genetics, ecology, improvements in production
                  the	 Mediterranean	 –	 still	 only	 reviewed.
  and	                     systems, and other fields
                  exert	 national	 authority	 as	 far	 as	 related to tilapia and of	 the	
                                                                Michael	 Ebeling,	
eeds	                                   their use in aquaculture.
                  12	 miles	 offshore,	 then	 there	 is	 Wegner	 Institute	 in	 Germany,	
ment	             a	 looming	 question	 about	 what	 and	 Dr	 Amir	 Neori	 of	 the	
  vel-            happens	 in	 the	 ‘Areas	 Beyond	 Israeli	 Oceanographic	 Institute	
a	 bit	           National	 Jurisdiction’	 (ABNJ).	 We	 (together	with	Gamze	Turan	of	
                  need	 to	 start	 to	 address	 this	 in	 Ege	 University)	 spoke	 on	 the	
                  anticipation	 of,	 and	 in	 order	 potential	 to	 co-locate	 aquac-

                                                                           January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 7
                                                                                                                                                                                         January-February 2013 |
                                    EXPERT	T●PIC

Images courtesy of ©Oddmund Goete



                                                                                                                                          Sweden &
                                                 rctic	char	are	raised	on	a	commercial	scale	in	the	Yukon	Territory,	 Manitoba,	
                                                 Ontario,	Quebec,	Nova	Scotia,	and	Prince	Edward	Island,	Canada.

                                                      Research	into	the	suitability	of	Arctic	char	as	a	farmed	species	began	in	          Iceland

                                                   Canada	in	the	late	1970	with	the	Fisheries	and	Oceans	Canada's	Freshwater	
                                     Institute	and	the	Huntsman	Marine	Science	Laboratory,	leading	the	way.	In	addition	to	                          he	 cold	 waters	 of	 the	 rural	
                                     their	low	optimum	temperature	requirements,	it	was	expected	that	Arctic	char	could	be	                          Northern	 periphery	 are	 well	
                                     an	alternate	species	to	Rainbow	Trout.                                                                          suited	 to	 Arctic	 char	 aquaculture.	
                                         Farming	of	Arctic	char	in	Canada	has	emerged	beyond	the	development	stage	but	                              Although	 annual	 production	 is	
                                     production	remains	small.	Farmers	have	difficulty	selecting	char	that	consistently	perform	          small,	at	around	5,000	tonnes,	interest	in	the	
                                     well	because	of	its	complex	genetic	makeup.	                                                         species	is	increasing.	
                                         Arctic	char	are	fed	nutrient-dense,	dry	pellets	with	fishmeal	and	fish	oil	making	up	the	
                                     majority	of	the	feed.	Carotenoids	are	also	added	to	feeds	to	help	achieve	the	distinctive	               Prof	Eva	Brännäs,	professor	at	the	Swedish	
                                     red-pink	flesh.	                                                                                     University	 of	 Agricultural	 Sciences,	 Sweden,	
                                         The	fish	are	raised	in	land-based	systems.	Eggs	are	hatched	within	specialised	hatchery	         explains	why,	“it	is	a	very	popular	species	for	
                                     facilities,	where	the	fish	remain	until	they	reach	approximately	100	grams.	Although	they	           restaurants	and	consumers	with	a	higher	value	
                                     take	 almost	 a	 year	 to	 reach	 100	 grams,	 Arctic	 char	 grow	 quickly	 during	 the	 grow-out	   than	salmon	and	rainbow	trout.	It	has	a	more	
                                     phase,	reaching	market	weight	of	1-2.5	kg	in	the	next	year.	                                         ‘arctic	and	clean’	touch”.
                                                                                  More information:             Funded	 by	 the	 European	 Regional	
                                                                                                           Development	 Fund	 within	 the	 Northern	
                                                                                                                                          Periphery	       Programme,	        Sustainable	
                                                                                                                                          Aquaculture	 of	 Arctic	 char	 (Northcharr)	 is	 a	
                                                                                                                                          collaboration	 between	 partners	 in	 Norway,	
                                                                                                                                          Sweden	 and	 Iceland.	 Started	 in	 2007,	 the	

                                                                                  52 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
                                                                                                                                         EXPERT	T●PIC

project	 aimed	 to	 explore	 the	 development	              "The cold waters of the rural Northern periphery are well suited
of	 Arctic	 char	 aquaculture	 in	 the	 northern	
periphery	of	Europe.	                                      to Arctic char aquaculture. Although annual production is small,
    Prof	Brännäs	says,	“the	programme	focused	
on	collecting	general	information	about	Arctic	                  at around 5,000 tonnes, interest in the species is increasing"
char	in	all	of	Europe	-	both	wild	and	farmed	
char.	Northcharr	 focused	on	 possibilities	and	
limitations	of	the	growing	Arctic	char	farming.”      according	 to	 country	 and	 technology.	 This	      product	 is	 an	 example	 of	 the	 ‘Robin	 Hood’	
    Participants	 in	 the	 project	 were	 mainly	     information	 will	 be	 used	 to	 coordinate	 R&D	    model	where	nutrients	are	taken	from	a	‘rich’	
researchers	 and	 stakeholders	 in	 established	      efforts	and	form	the	basis	for	establishing	‘best	   area,	in	this	case	the	Baltic	Sea,	and	used	in	a	
Arctic	char	projects	and	have	taken	part	in	a	        practice’	protocols	for	the	species.                 ‘poor’	area,	in	this	case	Swedish	lakes.	Results	
pan-European	network	on	Arctic	char.                      Researchers	 highlighted	 five	 main	 produc-    from	 these	 small-scale	 tests	 found	 that	 this	
    Northcharr	 took	 a	 holistic	 approach	 to	      tion	issues:	egg	survival	and	broodstock,	feed	      feeding	 methods	 works	 as	 well	 as	 control	
provide	stakeholders	in	the	Northern	periph-          composition,	 feed	 delivery,	 environmental	        diets.
ery	 with	 tools	 to	 improve	 the	 development	      impact	 and	 water	 treatment.	 Each	 problem	           Prof	 Brännäs	 points	 out	 that	 the	 study	
of	 Arctic	 char	 production.	 There	 was	 an	        was	addressed	individually	and	solutions	were	       backs	 up	 the	 idea	 that	 the	 use	 and	 reuse	
emphasis	on	using	sustainable	feed	ingredients	       drawn	 from	 previous	 research	 into	 brood-        of	 protein	 sources	 and	 nutrients	 has	 a	 posi-
and	 developing	 welfare	 criteria	 for	 farming	     stock	 handling,	 feeding	 practice,	 optimised	     tive	 impact	 on	 ecological	 footprint,	 restores	
and	slaughter.                                        temperature	 regimes,	 slaughtering	 and	 envi-      balance	 in	 aquatic	 ecosystem	 and	 flow	 of	
    The	 project	 had	 three	 key	 aims:	 to	 iden-   ronmental	 impact.	 For	 example,	 to	 tackle	       nutrients	 that	 can	 compete	 with	 present	
tify	 production	 potential	 and	 bottlenecks;	       feed	 composition,	 a	 test-feeding	 schedule	       commercial	diets	in	growth	performance	and	
develop	 solutions	 to	 potential	 problems	 and	     for	typical	farming	conditions	was	performed	        price.	
to	provide	the	structure	to	enable	growth	and	        using	different	diets.	                                  In	terms	of	future	development,	organisers	
development.	                                             The	 researchers	 tested	 a	 ‘Baltic	 loop’.	    will	create	a	network	of	investors,	representa-
    The	 production	 potential	 stage	 involved	      Nutrients	were	collected	from	the	eutrophic	         tives	 of	 local	 communities	 and	 aquaculture	
gathering	 annual	 information	 on	 production,	      Baltic	Sea	through	mussels,	sprat	and	yeasts	or	     experts.	It	is	hoped	this	pool	of	shared	knowl-
production	 technology,	 fish	 stocks,	 health	       other	microorganisms,	made	into	feed	and	fed	        edge	 will	 contribute	 to	 the	 establishment	 of	
status,	 legislation,	 production	 strategies	 and	   to	Arctic	char	farmed	in	the	nutrient	depleted	      new	companies.	
staff	qualifications.	Bottlenecks	were	classified	    water	 reservoirs	 in	 northern	 Sweden.	 This	          More information:

                                                  January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 53
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