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Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
I N C O R P O R AT I N G f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y January | February 2013 EXPERT TOPIC - ARCTIC CHAR International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry EXPERT T●PIC EXPERT TOPIC ARCTIC CHAR Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look Image courtesy of ©Oddmund Goete at a particular species and how its feed is managed. 50 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013 EXPERT T●PIC 2 1 3 Iceland 1 of the Arctic char produced in Iceland is optimal growth temperature. Larger opera- exported to Europe and North America. tions use high-quality brackish water pumped A Today, Iceland is the world’s largest pro- directly from onsite drill holes. This method rctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) is ducer of Arctic char with more than 50 has the advantage of natural filtering the water the most common and wide- percent of the total population. through layers of lava. spread salmonid fish in Iceland. There are around 15 land-based Arctic More information: http://lf.is/english.htm Aquaculture of the species began char farms in Iceland and one sea cage farm in the early 1900s with attempts to fertilise in the lagoon Lon in Kelduhverfi on the north- and hatch eggs. However, the first endeavor east coast. to feed Arctic char did not come until Production is mainly in land-based farms 1961 with the development of small-scale using ground water, with small- growing facilities. In the 1980s, researchers er farms using geo- discovered that low optimum temperature thermal water requirements, made Arctic char a suitable to reach candidate for farming in Iceland’s cold waters. The number of farms increased in the 1990s thanks, in part, to a government backed breeding programme initiated in 1992. However, the operation was not profitable and several of the country’s 40 farms went out of business. The country produced 500 tonnes of Arctic char in 1995 which had risen to 3,000 tonnes in 2009. Production decreased between 2004-2006 due to bacterial kidney disease and the prohibition of distribution of eggs and juveniles from some hatcheries. In 2008, the country exported 700 tonnes of whole fresh Arctic char, 20 tonnes of frozen char, approx. 600 tonnes of fresh fillets and about 500 tonnes of frozen fillets. The export value amounted to ISK 1,200 million in 2008. The export value of the species amounted to ISL 1,100 million in 2008. Most January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 51 in experimental feeds. The effect of SDP in salmon was evalu- tions, salmon fed SDP6 had the most homo- Aqua News Natural Offshore mariculture industry ingredients for aqua feed looks to high seas opportunities • Pro-Bind Plus a nutritional, gelatin T based pellet binder, especially for he offshore aquaculture to encourage these develop- ulture and offshore energy projects advances in net pens and service industr y has requested ments.” pelleted (shrimp) feed. such as wind farms, and the prospects vessels for exposed Norwegian Improvement that United Nations’ FAO The conference heard keynote and need for macroalgae protein a ﬁsh salmon farm sites were presented • Hydrolyzed feather culture in meal alter- by nature conduct an assessment of the presentations from Alessandro offshore locations. for carnivorous ﬁshby Finn Willumsen of AquaCulture native, especially species. access and operational frame- Lovatelli, FAO Aquaculture Officer; On the second day of the con- Engineering AS, and Mats Heide of • Muco-Pro® high contents of natural proteins, works for open ocean maricul- Paul Holthus of World Ocean ference, a number of presen- SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, ture in the High Seas, and make Council; and Harald Rosenthal who amino acids and peptides. tations highlighted engineering respectively. recommendations as to how to had Chaired the Bremerhaven On improvements to offshore net pen binder. the final day, conference • Gelko a spraydried attractant and better encourage work towards Conference. Each spoke of the systems, including dramatic video attendees were give a first-hand look • Blood meal and Hemoglobin Powder high protein content mariculture in waters beyond any opportunity and the imperative for footage of sharks trying in vain to at the booming Turkish aquaculture ean pH In the next 30 years statement permanent move to the US to one nation’s EEZs. A Allison aquaculture’s rights and responsibil- and good digestibility, for better feed break through Dyneema’s Pred-X, conversion. they were hosted on a industry, as missions p r e d ithis effect was drafted e e d take up a professorship at the to c t s t r e m e n d o u s f at The ities to be better defined in ABNJ. and AKVA’s Econet / Kikkonet, tour of fish processing facilities; a boat shellfish advances including “designer Univer sity of Washington in Offshore Mariculture Conference, Mr Holthus described how many along with data demonstrating trip out to exposed farm sites for n, USA. feeds that Izmir, Turkey, over three September 2013. held in will add the desired international conventions and agree- the antifouling properties of brass seabass, seabream and tuna; and a armers, ments h a n g e , b e i t per sonal, days from October 17-19, 2012 W i t h c regarding ABNJ are either nutrients for the people who alloy meshes walk-through of marine fish hatchery and the and the Turkish government o f e s s i o n a l , s or are under dis- need them, similar to what p ralready established,o c i a l , e n v i - Visit also included reviews of facilities in the Izmir area. The day our booth (Y21) n m e n a l , l o c a l real consider- is offered to formally convey the r ocussion, twithout any o r g l o b a l already happening in the new developments in single-point at the Aquatic during The dates and venue for the 2014 ions of poultr y industr y”. request to FAO. m ly of t h potential a, aquacul- fi ration o n the e a g e n d for this is mooring systems for self-submerging Offshore Mariculture Conference the VIV Asia in Bangkok or the a d d i t i o n t o d i s c u s i n the e p e n a r y s p e a ker who is I n The statement adopted sat g o nture, land with minimal consultation surface pens and for shrimp culture will be released shortly. e tech- changes in the aquaculture, the n o t a f r a i d t o s h a k e t h i n g s March 13-15 conclusion of the conference drew with industry. in Aquapods, tension leg cages and climate show marks a personal change u p. The conference was officially from a number of preceding decla- email@example.com testing of more robust surface pens More InforMatIon: ting to for Allison who will make a rations – including the 2010 Global opened by Dr Durali Kocak, the www.was.org and unanchored ‘drifter cages’. New www.offshoremariculture.com mate Conference on Aquaculture, the Director-General of Fisheries have January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 19 Phuket Consensus of 2010, and the and Aquaculture at the Turkish Colombo Declaration of 2011, all of Ministry of Food, Agriculture ison which have emphasised the critical and Livestock, who described rsing role for aquaculture in feeding the how the Turkish government the world, stimulating economic devel- had prioritised aquaculture the opment, providing employment development. The industry in ries, and reducing existing negative Turkey is expanding at a phe- e in impacts on the marine environment. nomenal rate, as it indeed must, ova- Most recently, the Bremerhaven to meet the growing demand, ems Declaration of 2012 spoke spe- but care is being taken to eds, cifically of the need for increased ensure that such growth is mate research, development, investment within the sea’s ecological limits, onal and policy frameworks for open he said. ocean aquaculture. O t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n s gest explored a range of planning the Deeper, and further offshore and management tools that are y of “There is growing interest from being set up around the world ents the private sector in exploring the to better integrate aquacul- pin- s as October 6-10, 2013 potential for aquaculture in waters ture into coastal planning initi- The tenth deeper, and atives. New species that are increasingly of the highly successful series of develop- lots further offshore” says conference ment, provision of seed (fish symposia that have brought together tilapia vate Neil Anthony Sims, of fingerlings or bivalve spat) chairman, biologists, culturists and other stakeholders ke it Kampachi Farms, LLC. “Given that and feed developments for who review the latest discoveries in tilapia ould nutrition, physiology, reproductive biology, many nations – such as those in offshore mariculture were also ner- genetics, ecology, improvements in production the Mediterranean – still only reviewed. and systems, and other ﬁelds exert national authority as far as related to tilapia and of the Michael Ebeling, eeds their use in aquaculture. 12 miles offshore, then there is Wegner Institute in Germany, ment a looming question about what and Dr Amir Neori of the vel- happens in the ‘Areas Beyond Israeli Oceanographic Institute a bit National Jurisdiction’ (ABNJ). We (together with Gamze Turan of em- http://bit.ly/TXqY9J need to start to address this in Ege University) spoke on the anticipation of, and in order potential to co-locate aquac- January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 7 January-February 2013 | EXPERT T●PIC Images courtesy of ©Oddmund Goete Norway, 3 Canada 2 Sweden & A rctic char are raised on a commercial scale in the Yukon Territory, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, Canada. Research into the suitability of Arctic char as a farmed species began in Iceland T Canada in the late 1970 with the Fisheries and Oceans Canada's Freshwater Institute and the Huntsman Marine Science Laboratory, leading the way. In addition to he cold waters of the rural their low optimum temperature requirements, it was expected that Arctic char could be Northern periphery are well an alternate species to Rainbow Trout. suited to Arctic char aquaculture. Farming of Arctic char in Canada has emerged beyond the development stage but Although annual production is production remains small. Farmers have difficulty selecting char that consistently perform small, at around 5,000 tonnes, interest in the well because of its complex genetic makeup. species is increasing. Arctic char are fed nutrient-dense, dry pellets with fishmeal and fish oil making up the majority of the feed. Carotenoids are also added to feeds to help achieve the distinctive Prof Eva Brännäs, professor at the Swedish red-pink flesh. University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, The fish are raised in land-based systems. Eggs are hatched within specialised hatchery explains why, “it is a very popular species for facilities, where the fish remain until they reach approximately 100 grams. Although they restaurants and consumers with a higher value take almost a year to reach 100 grams, Arctic char grow quickly during the grow-out than salmon and rainbow trout. It has a more phase, reaching market weight of 1-2.5 kg in the next year. ‘arctic and clean’ touch”. More information: www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/aquaculture Funded by the European Regional http://aquaculture.ca Development Fund within the Northern Periphery Programme, Sustainable Aquaculture of Arctic char (Northcharr) is a collaboration between partners in Norway, Sweden and Iceland. Started in 2007, the 52 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013 EXPERT T●PIC project aimed to explore the development "The cold waters of the rural Northern periphery are well suited of Arctic char aquaculture in the northern periphery of Europe. to Arctic char aquaculture. Although annual production is small, Prof Brännäs says, “the programme focused on collecting general information about Arctic at around 5,000 tonnes, interest in the species is increasing" char in all of Europe - both wild and farmed char. Northcharr focused on possibilities and limitations of the growing Arctic char farming.” according to country and technology. This product is an example of the ‘Robin Hood’ Participants in the project were mainly information will be used to coordinate R&D model where nutrients are taken from a ‘rich’ researchers and stakeholders in established efforts and form the basis for establishing ‘best area, in this case the Baltic Sea, and used in a Arctic char projects and have taken part in a practice’ protocols for the species. ‘poor’ area, in this case Swedish lakes. Results pan-European network on Arctic char. Researchers highlighted five main produc- from these small-scale tests found that this Northcharr took a holistic approach to tion issues: egg survival and broodstock, feed feeding methods works as well as control provide stakeholders in the Northern periph- composition, feed delivery, environmental diets. ery with tools to improve the development impact and water treatment. Each problem Prof Brännäs points out that the study of Arctic char production. There was an was addressed individually and solutions were backs up the idea that the use and reuse emphasis on using sustainable feed ingredients drawn from previous research into brood- of protein sources and nutrients has a posi- and developing welfare criteria for farming stock handling, feeding practice, optimised tive impact on ecological footprint, restores and slaughter. temperature regimes, slaughtering and envi- balance in aquatic ecosystem and flow of The project had three key aims: to iden- ronmental impact. For example, to tackle nutrients that can compete with present tify production potential and bottlenecks; feed composition, a test-feeding schedule commercial diets in growth performance and develop solutions to potential problems and for typical farming conditions was performed price. to provide the structure to enable growth and using different diets. In terms of future development, organisers development. The researchers tested a ‘Baltic loop’. will create a network of investors, representa- The production potential stage involved Nutrients were collected from the eutrophic tives of local communities and aquaculture gathering annual information on production, Baltic Sea through mussels, sprat and yeasts or experts. It is hoped this pool of shared knowl- production technology, fish stocks, health other microorganisms, made into feed and fed edge will contribute to the establishment of status, legislation, production strategies and to Arctic char farmed in the nutrient depleted new companies. staff qualifications. Bottlenecks were classified water reservoirs in northern Sweden. This More information: www.northcharr.eu January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 53 Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed production systems are used by leading companies around the world. 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