I N C O R P O R AT I N G
f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y
January | February 2013
EXPERT TOPIC - ARCTIC CHAR
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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look
Image courtesy of ©Oddmund Goete
at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
50 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
2 1 3
1 of the Arctic char produced in Iceland is optimal growth temperature. Larger opera-
exported to Europe and North America. tions use high-quality brackish water pumped
Today, Iceland is the world’s largest pro- directly from onsite drill holes. This method
rctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) is ducer of Arctic char with more than 50 has the advantage of natural filtering the water
the most common and wide- percent of the total population. through layers of lava.
spread salmonid fish in Iceland. There are around 15 land-based Arctic More information: http://lf.is/english.htm
Aquaculture of the species began char farms in Iceland and one sea cage farm
in the early 1900s with attempts to fertilise in the lagoon Lon in Kelduhverfi on the north-
and hatch eggs. However, the first endeavor east coast.
to feed Arctic char did not come until Production is mainly in land-based farms
1961 with the development of small-scale using ground water, with small-
growing facilities. In the 1980s, researchers er farms using geo-
discovered that low optimum temperature thermal water
requirements, made Arctic char a suitable to reach
candidate for farming in Iceland’s cold waters.
The number of farms increased in the
1990s thanks, in part, to a government
backed breeding programme initiated in 1992.
However, the operation was not profitable
and several of the country’s 40 farms went
out of business.
The country produced 500 tonnes of
Arctic char in 1995 which had risen to
3,000 tonnes in 2009. Production decreased
between 2004-2006 due to bacterial kidney
disease and the prohibition of distribution of
eggs and juveniles from some hatcheries.
In 2008, the country exported 700 tonnes
of whole fresh Arctic char, 20 tonnes of
frozen char, approx. 600 tonnes of fresh fillets
and about 500 tonnes of frozen fillets. The
export value amounted to ISK 1,200 million
in 2008. The export value of the species
amounted to ISL 1,100 million in 2008. Most
January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 51
in experimental feeds. The effect of SDP in salmon was evalu- tions, salmon fed SDP6 had the most homo-
Offshore mariculture industry
looks to high seas opportunities
• Pro-Bind Plus a nutritional, gelatin
based pellet binder, especially for
he offshore aquaculture to encourage these develop- ulture and offshore energy projects advances in net pens and service
industr y has requested ments.” pelleted (shrimp) feed.
such as wind farms, and the prospects vessels for exposed Norwegian
that United Nations’ FAO The conference heard keynote and need for macroalgae protein a ﬁsh salmon farm sites were presented
• Hydrolyzed feather culture in meal alter-
conduct an assessment of the presentations from Alessandro offshore locations. for carnivorous ﬁshby Finn Willumsen of AquaCulture
native, especially species.
access and operational frame- Lovatelli, FAO Aquaculture Officer; On the second day of the con- Engineering AS, and Mats Heide of
• Muco-Pro® high contents of natural proteins,
works for open ocean maricul- Paul Holthus of World Ocean ference, a number of presen- SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture,
ture in the High Seas, and make Council; and Harald Rosenthal who amino acids and peptides.
tations highlighted engineering respectively.
recommendations as to how to had Chaired the Bremerhaven On
improvements to offshore net pen binder. the final day, conference
• Gelko a spraydried attractant and
better encourage work towards Conference. Each spoke of the systems, including dramatic video attendees were give a first-hand look
• Blood meal and Hemoglobin Powder high protein content
mariculture in waters beyond any opportunity and the imperative for footage of sharks trying in vain to at the booming Turkish aquaculture
ean pH In the next 30 years statement permanent move to the US to
one nation’s EEZs. A Allison aquaculture’s rights and responsibil- and good digestibility, for better feed
break through Dyneema’s Pred-X, conversion. they were hosted on a
missions p r e d ithis effect was drafted e e d take up a professorship at the
to c t s t r e m e n d o u s f at The ities to be better defined in ABNJ. and AKVA’s Econet / Kikkonet, tour of fish processing facilities; a boat
shellfish advances including “designer Univer sity of Washington in
Offshore Mariculture Conference, Mr Holthus described how many along with data demonstrating trip out to exposed farm sites for
n, USA. feeds that Izmir, Turkey, over three September 2013.
held in will add the desired international conventions and agree- the antifouling properties of brass seabass, seabream and tuna; and a
armers, ments h a n g e , b e i t per sonal,
days from October 17-19, 2012 W i t h c regarding ABNJ are either
nutrients for the people who alloy meshes walk-through of marine fish hatchery
and the and the Turkish government o f e s s i o n a l , s or are under dis-
need them, similar to what p ralready established,o c i a l , e n v i - Visit also included reviews of facilities in the Izmir area.
The day our booth (Y21)
n m e n a l , l o c a l real consider-
is offered to formally convey the r ocussion, twithout any o r g l o b a l
already happening in the new developments in single-point
at the Aquatic during The dates and venue for the 2014
ions of poultr y industr y”.
request to FAO. m ly of t h potential a, aquacul-
fi ration o n the e a g e n d for this is mooring systems for self-submerging Offshore Mariculture Conference
the VIV Asia in Bangkok
or the a d d i t i o n t o d i s c u s i n the e p e n a r y s p e a ker who is
I n The statement adopted sat g o nture, land with minimal consultation surface pens and for shrimp culture will be released shortly.
e tech- changes in the aquaculture, the n o t a f r a i d t o s h a k e t h i n g s March 13-15
conclusion of the conference drew with industry. in Aquapods, tension leg cages and
climate show marks a personal change u p. The conference was officially
from a number of preceding decla- firstname.lastname@example.org
testing of more robust surface pens More InforMatIon:
ting to for Allison who will make a
rations – including the 2010 Global opened by Dr Durali Kocak, the www.was.org
and unanchored ‘drifter cages’. New www.offshoremariculture.com
mate Conference on Aquaculture, the Director-General of Fisheries
have January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 19
Phuket Consensus of 2010, and the and Aquaculture at the Turkish
Colombo Declaration of 2011, all of Ministry of Food, Agriculture
ison which have emphasised the critical and Livestock, who described
rsing role for aquaculture in feeding the how the Turkish government
the world, stimulating economic devel- had prioritised aquaculture
the opment, providing employment development. The industry in
ries, and reducing existing negative Turkey is expanding at a phe-
e in impacts on the marine environment. nomenal rate, as it indeed must,
ova- Most recently, the Bremerhaven to meet the growing demand,
ems Declaration of 2012 spoke spe- but care is being taken to
eds, cifically of the need for increased ensure that such growth is
mate research, development, investment within the sea’s ecological limits,
onal and policy frameworks for open he said.
ocean aquaculture. O t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n s
gest explored a range of planning
the Deeper, and further offshore and management tools that are
y of “There is growing interest from being set up around the world
ents the private sector in exploring the to better integrate aquacul-
October 6-10, 2013
potential for aquaculture in waters ture into coastal planning initi-
The tenth deeper, and atives. New species
that are increasingly of the highly successful series of develop-
lots further offshore” says conference ment, provision of seed (fish
symposia that have brought together tilapia
vate Neil Anthony Sims, of fingerlings or bivalve spat)
chairman, biologists, culturists and other stakeholders
ke it Kampachi Farms, LLC. “Given that and feed developments for
who review the latest discoveries in tilapia
ould nutrition, physiology, reproductive biology,
many nations – such as those in offshore mariculture were also
ner- genetics, ecology, improvements in production
the Mediterranean – still only reviewed.
and systems, and other ﬁelds
exert national authority as far as related to tilapia and of the
eeds their use in aquaculture.
12 miles offshore, then there is Wegner Institute in Germany,
ment a looming question about what and Dr Amir Neori of the
vel- happens in the ‘Areas Beyond Israeli Oceanographic Institute
a bit National Jurisdiction’ (ABNJ). We (together with Gamze Turan of
need to start to address this in Ege University) spoke on the
anticipation of, and in order potential to co-locate aquac-
January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 7
January-February 2013 |
Images courtesy of ©Oddmund Goete
rctic char are raised on a commercial scale in the Yukon Territory, Manitoba,
Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, Canada.
Research into the suitability of Arctic char as a farmed species began in Iceland
Canada in the late 1970 with the Fisheries and Oceans Canada's Freshwater
Institute and the Huntsman Marine Science Laboratory, leading the way. In addition to he cold waters of the rural
their low optimum temperature requirements, it was expected that Arctic char could be Northern periphery are well
an alternate species to Rainbow Trout. suited to Arctic char aquaculture.
Farming of Arctic char in Canada has emerged beyond the development stage but Although annual production is
production remains small. Farmers have difficulty selecting char that consistently perform small, at around 5,000 tonnes, interest in the
well because of its complex genetic makeup. species is increasing.
Arctic char are fed nutrient-dense, dry pellets with fishmeal and fish oil making up the
majority of the feed. Carotenoids are also added to feeds to help achieve the distinctive Prof Eva Brännäs, professor at the Swedish
red-pink flesh. University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden,
The fish are raised in land-based systems. Eggs are hatched within specialised hatchery explains why, “it is a very popular species for
facilities, where the fish remain until they reach approximately 100 grams. Although they restaurants and consumers with a higher value
take almost a year to reach 100 grams, Arctic char grow quickly during the grow-out than salmon and rainbow trout. It has a more
phase, reaching market weight of 1-2.5 kg in the next year. ‘arctic and clean’ touch”.
More information: www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/aquaculture Funded by the European Regional
http://aquaculture.ca Development Fund within the Northern
Periphery Programme, Sustainable
Aquaculture of Arctic char (Northcharr) is a
collaboration between partners in Norway,
Sweden and Iceland. Started in 2007, the
52 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
project aimed to explore the development "The cold waters of the rural Northern periphery are well suited
of Arctic char aquaculture in the northern
periphery of Europe. to Arctic char aquaculture. Although annual production is small,
Prof Brännäs says, “the programme focused
on collecting general information about Arctic at around 5,000 tonnes, interest in the species is increasing"
char in all of Europe - both wild and farmed
char. Northcharr focused on possibilities and
limitations of the growing Arctic char farming.” according to country and technology. This product is an example of the ‘Robin Hood’
Participants in the project were mainly information will be used to coordinate R&D model where nutrients are taken from a ‘rich’
researchers and stakeholders in established efforts and form the basis for establishing ‘best area, in this case the Baltic Sea, and used in a
Arctic char projects and have taken part in a practice’ protocols for the species. ‘poor’ area, in this case Swedish lakes. Results
pan-European network on Arctic char. Researchers highlighted five main produc- from these small-scale tests found that this
Northcharr took a holistic approach to tion issues: egg survival and broodstock, feed feeding methods works as well as control
provide stakeholders in the Northern periph- composition, feed delivery, environmental diets.
ery with tools to improve the development impact and water treatment. Each problem Prof Brännäs points out that the study
of Arctic char production. There was an was addressed individually and solutions were backs up the idea that the use and reuse
emphasis on using sustainable feed ingredients drawn from previous research into brood- of protein sources and nutrients has a posi-
and developing welfare criteria for farming stock handling, feeding practice, optimised tive impact on ecological footprint, restores
and slaughter. temperature regimes, slaughtering and envi- balance in aquatic ecosystem and flow of
The project had three key aims: to iden- ronmental impact. For example, to tackle nutrients that can compete with present
tify production potential and bottlenecks; feed composition, a test-feeding schedule commercial diets in growth performance and
develop solutions to potential problems and for typical farming conditions was performed price.
to provide the structure to enable growth and using different diets. In terms of future development, organisers
development. The researchers tested a ‘Baltic loop’. will create a network of investors, representa-
The production potential stage involved Nutrients were collected from the eutrophic tives of local communities and aquaculture
gathering annual information on production, Baltic Sea through mussels, sprat and yeasts or experts. It is hoped this pool of shared knowl-
production technology, fish stocks, health other microorganisms, made into feed and fed edge will contribute to the establishment of
status, legislation, production strategies and to Arctic char farmed in the nutrient depleted new companies.
staff qualifications. Bottlenecks were classified water reservoirs in northern Sweden. This More information: www.northcharr.eu
January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 53
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