Novel additives to reduce the economic impact of disease on shrimp production

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					                                              I N C O R P O R AT I N G
                                     f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y

                          January | February 2013
  Novel additives to reduce the economic
  impact of disease on shrimp production

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Novel additives to
reduce the economic
impact of disease on
shrimp production
by Peter Coutteau PhD, Business Unit Manager
Aquaculture, and Tim Goossens PhD, R&D Engineer Gut
Support, Nutriad International NV, Belgium

           enaeid	shrimp	production	is	under	               an	 average	 annual	 growth	 rate	 of	 18	 percent	 diseases	consists	of	increasing	the	level	of	key	
           continuous	 threat	 from	 bacte-                 over	 the	 period	 1970-2008,	 which	 by	 far	 nutrients	affecting	the	health	and	immunology	
           rial	and	particularly	viral	infections	          exceeds	growth	for	all	other	aquaculture	spe- of	 shrimp,	 including	 vitamin	 C	 and	 E,	 phos-
           which	 have	 caused	 disastrous	 col-            cies	 (FAO,	 2010).	 World	 shrimp	 aquaculture	 pholipids,	 essential	 fatty	 acids,	 trace	 minerals	
lapses	 of	 the	 industry	 in	 all	 major	 shrimp	          is	producing	now	well	over	four	million	mt	of	 and	 carotenoids.	 These	 ‘booster	 feeds’	 are	
producing	 countries.	 Disease	 problems	                   shrimp	(Valderrama,	2011).	This	rapid	increase	 often	 supplemented	 with	 immunostimulants,	
in	 shrimp	 production	 are	 complex	 and	                  in	 crustacean	 production	 largely	
often	 still	 poorly	 understood.	 Regulations,	            reflects	the	dramatic	increase	in	white	
consumer	demands	and	sustainable	manage-                    leg	shrimp	culture	in	China,	Thailand,	
ment	strategies	restrict	the	number	of	drugs	               Vietnam	and	Indonesia	since	2000.	
available	 to	 treat	 pathogens.	 Vaccines	 are	                Despite	 this	 apparent	 success	
likely	to	be	ineffective	in	crustaceans,	which	             story	in	terms	of	production	expan-
lack	a	specific	immune	system	similar	to	that	              sion,	 shrimp	 production	 in	 many	
of	 vertebrates.	 Therefore,	 shrimp	 produc-               regions	continues	to	suffer	important	
ers	 must	 consider	 the	 seed	 stock	 quality,	            economic	 losses	 due	 to	 the	 impact	
husbandry	procedures	and	healthy	nutrition	                 of	a	wide	variety	of	diseases.	Recent	
as	 the	 major	 tools	 to	 control	 disease.	The	           events	illustrate	the	impact	of	disease	           Figure 2: The hepatopancreas is the main
current	 article	 reports	 on	 recent	 progress	            outbreaks	 on	 shrimp	 production	 in	             organ of the shrimp’s digestive system
in	the	development	of	feed	additives	capable	               major	producing	countries.	                        responsible for digestion, absorption
                                                                                                               and storage of nutrients. Esophagus (E),
of	 reducing	 the	 impact	 of	 diseases	 on	 pro-               The	 white	 spot	 syndrome	 virus	
                                                                                                               gastric mill (GM), hepatopancreas (HP),
ductivity	and	profitability	in	shrimp	farming.	             (WSSV),	 one	 of	 the	 main	 causes	               mid gut (MG), hind gut (HG), and anus
                                                            of	 stagnation	 in	 the	 shrimp	 indus-            (A).
                                                            try	 in	 the	 nineties,	 is	 significantly	
Diseases are number one threat                              affecting	shrimp	production	in	recent	
   The	 production	 of	 crustaceans	 has	 shown	 years	 in	 Mexico	 and	 Brazil.	 Early	 Mortality	 mostly	 derived	 from	 the	 cell	 envelope	 of	
                                                                                     Syndrome	          (Acute	 micro-organisms,	 such	 as	 polysaccharides,	
Figure 1 - Table: Effect of booster feed on production parameters in a farm in NE
                                                                                     Hepatopancreatic	            lipoproteins,	and	lipopolysaccharides.	
Brazil during episode of increased disease incidence due to a combination of         Necrosis	 Syndrome,	             The	 continuous	 use	 of	 immunostimu-
intensive rains and increased incidence of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV)       AHPNS),	for	which	the	 lants	 is	 generally	 discouraged	 due	 to	 the	
and necrotising hepatopancreatitis (NHP). Booster feed based on enhanced
nutritional specifications and supplementation of an immunomodulator                 causative	agent	has	not	 risks	 for	 over-stimulation	 of	 the	 immune	
(AQUASTIM S, Nutriad) versus standard feed.                                          been	 identified	 so	 far	 defense	 system.	 Alternating	 on/off	 regimes	
                                                                                     (Flegel,	2012),	is	affect- for	feed	additives	is	often	impractical	in	farm	
                                  Control feed Boosted feed % change
                                                                                     ing	 shrimp	 production	 operations.	 Encouraging	 results	 to	 improve	
                                                                                     in	 China,	 Vietnam,	 disease	resistance	have	been	obtained	by	the	
      total pond area (ha)               25               25                         Malaysia,	 and	 to	 a	 continuous	 use	 of	 health	 enhancing	 booster	
     Culture period (days)              107              111
                                                                                     lesser	extent,	Thailand.	 feeds	based	on	the	selection	of	the	appropri-
                                                                                                                  ate	 immunostimulants	 in	 combination	 with	 a	
                Survival (%)            77.1             80.7             +5%
                                                                                     Traditional                  balanced	 nutritional	 supply	 of	 key	 nutrients	
            Final weight (g)           12.77            14.01            +10%        approaches to                to	 support	 the	 enhancement	 of	 the	 immune	
    Harvest yield (kg/ha)              1771             2034             +15%        boost shrimp                 system	(Table	1).	
                           FCr          1.86             1.85             -1%        health through                   However,	the	efficacy	of	various	commer-
   avg weekly growth (g)                0.84             0.88             +6%        the feed                     cially	 available	 immunostimulants	 to	 improve	
                                                                                         A	        traditional	 stress	 and/or	 disease	 resistance	 of	 fish	 and	
  relative production cost             100%             100%
                                                                                     approach	 to	 reduce	 shrimp	 strongly	 depends	 on	 the	 type	 of	 the	
        relative crop value            100%             119%             +19%        the	 impact	 of	 shrimp	 product	and	on	the	supply	of	adjuvant	nutri-

                                                  44 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
      could	be	effective	ways	of	providing	the	        •	 Discourage	the	use	of	non-sustainable	            •	 Nevertheless,	 the	 existence	 of	 small	
      ‘research	arm’	for	partnering	with	‘large	          sources	of	MBt	libraries
ents	that	are	essential	to	support	the	buildup	 both	 as	 a	 digestive	 gland	                                 companies	 willing	 to	 take	 part	 in	
of	the	immune	system.	                               Commercial	 context	 –	 investment,	 regu-
                                                     as	 well	 as	 a	 storage	 depot	                          biodiscovery	 de-risks	 this	 activity	
  •	 Technology	 Centers	 for	 marine	               lation,	IP
                                                     for	 energy.	 Therefore,	                                 for	 big	 companies	 and	 justifies	 the	
Novel approaches (1): boosting
      biotechnology,	 with	 specialised	 infra-        •	 The	need	for	long-term	stability	means	
                                                     farmers	 routinely	 look	 at	                             perceived	 need	 for	 entrepreneurial	
the nutritional status and lipid
      structure	 might	 provide	 ‘one-stop	               that	 VC	 and	 short-term	 investment	
                                                     squash	preparates	to	evalu-                               companies	 to	 supply	 into	 bigger	
reserves of the hepatopancreas
      shops’	for	chain	connection                         strategies	 are	 not	 appropriate	 either	
                                                     ate	the	nutritional	status	of	                            pharma	 (and	 equivalent	 ‘big’	 compa-
Science,	technology	and	infrastructures:of	 the	at	 set-up	 or	 for	with	
     Shrimps	 do	 not	 tolerate	 high	 levels	             hepatopancreas,	 longer	 survival	 of	              nies	 –	 food/nutraceutical,	 cosmetics/
  •	 Marine	 biotech	 A	 number	 of	 well-                new	businesses;	encouraging	business	
dietary	 fat	 very	 well.	 is	 not	 being	 studies	 ample	 lipid	 reserves	 being	                             cosmeceutical)
      served	by	lack	of	knowledge	amongst	                angel	 groups	 and	 raising	 awareness	
show	reduced	growth	at	levels	above	10	per- an	indicator	of	better	resist-                                  •	 Better	 and	 more	 efficient	 recogni-
cent	of	dietary	lipid.	Nevertheless,	quality	and	 ance	 to	 knowledge-levels	 amongst	 these	
      technology-transfer	offices                         and	 stress	 and	 disease	                           tion,	 development	 and	 transfer	 of	
  •	 More	 fora	 for	 meeting	 of	 scientists	            would	be	fruitful
quantity	of	dietary	lipids	play	a	primordial	role	 challenges.                                                 academic	IP	in	this	area	is	needed
      and	industrial	players	would	generate	
in	growth	and	health	of	shrimp.	Shrimp	have	              Smaller	 players	 in	 innovation	 should	
                                                       •	Lipid	digestion	in	shrimp	                         •	 The	 attributes	 and	 benefits	 of	 MBt	
      better	 understanding	 and	 sharing	 of	            consider	more	collaborations	between	
no	or	very	limited	capacity	to	biosynthesize	a	 occurs	for	a	big	proportion	                                   could	 be	 better	 communicated.	 In	
      needs	and	possibilities                             them,	and	selling	skills	and	knowledge,	
number	of	lipid	molecules	which	are	essential	 intracellular	 in	 the	 hepato-                                 terms	of	giving	MBt	a	different	image,	
for	normal	growth,	including	cholesterol,	high- pancreas	 epithelium	 from	 molecules	 at	
  •	 A	 global	 source	 of	 ‘soft’	 funding	              rather	 than	 pushing	                               the	higher	hit	rate	could	be	a	starting	
      would	 promote	 the	 transition	 from	
ly	unsaturated	fatty	acids	and	phospholipids.	            big	 pharma	 or	 trying	
                                                     where	 it	 is	 transported	 to	 to	 go	 too	 far	         point	
      proof	 of	 concept	 are	 often	 the	 most	 the	 down	the	value-chain;	it	is	usually	too	
     Fishmeal	 and	 fish	 oil	to	 demonstration	           target	 organs	 via	 the	                          Some	 of	 the	 points	 raised	 above	 were	
                                                                                             Figure 3. Effect of the supplementation of a
      and	commercial-scale	for	innovations                                                                 discussed	 additive (Aquagest®S,
                                                                                             digestibility-enhancing further	 in	 Think	 Tank	 5	 in	 the	
                                                          difficult	for	small	companies	to	handle	
important	 sources	 of	 cholesterol	 and	 HUFA	 haemolymphe	 under	 the	
                                                                                                           the degree Marine	 Biotechnology	
  •	 Specific	 incubator	 programmes	 marine	 form	of	lipoproteins	(Fig.	2).	 of	 regulatory	 on context	 of	of lipid vacuolization in and	 the	
in	 the	 diet.	 Increasing	 cost	 of	 these	could	        the	 cost	 and	 stresses	          Nutriad)
      be	recommended                                      processes
ingredients	 has	 forced	 formulators	 to	 reduce	 The	formation	and	absorp-                 the hepatopancreas of shrimp fed the different
                                                                                             feeds during 30 days (van de Braak et al., 2012).
dietary	specifications	for	these	essential	lipids.	 tion	 of	 lipid	 micelles	 from	
Although	these	nutrient	levels	may	not	show	 the	 lumen	 of	 the	 hepato-
significant	differences	on	growth	performance	 pancreas	 tubuli	 is	 therefore	 a	 limiting	 step	 to	 use	 fats	 as	 essential	 components	 and	 as	
in	Companies attending this Think Tank: the	 lipid	 digestive	 process.	 Digestibility	 source	 of	 energy	 for	 growth	 and	 surviving	
    feeding	 trials	 under	 controlled	 conditions,	 in	
        Aqua	Bio	Technology	ASA	-	A-Spark	Good	Ventures	-	Algal	Bioenergy	Special	Interest	Group	-	Bioalvo	-	BioNova	-	BioTech	North	-	
they	 may	 become	 critical	 for	 maintaining	 enhancers	 based	 on	 natural	 emulsifying	 episodes	 of	 stress	 or	 disease	 pressure.	 The	
   Bretagne	Developpement	Innovation	-	CCMar	-	EMPA	-	European	Marine	Biological	Resource	Centre	(EMBRC)	-	Government	of	Portugal	
health	 and	 immune	 defenses	 under	 disease	 agents,	 selected	 for	 their	 compatibility	 with	 enhancement	 of	 the	 lipid	 reserves	 in	 the	
   -	Grette		Law	-	innoVactiv	-	Innovation	Norway	-	JPI	Oceans	-	The	Research	Council	of	Norway	-	Kiel	Center	for	marine	natural	products	
challenges	and	fluctuating	ambient	conditions	 the	shrimp’s	digestive	system,	have	shown	to	 hepatopancreas	 of	 white	 shrimp	 Penaeus
   -	Marealis	-	Marine	Biotechnology	Programme	of	Ireland	-	Max	Planck	Institute	-	National	Research	Council	of	Canada	-	Nautilus	Biosciences	
                                                     be	capable	of	complementing	the	process	of	 indicus	 as	 a	 result	 of	 the	 supplementation	
   Canada	-	Novagraaf	Technologies	-	Novus	International	-	Soliance	-	Marine	Bio-Technologies	Center	of	Innovation	-	National	University	of	of	
encountered	in	production.	
     Furthermore,	the	energy	status	of	shrimp	is	 emulsification	and	absorption	of	dietary	fats	in	 a	digestibility-enhancing	additive	was	demon-
   Ireland,	Galway	-	OceanGate,	Inc.	-	Oceanomics	project,	Roscoff	-	Polaris	-	Polytechnic	Institute	of	Leiria	-	PwC	-	Roscoff	Marine	Biological	
largely	determined	by	its	lipid	reserves	depos- the	 hepatopancreas	 (Coutteau	 et	 al.,	 2012).	 strated	recently	by	van	de	Braak	et	al.	(2012).	
   Station	-	Saint	Malo	Agglomeration	-	ScandiDerma	AS	-	Univeristy	College	Cork		-	University	of	Aveiro
ited	 in	 the	 hepatopancreas	 which	 functions	 This	in	turn	improves	the	efficiency	of	shrimp	 Histological	 analyses	 showed	 a	 three-fold	

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                                                January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 33
                                                January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 45

                                                                          proteases,	invasion	factors	       cific	 bacterial	 biosensors	 and	 model	 organ-
                                                                          or	 other	 virulence	 factors	     isms.	 Synergistic	 blends	 of	 different	 natural	
                                                                          (Defoirdt,	 et	 al.,	 2011).	      compounds	resulted	to	be	extremely	efficient	
                                                                          In	 recent	 years,	 research	      in	 QS	 quenching	 activity	 against	 signaling	 by	
                                                                          focusing	 on	 ways	 to	 dis-       Vibrio	harveyi,	an	pathogen	causing	vibriosis	in	
                                                                          turb	 QS	 signaling	 (also	        penaeid	shrimp	(Figure	6).
                                                                          called	quorum	quenching)	
                                                                          is	 therefore	 gaining	 par-       Putting QS inhibition into
   Feeding manually from a boat and harvesting shrimp                     ticular	 interest	 (Figure	 5).	   practice: effect of optimising
   at the CAMACO farm, Panama (with courtesy of Jorge                     This	 is	 especially	 true	 in	    gut health on productivity
   Cuéllar-Anjel)                                                         the	 field	 of	 human	 medi-       and economics of semi-
                                                                          cine,	 where	 QS-inhibitors	       intensive shrimp farming
increase	 of	 the	 percentage	 of	 shrimp	 with	     are	 investigated	 as	 potential	 alternatives	 to	         Shrimp	 are	 actively	 ‘grazing’	 on	 the	 sub-
a	 high	 degree	 of	 lipid	 vacuolization	 in	 the	 antibiotics	 in	 tackling	 pathogenic	 bacterial	        strate	 present	 in	 the	 pond	 bottom	 and	
hepatopancreas	after	supplementing	the	feed	 infections	 (Sintim	 et	 al.,	 2010).	 Interestingly,	          water	 column,	 and	 therefore	 highly	 exposed	
additive	during	one	month	(Figures	3,	4).	The	 chances	 that	 bacteria	 build	 up	 resistance	               to	 exchanges	 of	 microflora	 between	 the	
results	of	a	parallel	pond	study	indicated	two	 against	QS	disruptors	are	predicted	to	be	low,	              environment	 and	 the	 digestive	 system.	 This	
percent	 higher	 average	 body	 weight	 (ABW),	 giving	that	the	selective	pressure	against	these	            increases	 the	 risk	 for	 the	 proliferation	 of	
four	 percent	 higher	 survival,	 and	 six	 percent	 in	 se	 non-lethal	 molecules	 is	 limited.	 This	      an	 unfavorable	 gut	 microflora	 or	 frequent	
higher	 biomass	 for	 the	 treatment	 ponds.	 stands	in	stark	contrast	with	what	is	seen	with	               destabilization	 of	 the	 microflora,	 which	 can	
                                                                                                             affect	the	optimal	functioning	of	the	digestive	
                                                                                                             system.	 Furthermore,	 the	 digestive	 system	 of	
                                                                                                             shrimp	is	the	main	entry	port	for	bacterial	and	
                                                                                                             viral	infections,	which	remain	a	major	risk	for	
                                                                                                             the	profitability	of	shrimp	production.	
                                                                                                                 Sustainable	 approaches	 to	 modulate	 the	
                                                                                                             gut	 microflora	 in	 farmed	 animals	 include	 the	
                                                                                                             use	 of	 selected	 bacteria	 to	 inoculate	 the	 gut	
                                                                                                             (probiotics),	 specific	 nutrients	 promoting	 the	
                                                                                                             development	 of	 selected	 bacterial	 strains	
                                                                                                             (prebiotics),	 and	 specific	 natural	 compounds	
   Figure 4: Histological determination of the degree of lipid vacuolization of the
   hepatopancreas in shrimp Penaeus indicus, showing a high (left picture) and low                           (mostly	derived	from	yeast	and	herbal	extracts	
   (right picture) level of lipid vacuolization (100x magnification; van de Braak et                         called	 ‘phytobiotics’)	 capable	 of	 modulating	
   al., 2012)                                                                                                the	 microflora	 towards	 a	 favorable	 composi-
                                                                                                             tion,	 favoring	 the	 development	 of	 beneficial	
However,	removal	of	outliers	for	survival	from	         conventional	antibiotics	(Defoirdt	et	al.,	2010).	   bacteria	 and	 inhibiting	 potentially	 pathogenic	
control	and	treatment	set	showed	eight	per-                 Initial	studies	of	quorum	sensing	in	aquacul-    micro-organisms.	 The	 latter	 strategies	 have	
cent	higher	ABW,	12	percent	higher	survival,	           ture	 organisms	 are	 very	 limited	 but	 point	 out	the	 advantage	 of	 being	 easily	 applicable	 at	
and	23	percent	higher	biomass.	                         exciting	results.	Halogenated	furanones	isolated	    the	 feedmill	 on	 large	 volumes	 of	 feed	 and	
                                                        from	red	marine	algae,	for	example,	have	been	       avoiding	major	adaptations	of	the	production	
Novel approaches (2): Quorum                            demonstrated	 to	 reduce	 QS-regulated	 gene	        protocols	at	the	farm.	
Sensing technology                                      expression	 in	 Vibrio	 and	 to	 protect	 fish	 and	     A	 synergistic	 blend	 of	 botanical	 extracts	
    Quorum	Sensing	(QS)	is	a	form	of	bacteri-           shrimp	from	vibriosis	(Rasch	et	al.,	2004;	Defoirdt	 (Sanacore®	GM,	Nutriad)	was	originally	selected	
al	communication.	Over	the	last	decade,	many	           et	 al.,	 2006).	 At	 the	 Nutriad	 Technology	      for	 its	 bacteriostatic	 and	 bactericidal	 properties	
bacterial	 species	 have	 been	 documented	 to	         Center,	 QS	 technology	 is	 being	 applied	 in	     against	 pathogenic	 and	 potentially	 pathogenic	
be	 able	 to	 produce	 and	 secrete	 small	 signal-     a	 novel	 generation	 of	 natural	 feed	 additives	  bacteria	in vitro	using	the	disk	diffusion	method.	
ing	 molecules,	 such	 as	 acyl	 homoserine	 lac-       capable	 of	 modulating	 gut	
tones	 or	 certain	 oligopeptides,	 which	 can	 be	     micro	 flora.	 Compounds	 are	
detected	by	adjacent	bacteria	of	the	same	or	           tested	 for	 their	 capacity	 to	
of	 distinct	 species.	 When	 population	 density	      inhibit	 QS-signaling	 using	 an	
rises,	 these	 molecules	 will	 accumulate	 in	 the	    array	 of	 genetically	 modi-
extracellular	 environment,	 thereby	 providing	        fied	 bacterial	 biosensors	 and	
a	means	for	bacteria	to	quantitatively	monitor	         QS-dependent	 infection	
the	presence	of	other	bacteria.	These	signal-           protocols	 in	 simple	 model	
ing	 molecules	 will,	 upon	 reaching	 a	 certain	      organisms.	Using	these	sensi-
threshold	 concentration,	 initiate	 intrabacterial	    tive	assays,	potent	QS	modu-
signaling	 that	 culminates	 in	 the	 activation	 of	   lators,	 able	 to	 shut	 down	
specific	genes.	QS	communication	is	therefore	          QS	 signaling	 at	 concentra-
used	by	bacteria	to	synchronize	gene	expres-            tions	far	below	the	minimum	
sion	 alterations	 and	 coordinate	 biochemical	        inhibitory	 concentration,	 are	
responses	within	the	entire	population.                 being	 identified.	 Different	
    In	 most	 pathogenic	 bacteria	 from	 which	        QS	 quenching	 activities	 are	
the	 QS	 system	 has	 been	 studied,	 QS	 has	          selected	 for	 agriculture	 and	        Figure 5: Quorum Sensing (QS), an innovative
been	 associated	 with	 pathogenicity,	 such	 as	       aquaculture	species	based	on	           mechanism to tackle pathogenicity
biofilm	 formation	 and	 the	 production	 of	           screening	 work	 using	 spe-

                                                   46 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
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                                                                                                                     Furthermore,	 this	 synergistic	 blend	 has	 proven	
                                                                                                                     to	 be	 a	 powerful	 interrupter	 of	 bacterial	 QS	
                                                                                                                     signaling	 at	 concentrations	 well	 below	 minimal	
                                                                                                                     inhibitory	 concentrations,	 allowing	 it	 to	 effec-
                                                                                                                     tively	 modulate	 the	 gut	 flora	 towards	 a	 more	
                                                                                                                     favorable	 composition.	 The	 supplementation	
                                                                                                                     of	Sanacore	GM	promoted	growth	significantly	
                                                                                                                     in	healthy	shrimp	growing	under	controlled	lab	
                                                                                                                     conditions;	 showing	 a	 remarkable	 20	 percent	
                                                                                                                     increase	of	weekly	weight	gain	and	four	percent	
                                                                                                                     improvement	on	food	conversion	(Coutteau	et	
                                                                                                                     al.,	 2010).	 The	 effect	 of	 this	 botanical	 product	
                                                                                                                     showing	 combined	 activities	 in	 QS	 inhibition	
                                                                                                                     and	 bactericidal	 action	 against	 a	 wide	 range	
                                                                                                                     of	 pathogenic	 bacteria	 was	 verified	 in	 a	 semi-
   Figure 6: Dose – response of a synergistic blend of botanical compounds (SANACORE GM,
                                                                                                                     intensive	 shrimp	 farm	 in	 Panama.The	 second	
   Nutriad) on Quorum Sensing signaling activity of Vibrio harveyi. Graphs show signaling
   activity in QS biosensor system Vibrio harveyi BB170, relative to control, exposed to for                         production	season	in	Panama,	stocked	between	
   different dilutions of the product extract (Nutriad Technology Center, in-house results).                         August-September,	is	characterised	by	unstable	

 Table 2: Production results for P. vannamei in Panama during the second production cycle for control ponds and treatment ponds receiving a phytobiotic supplement after
 141 days of culture (average and standard deviation of eight replicate ponds of three ha per treatment).

                                                                                                                                                    average coefficient
                                                                   Crop Yield       Feed (kg/pond                                                     of variation for
       treatment               Survival         Shrimp size                                                   FCr              Growth(g/wk)
                                                                    (kg/ha)              3ha)                                                        parameters listed

      Sanacore® GM          55.5 ± 7.1 a        16.6 ± 1.5 a      735 ± 78 a       4,170 ± 338 a        1.91 ± 0.23 a      0.825 ± 0.075 a                  10%
                Control    44.6 ± 10.6 b        15.7± 2.9 a       543 ± 90 b       3,464 ± 396 b        2.17 ± 0.39 a      0.776 ± 0.137 a                  18%
  % change Sanacore
                               +24.4%              +5.8%             +35.2%             +20.4%              -12.1%                +6.3%                     -41%
          vs Control
                P Value        0.0304              0.4395            0.0004             0.0018              0.7130               0.3876                      ---

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                                                      January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 47

                                                                                                             About the authors
                                                                                                                                    Tim	 Goossens	 got	
                                                                                                                                    a	 Masters	 degree	
                                                                                                                                    in	 Biotechnology	 at	
                                                                                                                                    Ghent	 University,	
                                                                                                                                    and	 subsequently	
                                                                                                                                    worked	 as	 an	 aca-
                                                                                                                                    demic	 researcher	 in	
                                                                           was	confirmed	by	immu-                                   the	 Laboratory	 of	
                                                                           no-chromatography	 and	           Molecular	 Biotechnology	 at	 the	 University	
                                                                           nested-PCR	 tests.	 The	          of	 Antwerp.	 After	 working	 for	 four	 years	
                                                                           presence	 of	 a	 synergis-        on	 the	 characterisation	 of	 a	 gene	 family	
                                                                           tic	 blend	 of	 phytobiot-        involved	 in	 bone	 development,	 he	 moved	
                                                                           ics	 provided	 an	 array	 of	     to	 the	 KU	 Leuven,	 where	 he	 took	 up	 a	
                                                                           antimicrobial	 activities,	       doctoral	 project	 on	 neurodevelopment	 in	
                                                                           including	 quorum	 sens-          the	Laboratory	of	Developmental	Genetics.	
                                                                           ing	 inhibition	 capabilities,	   After	 obtaining	 his	 PhD.	 in	 Biomedical	
                                                                           in	 the	 shrimp’s	 digestive	     Sciences,	he	joined	Nutriad	to	work	as	an	
                                                                           system.	 This	 offers	 addi-      R&D	 Engineer,	 focusing	 on	 the	 develop-
                                                                           tional	 protection	 against	      ment	 and	 technical	 support	 of	 the	 Gut	
                                                                           co-infections	with	oppor-         Support	range	of	feed	additives.
     Figure 7: Survival percentage at harvest for                          tunistic	 bacteria	 such	 as	
     control ponds and treatment ponds receiving the
                                                                           vibriosis,	 often	 the	 major	                              Peter	 Coutteau,	 cur-
     phytobiotic supplement in two production cycles
     in semi-intensive production of white shrimp L.                       cause	 of	 mortality	 in	                                   rently	 Business	 Unit	
     vannamei (average and standard deviation of                           WSSV-infected	 shrimp	                                      Manager	 Aquaculture	
     eight and five replicate ponds of three ha per                        (Phuoc	et	al.,	2009).	                                      for	 Nutriad,	 obtained	
     treatment, respectively; data from Vaca et al.,                            The	 evaluation	 in	                                   in	 1992	 a	 PhD.	 in	
     2010, 2011).
                                                                           the	 second	 cycle	 on	                                     Biological	 Sciences	 at	
                                                                           eight	 replicates	 per	                                     the	 Laboratory	 of	
climatological	conditions,	resulting	in	strong	tem- treatment	 allowed	 a	 good	 evaluation	 of	             Aquaculture	 &	 Artemia	 Reference	 Center,	
perature	fluctuations	which	in	turn	affect	shrimp	 variability	 among	 ponds	 for	 the	 different	           University	of	Gent	on	the	filter	feeding	biol-
growth	and	increase	the	impact	of	outbreaks	of	 production	 parameters.	 The	 addition	 of	                  ogy	 of	 Artemia	 and	 bivalves.	 He	 continued	
white	 spot	 virus	 (WSSV).	 The	 first	 production	 the	 phytobiotic	 reduced	 drastically	 the	            academic	research	at	postdoc	level	till	1997	
cycle,	 seeded	 between	 January-April,	 provides	 variability	 of	 production	 results	 among	              on	lipid	nutrition	of	bivalves,	fish	and	shrimp,	
more	 suitable	 growth	 conditions	 and	 generally	 ponds	 fed	 the	 same	 feed	 (average	 coef-             publishing	over	40	refereed	papers	in	scien-
results	in	better	survival	and	productivity.	         ficient	 of	 variation	 between	 ponds	 for	           tific	journals.	In	1997,	joined	the	INVE	group,	
    Two	 treatments	 were	 compared	 which	 the	 six	 production	 parameters:	 control	                      as	 head	 of	 research	 and	 product	 develop-
only	differed	with	regard	to	the	supplementa- 18	 percent	 versus	 Sanacore	 group	 10	                      ment	 in	 the	 aquaculture	 division.	 During	
tion	 or	 not	 of	 the	 phytobiotic	 growth	 pro- percent;	 Table	 2).	 This	 further	 indicated	            2002-2008,	 he	 was	 responsible	 for	 global	
moter	(Sanacore®	GM)	to	the	standard	feed	 the	 importance	 of	 increased	 control	 of	                      product	development	and	customer	service	
used	at	the	farm.	The	supplementation	of	the	 gut	 microflora	 on	 the	 reproducibility	 of	                 for	feed	concentrates	and	additives	as	prod-
botanical	 feed	 additive	 drastically	 improved	 production	 in	 semi-intensive	 pond	 envi-                uct	 manager	 farm	 nutrition	 for	 INVE’s	
survival,	amounting	to	a	relative	increase	with	 ronments.	                                                  Business	 Unit	 Aquaculture.	 Following	
24	percent	and	18	percent	compared	to	the	                 References available on request                   restructuration	of	the	INVE	group	in	January	
control	 group	 for	 the	 second	 and	 first	 cycle,	                                                        2009,	 the	 support	 team,	 research	 activities	
respectively	(Figure	7).	                                                                                    and	 product	 lines	 for	 aquaculture	 additives	
                                                          More InforMatIon:
    Natural	 White	 Spot	 Disease	 outbreaks	 were	                                                          were	 reorganised	 under	 Nutriad’s	 Business	
observed	during	shrimp	farming	in	both	treatments	        Website:                           Unit	Aquaculture.
under	similar	frequency	and	severity;	WSSV	virus	

                                                    48 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
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Description: Penaeid shrimp production is under continuous threat from bacterial and particularly viral infections which have caused disastrous collapses of the industry in all major shrimp producing countries. Disease problems in shrimp production are complex and often still poorly understood. Regulations, consumer demands and sustainable management strategies restrict the number of drugs available to treat pathogens. Vaccines are likely to be ineffective in crustaceans, which lack a specific immune system similar to that of vertebrates. Therefore, shrimp producers must consider the seed stock quality, husbandry procedures and healthy nutrition as the major tools to control disease. The current article reports on recent progress in the development of feed additives capable of reducing the impact of diseases on productivity and profitability in shrimp farming.