An overview of shrimp feed industry in China

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                          January | February 2013
   An overview of shrimp feed industry in

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An overview
of shrimp feed
industry in China
by Dong Qiufen, Peng Zhidong, Zhang Song
and Yang Yong, China

                    ith	 more	 than	 50	 years	 of	        the	 ratio	 of	 fishmeal	 is	 decreasing	 yearly	 as	 its	   adjust	 their	 products	 continually	 according	 to	
                    culture	 history	 in	 China,	          increasing	price,	it	still	holds	more	than	30	per-           the	 market	 demand,	 make	 the	 machines	 with	
                    shrimp	 is	 important	 seafood	        cent.	China	is	the	world's	largest	user	of	soybean	          high	efficiency,	high	cost	performance	and	lower	
                    the	 country.	 Nowadays,	 the	         meal	and	fishmeal	and	relies	heavily	imports;	the	           energy	consumption.	
Chinese	shrimp	industry	has	caught	the	world’s	            high	prices	of	these	two	ingredients	in	2012	eat	                Chinese	 feed	 production	 lines	 have	 been	
eyes,	 for	its	largest	production	and	export,	 as	         into	Chinese	feed	manufacturers’	profit.	                    exported	 to	 more	 than	 100	 countries	 since	
well	as	the	potential	Chinese	domestic	market	                 Almost	 every	 feed	 producer	 has	 its	 quality	        1990s.	Some	larger	feed	makers	optimise	their	
with	a	population	of	more	than	1.34	billion.	              control	lab,	no	matter	how	big	or	small,	to	check	           machinery	 and	 equipment	 yearly	 with	 good	
                                                           and	control	the	ingredients	and	feed	quality,	as	            production	 performance	 and	 feed	 physical	
    The	 main	 species	 cultured	 in	 China	 are	          the	ingredients	are	expensive	the	producer	need	             appearance.
Penaeus	 vannamei,	 P.	 chinensis,	 P.	 monodon,	          to	 buy	 them	 with	 reasonable	 price	 according	               With	the	increased	prices	and	the	high	ratio	
P. japonicus, P. merguinsis	 and	 P. penicillatus,	 of	    to	 the	 quality	 level.	 Besides	 the	 government	          of	 fishmeal,	 fewer	 and	 fewer	 raw	 ingredients	
which	 more	 than	 70	 percent	 comprised	 the	            quality	standards,	some	big	feed	producers	have	             with	starch	can	be	used	in	the	shrimp	feed.	15	
white	leg	shrimp,	P. vannamei.	                            stricter	standards	to	ensure	every	batch	of	raw	             years	ago	in	feed	production	formulation,	more	
    The	 modern	 shrimp	 farming	 industry	 in	            materials	can	be	checked	before	entrancing	into	             than	 30	 percent	 wheat	 flour	 with	 32	 percent	
China	has	a	history	of	only	about	three	decades	           the	factory	warehouse.	Fishmeal	takes	up	nearly	             wet	flour	gluten	was	used	to	give	feeds	at	least	
but	it	has	gone	through	an	extraordinary	experi-           50	percent	of	the	total	cost	of	feed	formulation	            two	hours	water	stability	(some	producers	had	
ence	 which	 can	 be	 roughly	 divided	 into	 four	        and	nobody	wants	to	 buy	 bad	 quality	fishmeal	             to	use	about	0.2%	binder.)	Nowadays,	it	is	easy	
stages:	 beginning	 (1978-1984),	 rapid	 increase	         which	 is	 supplied	 by	 illegal	 businessman.	 Feed	        to	 produce	 shrimp	 feed	 with	 the	 same	 water	
(1985-1992),	recession	(1993-1997)	and	recov-              producers	 control	 the	 fishmeal	 quality	 with	            stability,	but	with	about	20	percent	wheat	flour	
ery	and	development	(1998-present)                         more	than	15	items.	With	the	microscope	and	                 with	 about	 30	 percent	 wet	 flour	 gluten,	 and	
    There	were	only	1,300	ha	of	shrimp	ponds	              amino	acid	analysis,	the	quality	can	be	estimated	           no	binder.	This	is	due	to	the	improvements	in	
in	 China	 in	 1978,	 however	 the	 area	 of	 ponds	       more	directly.                                               production	technology.
reached	 300,000	 ha	 in	 2011.	 Total	 shrimp	                The	 steep	 demand	 of	 the	 end-users	 also	
output	 increased	 by	 more	 than	 6,900	 times,	          needs	a	quality	control	lab	in	the	feed	factory	to	          Feed management and food safety
from	450	MT	in	1978	to	3,110,000	MT	in	2011,	              test	the	feed	product	regularly.	Besides	the	nutri-              Before	 2007,	 most	 of	 the	 Chinese	 farmed	
and	 the	 average	 yield	 increased	 from	 350	 kg/        tion	 items,	 crude	 protein,	 crude	 fat,	 fiber,	 ash,	    shrimp	were	exported	and	the	Chinese	shrimp	
ha	to	7,000	kg/ha.	The	development	of	shrimp	              moisture,	Ca,	P	and	salinity,	physical	appearance	           industry	had	to	be	in	line	with	the	international	
farming	 also	 promotes	 related	businesses,	such	         items	are	more	important	to	the	farmers.	As	the	             remands	 and	 standards.	 So	 far	 most	 shrimp	
as	 broodstock,	 breeding,	 feed	 nutrition,	 animal	      shrimp	feed	has	been	over-supplied	these	years,	             feed	makers	are	certified	with	ISO	management	
health,	processing,	transportation	and	marketing.	         when	the	famers	choose	the	shrimp	feed	they	                 system,	 some	 ones	 are	 with	 HACCP,	 Global	
    The	 shrimp	 feed	 industry	 has	 been	 devel-         can	put	different	kinds	of	shrimp	feed	together,	            GAP	and	some	other	certifications.	The	Chinese	
oping	 with	 the	 shrimp	 farming	 and	 boosts	            feel	 the	 smell	 and	 dust	 with	 their	 noses	 and	        government	 legal	 regulations	 are	 continuous	
the	 development	 of	 the	 total	 Chinese	 shrimp	         hands,	 compare	 the	 length	 and	 size	 together,	          improving	to	keep	path	with	the	development	
industry	conversely.	                                      test	 the	 water	 stability	 and	 water	 colour	 with	       of	the	shrimp	industry.	The	new	Administrative	
                                                           different	cups.	The	feed	factories	need	to	check	            Regulations	 on	 Feed	 and	 Feed	 Additive	 was	
Ingredients and shrimp feed                                the	feed	physical	carefully	during	the	production	           carried	out	in	May	2012	with	more	specific	and	
    The	primary	feed	nutrition	companies	made	             course.                                                      stricter	 restrictions.	 Some	 feed	 producers	 who	
Chinese	shrimp	feed	with	a	high	nutrition	level.	                                                                       can’t	 meet	 the	 standards	 in	 this	 new	 law	 will	
In	 order	 to	 produce	 feed	 with	 more	 than	 40	        Production technology                                        be	closed.
percent	protein,	a	lot	of	good	animal	ingredients	            The	 Chinese	 feed	 production	 technology	                   To	ensure	the	food	safety	of	shrimp	industry,	
have	to	be	used.	There	are	many	raw	ingredi-               has	 developed	 speedily	 over	 the	 past	 years.	           besides	the	laws	for	the	domestic	feed	produc-
ents	can	be	used	in	fish	feed,	such	as	carp	and	           The	 primary	 feed	 production	 machines	 were	              ers,	 there	 are	 also	 specific	 regulations	 for	 the	
tilapia,	 but	 usually	 only	 fishmeal,	 soybean	 meal,	   mostly	 imported	 from	 Germany	 and	 America	               import	 feed	 raw	 ingredients.	 From	 January	 1,	
peanut	meal,	wheat	flour,	shrimp	shell	powder,	            and	then	from	Taiwan.	Today	Chinese	machine	                 2011,	without	the	import	registered	license,	all	
squid	paste,	some	other	raw	materials	and	addi-            producers	 make	 practical	 and	 economic	 feed	             the	 listed	 animal	 source	 ingredients	 could	 not	
tives	 are	 popular	 in	 the	 shrimp	 feed.	 Although	     production	 lines.	 The	 local	 machine	 suppliers	          longer	be	imported	as	before.

                                                     22 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013

                                                               In	 China,	 the	 shrimp	 feed	 market	 is	 about	 feed	 in	 China	 now;	 feedmills	 also	 need	 to	 be	
                                                          1,250,000	 MT,	 but	 there	 are	 more	 than	 100	 involved	 in	 hatchery,	 water	 quality	 treatment	
                                                          shrimp	feedmills	with	a	total	production	capacity	 product	 and	 farming	 technology	 service.	 With	
                                                          at	2,500,000	MT	and	four	shrimp	feed	magnates	 the	service	to	the	farmers,	most	of	them	can	get	
                                                          hold	nearly	70	percent	of	the	market	share.	The	 greater	 profits	 from	 shrimp	 culture	 than	 before	
                                                          Chinese	shrimp	feed	market	competition	is	very	 and	feedmills	can	sell	feed	with	more	cash	than	
                                                          fierce	and	it	makes	this	industry	move	faster.              debt.	
                                                               With	 the	 strong	 competition,	 the	 price	 is	
                                                          much	 lower	 than	 before	 with	 a	 net	 profit	 no	 The future of the Chinese
                                                          more	 than	 100	 USD/MT	 for	 P. vannamei	 feed	 shrimp feed industry
                                                          now.	 To	 get	 the	 marketing	 tickets,	 the	 feed	             With	 the	 upswing	 of	 Chinese	 feed	 industry,	
                                                          makers	need	to	produce	good	feed	with	a	nice	 some	issues	have	been	concerned	publicly.	The	
                                                          appearance	and	ensure	the	farmers	compare	the	 Chinese	vannamei	shrimp	feed	protein	is	general-
                                                          physical	 and	 culture	 performance	 with	 the	 feed	 ly	between	39-41	percent,	the	monodon	shrimp	
                                                          from	 some	 other	 competitors.	 Homogeneous	 feed	even	with	higher	protein	and	some	farmers	
                                                          competition	 makes	 some	 small	 feed	 companies	 are	feeding	their	vannamei	with	monodon	feed.	
                                                          supply	 the	 shrimp	 feed	 on	 credit;	 the	 farmers	 The	 shrimp	 feed	 protein	 in	 other	 countries	
                                                          can	 pay	 for	 the	 feed	 in	 a	 certain	 times,	 such	 as	 is	 mostly	 between	 30-35	 percent,	 and	 some	
                                                          a	month	or	three	months.	But	it	is	a	dangerous	 research	 papers	 have	 reported	 that	 decreasing	
                                                          market	operation	and	almost	every	shrimp	feed	 the	protein	level	by	increasing	reasonable	energy	
Correlative industry                                      maker	 knows	 it.	 Some	 feed	 suppliers	 try	 to	 and	 balanced	 nutrients	 can	 maintain	 the	 similar	
      Some	 related	 industries	 are	 developing	 with	   increase	 their	 market	 share	 by	 offering	 a	 higher	 growth	performance.
the	 shrimp	 feed	 industry.	 In	 order	 to	 keep	 the	   discount	to	the	distributors	and	farmers,	but	that	             Furthermore,	lots	of	research	about	the	sub-
shrimp	feed	market	share,	some	feed	producers	            kind	of	market	share	can’t	last	long	as	a	healthy	 stitution	of	fishmeal	is	carried	out	every	year	and	
are	also	involved	in	broodstock,	breeding,	animal	        enterprise	needs	profit.		                                  many	available	methods	can	relieve	the	pressure	
health,	shrimp	farming	and	processing	businesses.	             But	 increasing	 feed	 sales	 with	 cash	 is	 a	 hard	 which	 is	 caused	 by	 fishmeal.	 However,	 fishmeal	
If	a	producer	can	supply	good	quality	post	larval	        job;	the	Chinese	feed	salesmen	are	always	under	 still	accounts	for	greater	than	30	percent	of	feed	
(PL),	animal	health	products	and	culture	service,	        high	pressure.	Since	2006,	some	big	feed	produc- and	 the	 Chinese	 feed	 makers	 are	 now	 finding	
his	feed	with	good	quality	just	can	be	sold	suc-          ers	 have	 promoted	 service	 marketing,	 that	 is	 fishmeal	 expensive.	 With	 the	 ever-increasing	
cessfully.                                                selling	the	feed	to	the	farmers	with	good	service	 price,	the	ratio	of	fishmeal	in	Chinese	shrimp	feed	
      Among	the	five	Chinese	largest	PL	suppliers,	       and	help	them	to	create	values.	Guangdong	Haid	 will	be	decreased	one	day.	We	forecast	that	the	
four	are	feed	makers.	Now	the	SPF/SPR	brood-              Group	 is	 a	 good	 service-marketing	 example	 environmentally	friendly	and	healthy	shrimp	feed	
stock	 in	 China	 are	 almost	 imported	 from	 USA,	      with	 a	 strong	 technical	 service	 team	 with	 more	 will	be	popular	in	China.
but	domestic	broodstock	and	breeding	research	            than	 2,000	 members	 who	 are	 highly	 educated.	              Another	 issue	 is	 that	 although	 the	 Chinese	
is	under	doing.	About	90	percent	of	the	500	bil-          Haid	has	a	strong	training	system	to	make	every	 shrimp	 feed	 industry	 is	 already	 over-supplied,	
lion	PL	in	China	are	domestic	PL,	the	feed	and	PL	        service-marketing	 member	 hold	 the	 necessary	 total	production	capacity	is	increasing	more	than	
suppliers	need	to	improve	the	PL	quality	then	to	         knowledge,	 an	 efficient	 management	 system,	 100,000	 MT	 yearly.	 The	 cut-throat	 competition	
get	better	shrimp	feed	performance.                       available	 good	 quality	 PL	 and	 animal	 health	 will	 manage	 this	 industry,	 but	 it	 still	 needs	 the	
      At	the	early	stage	of	Chinese	shrimp	develop-       products	can	keep	the	service-marketing	program	 government	guidance.	With	strong	capital,	tech-
ment,	 some	 medicines	 were	 over-used	 during	          goes	well.	                                                 nology,	human	resources	and	market	share	of	the	
the	 shrimp	 culture	 course.	 But	 after	 the	 cases	         The	 service	 members	 are	 distributed	 into	 large	feed	groups,	the	suitable	acquisition	is	good	
of	 Taura	 Syndrome	 Virus	 (TSV),	 White	 Spot	          different	 areas,	 but	 most	 of	 their	 work	 is	 going	 to	the	industrial	restructuring	and	can	make	the	
Syndrome	 Virus	 (WSSV)	 and	 other	 diseases,	           to	the	farming	ponds	to	communicate	with	the	 shrimp	feed	industry	move	healthily.	
farmers	have	found	that	medicines	can’t	treat	all	        farmer,	do	the	technical	training,	deliver	the	new	             The	 development	 in	 China	 and	 a	 domestic	
the	diseases	no	matter	how	much	they	cost.	Only	          culture	 information,	 help	 them	 to	 prepare	 the	 market	 of	 more	 than	 1.34	 billion	 spells	 great	
improving	 the	 culture	 technology	 and	 manage-         ponds	 and	 treat	 the	 diseases	 and	 some	 other	 potential	 for	 shrimp	 consumption.	 About	 70	
ment	can	help	them	to	prevent	the	diseases.	              services	work.	There	are	more	than	eight	differ- percent	of	the	total	Chinese	farmed	shrimp	are	
      With	the	strict	government	supervision,	more	       ent	shrimp	farming	modes	in	China,	Haid	has	its	 sold	 locally	 at	 present	 and	 this	 number	 will	 go	
and	more	medicines	are	listed	in	prohibited	drugs	        members	 to	 study	 and	 promote	 the	 successful	 on	 increasing.	 However,	 with	 limited	 land	 and	
list.	 Aquatic	 medicines	 and	 chemical	 producers	      modes	in	different	farmed	areas.	With	this	pow- increasing	farming	cost,	it	seems	Chinese	shrimp	
develop	 new	 medicines	 with	 new	 technology.	          erful	service-marketing	system,	Haid	has	held	the	 production	 won’t	 increase	 as	 quickly	 as	 in	 the	
Microecologics	and	medicinal	herb	are	popular	in	         biggest	shrimp	feed	market	share	with	more	than	 past	 and	 the	 shrimp	 feed	 industry	 will	 develop	
China	now.	Probiotics,	prebiotics	and	biofloc	are	        300,000	MT	last	year.	                                      more	regularly.
hot	key	words	in	Chinese	aquaculture.	Some	feed	               For	the	market,	more	feed	companies	are	fol-               References available on request
makers	 are	 also	 conducted	 related	 research	 to	      lowing	 Haid	
promote	the	sales	of	their	shrimp	feed.                   although	
                                                          every	 boss	
Fierce competition                                        knows	 it	 is	
    Chinese	 shrimp	 farms	 are	 distributed	 along	      so	 difficult	
almost	 18,000	 km	 of	 coastline	 from	 Hainan	          to	 build	 an	
Province	 in	 the	 tropics	 to	 Liaoning	 Province	 in	   effective	
the	 temperate	 zone.	 The	 shrimp	 feed	 factories	      service	team.	
are	also	located	along	the	coastline,	more	than	70	       Anyway,	 it	
percent	factories	are	in	South	China	as	the	large	        is	 not	 easy	         Authors
                                                                                 From left to right: Yang Yong, Zhang Song, Peng Zhidong, Dong Qiufen
shrimp	farming	area	is	there.	                            to	 produce	

                                                     24 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
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Description: Penaeid shrimp production is under continuous threat from bacterial and particularly viral infections which have caused disastrous collapses of the industry in all major shrimp producing countries. Disease problems in shrimp production are complex and often still poorly understood. Regulations, consumer demands and sustainable management strategies restrict the number of drugs available to treat pathogens. Vaccines are likely to be ineffective in crustaceans, which lack a specific immune system similar to that of vertebrates. Therefore, shrimp producers must consider the seed stock quality, husbandry procedures and healthy nutrition as the major tools to control disease. The current article reports on recent progress in the development of feed additives capable of reducing the impact of diseases on productivity and profitability in shrimp farming.