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Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation
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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
Chicken viscera for fish
by M.G Imam, Bau Chi State University, Nigeria
ish as a source of animal protein feeds for most fish and crustacean species. and growth. Catfish, like other animals, actually
has played an important role in This generally has an impact on the feed do not have a protein requirement, but they
the nutritional budgeting of many and production costs for many aquaculture require a source of non-specific nitrogen and
nations. Fish production is becoming products. indispensable amino acids.
a very important source of valuable protein Over the past five decades, dozens of Usually, the most economical source of
food. Fishmeal is the major protein source in different protein and lipid sources have been these elements is a mixture of proteins in
aquaculture feeds. evaluated in hundreds of ‘practical’ feeding feedstuffs. Ingested proteins are hydrolyzed to
trials. Many of these trials focused on replac- release amino acids that may be used for syn-
However, the supply of fishmeal is not ing fishmeal, fish oil or other high quality thesis of tissue protein or if in excess, used for
growing worldwide and the price is often high, protein and lipid sources by putatively more energy. Use of protein for energy is expensive,
so the replacement of fishmeal with cheaper cost-effective protein and lipid sources. What thus catfish feed should be balanced to assure
protein sources is needed. Chicken viscera is often overlooked in many trials is that that adequate levels of non-specific nitrogen,
are among such protein sources replacing fish- fishmeal and fish oil are complex ingredients amino acids and non-protein energy are sup-
meal. Viscera are the large organs inside the that are known to vary greatly in chemical plied in proper proportion.
body: such as the heart, lungs and stomach. composition. It is more precise to formulate fish
Research findings has revealed that certain The raw material sources and types, sea-
chicken visceral organs such as heart contain sons, and processing equipment and condi- Table 1: Amino Acids Requirements of Catfish
over 80 percent protein of excellent quality tions used in the manufacturing of these requirement
while traditional fishmeal normally contain 60 ingredients all have great impacts on the amino acids (% of dietary
– 80 percent high quality protein. chemical composition and nutritive value of protien)
these ingredients. Incorporating ‘20 percent
Fishmeal fish meal in the diet’ or ‘replacing 50 percent arginine 4.3
Fishmeal is the most important component of the fish meal or fish oil of the diet’ may
in fish feed formulation. It is a commercial mean very different things depending on the
product made from fish and the bones and type and chemical composition of the fish
offal from processed fish. It is a brown pow- meal and fish oil used in the study and the lysine 5.1
der or cake obtained by drying the fish or fish meal and fish oil levels in the control diet leucine 3.5
fish trimmings, often after cooking, and then for such a reason, the composition of the Methionine+cystine 2.3
grinding it. If it is a fatty fish it is also pressed ingredients to be used for replacing fish meal
to extract most of the fish oil. must be determined.
Fishmeal is a nutrient-rich and high
protein supplement feed ingredient that Protein and amino tryptophan 0.5
stores well, and is used primarily in diets acids utilisation Valine 3.0
for domestic animals and sometimes as a Protein is the principal constituent of the
high-quality organic fertilizer. Fishmeal and tissues and organs of fish body and therefore feed based on amino acid requirements.
fish oil replacement has been the focus of an essential nutrient for both maintenance and Nutritionally, amino acids may be classified
very significant research efforts and hun- growth in fish. The requirement for proteins as either indispensable (essential) or dis-
dreds of scientific papers in recent years. in fish is therefore very obvious since protein pensable (non-essentials). An indispensable
Despite years of research, fishmeal and constitutes more than 45 -47 percent of the amino acid is one that the animal cannot
fish oil remain very important, quasi essen- tissues dry matter. A continual supply of pro- synthesize in quantities. Sufficient for body
tial, components of successful commercial tein is needed throughout life for maintenance needs, thus they must be supplied in the
10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
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diet. A dispensable amino acid is one that rich in energy, minerals and essential fatty A chief and readily available source
can be synthesized by the animal in quanti- acids. It is used at levels up to 50 percent in of high quality animal protein is chicken
ties sufficient for maximal growth. Most catfish fry feeds, up to 12 percent in catfish viscera which are considered as a waste
simple - stomach animals, including catfish fingerling feeds and from 0-8 percent in in the poultry industry. In the poultry
require the same 10 indispensable amino grow-out fish feeds. processing industry, viscera accounts for
acids. Fishmeal remains the major dietary pro- nearly 30 percent of the byproducts.
tein source in fish feed but escalating Fishmeal is a major protein source in aqua-
Justification for chicken viscera cost, uncertainty unavailability and lesser feed especially for carnivorous species.
as a replacement for fishmeal quantity has necessitated the use of other Increasing demand, unstable supplies and
Fishmeal is the most important compo- protein sources to reduce feed cost without high prices of fishmeal with the expansion
nent in fish feed making. Fishmeal contains compromising growth. Therefore, efforts of aquaculture have made it necessary
60-80 percent protein of excellent quality, have long been directed to find alternate to search for alternative protein sources.
which is highly palatable to fish. Since fish- protein sources of good quality which are Moreover, price of fishmeal is often high.
meal is a good source of essential amino less expensive and readily available as sub- It is necessary to replace fishmeal with
acids, it is often used to supplement feeds stitutes for fishmeal component in practical cheaper protein sources.
containing plant proteins. Fishmeal is also diets. Plant protein sources such as defatted
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January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11
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soybean meal and corn gluten meal are Subagja J., Slembrouck J., Hung L.T. & Legendre Crumlish, M. & Dung, T.T. 2006. Strategies to
good candidates as fishmeal substitutes. M. (1999) Larval rearing of an Asian Pangasius reduce risk and livelihood impact associated with
hypophthalmus (Siluroidei Pangasiidae): analysis outbreaks of Bacillary Necrosis of Pangasius spp.
However, those ingredients contain anti-
of precocious mortality and proposition of (BNP) farmed in the Mekong Delta,Viet Nam.
nutritive substances such as phytic acid
appropriate treatments. Aquatic Living Resources DFID Aquaculture and Fish Genetics Research
and also lack essential nutrients such as 12, 37±44. Programme, Final Technical Report (R8093). DFID,
taurine. For such reasons, that is why the London, England. 186 pages.
use of animal protein sources is necessary FergusonH.W. (1989) Systemic Pathology of Fish.
and the cheapest and most reliable animal A Text and Atlas of Comparative Tissue Responses Abbas, I.I.and Ukoje, 1.A. (2009). Rural water
in Diseases of Teleosts. Iowa State University Press, utilization factors affecting aquaculture in Owo local
protein source that is readily available in
Ames, Iowa, USA. government area of Ondo State, Nigeria, Journal of
most countries of the world is chicken
Geography and Regional Planning 2(8) 190-197.
viscera. Babatope A. F. (2009). Applied nutrition technology
in fish and livestock series (2) Published by B. A. Pauly, Daniel and Watson, Reg (2009) "Spatial
Conclusion Falayi (Ph.D). National Institute for Freshwater Dynamics of Marine Fisheries" In: Simon A. Levin
Fisheries Research (N.I.F.F.R) P.M.B. 6006, New (ed.) The Princeton Guide to Ecology. Pages
One of the greatest challenges in con-
Bussa, Niger State Nigeria 63-1 08pp. 501–509.
temporary aquaculture especially in rela-
tion to fish nutrition is finding a desirable Babatope A. F. (2009). Feed Formulation Goodwin A.E., Roy J.S., Grizzte J.M. & Goldsby M.T.
replacement for fishmeal. Researchers from Manufacture and Quality Appraisal for Fish (1994) Bacillus Mycoides- a bacterial pathogen of
all over the world have been conducting and Livestock Series (4). National Institute for channel catfish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18,
researches in order to find replacement Freshwater Fisheries Research (N.I.F.F.R). PMB 173±179.
6006 New Bussa, Niger State Nigeria. 1-6Ipp.
for fish meal from both animal and plant Dominique P. Bureau (2012) Deconstructing the
sources. Babatope A. F. (2009). Tropical feedstuff Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement Story in
However, there are certain disadvan- composition tables and some biological catalogues Aquaculture: Focusing on Nutrient Requirements,
tages that are associated with the replace- in fish and livestock production series (3). Characterization of Feed Ingredients and Pragmatic
ments from plant sources ranging from low Published by -B. A. Falayi (Ph.D). National Institute Approaches, the Alltech 28th International
nutritious value to lack of essential amino for Freshwater Fisheries Research (N.I.F.F.R). PMB Symposium May 20-23, 2012, Lexington, Kentucky.
6006 New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria. 5-16pp.
acids. On the other hand, an animal source Shuichi Satoh (2012) Replacing fishmeal – An
gives better results. Research on chicken Shiba Shankar Giri, Sangram Ketan Sahoo and imperative that aquaculture must successfully
viscera has revealed fascinating results and Satyendra Nath Mohanty (2010) Replacement of address, the Alltech 28th International Symposium
scientists from all over the world are doing By-Catch Fishmeal with Dried Chicken Viscera Meal May 20-23, 2012, Lexington, Kentucky.
in Extruded Feeds: Effect On Growth, Nutrient
more work. My current research focuses on M.G Imam and B.S Audu (2012) Proximate analysis
Utilisation and Carcass Composition of Catfish
proximate analysis of chicken viscera as a of chicken viscera waste as a potential replacement
Clarias Batrachus (Linn.) fingerlings. Aquaculture
potential replacement for fishmeal in pan- for fish meal in fish feed formulation. (Unpublished).
International Volume 18, Number 4 (2010), 539-544,
gasius culture. It is hoped that the ending DOI: 10.1007/S10499-009-9265-3. Henken A M., Lucas H, Tijseen P A T and Michiels
results will reveal more clues that will justify M A M 1986 A comparison between methods
Preeda Phumee, Roshada Hashim, Mohammed
chicken viscera as a potential replacement used to determine the energy content of feed, fish
Aliyu Paiko & Alexander Chong Shu-Chien
for fishmeal. and faecal samples. Aquaculture 58: 195-201
(2009) Effects of dietary protein and lipid content
on growth performance and biological indices A Kumar, A Bhatnagar and S K Garg (2009) Growth
References of iridescent Shark (Pangasius hypophthalmus, performance, carcass composition and digestive
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Legendre M. (1998) Study on mass mortality of 456-463. (Bloch) reared in inland saline groundwater ponds
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its control and prevention. Abstract 27, National A. A., Falayi, B. A., (2003). Leaching of feed nutrients, Rural Development 21 (10) 2009.
Workshop on Aquaculture, September 29±30, economic losses to fish farming. Journal of Aquatic
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This article was originally published on
S.N. Jamdar, M.H. Kishore And P. Harikumar Li, M.H. and E.H. Robinson, (1996). Phosphorus
(2005) Influence Of Ionizing Radiation On Protein availability (digestibility) of common feedstuffs
Degradation By Endogenous Proteases In Poultry to channel catfish as measured by weight gain
Viscera. NAARRI Annual Conference (NAC 2005), and bone mineralization, Journal of the World
Held At Mumbai, Issue No. 273 October 2006. Aquaculture Society, 27:297-302.
for healthy ﬁsh
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