Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation by Perendale


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                          January | February 2013
 Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

Chicken viscera for fish
feed formulation
by M.G Imam, Bau Chi State University, Nigeria

         ish	 as	 a	 source	 of	 animal	 protein	        feeds	for	most	fish	and	crustacean	species.	               and	growth.	Catfish,	like	other	animals,	actually	
         has	 played	 an	 important	 role	 in	           This	 generally	 has	 an	 impact	 on	 the	 feed	           do	not	have	a	protein	requirement,	but	they	
         the	 nutritional	 budgeting	 of	 many	          and	production	costs	for	many	aquaculture	                 require	a	source	of	non-specific	nitrogen	and	
         nations.	Fish	production	is	becoming	           products.                                                  indispensable	amino	acids.	
a	very	important	source	of	valuable	protein	                 Over	 the	 past	 five	 decades,	 dozens	 of	               Usually,	 the	 most	 economical	 source	 of	
food.	Fishmeal	is	the	major	protein	source	in	           different	protein	and	lipid	sources	have	been	             these	 elements	 is	 a	 mixture	 of	 proteins	 in	
aquaculture	feeds.                                       evaluated	 in	 hundreds	 of	 ‘practical’	 feeding	         feedstuffs.	Ingested	proteins	are	hydrolyzed	to	
                                                         trials.	Many	of	these	trials	focused	on	replac-            release	amino	acids	that	may	be	used	for	syn-
   However,	 the	 supply	 of	 fishmeal	 is	 not	         ing	 fishmeal,	 fish	 oil	 or	 other	 high	 quality	       thesis	of	tissue	protein	or	if	in	excess,	used	for	
growing	worldwide	and	the	price	is	often	high,	          protein	 and	 lipid	 sources	 by	 putatively	 more	        energy.	Use	of	protein	for	energy	is	expensive,	
so	the	replacement	of	fishmeal	with	cheaper	             cost-effective	protein	and	lipid	sources.	What	            thus	catfish	feed	should	be	balanced	to	assure	
protein	 sources	 is	 needed.	 Chicken	 viscera	         is	 often	 overlooked	 in	 many	 trials	 is	 that	         that	 adequate	 levels	 of	 non-specific	 nitrogen,	
are	among	such	protein	sources	replacing	fish-           fishmeal	 and	 fish	 oil	 are	 complex	 ingredients	       amino	acids	and	non-protein	energy	are	sup-
meal.	 Viscera	 are	 the	 large	 organs	 inside	 the	    that	 are	 known	 to	 vary	 greatly	 in	 chemical	         plied	in	proper	proportion.
body:	 such	 as	 the	 heart,	 lungs	 and	 stomach.	      composition.	                                                  It	 is	 more	 precise	 to	 formulate	 fish	
Research	 findings	 has	 revealed	 that	 certain	            The	 raw	 material	 sources	 and	 types,	 sea-
chicken	 visceral	 organs	 such	 as	 heart	 contain	     sons,	 and	 processing	 equipment	 and	 condi-              Table 1: Amino Acids Requirements of Catfish
over	 80	 percent	 protein	 of	 excellent	 quality	      tions	 used	 in	 the	 manufacturing	 of	 these	                                                requirement
while	traditional	fishmeal	normally	contain	60	          ingredients	 all	 have	 great	 impacts	 on	 the	                           amino acids         (% of dietary
–	80	percent	high	quality	protein.                       chemical	 composition	 and	 nutritive	 value	 of	                                                protien)
                                                         these	 ingredients.	 Incorporating	 ‘20	 percent	
Fishmeal                                                 fish	meal	in	the	diet’	or	‘replacing	50	percent	                                arginine            4.3
    Fishmeal	is	the	most	important	component	            of	 the	 fish	 meal	 or	 fish	 oil	 of	 the	 diet’	 may	
                                                                                                                                         Histidine           1.5
in	 fish	 feed	 formulation.	 It	 is	 a	 commercial	     mean	 very	 different	 things	 depending	 on	 the	
                                                                                                                                       Isoleucine            2.6
product	 made	 from	 fish	 and	 the	 bones	 and	         type	 and	 chemical	 composition	 of	 the	 fish	
offal	from	processed	fish.	It	is	a	brown	pow-            meal	 and	 fish	 oil	 used	 in	 the	 study	 and	 the	                              lysine           5.1
der	 or	 cake	 obtained	 by	 drying	 the	 fish	 or	      fish	meal	and	fish	oil	levels	in	the	control	diet	                               leucine            3.5
fish	 trimmings,	 often	 after	 cooking,	 and	 then	     for	 such	 a	 reason,	 the	 composition	 of	 the	                  Methionine+cystine               2.3
grinding	it.	If	it	is	a	fatty	fish	it	is	also	pressed	   ingredients	to	be	used	for	replacing	fish	meal	
                                                                                                                        Phenylalanine+tyrosine               5.0
to	extract	most	of	the	fish	oil.	                        must	be	determined.	
                                                                                                                                       threonine             2.0
    Fishmeal	 is	 a	 nutrient-rich	 and	 high	
protein	 supplement	 feed	 ingredient	 that	             Protein and amino                                                            tryptophan             0.5
stores	 well,	 and	 is	 used	 primarily	 in	 diets	      acids utilisation                                                                 Valine            3.0
for	 domestic	 animals	 and	 sometimes	 as	 a	               Protein	 is	 the	 principal	 constituent	 of	 the	
high-quality	organic	fertilizer.	Fishmeal	and	           tissues	and	organs	of	fish	body	and	therefore	             feed	 based	 on	 amino	 acid	 requirements.	
fish	oil	replacement	has	been	the	focus	of	              an	essential	nutrient	for	both	maintenance	and	            Nutritionally,	 amino	 acids	 may	 be	 classified	
very	 significant	 research	 efforts	 and	 hun-          growth	 in	 fish.	 The	 requirement	 for	 proteins	        as	 either	 indispensable	 (essential)	 or	 dis-
dreds	 of	 scientific	 papers	 in	 recent	 years.	       in	fish	is	therefore	very	obvious	since	protein	           pensable	 (non-essentials).	 An	 indispensable	
Despite	 years	 of	 research,	 fishmeal	 and	            constitutes	more	than	45	-47	percent	of	the	               amino	 acid	 is	 one	 that	 the	 animal	 cannot	
fish	oil	remain	very	important,	quasi	essen-             tissues	dry	matter.	A	continual	supply	of	pro-             synthesize	 in	 quantities.	 Sufficient	 for	 body	
tial,	 components	 of	 successful	 commercial	           tein	is	needed	throughout	life	for	maintenance	            needs,	 thus	 they	 must	 be	 supplied	 in	 the	

                                                    10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
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diet.	 A	 dispensable	 amino	 acid	 is	 one	 that	       rich	 in	 energy,	 minerals	 and	 essential	 fatty	               A	 chief	 and	 readily	 available	 source	
can	be	synthesized	by	the	animal	in	quanti-              acids.	It	is	used	at	levels	up	to	50	percent	in	              of	 high	 quality	 animal	 protein	 is	 chicken	
ties	 sufficient	 for	 maximal	 growth.	 Most	           catfish	fry	feeds,	up	to	12	percent	in	catfish	               viscera	 which	 are	 considered	 as	 a	 waste	
simple	 -	 stomach	 animals,	 including	 catfish	        fingerling	 feeds	 and	 from	 0-8	 percent	 in	               in	 the	 poultry	 industry.	 In	 the	 poultry	
require	 the	 same	 10	 indispensable	 amino	            grow-out	fish	feeds.	                                         processing	 industry,	 viscera	 accounts	 for	
acids.                                                       Fishmeal	remains	the	major	dietary	pro-                   nearly	 30	 percent	 of	 the	 byproducts.	
                                                         tein	 source	 in	 fish	 feed	 but	 escalating	                Fishmeal	is	a	major	protein	source	in	aqua-
Justification for chicken viscera                        cost,	 uncertainty	 unavailability	 and	 lesser	              feed	 especially	 for	 carnivorous	 species.	
as a replacement for fishmeal                            quantity	 has	 necessitated	 the	 use	 of	 other	             Increasing	 demand,	 unstable	 supplies	 and	
   Fishmeal	 is	 the	 most	 important	 compo-            protein	sources	to	reduce	feed	cost	without	                  high	prices	of	fishmeal	with	the	expansion	
nent	 in	 fish	 feed	 making.	 Fishmeal	 contains	       compromising	 growth.	 	 Therefore,	 efforts	                 of	 aquaculture	 have	 made	 it	 necessary	
60-80	 percent	 protein	 of	 excellent	 quality,	        have	 long	 been	 directed	 to	 find	 alternate	              to	 search	 for	 alternative	 protein	 sources.	
which	 is	 highly	 palatable	 to	 fish.	 Since	 fish-    protein	 sources	 of	 good	 quality	 which	 are	              Moreover,	 price	 of	 fishmeal	 is	 often	 high.	
meal	 is	 a	 good	 source	 of	 essential	 amino	         less	 expensive	 and	 readily	 available	 as	 sub-            It	 is	 necessary	 to	 replace	 fishmeal	 with	
acids,	 it	 is	 often	 used	 to	 supplement	 feeds	      stitutes	for	fishmeal	component	in	practical	                 cheaper	protein	sources.
containing	 plant	 proteins.	 Fishmeal	 is	 also	        diets.	                                                           Plant	 protein	 sources	 such	 as	 defatted	

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 soybean	 meal	 and	 corn	 gluten	 meal	 are	            Subagja	J.,	Slembrouck	J.,	Hung	L.T.	&	Legendre	             Crumlish,	M.	&	Dung,	T.T.	2006.	Strategies	to	
 good	 candidates	 as	 fishmeal	 substitutes.	           M.	(1999)	Larval	rearing	of	an	Asian	Pangasius	              reduce	risk	and	livelihood	impact	associated	with	
                                                         hypophthalmus	(Siluroidei	Pangasiidae):	analysis	            outbreaks	of	Bacillary	Necrosis	of	Pangasius	spp.	
 However,	 those	 ingredients	 contain	 anti-
                                                         of	precocious	mortality	and	proposition	of	                  (BNP)	farmed	in	the	Mekong	Delta,Viet	Nam.	
 nutritive	 substances	 such	 as	 phytic	 acid	
                                                         appropriate	treatments.	Aquatic	Living	Resources	            DFID	Aquaculture	and	Fish	Genetics	Research	
 and	 also	 lack	 essential	 nutrients	 such	 as	        12,	37±44.	                                                  Programme,	Final	Technical	Report	(R8093).	DFID,	
 taurine.	For	such	reasons,	that	is	why	the	                                                                          London,	England.	186	pages.
 use	of	animal	protein	sources	is	necessary	             FergusonH.W.	(1989)	Systemic	Pathology	of	Fish.	
 and	the	cheapest	and	most	reliable	animal	              A	Text	and	Atlas	of	Comparative	Tissue	Responses	            Abbas,	I.I.and	Ukoje,	1.A.	(2009).	Rural	water	
                                                         in	Diseases	of	Teleosts.	Iowa	State	University	Press,	       utilization	factors	affecting	aquaculture	in	Owo	local	
 protein	 source	 that	 is	 readily	 available	 in	
                                                         Ames,	Iowa,	USA.                                             government	area	of	Ondo	State,	Nigeria,	Journal	of	
 most	 countries	 of	 the	 world	 is	 chicken	
                                                                                                                      Geography	and	Regional	Planning	2(8)	190-197.
 viscera.	 	                                             Babatope	A.	F.	(2009).	Applied	nutrition	technology	
                                                         in	fish	and	livestock	series	(2)	Published	by	B.	A.	         Pauly,	Daniel	and	Watson,	Reg	(2009)	"Spatial	
 Conclusion                                              Falayi	(Ph.D).	National	Institute	for	Freshwater	            Dynamics	of	Marine	Fisheries"	In:	Simon	A.	Levin	
                                                         Fisheries	Research	(N.I.F.F.R)	P.M.B.	6006,	New	             (ed.)	The	Princeton	Guide	to	Ecology.	Pages	
     One	 of	 the	 greatest	 challenges	 in	 con-
                                                         Bussa,	Niger	State	Nigeria	63-1	08pp.                        501–509.
 temporary	 aquaculture	 especially	 in	 rela-
 tion	 to	 fish	 nutrition	 is	 finding	 a	 desirable	   Babatope	A.	F.	(2009).	Feed	Formulation	                     Goodwin	A.E.,	Roy	J.S.,	Grizzte	J.M.	&	Goldsby	M.T.	
 replacement	for	fishmeal.	Researchers	from	             Manufacture	and	Quality	Appraisal	for	Fish	                  (1994)	Bacillus	Mycoides-	a	bacterial	pathogen	of	
 all	 over	 the	 world	 have	 been	 conducting	          and	Livestock	Series	(4).	National	Institute	for	            channel	catfish.	Diseases	of	Aquatic	Organisms	18,	
 researches	 in	 order	 to	 find	 replacement	           Freshwater	Fisheries	Research	(N.I.F.F.R).	PMB	              173±179.
                                                         6006	New	Bussa,	Niger	State	Nigeria.	1-6Ipp.
 for	 fish	 meal	 from	 both	 animal	 and	 plant	                                                                     Dominique	P.	Bureau	(2012)	Deconstructing	the	
 sources.	                                               Babatope	A.	F.	(2009).	Tropical	feedstuff	                   Fish	Meal	and	Fish	Oil	Replacement	Story	in	
     However,	 there	 are	 certain	 disadvan-            composition	tables	and	some	biological	catalogues	           Aquaculture:	Focusing	on	Nutrient	Requirements,	
 tages	 that	 are	 associated	 with	 the	 replace-       in	fish	and	livestock	production	series	(3).	                Characterization	of	Feed	Ingredients	and	Pragmatic	
 ments	from	plant	sources	ranging	from	low	              Published	by	-B.	A.	Falayi	(Ph.D).	National	Institute	       Approaches,	the	Alltech	28th	International	
 nutritious	 value	 to	 lack	 of	 essential	 amino	      for	Freshwater	Fisheries	Research	(N.I.F.F.R).	PMB	          Symposium	May	20-23,	2012,	Lexington,	Kentucky.
                                                         6006	New	Bussa,	Niger	State,	Nigeria.	5-16pp.
 acids.	On	the	other	hand,	an	animal	source	                                                                          Shuichi	Satoh	(2012)	Replacing	fishmeal	–	An	
 gives	 better	 results.	 Research	 on	 chicken	         Shiba	Shankar	Giri,	Sangram	Ketan	Sahoo	and	                 imperative	that	aquaculture	must	successfully	
 viscera	 has	 revealed	 fascinating	 results	 and	      Satyendra	Nath	Mohanty	(2010)	Replacement	of	                address,	the	Alltech	28th	International	Symposium	
 scientists	from	all	over	the	world	are	doing	           By-Catch	Fishmeal	with	Dried	Chicken	Viscera	Meal	           May	20-23,	2012,	Lexington,	Kentucky.
                                                         in	Extruded	Feeds:	Effect	On	Growth,	Nutrient	
 more	work.	My	current	research	focuses	on	                                                                           M.G	Imam	and	B.S	Audu	(2012)	Proximate	analysis	
                                                         Utilisation	and	Carcass	Composition	of	Catfish	
 proximate	 analysis	 of	 chicken	 viscera	 as	 a	                                                                    of	chicken	viscera	waste	as	a	potential	replacement	
                                                         Clarias	Batrachus	(Linn.)	fingerlings.	Aquaculture	
 potential	 replacement	 for	 fishmeal	 in	 pan-                                                                      for	fish	meal	in	fish	feed	formulation.	(Unpublished).	
                                                         International	Volume	18,	Number	4	(2010),	539-544,	
 gasius	 culture.	 It	 is	 hoped	 that	 the	 ending	     DOI:	10.1007/S10499-009-9265-3.                              Henken	A	M.,	Lucas	H,	Tijseen	P	A	T	and	Michiels	
 results	will	reveal	more	clues	that	will	justify	                                                                    M	A	M	1986	A	comparison	between	methods	
                                                         Preeda	Phumee,	Roshada	Hashim,	Mohammed	
 chicken	 viscera	 as	 a	 potential	 replacement	                                                                     used	to	determine	the	energy	content	of	feed,	fish	
                                                         Aliyu	Paiko	&	Alexander	Chong	Shu-Chien		
 for	fishmeal.		                                                                                                      and	faecal	samples.	Aquaculture	58:	195-201
                                                         (2009)	Effects	of	dietary	protein	and	lipid	content	
                                                         on	growth	performance	and	biological	indices	                A	Kumar,	A	Bhatnagar	and	S	K	Garg	(2009)	Growth	
 References                                              of	iridescent	Shark	(Pangasius	hypophthalmus,	               performance,	carcass	composition	and	digestive	
 Thanh	Hung	Le.	Subagja	J,	Slembrouck	J.	&	              Sauvage	1878)	fry.	Aquaculture	research	2009.	40,	           enzyme	activity	of	pearlspot,	Etroplus	suratensis	
 Legendre	M.	(1998)	Study	on	mass	mortality	of	          456-463.	                                                    (Bloch)	reared	in	inland	saline	groundwater	ponds	
 Pangasius	hypophthalmus	during	larval	rearing	and	      Balogun,	A.	M.,	Adebayo,	O.	T.,	Madu,	C.	T.,	and	Eyo,	       providing	substrate	or	feed.	Livestock	Research	for	
 its	control	and	prevention.	Abstract	27,	National	      A.	A.,	Falayi,	B.	A.,	(2003).	Leaching	of	feed	nutrients,	   Rural	Development	21	(10)	2009.
 Workshop	on	Aquaculture,	September	29±30,	              economic	losses	to	fish	farming.	Journal	of	Aquatic	
 1998,	Bac	Ninh,	Vietnam.                                Science,	18(2):	119-123.
                                                                                                                        This	article	was	originally	published	on	
 S.N.	Jamdar,	M.H.	Kishore	And	P.	Harikumar	             Li,	M.H.	and	E.H.	Robinson,	(1996).	Phosphorus	
 (2005)	Influence	Of	Ionizing	Radiation	On	Protein	      availability	(digestibility)	of	common	feedstuffs	
 Degradation	By	Endogenous	Proteases	In	Poultry	         to	channel	catfish	as	measured	by	weight	gain	
 Viscera.	NAARRI	Annual	Conference	(NAC	2005),	          and	bone	mineralization,	Journal	of	the	World	
 Held	At	Mumbai,	Issue	No.	273	October	2006.             Aquaculture	Society,	27:297-302.

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                                                    12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
107-006_adv. aquafeed.indd 1                                                                                                                                     28/06/12 10:11
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                                                    feed formulation

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