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					                     IST 37652

                   HRTC

              Hard Real-time CORBA




CORBA in Control Systems
              Ricardo Sanz


    WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002


                                                 1
   HRTC                                      Contents
            The Control Landscape
            Why CORBA ?
            What is CORBA ?
            CORBA Basics
            CORBA in Control Systems




Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002              2
                   IST 37652

                 HRTC

            Hard Real-time CORBA




The Control Landscape
  Trends and Perspectives in
Software-based Control Systems

  WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002


                                               3
                                                                                                                  RS-232 Interface
                                 Superloop (10 Mbaud, 250 Nodes)                                                  To Others



  Management                                                                                          Process Control
Command System             Process                                                                       Unit (PCU)
(MCS) 10,000 tags                                                       Communication
                      Control View
                                                                        Gateway
                   (PCV) 1,500 tags




                                 Plant Loop (500 Kbaud, 63 Nodes)

     Operator                                                                                         Process Control
                                                 Loop/Bus
  Interface Unit Engineering                                                                             Unit (PCU)
                                                  Interface
 (OIU) 5,000 tags Workstation                                                             Computer Interface
                       (EWS)                     (LIM/BIM)                                Unit (CIU)
      Module Bus (32 Addr.)

   Configuration        Controller                                             Redundant               Redundant
                                                    Logic Master
       & Tuning           Module                                               Analog Master           Multi-Function
                                                    Module (LMM)
   Module (CTM)            (COM)                                               Module (AMM)            Controller (MFC)
                                                   Slave Bus 64 Addr.                                   Slave Bus 64 Addr.


                                            Digital           Analog                      I/O                          I/O
                                        I/O Slaves                I/O                 Slaves                           Slaves
                                       Digital                Slaves            Digital
                                        Logic                                  Control
   Stand Alone                        Station                                  Station
                                        (DLS)                                   (DCS)
     Controller

                                                                             Termination Units
   HRTC                   Software Intensive Control
                                   Safety                                                              MIS

                                            Enterprise Network

                                                    Data Storage                            Business Management
                 Process Control
                                                                                                Process Operation



                                   Control Network
                                                                                             Process Management
                                                                      Field Configuration


                                   Fieldbus
                                                                   Sensing and Acting
                                                                                               Field Management


                                                                                Continuous Process Plant
Hard Real-time CORBA
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WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                                          5
   HRTC                    Design Issues / Challenges
                          Scaling              Consistency
                          Communication        Failures
                          Coordination         Security
                          Transparency         Heterogeneity
                          Naming               Mobility
                          Load sharing         Predictability




Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
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                  IST 37652

                HRTC

           Hard Real-time CORBA




    Why CORBA ?
Reasons for using CORBA in
control systems engineering

 WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002


                                              7
   HRTC                A Device Maps to an Object
               ps.getADC()                                 interface PS {
                                                              ADC: double RO
                                                              DAC: double RW
                                                              status: bits RO
                                                              on():       void
                                             ps.getDAC()      off():      void
                                                           }

                                      ps.setDAC()          RampedPS : PS {
                                                              start(): void
                                                              stop(): void
                                  ps.off()                 }
                ps.getStatus()



Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
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   HRTC                                      Simple Example
                    Object-Wrapping a robot to build a simple
                     master-slave relation:
                       • Master: A master
                       • Slave: A robot




                                 Robot.Goto(x)




Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                       9
   HRTC                                      DOC Benefits
         Distributed computing can improve
               • Collaboration through connectivity and interworking
               • Performance through parallel processing
               • Reliability and availability through replication
               • Constructability, scalability and portability through
                 modularity
               • Extensibility through dynamic configuration and
                 reconfiguration
               • Cost effectiveness through resource sharing and
                 reusability
               • Lifespan through standardization

Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                               10
   HRTC                           Technical advantages
         Legacy assets can be leveraged by wrapping.
         Programmers have the ability to distribute
          components of an application to computers that
          best fit the task of each object without having to
          change the rest of the application using these
          objects.
         Since objects appear to be local to their clients, a
          client does not need to know what machine, or
          even what kind of machine, an object resides on.
         Systems integration can be performed to a
          higher degree.
Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                       11
   HRTC                                      Elements in DOC
            Object Models: OO classics on the net
            Component Models: Black-box Reuse
            Middleware: Integration and interoperation
            Transports: Distribution
            Services: Prebuilt reusable functionality
               • Vertical domains
               • Horizontal domains




Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
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                    IST 37652

                  HRTC

             Hard Real-time CORBA




   What is CORBA ?
A Brief Intro to Distributed Object
            Computing

   WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002


                                                13
   HRTC                                         Integration
         In-Thread
               • Method call: No concurrency, simplicity
         In-Process
               • Inter thread requests: complex, fast, reliable
         In-Host
               • Inter process requests: fast, reliable
         In-Net
               • Inter hosts requests: unpredictable, unreliable
Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                         14
   HRTC                                                                  Integration

                In-process
                                                 Client                    Server



                                                 Client Process      Server Process

                 In-Host
                                             Client                IPC                Server




                                                  Client Machine     Server Machine
                  In-Net
                                       Client             RPC            RPC             Server

Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                        15
   HRTC                 Simplification: Middleware
                                                            In-process


                       Client         Middleware
                                          M        Server



                                                              In-Host

                       Client         Middleware
                                       M  IPC M    Server




                                                               In-Net

                       Client        MiddlewareM
                                     M RPC  RPC    Server


Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
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   HRTC                           Brokering Middleware

                       Client                Server   Client




                                     Middleware


                       Client                Server   Server




Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                     17
   HRTC                                      Making a request

                           Client                 Server


                              Client               Server
                              Stub                  Stub




                                 IIOP(CORBA) or
                                 ORPC(DCOM) or
                                 JRMP(Java/RMI)

Hard Real-time CORBA
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   HRTC                                             OPC Structure

                        C++               OPC
                       Client            Custom
                                           I/F



                                                      OPC     Vendor
                                                              Specific
                                                     Server    Logic


                        VB                OPC
                                       Automation
                       Client
                                           I/F




Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                               19
   HRTC                                               CORBA
         CORBA is the acronym for
          Common Object Request Broker Architecture.
         CORBA is OMG's open, vendor-independent
          specification for an architecture and
          infrastructure that computer applications use to
          work together over networks.
         Interoperability results from two key parts of the
          specification:
               • OMG Interface Definition Language (OMG IDL),
               • The standardized protocols GIOP and IIOP.
Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                      20
   HRTC                                            CORBA
            CORBA is standardized middleware
            CORBA is a non-proprietary standard
            It is based on industry requirements
            Is demonstrated by implementations
            Is tailorable and extensible
            Runs on heterogeneous platforms
            Multiple implementations for suitability
            Vendor and language independent
            Multiple services for easy development
Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002              21
                    IST 37652

                  HRTC

             Hard Real-time CORBA




      CORBA Basics
Basic ideas about the technology


   WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002


                                                22
   HRTC                                                  OMA Overview
                Not standardized by          Business Objects         Compound Docs
                OMG; Scope is                Healthcare               Object Linking
                Single application or        Finance                  Help Facilities
                vendor                       Telecommunication        Desktop Mgmt


                          Application           Vertical           Horizontal
                           Objects           CORBA Facilities    CORBA Facilities




                                Object Request Broker
            Lifecycle                                                      Externalization
            Events                                                         Security
            Naming                                                         Time
                                             CORBA Services                Properties
            Persistence
            Transactions                                                   Query
            Concurrency                                                    Licensing

Hard Real-time CORBA         Object Management Architecture
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                   23
   HRTC                                                      OMA Structure
                                                              Object Management Architecture

                                         Application Specific Objects

                        Horizontal Facilities                    Vertical (domain) facilities
                       Input Method        Repositories                    Medical       Manufacturing

                       MOF       Internationalization              Utilities       E-Commerce




                                        Object Request Broker


                       Naming         Persistence         Transaction          Query          Event

                          Concurrency               Trader          Security           Time
                                         Common Object Services
Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                               24
   HRTC                                              ORB Components

                             Client                                       Object Implementation




                                   Client          ORB               Server       DSI          POA
                       DII         Stubs                            Skeleton
                                                 Interface

                                                       ORB Core


                               One interface                                   Proprietary interface
                               One interface per object adaptor                Normal call interface
                               One interface per object operation              Up call interface

                       DSI: Dynamic Skeleton Interface                    POA: Portable Object Adapter
                       DII: Dynamic Invocation Interface




Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                               25
   HRTC                      Not Just Interoperability

                                                       CORBA      CORBA       CORBA
                                                       Domains    Domains     Domains
                                                         Common Business Objects
                                Meta-Object Facility       Business Object Facility




                                                                                         SECURITY
                                                               CORBAfacilities
         UML
        Modeling                                               CORBAservices
                                                        Interoperability: IIOP, Asynch
                                                        Realtime, Embedded options
                                                           Components, Scripting
                                                       IDL Interfaces, Mappings, & ORB


Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                          26
   HRTC                                                                           Domains in the OMA




                                                                                  Tele Netwk Mgmt
                                                                Shop Floor Auto




                                                                                                                                                                          Offer Loc/Trade
                                                                                                    Stream Control
                                                                                                                     Tele Services




                                                                                                                                                                                            EC Services




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Intermodal
                                       Accounting




                                                                                                                                                              E-Payment
                           Insurance
                 Banking




                                                                                                                                           Medical




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Marine
                                                                                                                                                     Dental
                                                    PDM
                                                          ERP




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rail
                                                                                                                                     MPI
                 Financial                          Manufctring                           Telecom                                    Healthcare               E-Commerce Transprtation
                  Objects                            Objects                              Objects                                     Objects                   Objects     Objects

                           BOF, basic Business Objects & Framework
                                                          Horizontal CORBAfacilities
                                                                                  CORBAservices


Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                                                                                                                                                             27
   HRTC                      OMG Adoption Process
         RFI (Request for Information) to establish range of
          commercially available software.
         RFP (Request for Proposals) to gather explicit
          descriptions of available software.
         Letters of Intent to establish corporate direction.
         Task Force Development
         End User evaluation & recommendation; simultaneous
          Business Committee examination.
         Board decision based on TC, End User, and BC
          recommendations.


Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                      28
   HRTC                Model Driven Architecture
       Is a new way of writing specifications and developing
        applications, based on a platform-independent model
        (PIM) and mappings to implementations using tools .
       A complete MDA specification consists of:
              • A platform-independent base UML model
              • One or more platform-specific models (PSM)
              • Interface definition sets
       A complete MDA application consists of a definitive PIM,
        plus one or more PSMs and complete implementations
       MDA development focuses first on the functionality and
        behavior of a distributed application or system
Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                         29
   HRTC                               Analysis and Design
         The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical
          standard modeling language
         The MetaObject Facility (MOF), standardizes a meta-
          model (i.e. the concepts that you use to build your
          application model).
         XML Metadata Interchange (XMI), is a stream format for
          interchange of metadata (including the UML models)
         The Common Warehouse Metamodel (CWM)
          standardizes a basis for data modeling commonality
          within an enterprise, across databases and data stores.



Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                          30
                     IST 37652

                   HRTC

              Hard Real-time CORBA




CORBA in Control Systems
           Examples of Use


    WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002


                                                 31
   HRTC                     Synchronized Pendulums



                       Simplex Controller          Simplex Controller
                           Lynx OS                     Lynx OS
                        Node A: ILU ORB             Node B: ILU ORB


                                                               outer loop control
                                                                    CORBA
                                                 SunOS
                                             Node C: ILU ORB


Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                          32
   HRTC                                Open Weapon Systems
                 C4I             Collaboration                            Collaboration         Browser              JTIDS
            Simulation               Server                                   Client          Application         Controls &
                                                                                                                   Displays




                  C2                               Virtual Target                 Quality Object                   F-15
                                                       Folder                          Framework




                              Quality of Service                                                Adaptive
                                Management                                                    Resource Mgmt




                                                     Object Request Broker


                               Pluggable Protocol                                 Pluggable Protocol


                Link 16 Interface Software                      Link 16                 Link 16 Interface Software

                       C2 JTIDS Terminal                                                    F-15 JTIDS Terminal



Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                                                     33
   HRTC
                        Virtual Arm Teleoperation


                                                  Kavis




   Behavior                                  6 DOF Master
Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                  34
   HRTC                                      Risk Management




Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                 36
   HRTC                              Real time WAN video
     Remote
                                             Camera
     operation of
     hydraulic
     power plants



                             User
                           Interface

Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002             37
   HRTC                          Leveraging Standards
    Electric Utilities / IEC 61850                Doorbell
                                                                        GPS

                                     Pushbutton
                                                                                      Operator
                                                                                      Terminal




                                      Camera         Configuration
                                                       Terminal         10BaseT
                                                                                         10BaseT



                                      IED-1
                                                             10BaseFL


                                      IED-2                                   Ethernet Hub

Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                                         38
   HRTC                          Problems Facing DOC
            More complex lifecycle models
            Lack of complete end-to-end methods
            More diverse architectures to deal with
            Lack of established development processes
            Lack of tools
            Integration and testing starting from early stages
            Multiple threads of control
            More complex risk profile

Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                        39
   HRTC                                  Going Down in Control
                                                  MIS

                                            Strategic Control    Optimization
                                             Tactical Control    Plan execution
                        User Interface


                                           Operational Control   Reactivity
                                            Advanced Control
                                             Complex Loops
                                                                   Conventional
                                              Simple Loops         Process
                                                                   Control
                                           Sensors & Actuators

                                                  Plant
Hard Real-time CORBA
    IST 37652
WP1 / R.Sanz / Viena September 11-13, 2002                                        40
HRTC

				
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