How to Create Note Cards Steps to Researching • Find an article that helps answer what the problem is or solutions to your problem • Write the documentation information on the note card Source Card Type of Source Source # MLA Documentation of Source Write this exactly how it will look on the Works Cited Page Source Cards 1) Number all of your sources 2) Number as many cards as you have sources 3) Write what type of source it is at the top of the card. Source Card Magazine--Internet 3 Source Card Newspaper 6 Source Cards • Use your Writing Research Papers or the MLA Handbook to write the correct form for each type of source: – Magazines – Newspapers – Books – Electronic – Etc. Source Card Magazine 3 Truman, Harry. “Why students don’t learn.” Time 24 Oct. 2000: 104-109. Example • Shoemaker, David. “A Tale of Two Children.” Phi Delta Kappan 84.6 (Feb. 2003): 466-468. GALILEO. Ebscohost. Masterfile Premier. Berkmar Media Center, Lilburn, GA. 20 Feb. 2006. <http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?dire ct=true&db=f5h&an=9013434>. Information Card Slug—how you are going to use the info in your paper Source # Information from source, “direct quote,” paraphrase, summary pg # (unless internet) Heading of Info Card 1)Only a word or “slug” goes in the upper left-hand corner. 2)The slug pertains to what the whole of the card is or to the section of the paper this info belongs. How are you going to use the info on this card in your paper? 3)Ex. History, Laws, Opposition, direct quote(support), intro info Information Card Slug (It can be more than one word!) Information Card History of Problem (intro) Stats-Solution #1 Cause of Problem D.Q. opposition to solution #1 Info Card • In the upper right hand corner, put the number of the source • In the lower right hand corner, put the page number Information Card 5 pg # Information Card History 5 pg 4 Information Cards • Do not try to cram as much info onto one card as you possibly can. • Put ONE (1) piece of info on each card or one quote. • Do not write on the backs of the cards* • Use your cards to organize your paper!!! Example Taking Notes • Summarize—put the main ideas into your own words • Paraphrase—phrase by phrase statement in your own words • Direct quote—exactly what it says, misspellings and all; Enclosed in quotation marks • Personal comment—(*back of note cards, separate note cards) Taking Notes • As you examine each source, make a separate note of each fact or quotation you might want to use in your paper. Unless you are really good at manipulating text with your computer or laptop, it might be wise to use index cards when preparing notes. • Be sure to identify the source of the information on the listing (include the author's name and page number on which the information appears). • Try to summarize the information in your own words (or paraphrasing); use quotation marks if you copy the information exactly. (This rule should apply whether you are copying a great deal of material or only a phrase.) • Give each listing a simple descriptive heading. How do I decide what to write on my note cards? • First, do a rhetorical triangle Purpose: Explaining a problem, identifying solutions, convincing one solution is better than the others. How do I decide what to write on my note cards? • THEN! Write your thesis statement OR your problem and some ideas for your solution on a note card—always keep this visible, so you remember your purpose for researching. ALWAYS REMEMBER YOUR PURPOSE FOR WRITING THIS PAPER!!!!!!!! READ!!! • Read the article and see what information deals with your problem or solution • (See article “Extracting Research”) • Highlight it or cut and paste it into a word document (which becomes your info cards) • Write that on the info card What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. All paraphrasing info can be found at OWL at Purdue! • Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. • Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. • Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries • Practice summarizing the following essay, using paraphrases and quotations as you go. It might be helpful to follow these steps: 1. Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas. 2. Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is. 3. Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay. 4. Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly. We will discuss this later. • There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. Often, a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Longer quotations can stand alone. Remember that quoting should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct quotation when you decide to do so. You'll find guidelines for citing sources and punctuating citations at our documentation guide pages. Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries? Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to . . . • Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing • Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing • Give examples of several points of view on a subject • Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with • Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original • Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own • Expand the breadth or depth of your writing • Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example: In his famous and influential work On the Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious" (page #), expressing in coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the "dream work" (page #). According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself (page #s). Paraphrase • A paraphrase is... • Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. • One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. • A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. • Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because... • It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage. • It helps you control the temptation to quote too much. • The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing • Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. • Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card. • Jot down your commentary on the back of your note card—how does this help defend, oppose, support your argument or opinion. At the top of the note card, write your slug to remember how you envision using this material in your paper. • Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. • Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. • Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper. Some examples to compare The original passage: • Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. A legitimate paraphrase: • In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). An acceptable summary: • Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). A plagiarized version: • Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. Examples from essay • Example summary: Roger Sipher makes his case for getting rid of compulsory-attendance laws in primary and secondary schools with six arguments. These fall into three groups—first that education is for those who want to learn and by including those that don't want to learn, everyone suffers. Second, that grades would be reflective of effort and elementary school teachers wouldn't feel compelled to pass failing students. Third, that schools would both save money and save face with the elimination of compulsory- attendance laws. • Example paraphrase: Roger Sipher concludes his essay by insisting that schools have failed to fulfill their primary duty of education because they try to fill multiple social functions. • Example quotation: According to Roger Sipher, a solution to the perceived crisis of American education is to "Abolish compulsory-attendance laws and allow only those who are committed to getting an education to attend" (Page#). Here are sample answers for the paraphrasing exercise: 1. According to Jacques Cousteau, the activity of people in Antarctica is jeopardizing a delicate natural mechanism that controls the earth's climate. He fears that human activity could interfere with the balance between the sun, the source of the earth's heat, and the important source of cold from Antarctic waters that flow north and cool the oceans and atmosphere ("Captain Cousteau" 17). 2. During the twenties lawlessness and social nonconformity prevailed. In cities organized crime flourished without police interference, and in spite of nationwide prohibition of liquor sales, anyone who wished to buy a drink knew where to get one. Musicians like Louis Armstrong become favorites, particularly among young people, as many turned away from highly respectable classical music to jazz. One of the best examples of the anti-traditional trend was the proliferation of young "flappers," women who rebelled against custom by cutting off their hair and shortening their skirts (Yancey 25). 3. The use of a helmet is the key to reducing bicycling fatalities, which are due to head injuries 75% of the time. By cushioning the head upon impact, a helmet can reduce accidental injury by as much as 85%, saving the lives of hundreds of victims annually, half of whom are school children ("Bike Helmets" 348). 4. Matisse paintings are remarkable in giving the viewer the distinct sensory impressions of one experiencing the scene first hand. For instance, "The Casbah Gate" takes one to the walled city of Tangier and the Bab el Aassa gateway near the Sultan's palace, where one can imagine standing on an afternoon, absorbing the splash of colors and the fine outlines. Even the sentry, the bowaab vaguely eyeing those who come and go through the gate, blends into the scene as though real (Plagens 50). 5. How much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise than the present world marvel, the Sears Tower, is unknown. However, the design of one twice as tall is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15). Information Card Government Interference-(Problem) 5 A major thrust of this reform is a massive push for attaining standards by means of testing, remediation, further testing, eliminating "social promotion," more testing, eliminating frills such as music for students like Anne, and still more testing Commentary about card • On the back of your card, write two comments that relate to the point you are trying to make OVERALL!! Sentence Stems • This supports the idea that . . . • This shows that . . . • This highlights the idea that . . . • This opposes the solution that . . . • However, this shows that . . . • YOU MUST MAKE TWO (2) COMMENTS PER CONCRETE DETAIL (FRONT OF NOTECARD!) Using Quotations • Even on your note cards, you must enclose all direct quotations in quotation marks. • Always copy the quotation exactly as it appears in the original source. Copy spelling, internal punctuation, and capitalization even if the original contains errors. READ • Before you write something on a note card: – Ask yourself how it helps explain your problem or argument – Ask yourself how it helps explain your solution or support your side of the argument – Ask yourself if it helps show the downside of your solution or shows the opposing side of your argument – You have to continue to ask yourself how this relates to your thesis statement! Otherwise, you are recording info for nothing! Test your abilities • Thesis/Topic: The effects of day care on children under two years old. Which of the following studies fit the paper’s scope: • A study of children under the age of two who spend at least 20 hours a week in day-care centers in Houston, Texas. • A recent study of the training, qualifications, an experience of day-care workers in New York City. • A study of the personalities, development, and sleeping habits of 3,000 babies ages two or under and who spend more than 10 hours a week in day care. • A study of the personality differences in one-year-old identical twins in southern California. Try Again • Thesis/Topic: The photographs of the Civil War taken by Mathew Brady and his assistants. – Brady’s assistants too most Civil War photos; Brady is almost blind. – History of development of photography. – Brady authorized to accompany Union troop and document war. – Brady quote about going to Bull Run battlefield: “ A spirit in my feet said ‘Go’ and I went.” – Walt Whitman’s poems about the Civil War. – Brady’s portrait photographs of Abraham Lincoln. – Causes of the Civil War. • Your listings — whether they appear on index cards or within some format on your computer (see computer note card file)— will now provide the authoritative basis for your paper's content and documentation. • By arranging and rearranging the listings and using your slugs, you may well discover a certain order or different categories which will help you prepare an outline. • You may find that you need additional information, or that some of the listings may not be appropriate and should be set aside or discarded. Evaluate Your Note cards • Is every card directly related to a heading or subheading on my working outline? • Do I have too little information for some headings? • Do I have too much information for some headings? • Does the information in the note card really fit the heading I have put it under? • Do I need to move the card to a different heading, or maybe discard it entirely? Now ask yourself what areas you need to go back and research, so you can fully explain your problem and prove your solutions. Now arrange them in the order you think you are going to use them in your paper. Requirements • How many source cards do I need? • How many information cards do I need? • When do I need them?
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