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A FLUID SITUATION

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					                   A FLUID SITUATION:
                   TYPICAL SOLUTION USED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
                                                                                 *



                               0.49%                                                                                           Potassium
                                                                                                                                 chloride
                                                                                                                              0.06%
                                                                                                                                                                           Guar gum/Hydroxyethyl cellulose
                                                                                                                                                                           0.056%

                            ADDITIVES*
                                                                                                                                                                                             Ethylene glycol
                                                                                                                                                                                             0.043%
                                                                                                                                                                                             Sodium/Potassium carbonate
                                                                                                                                                                                             0.011%
                                                                                                                                                                                             Sodium chloride
                                                                                                                             Isopropanol
                                                                                                                            0.085%                                                           0.01%
                                                                                                                                                                                             Borate salts
                                                                                                                                                                                             0.007%
                                                                                                                                                                                             Citric acid
                                                                                                                                                                                             0.004%
                                                                                                                                                                                             N,n-dimethyl formamide
                                                                                                                                                                                             0.002%
                                                                                                                      Petroleum distillate                               Acid                Glutaraldehyde
                                                                                                                            0.088%                                       0.123%              0.001%


                                                                                         Compound*                            Purpose                                           Common application

                                                                                                                              Helps dissolve minerals and
                                                                                      Acids                                                                                     Swimming pool cleaner
                                                                                                                              initiate ssure in rock (pre-fracture)

                                                                                                                                                                                Disinfectant; Sterilizer for medical
                                                                                     Glutaraldehyde                           Eliminates bacteria in the water
                                                                                                                                                                                and dental equipment

                                                                                                                              Allows a delayed break down of
                                                                                    Sodium Chloride                                                                             Table Salt
                                                                                                                              the gel polymer chains

                                                                                                                                                                                Used in pharmaceuticals, acrylic
                                                                                    N, n-Dimethyl formamide                   Prevents the corrosion of the pipe
                                                                                                                                                                                 bers and plastics

                                                                                                                              Maintains uid viscosity as                        Used in laundry detergents, hand
                                                                                   Borate salts
                                                                                                                              temperature increases                             soaps and cosmetics

                                                                                                                              Minimizes friction between uid
                                                                                   Polyacrylamide                                                                               Water treatment, soil conditioner
                                                                                                                              and pipe

                                                                                                                                                                                Make-up remover, laxatives,
                                                                                  Petroleum distillates                       “Slicks” the water to minimize friction
                                                                                                                                                                                and candy

                                                                                                                                                                                Thickener used in cosmetics,
                                                                                  Guar gum                                    Thickens the water to suspend the sand            baked goods, ice cream, tooth-
                                                                                                                                                                                paste, sauces, and salad dressing

                 On average,                     99.5%                            Citric Acid                                 Prevents precipitation of metal oxides
                                                                                                                                                                                Food additive; food and
                                                                                                                                                                                beverages; lemon juice
                   of fracturing uids are
                                                                                  Potassium chloride                          Creates a brine carrier uid                       Low sodium table salt substitute
            comprised of freshwater and
            compounds are injected into                                           Ammonium bisul te
                                                                                                                              Removes oxygen from the water to
                                                                                                                              protect the pipe from corrosion
                                                                                                                                                                                Cosmetics, food and beverage
                                                                                                                                                                                processing, water treatment
          deep shale gas formations and
                                                                                                                              Maintains the e ectiveness of                     Washing soda, detergents, soap,
                                                                                  Sodium or potassium carbonate
          are typically con ned by many                                                                                       other components, such as crosslinkers            water softener, glass and ceramics

         thousands of feet or rock layers.                                        Proppant
                                                                                                                              Allows the ssures to remain open                  Drinking water ltration,
                                                                                                                              so the gas can escape                             play sand

                                                                                                                                                                                Automotive antifreeze, household
                                                                                  Ethylene glycol                             Prevents scale deposits in the pipe
                                                                                                                                                                                cleansers, deicing, and caulk

                             Source: DOE, GWPC: Modern Gas Shale                                                              Used to increase the viscosity                    Glass cleaner, antiperspirant, and
                                 Development In the United States:                Isopropanol
                                                                                                                              of the fracture uid                               hair color
                                                  A Primer (2009)

*The speci c compounds used in a given fracturing operation will vary depending on source water quality and site, and speci c characteristics of the target formation. The compounds listed above are representative of
 the major material components used in the hydraulic fracturing of natural gas shales. Compositions are approximate.


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