What is XML

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Introduction to XML

   Cheng-Chia Chen

    September 2005

                      Transparency No. 1
                                          XML Introduction

 What is XML ?
 Where does XML come from? What is its status?
 Why do we need XML ?
 XML v.s Other formats
 Core XML Specifications and APIs
 How can we do with XML?
 XML sites
 A partial list of XML applications and industry
 a sketch of XML documents

                                        Transparency No. 2
                                                  XML Introduction
   What is XML ?
 The eXtensible Markup Language
   a data-structure definition language : let you define the
    structure and format of your own data.
   a data format (syntax) used for the representation,
    storage and transmission of data whose format is defined
    by xml.
   Text-based markup Language, let you define your own
    HTML-like markup languages.
   Recommended by World Web Consortium (W3C) in Feb
   intended to be used as a new message format over the
    Internet to complement the inadequacy of HTML.
   a subset of SGML
 is now very popular and becomes the dominating
  interchange format of information over the internet
                                                Transparency No. 3
                                     XML Introduction
  The idea of XML

 Existing student information

   S9010 張得功 資科系 三年級

   S9021 王德財 應數系 二年級 null

   …

                                   Transparency No. 4
                                                   XML Introduction
   HTML’s concerns
 How to present the data:
   學號         姓名        科系        年級              電郵

   S9010     張得功       資科系       三年級

   s9021     王德財       應數系       二年級

<TABLE BORDER=1 bgcolor=“yellow” >
 <TR><TH>學號</TH>姓名<TH>科系</TH> <TH>年級</TH>
    <TH>電郵</TH> </TR>
 <TR><TD> S9010</TD><TD>張得功</TD> <TD>資科系</TD>
    <TD>三年級</TD> <TD> </TD></TR>
 <TR> <TD> S9021 </TD> <TD>王德財</TD> <TD>應數系 </TD>
     <TD>二年級 </TD> </TR>
                                                 Transparency No. 5
                                                     XML Introduction

  XML’s concerns
 XML uses markup tags as well, but, describe the content,
  rather than the presentation of that content.
 the same example coded in XML:

 <student><學號> S9010 </學號> <姓名>張得功</姓名> <科系>資科系</科系>
          <電郵> </電郵> </student>
 <student><學號> S9021 </學號> <姓名>王德財</姓名> <科系>應數系 </科系>
           <年級>二年級 </年級><電郵/> </student>
1. Only contents are encoded in the XML text.
2. All data are annotated by tags indicating their roles or
  functions in the message.
                                                   Transparency No. 6
                                                     XML Introduction
  Where does XML come from ?

 a simplified subset of the Standard Generalized
  Markup Language (SGML) standardized in 1986,
  based on the Generalized Markup Language
  invented by IBM in 1969
 simplified for more general use on the Web and
  as a data interchange format.
     without losing extensibility,
     easier for anyone to write valid XML.
     easier to write a parser
     easier for the parser to quickly verify that documents are
      well-formed and/or valid.
 1.0 recommended by W3c at Feb. 1998.
   1.1 recommended at Feb. 2004.

                                                   Transparency No. 7
                                                  XML Introduction
  What is the status of XML?

 embraced by all of the leaders in the computer
   many vertical industries are embracing XML for its ability
    to expedite the availability of their domain-specific
    information for internal and external use.
   IBM, Microsoft, Sun, Oracle, HP, …
 There are many W3C-proposed extensions to XML.
   Most use the XML language, which minimizes the
    differences in syntax that must be learned.
 See
   XML at W3c or
   The XML Cover Pages
   for most up-to-date information.
                                                Transparency No. 8

Why do we need XML ?

or What can XML bring us?

                            Transparency No. 1
                                                  XML Introduction
  XML unifies the syntax of information

 Layer of information(data):
     bit
     byte
     character    BCD EBCDIC ASCII BIG5 ISO-8859 ==>
                          UNICODE
     syntax(form)          XML
     semantics (ontology)  Semantic Web
     Application

 Semantic Web:
   an extension of the current web in which information is
    given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers
    and people to work in cooperation.
   --- Tim Berners-Lee
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                                                            XML Introduction
   New desired requirements in the internet age

 Easy retrieval of information over the net
    realized by current Web/internet technology
    good browser,
    web server
    HTTP, DNS, search engines.
    HTML, URI, HyperText, MIME
 Easy/cheap interoperation of existing softwares in the
    also the old goal of distributed system/computing
    RPC, RMI, CORBA,...
    a prerequisite for eCommerce
 issues:
    data transmission ==> solved by existing internet infrastructure
    data representations ?

                                                          Transparency No. 11
                                                   XML Introduction
  Why needing a unifying format for data ?

 Case: 10 word processors, each need to be able to
  process docs generated by any other.
 1st approach:
   write a converter A-->B for any A and B.
   #converter = n x (n-1) = 90 (bad!)
 2nd approach:
   invent a common format (C).
   write a pair of converters (A --> C, C-->A) for each word
   To process doc generated from A by B, simply
   A --(A-->C)-- C -- (C-->B) -- B
   required converts: 2 x n = 20 (much better!)
   prerequisite: need a common format.
   This is what XML plays!!
                                                 Transparency No. 12
                                                    XML Introduction
Example:XML in EDA (Electric Design Automation)

                                                  Transparency No. 13
                                                      XML Introduction
  Additional benefits of XML (as a common format)

 Free (or cheap) cost of obtaining required software
  for processing XML.
   without the need to reinvent the wheel.
   can focus on value-added software based on these
    underlying software.
 Decoupling of tightly-coupled distributed systems
  into loosely one.
   less monopolization of software by vendors
   more selections of combinations for buyers
   more chances of contributing softwares for small
   less investment for buyers.

                                                    Transparency No. 14
                                                 XML Introduction
  Application type of current World-Wide Web

 Three-tier WWW architecture :
 Major information flows (for human information
(human) -->client browser --(http)--> webServer
 --> CGI(query) --> databases -->wrap result into html
  or other MIME formats --(http) ---> browser ---(data
  rendering) --> human
 major interactions and interchanged data formats:
   application type: information retrieval
   Man ---(html/MIME)--- machine(browser+web server)
   web server ----(machine dependent)--- backend system

                                               Transparency No. 15
                                                            XML Introduction

                 client browser
                  IE5,6      http
client browser       html/text
       NETSCAPE      video/audio
                                                             web server
                                       the internet
client browser                                                     ...
       ...                                                             query
                     web server                           tables
                                   web server
                      apache                                databases
                                         IIS     system

     file                                 file
   system        databases              system   databases
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                                                      XML Introduction

The other major WWW applications: business applications

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                                                            XML Introduction
  Additional Interactions for WWW business applications

 New application type : web service
 additional interactions
   backend business system <---> webserver <--> webserver
    <---> backend business system
 Problem: Too many data formats exist among the
  systems and web servers understanding all kinds of
  data formats are hard to implement.
 Solution: define a universal or a small set of
  universal data formats and require all systems to
  transmit data using such formats.
 but the existing HTML + MIME formats not enough ?
   NO!! HTML, while amendable to human via browsers, is
    not easy for machine to understand/retrieve data.

                                                          Transparency No. 18
                                                  XML Introduction
  Advantages of XML over HTML

 XML can define your own tags.
 XML tags describe the content, rather than the
  presentation of that content
   easier for content search (no annoying presentation data).
   easier for page development (separating content from
   easy for devices to render the contents depending on its
    environments (single model/multiple views)
 Notes for the next figure:
   searches can be applied to XML data more easily, and the
    result can be rendered differently, depending on the
    destination device.
   the XML processor can exist on the server, the client, or

                                                Transparency No. 19
                                                             XML Introduction
work done by the XML processor in response to a client request:
1. collect data from related data sources
2. merge sources into a unifying content
3. rendering data depending on the client’s environment.

                                                           Transparency No. 20
                                                 XML Introduction
  Business area benefited from XML use

 e-commerce
   there are now many specific XML languages to describe
    orders, transactions, inventory, and billing.
   These open XML languages will allow manufacturers,
    retailers, and consumers, even banking and accounting
    systems to share the same data.
 Meaningful searches, platform independence
   If Web data (contents) is encoded in XML, customers can
    find your product or service, and purchase it, without
    regard for the used (server/client) platforms.
 Data accessibility
   XML schema allow XML documents to
    encode the datatype information and relationships in
    existing databases.

                                               Transparency No. 21
                                                XML Introduction
Business area benefited from XML use

 XML extensions such as XQuery can be used to specify
  queries within XML.
 Database information can be immediately accessible as
  XML on corporate intranets or the Web.
    XML views provided now by most venders

                                              Transparency No. 22
                                                         XML Introduction
  Business area benefited from XML use

 Application simplification
   Today's applications suffer from file-format bloat.
   XML's open and extensible nature allows us to represent
    all of the functionality of different existing formats in one
    XML domain-specific grammar.
   enable the sharing of data over the Internet.
     Since the actual data but not its presentation is encoded, it may
      be presented on any output device from the PC with a browser to
      the cell-phone and small PDA.

                                                       Transparency No. 23
                                          XML Introduction
  Comparison of XML and Other formats

   discussed
 Text-based non-markup formats
   .c .cpp .java .ini …
 Binary formats
   .dll   .exe .o    .swf
   .class .png .jpeg …

                                        Transparency No. 24
                                                              XML Introduction
  Advantage of XML over text formats
     JavaML v.s Java; CppML v.s Cpp
     XMI v.s rational’s proprietary format
     web.xml, plugin.xml v.s ***.ini (for configuration)
     build.xml v.s. makefile
     XQuery XML format v.s plain text format
     RelaxNG XML v.s. plain text format
 advantage:
   structure explicitly represented in the XML format.
   (free and) standard tools (and API) exists for quick parsing of the XML
    format. => front-end processing avoided/reduced
 disadvantage: too verbose.
   for storage and transmission.
        can be overcome by compression
   for human generation; (not a problem for machine generation)
        require smarter editor
   for human reading/comprehension:
        a real problem!!

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                                                    XML Introduction
  Advantage of XML over binary formats

 Example:
   classML v.s .clss file format.
   swfml v.s swf (Flash file format)
   XER v.s. BER for ASN.1
 advantage:
   readable; editable
   (free and) open software and APIs available
 disadvantage:
   take longer time to parse and transmit.
The trend:
   one data model/ multi representation formats +
   converters among the formats.

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                                               XML Introduction
    Core specifications for XML
   XML 1.0
   XML Namespace
   XML Path language (XPath)
   XML Stylesheet Langugae (XSL)
     XSL Transformation language (XSLT)
     XSL formating Objects (XSLFO)
   XML Linking language (XLink)
   XML Pointer Langugae (XPointer)
   XML schemas (; RelaxNG)
   XML signatures/canonicalization
   XML protocols
   XMLForm
   XQuery (XML language for Querying XML Documents)

                                             Transparency No. 27
                                                            XML Introduction
  Core Specifications for XML

   document type definition (DTD) : a utility used to define the formats
    and contents of valid XML documents.
   a specification to define what kinds of texts are well-formed XML
 XML namespace
   Define a mechanism to avoid collision of elements and/or attribute
    names in documents using multiple sets of DTDs.
 Xlink
   Define the mechanism for linking to web resources from an XML
 Xpointer
   Define a mechanism for linking to inside an XML document.
 XPath
   Define a mechanism to refer to part of an XML document

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                                                XML Introduction
  XSL ( XML Stylesheet Language)

 a language for expressing stylesheets.
 consists of two parts:
   XSLT : a language (in XML format) used to describe how
    to transform an XML document into one in XML or non-
    XML format.
   XSLFO: an XML vocabulary for specifying formatting
 An XSL stylesheet specifies the presentation of a
  class of XML documents by describing how an
  instance of the class is transformed into an XML
  document that uses the formatting vocabulary.

                                              Transparency No. 29
  XML Introduction

Transparency No. 30
                                                             XML Introduction

 XML Schema
   A planned replacement of DTD.
   used to define the structures and formats of various
    messages encoded in XML format.
   another competing alternative: RelaxNG
 consists of three documents:
   Part 0: a primer
      an easy-to-understand introcuction
   Part 2: Datatypes
      define tens of frequently used bulit-in datatypes
   Part 3: structures
      specifies the XML Schema definition language, offers facilities
      for describing the structure and constraining the contents of XML
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                                           XML Introduction
  API for XML documents

 DOM (level 1 , 2 & 3) :
   Document Object Model
   Tree-based XML API
   language independent
 SAX (version 1 & 2) :
   Simple API for XML Document,
   Event-based XML API
 JDOM, dom4j, XOM (XML APIs for Java)
     DOM for Java
     Tree-based,
     simpler version of DOM
     easier to use than DOM,
     suitable for Java only

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                                                    XML Introduction
  How can XML be used ?
XML was designed to store, carry and exchange data. It was
  not designed to display data.
As a syntax format:
 XML is used to Exchange Data
    With XML, data can be exchanged between incompatible
    XML and B2B : With XML, financial information can be
     exchanged over the Internet.
 XML can be used to Share Data
    With XML, plain text files can be used to share data.
 XML can be used to Store Data
   With XML, plain text files can be used to store data and
As a meta language (for defining data structure)
 XML can be used to Create new Languages
    XML is the mother of WML, SVG, SMIL, GXL, XHTML, CML,...
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                                            XML Introduction

 XML can make your Data more Useful
   With XML, your data is available to more users.

 For sensible developers
   All sensible developers should have all their
    future applications exchange data in XML.

                                          Transparency No. 34
                                                   XML Introduction
  What can we do about XML

 XML processing tools:
   XML parser; XML editors; XML-existing format converter
   XML2HTML; DTD2DCD ; DCDeditor
   Various Domain-specific XML rendering tools
      graphical XML --> Graphic
   DTD manager, schema tools, soap processor, web service
 XML-enabled services/applications:
   make your application software capable of serving
    request from internet (without special prerequisite) and
    requesting other internet on-line service.

                                                 Transparency No. 35
                                                              XML Introduction
  What can we do about XML ?

 XML document design/application development
   Design standard XML format for various domains
      order, transaction, billing, product for business domain
      mathematical formula, chemical formula in science
      Graph/graphics markup language ; Others: ?
      academic artifacts: OODesign (XMI), graph(GXL), petriNet, java
      Object (XML encoding), AST,...
      require cooperation of XML experts and domain experts.
   XMLize legacy system data/database
      domain:一般企業: 之 人事 庫存 客戶 產品 產品使用手冊 公文; 醫院 學校
      政府機關(戶政 地政 稅捐...) : 病例 藥品 課程 戶籍 地籍 稅務
        – change old format to new XML format, and optionally, provide a view
          of old format.
        – two formats coexisting.
        – preserve old format, provide a new XML view.

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                                                      XML Introduction
  XML information

 Java
   Sun’s java site: (
   The java tutorial (
    is a nice book to begin with.
 Information sources for XML:
     W3C site:
     SGML/XML home page:
     XML com:
     XML university:
     XML page of leading computer companies
        Microsoft:
        IBM:
   See the course page for more.

                                                    Transparency No. 37
                                                          XML Introduction
  XML applications

 XML as an alternative representation format
      (SVG) Scalar Vector Graph : for vector graph
      (MathML) : for mathematical expressions
      SMIL (Synchronized Multimedium Integration language):
       Resource Description Framework (RDF) : an XML language for
       describing web resources and their relationship
      CML (Chemical Markup Language) : for chemical molecule
      JCML : XML format for java bytecodes (object code)
      JavaML : for java programs
      CppML : XML formats for C++
      Ant : a replacement of make for java
      OOML : a OO PL in XML
      UIML : user interface Markup language
      WAP WML (Wireless Markup Language)

                                                        Transparency No. 38
                                                                         XML Introduction

     A partial list of XML applications and industry initiatives
   W3C Specifications Documentation
   Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)
   XCES: Corpus Encoding Standard for XML
   Encoding and Markup for Texts of the Ancient Near East
   Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL)
   Perseus Project
   Channel Definition Format, CDF (Based on XML)
   RDF Rich Site Summary (RSS)
   Open Content Syndication (OCS)
   Web Modeling Language (WebML)
   Portable Site Information (PSI)
   XHTML and 'XML-Based' HTML Modules
   W3C Document Object Model (DOM), Level 1 Specification
   Web Collections using XML
   Meta Content Framework Using XML (MCF)
   XML-Data
   Namespaces in XML
   Resource Description Framework (RDF)
   Ontology Interchange Language (OIL)
   The Australia New Zealand Land Information Council (ANZLIC) - Metadata
   Alexandria Digital Library Project
   ATLA Serials Project (ATLAS)
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                                                              XML Introduction
    XML in law
    BiblioML - XML for UNIMARC Bibliographic Records
    Medlane XMLMARC Experiment - MARC to XML
    e-Government Interoperability Framework (e-GIF)
    US Federal CIO Council XML Working Group
    XML Metadata Interchange Format (XMI) - Object Management Group (OMG)
    OMG Common Warehouse Metadata Interchange (CWMI) Specification
    Object Management Group XML/Value RFP
    MDC Open Information Model (OIM)
    Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
    Open Archives Metadata Set (OAMS)
    Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata (PRISM)
    Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) XML and Petri Nets
    Outline Processor Markup Language (OPML)
    ParlML: A Common Vocabulary for Parliamentary Language
    Legal XML Working Group
    COSCA/NACM JTC XML Court Filing Project
    New Mexico District Court XML Interface (XCI)

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                                                              XML Introduction
    XML and multimedia
   Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL)
   Multimodal Presentation Markup Language (MPML)
   Moving Picture Experts Group: MPEG-7 Standard
   DIG35: Metadata Standard for Digital Images
   W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
   Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML)
   Vector Markup Language (VML)
   Image Markup Language (IML)
   VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and X3D
   Extensible Graph Markup and Modeling Language (XGMML)
   Structured Graph Format (SGF)
   Graph Exchange Language (GXL)
   Petri Net Markup Language (PNML)

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                                                                         XML Introduction
    XML in chemistry and biochemistry
   Georgia State University Electronic Court Filing Project
   Web Standards Project (WSP)
   Open Software Description Format (OSD)
   XLF (Extensible Log Format) Initiative
   ALURe (Aggregation and Logging of User Requests) XML Specification
   Apache XML Project
   WAP Wireless Markup Language Specification
   The SyncML Initiative
     Materials Property Data Markup Language (MatML)
     Measurement Units Markup Language
     XML-Based 'eStandard' for the Chemical Industry
     Chemical Markup Language
     Molecular Dynamics [Markup] Language (MoDL)
     StarDOM - Transforming Scientific Data into XML
     Bioinformatic Sequence Markup Language (BSML)
     BIOpolymer Markup Language (BIOML)
     CellML
     Gene Expression Markup Language (GEML)
     Genome Annotation Markup Elements (GAME)

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                                                               XML Introduction
    XML and Finance
   Microarray Markup Language (MAML)
   XML for Multiple Sequence Alignments (MSAML)
   Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)
   OMG Gene Expression RFP
   Taxonomic Markup Language
   XDELTA: XML Format for Taxonomic Information
   Virtual Hyperglossary (VHG)
   Weather Observation Definition Format (OMF)
   Open Philanthropy Exchange (OPX)
   Open Financial Exchange (OFX/OFE)
   Interactive Financial Exchange (IFX)
   FinXML - 'The Digital Language for Capital Markets'
   Investment Research Markup Language (IRML)
   Extensible Financial Reporting Markup Language (XFRML)
   Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL)
   XMLPay Specification
   Trading Partner Agreement Markup Language (tpaML)
   Internet Open Trading Protocol (IOTP)
   Financial Products Markup Language (FpML)

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                                                               XML Introduction
    XML messaging ( or XML Protocols)
   XML Mail Transport Protocol (XMTP) for XML SMTP and MIME Representation
   HTML Threading - Use of HTML in Email
   XML Messaging (IETF)
   Jabber XML Protocol
   XML Messaging Specification (XMSG)
   M Project: Java XML-Based Messaging System
   HTTP Distribution and Replication Protocol (DRP)
   Information and Content Exchange (ICE)

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                                                             XML Introduction

 FAML DTD for Financial Research Documents
 Mortgage Bankers Association of America MISMO Standard
 Digital Property Rights Language (DPRL)
 Extensible Rights Markup Language (XrML)
 Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL)
 Research Information Exchange Markup Language (RIXML)
 Data Link for Intermediaries Markup Language (daliML)
 XML-MP: XML Mortgage Partners Framework
 EcoKnowMICS ML
 Electronic Book Exchange (EBX) Working Group FIXML - A Markup Language for
  the FIX Application Message Layer
 Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS)
 smartX ['SmartCard'] Markup Language (SML)

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                                                                     XML Introduction
    Secure XML

   XML and Encryption
   XML Digital Signature (Signed XML - IETF/W3C)
   XML Key Management Specification (XKMS)
   Security Services Markup Language (S2ML)
   AuthXML Standard for Web Security
   Digital Signatures for Internet Open Trading Protocol (IOTP)
   XML Encoding of SPKI Certificates
   Digital Receipt Infrastructure Initiative
   Digest Values for DOM (DOMHASH)
   Signed Document Markup Language (SDML)

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                                                                      XML Introduction

   Real Estate Transaction Markup Language (RETML)
   OpenMLS and RELML (Real Estate Listing Markup Language)
   Data Consortium (Real Estate Standards)
   Comprehensive Real Estate Transaction Markup Language (CRTML)
   ACORD - XML for the Insurance Industry
   iLingo XML Schemas for Insurance
   Customer Profile Exchange (CPEX) Working Group
   Customer Support Consortium
   XML for the Automotive Industry - SAE J2008
   Spacecraft Markup Language (SML)
   XML.ORG - The XML Industry Portal
   X-ACT - XML Active Content Technologies Council
   Electronic Business XML Initiative (ebXML)
   Portal Markup Language (PML)
   EDGARspace Portal
   DII Common Operating Environment (COE) XML Registry
   StarOffice XML File Format
   Open eBook Initiative
   ONIX International XML DTD
   NISO Digital Talking Books (DTB)

                                                                    Transparency No. 47
                                                              XML Introduction

   OpenMath Standard
   OMDoc: A Standard for Mathematical Documents
   Mathematical Markup Language
   Re-Useable Data Language (RDL)"
   OpenTag Markup
   Metadata - PICS
   MIX - Mediation of Information Using XML
   CDIF XML-Based Transfer Format Covad xLink API (XML-Based DSL
   WebBroker: Distributed Object Communication on the Web
   Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL)
   Global Engineering Networking Initiative (GEN)
   XML/EDI - Electronic Data Interchange
   XML/EDI Repository Working Group

                                                            Transparency No. 48
                                                                XML Introduction

 Global Uniform Interoperable Data Exchange (GUIDE)
   BizCodes Initiative
   Universal Data Element Framework (UDEF)
   European XML/EDI Workshop
   EEMA EDI/EC Work Group - XML/EDI
   OpenTravel Alliance (OTA)
   Hospitality Industry Technology Integration Standards (HITIS) Project
 Open Catalog Protocol (OCP)
   eCatalog XML (eCX)
   vCard Electronic Business Card
   Customer Identity / Name and Address Markup Language (CIML, NAML)
   AND Global Address XML Definition
   Historical Event Markup and Linking
   iCalendar XML DTD

                                                              Transparency No. 49
                                                              XML Introduction
    EC FrameWorks
   CommerceNet Industry Initiative
   eCo Interoperability Framework Specification
   BizTalk Framework
   eCo Framework Project and Working Group
   Commerce XML (cXML)
   SMBXML: An Open Standard for Small to Medium Sized Businesses
   RosettaNet

                                                            Transparency No. 50
                                                                       XML Introduction

   XML Encoded Form Values
   Capability Card: An Attribute Certificate in XML
   Telecommunications Interchange Markup (TIM, TCIF/IPI)
   aecXML Working Group - Architecture, Engineering and Construction
   Building Construction Extensible Markup Language (bcXML)
   MasterBuilder Construction Management and Accounting
   Green Building XML (gbXML)
   Product Data Markup Language (PDML)
   Product Definition Exchange (PDX)
   Electronic Component Information Exchange (ECIX) and Pinnacles Component Information
    Standard (PCIS)
   ECIX QuickData Specifications
   ECIX Component Information Dictionary Standard (CIDS)
   ECIX Timing Diagram Markup Language (TDML)
   XML and Electronic Design Automation (EDA)
     Encoded Archival Description (EAD)
     UML eXchange Format (UXF)
     XML Data Binding Specification
     Translation Memory eXchange (TMX)
     P3P Specification: Platform for Privacy Preferences
     Extensible Name Service (XNS)
     Dialogue Moves Markup Language (DMML)
                                                                     Transparency No. 51
                                                                        XML Introduction

 Scripting News in XML
 Initiative
   Document Encoding and Structuring Specification for Electronic Recipe Transfer
   NuDoc Technology
   Coins: Tightly Coupled JavaBeans and XML Elements
   DMTF Common Information Model (CIM)
   Universal Plug and Play Forum
   XML Transition Network Definition (XTND)
   Process Interchange Format XML (PIF-XML)
   (XML) Topic Maps
   DARPA Agent Mark Up Language (DAML)
   Rule Markup Language (RuleML)
   Relational-Functional Markup Language (RFML)
   Ontology and Conceptual Knowledge Markup Languages
   Information Flow Framework Language (IFF)
   Simple HTML Ontology Extensions (SHOE)
   XOL - XML-Based Ontology Exchange Language
   Description Logics Markup Language (DLML)
   Case Based Markup Language (CBML)
   Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML)
   Physics Markup Language (PhysicsML)
                                                                      Transparency No. 52
                                                                         XML Introduction

 Procedural Markup Language (PML)
   QAML - The Q&A Markup Language
   LACITO Projet Archivage de données linguistiques sonores et textuelles [Linguistic Data
  Archiving Project]
   Geography Markup Language (GML)
   LandXML
   Navigation Markup Language (NVML)
   Extensible Data Format (XDF)
   Gemini Observatory Project
   NASA Goddard Astronomical Data Center (ADC) 'Scientific Dataset' XML
   Extensible Scientific Interchange Language (XSIL)
   Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) and XML
   Astronomical Markup Language
   Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML)
   GedML: [GEDCOM] Genealogical Data in XML
 XML for Advertising
   Newspaper Association of America (NAA) - Standard for Classified Advertising Data
   News Industry Text Format (NITF)
   XMLNews: XMLNews-Story and XMLNews-Meta
   NewsML and IPTC2000
   News Markup Language (NML)
   Notes Flat File Format (NFF)
                                                                       Transparency No. 53
                                                                      XML Introduction

 Java Help API
   Cold Fusion Markup Language (CFML)
   Document Content Description for XML (DCD)
   XSchema
   Document Definition Markup Language (DDML)
   Character Mapping Markup Language (CharMapML)
   WEBDAV (IETF 'Extensions for Distributed Authoring and Versioning on the World Wide
   DAV Searching and Locating (DASL)
   Graphic Communications Association - GCA 'Paper' DTD
   DocBook XML DTD
   Apache Cocoon JavaDoc Documentation in XML
   JDox: XML Format for Sun Javadoc
   XML for Publishers and Printers (XPP)
   Job Definition Format (JDF)
   Printing Industry Markup Language (PrintML)
   PML: Markup Language for Paper and Printing
   PrintTalk Consortium
   printcafe eProduction eCommerce eXchange (PCX)
   IEEE LTSC XML Ad Hoc Group
   Universal Learning Format Technical Specification

                                                                    Transparency No. 54
                                                                         XML Introduction

 Educom Instructional Management Systems Project (IMS) Metadata Specification
   Learning Material Markup Language (LMML)
   Tutorial Markup Language (TML)
   International Development Markup Language (IDML)
   Call Processing Language (CPL)
   Call Policy Markup Language (CPML)
   VoiceXML Forum (Voice Extensible Markup Language Forum)
   VoxML Markup Language
   Telephony Markup Language (TML)
   DARPA Communicator Project and XML Log Standard
   Multilevel Annotation, Tools Engineering (MATE)
   Computing Environment for Linguistic, Literary, and Anthropological Research
   Architecture and Tools for Linguistic Analysis Systems (ATLAS)
   TalkBank and the Codon XML-Based Annotation Framework
   ACE Pilot Format DTDs
   Transcriber - Speech Segmentation and Annotation DTD
   Natural Language Semantics Markup Language
   Extensible Telephony Markup Language (XTML)
   SABLE: A Standard for Text-to-Speech Synthesis Markup
   Speech Synthesis Markup Language Specification for the Speech Interface Framework
   Java Speech Markup Language (JSML/JSpeech)
   SpeechML                                                          Transparency No. 55
                                                                 XML Introduction

 TalkML
   Project Management XML Schema
   XML for Workflow Management [NIST]
   SWAP - Simple Workflow Access Protocol
   XML-Based Workflow [Process Management] Standard: Wf-XML
   Exchangeable Routing Language (XRL)
   Architecture Description Markup Language (ADML)
   Theological Markup Language (ThML)
   LitML: A Liturgical Markup Language
   XML-F ('XML for FAX')
   XML and Forms
   XHTML-FML: Forms Markup Language
   Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL)
   XML Forms Architecture (XFA)Electronic Form System (EFS)
   Broadcast Hypertext Markup Language (BHTML)
   IEEE Standard DTD
   Open Settlement Protocol (OSP) - ETSI/TIPHON
   Directory Services Markup Language (DSML)
   DIF Directory Interoperability Proposal
   XML DTD for ACAP - ACAP Data Interchange Format
   WDDX - Web Distributed Data Exchange
   XIOP - XML Corba Environment-Specific Inter-ORB Protocol
                                                               Transparency No. 56
                                                                        XML Introduction

   Blocks eXtensible eXchange Protocol Framework (BEEP)
   Layered Object Transport Protocol (LOTP)
   XML for Exchange of Structure and Identification of Management Information (SMI)
   WorldOS
   Business Process Modeling Language (BPML)
   Business Rules Markup Language (BRML)
   Common Business Library (CBL)
   Universal Commerce Language and Protocol (UCLP)
   VISA XML Invoice Specification
   First Retail Mark-up Language
   Open Applications Group - OAGIS
   Schema for Object-oriented XML (SOX)
   XMLTP.Org - XML Transfer Protocol
   The XML Bookmark Exchange Language (XBEL)
   Simple Object Definition Language (SODL) and XMOP Service
   Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
   Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI)
   Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
   Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
   Transaction Authority Markup Language (XAML)
   XML Encoding Rules for ASN.1 (XER)
                                                                      Transparency No. 57
                                                                      XML Introduction

 Object-Oriented Programing Meta-Language (OOPML)
   XML and Music
   FlowML: A Format for Virtual Orchestras
   Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium
   National Library of Medicine (NLM) XML Data Formats
   ISIS European XML/EDI Healthcare Pilot Project (XMLEPR)
   Open Healthcare Group 'XChart'
   DocScope: Open Source XML Healthcare Project
   Health Level Seven XML Patient Record Architecture
   ASTM XML Document Type Definitions (DTDs) for Health Care
   The CISTERN Project - Standard XML Templates for Healthcare
   Template Definition Language (TDL)
   Human Resource Management Markup Language (HRMML)
   HR-XML Consortium
   XML-HR Initiative - Human Resources
   Rosetta Group XML Résumé Library
   ECMData - Electronic Component Manufacturer Data Sheet Inventory Specification
   Bean Markup Language (BML)
   The Koala Bean Markup Language (KBML)
   Jigsaw XML Format (JigXML)
   Chinese XML Now!
   MOS-X (Media Object Server - XML)
                                                                    Transparency No. 58
                                                                      XML Introduction

 FLBC (Formal Language for Business Communication) and KQML
   ISO 12083 XML DTDs
   Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Markup Language (ETD-ML)
   Extensible User Interface Language (XUL)
   The Extensible Bindings Language (XBL)
   User Interface Markup Language (UIML)
   Process Specification Language (PSL) and XML
   Steel Markup Language (SML)
   Energy Trading Standards Group (ETSG)
   Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation (POSC) XML Related Projects
   PetroXML Initiative
   Partner Interface Process for Energy (PIPE)
   Marine Trading Markup Language (MTML)
   Navy CALS Initiatives XML
   eFirst XML for Scholarly Articles
   XML DTD for Phone Books
   Using XML for RFCs
   Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF)
   Guideline XML (gXML)
   Extensible Protocol
   XML Belief Network File Format (Bayesian Networks)

                                                                    Transparency No. 59
                                                                   XML Introduction

   Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML)
   Data Documentation Initiative: A Project of the Social Science Community
   XML and 'The Semantic Web'
   XML and Attribute Grammars
   XML and Databases
   SODA2 - An XML Semistructured Database System
   RAX - Record API for XML
   XML and CORBA
   Chess Markup Language (ChessML)
   Mind Reading Markup Language (MRML)

                                                                 Transparency No. 60
                                   XML Introduction
A sketch of the XML Syntax

XML is a simple data format that balances
the needs of people to read/write data with
 the needs of machines to read/write data.
          -- Dan Connolly, W3C

                                 Transparency No. 61
                                             XML Introduction
  A sketch of XML Syntax

 An example XML document:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
   <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body>
1. The XML declaration should always be included.
2. <note>…</root> is the root element which has 4
                                           Transparency No. 62
                                                    XML Introduction
  <!– the structure of the document element -->

  <employee id=“s8931">
  <employee id=“s9017“ id-no =“L12345678” >
    <url href =

                                                  Transparency No. 63
                                         XML Introduction
  Key terminology

 Element
     Element type (or element name)
     Start tag
     End tag
     [Element] Content
        child element
        character data
 Root element [document element]
 Attribute
   Attribute name
   Attribute value

                                       Transparency No. 64
                                                         XML Introduction
  <!– the structure of the document element -->
                                                  Element type (or name)
<department>     start-tag Attributes
  <employee id=“s8931">
 <employee id=“s9017“ id-no =“L12345678” >
    <url href =    attribute name attribute value


</department>                  end-tag
       [The root or document] element
                                                       Transparency No. 65
                                            XML Introduction
  All XML elements must have an end tag

 In HTML some elements do not have to have a
  closing tag. The following code is legal in HTML:
  <p>This is a paragraph
 <p>This is another paragraph

 In XML all elements must have a closing tag like
  <p>This is a paragraph</p>
 <p>This is another paragraph</p>

                                          Transparency No. 66
                                       XML Introduction
  XML tags are case sensitive

XML tags are case sensitive.
  The tag <Letter> is different from the tag
Opening and closing tags must be written
 with the same case:
  <Message>This is incorrect</message>
  <message>This is correct</message>

                                     Transparency No. 67
                                               XML Introduction
  All XML elements must be properly nested

In HTML some elements can be improperly
 nested within each other like this:
 <b><i>This text is bold and italic</b></i>

In XML all elements must be properly nested
 within each other like this
 <b><i>This text is bold and italic</i></b>

                                             Transparency No. 68
                                                       XML Introduction
  All XML documents must have a single root[document] element

 All XML documents must contain a single root
 All other elements must be nested within the root
  element. All elements can have sub (children)
  elements. Subelements must be in pairs and
  correctly nested within their parent element:
                                                     Transparency No. 69
                                                  XML Introduction
  Attribute values must always be quoted

 XML elements can have attributes in name/value pairs just
  like in HTML. In XML the attribute value must always be
 <?xml version="1.0"?>
  <note date= 12/11/99> <to>Tove</to><from>Jani</from>
    <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body>
 </note> <!-- not well-formed -->
 <?xml version="1.0"?>
 <note date="12/11/99"> <to>Tove</to><from>Jani</from>
   <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body>
 </note> <!– well-formed -->

                                                Transparency No. 70
                                                 XML Introduction
  XML Attributes

 normally used to describe XML elements, or
 to provide additional information about elements.
 From HTML you can remember this construct:
   <IMG SRC="computer.gif">
 In this HTML example:
   SRC is an attribute to the IMG element.
   he SRC attribute provides additional information about
    the element.

                                               Transparency No. 71
                                                            XML Introduction
   XML Attributes

 Attributes are always contained within the start tag of an
 HTML examples:
  <img src="computer.gif"> <a href="demo.asp">
 XML examples:
  <file type="gif"> <person id="3344">

 Attributes are usually used to provide information that is not
  a part of the content of the XML document. I.e.
    Often attribute data is more important to the XML parser than to the
    in the example above, the person id is a counter value that is
     irrelevant to the reader, but important to software that wants to
     manipulate the person element.

                                                          Transparency No. 72
                                     XML Introduction
  Use of Elements vs. Attributes

 Examples:
 Using an Attribute for sex:
<person gender="female">
 Using an Element for sex:
                                   Transparency No. 73
                                        XML Introduction
  XML Validation

 Well-Formed XML documents
 A Well-Formed XML document is a document that
  conforms to the XML syntax rules that we have
  described .
 The following is a Well-Formed XML document:
<?xml version="1.0“ ?>
<to>John</to> <from>Jani</from>
<body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body>

                                      Transparency No. 74
                                                 XML Introduction
  Valid XML documents

 A Valid XML document is a Well-Formed XML document
  which conforms to the rules of a Document Type Definition

 The same Document with an added reference to a DTD:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE note SYSTEM "Note.dtd">
<note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from>
<body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body>

                                               Transparency No. 75

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