Flexible Working

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					     Title: FLEXIBLE WORKING AT XXX



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                                   Research
                                    Project
                                                   Marking Scheme (Year 2010-11)
                                                                        Comments                                           Weigh   Poss   Actual
1.1                                                                                                                        ting    mark   Mark


1.2     Introduction                                                    The introduction is clear and concise and has
                                                                        very clear and achievable objectives. A little
E.g. Feasibility of topic with justification of research question(s),   more detail on the sponsoring organisation
aims and objectives, overview of sponsoring organisation, terms         would have been useful but the reader is still
of reference, executive summary.                                        able to get a flavour for it. The executive        25%     100%
                                                                        summary is well laid out and informative.


1.3     Literature Review                                               An analytical section which aptly demonstrates
                                                                        knowledge and understanding of the key                            20
E.g., evidence of relevant academic theories/published research         themes and is able to present this in a critical
employed to support and build project context; evidence of              manner.
evaluative element is present throughout.
Key themes identified
Summary justifying primary research questions

                                                                                                                                          13
1.4     Methodology                                                     A bit more information on the sources of
                                                                        secondary information would have been useful               20%
E.g., choice of primary research methodology deployed is clearly        ie. In terms of any problems in access and
substantiated by academic theory and relates to aims and                getting contemporary research. Although            75%
objectives. Details of and justification for selected primary and       advantages and disadvantages of the methods
secondary sources                                                       chosen are presented, there is little in the way
                                                                        of academic theory to justify this. However
                                                                        overall this is a good section with a clear
                                                                        understanding and justification for the methods
                                                                        chosen.

                                                                                                                                          12
1.5     Data Analysis & Presentation                                    The data is well presented with clear tables
                                                                        and graphs.                                                15%
E.g. Techniques used to analyse data are relevant to the data
gathering approach

                                                                                                                                          19
1.6     Critical Interpretation of data
                                                                        Good integration of primary and secondary
E.g. evidence of having established key relationship(s) ,               research. Demonstration of analysis and                    25%
important themes, patterns, trends etc. from the data available         evaluation of research findings together with
                                                                        secondary literature.


                                                                                                                                          17
1.7     Conclusions                                                     Good conclusions. Well presented and again
                                                                        referring back to literature and findings in a
E.g., relevance of conclusions i.e. reflective thought, to findings.    consistent and informative manner.
Has research question been answered?
                                                                                                                                   25%


1.8     Recommendations                                                 The recommendations are useful although
                                                                        they do seem to suggest that the sponsoring
E.g., suggested course(s) of action in keeping with conclusions,        organisation just continue what it is doing –
the context of sponsoring organisation, while evidencing                there are not really new creative solutions
creativity and originality of approach                                  suggested.


                                                                        Overall the presentation is very good.                            12
1.9     Written Presentation                                            Referencing is accurate, and the bibliography
                                                                        is correct and extensive. Tables and graphs                15%
E.g. layout, style, tone, register appropriate for intended             are well-presented and informative and this is
audience, use of graphical, tabular and other non text formats          a professional piece of work.
where appropriate. Source Selection, In -text Citations, List of
References
                                                                        Total                                                      100%   75%
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to thank my family and friends for their support and
encouragement; and would like to thank my lecturers, especially my Project
Supervisor. I also say thank you to the staff at Zz College who provided help
and support even although they were not my lecturers. Thank you to the staff
at Xxx who completed the questionnaire and to those managers who allowed
me to interview them as this provided the primary information used to write up
this project. I would also like to thank my fellow students at Zz College who
helped by testing the questionnaires and being there to discuss problem with.




                                      iii
CONTENTS PAGE


Section                                          Page


Acknowledgments                                    i


Executive Summary                                 iii


   1. Introduction                                2
   2. Literature Review                           4
   3. Methodology                                 7
   4. (Initial) Data Analysis and Presentation    10
   5. Critical Interpretation of Data             15
   6. Conclusions                                 18
   7. Recommendations                             20
References                                        21
Appendices                                        25


Figures
Figure 4.1                                        10
Figure 4.2                                        10
Figure 4.3                                        11
Figure 4.4                                        11
Figure 4.5                                        12
Figure 4.6                                        12
Figure 4.7                                        13
Figure 4.8                                        13
Figure 4.9                                        14




                                        iv
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


The purpose of this investigation is to analyse how Xxx integrate their staff
into the organisation and make recommendations on possible improvements.
The research identifies the positives and negatives of employing flexible
workers and if there are any alternatives to doing this.


The justification of carrying out this research is that it helps Xxx to assess
whether they are making best use of resources but at the same time still
integrating staff effectively.


The report found that induction, the main part of integrating flexible workers
into the permanent workforce, needed improving. It was found improvements
are already happening to ensure flexible workers receive the same standard
of induction as others and are not treated less favourably. Secondary
research shows, in some cases, flexible employees have received less
favourable treatment. The recommendation was to continue to implement the
new standardised national induction to ensure all are treated equally.


Flexible working practices are employed for a variety of reasons which include
giving employees a better work-life balance, as providing this can help attract
and retain good employees. A specific advantage for Xxx is it allows them to
open longer hours when demand for the Information Centres is at its highest.
A negative is the cost involved in integrating flexible employees who may only
be with Xxx a short time. The recommendation made was to continue
employing flexible workers but encourage seasonal staff to return the
following year. Hence meeting the business needs but ensuring more return
from the investment made to recruit and integrate these employees into the
organisation.




                                        v
   1. INTRODUCTION


   1.1    OVERVIEW


The sponsor organisation Xxx is the ‘national tourism organisation…[of] Scotland’
(Xxx c. 2009). The Visitor Services department provide the Information Centres (Xxx
2008). Many of the employees work flexibly; including seasonal working.


This research will look into the flexible working practices within Xxx; how well flexible
employees are integrated and if they are necessary. Through the use of primary and
secondary data the main advantages and disadvantages of flexible working will be
discussed.


   1.2    JUSTIFICATION


Xxx’s budget will be reduced and they must look carefully to ensure they make the
best of resources. This research will assist the organisation in ensuring their current
use of flexible staff is the best way to maximise use of their staffing budget. This will
be useful to the organisation when planning how they will ‘deliver more by doing less’
(Roughead 2010). This project will look into the integration process for flexible staff
and this will be interesting as Xxx want to ensure they are making the best use of
resources when integrating staff.


   1.3    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


The aim of this research project is to analyse how Xxx integrate their flexible staff
into the organisation and make recommendations into any possible improvements
that could be made. The research will look into whether it is necessary for Xxx to
employ flexible employees. In order to meet the aim the objectives are:




                                           41
   To evaluate the methods the organisation use to integrate their flexible staff
    into the organisation and permanent full time work force


   To look for possible improvements to the integration process


   To identify the reasons why Xxx employ staff on flexible working patterns and
    discuss the positive and negatives of these to the organisation


   To identify whether or not flexible staff are necessary




                                       42
   2. LITERATURE REVIEW


The term ‘flexible working’ relates to the working practices within an organisation in
terms of working time, location and the pattern of working (CIPD 2010). There are a
variety of flexible working practices including: part time working, home working,
temporary contracts, seasonal working and job sharing (Acas n.d.) and (The Aston
Centre for Human Resources 2008).         In the 1990’s the number of temporary
employees was on the increase (Stredwick and Ellis 1998) and this trend has
continued. Around half of all employers, including a good majority of public sector
bodies, employ people on a fixed term basis (Torrington, Hall and Taylor 2008).


People with children now have the right to request flexible working (Lewis and
Sargeant 2009). An employer does not have to honour a request but they must give
it serious consideration and have a good justification to refuse. Although both men
and women have the right to request flexible working arrangements it is mainly
women who do this. Smithson and Stokoe (2005) argue that the common perception
is that flexible working is an issue for women. This perception is due in part to the
fact the most common type of flexible work is part time work (CIPD 2010) and with
the male usually adopting the role of breadwinner (Atkinson and Hall 2009) it is
therefore the female who usually takes on the domestic chores (Lewis 2001). The
result is that they are more likely to work flexibly to fit work around these
responsibilities.


Integrating fixed term workers into the permanent workforce can be difficult.
Employee participation is key to helping with integration (Skyrme 1994). Permanent
employees can help train the flexible employee and may help improve the integration
process with some new ideas (CIPD 2010). Increased employee involvement helps
build trust (Austin and Giles 2008) therefore allowing permanent employees to
participate in the integration process will help build trust and a good working
relationship between the permanent workforce and fixed term workers.




                                         43
One reason to employ flexible staff is too reduced employee turnover (Skyrme
1994), by offering flexible working arrangements the business can retain good
employees who otherwise may have left due to changing commitments. Flexible
working can also help attract good employees as it can provide a work-life balance
which appeals to some (Actnow Flex n.d.). Flexible working can mean a better work-
life balance for employees (CIPD 2010) and motivates them by allowing them to fit
their work around their life (Real Business 2010). This motivation makes them less
likely to be absent and more productive (Real Business 2010) which helps give
synergy by getting more work done in less time. Opening times can be extended
and this leads to increased customer contact (Thomson 2008) which helps improve
customer service therefore increasing customer loyalty and profits.


One barrier which arises with flexible working is the perception that it may be seen
by some that working flexibly shows a lack of commitment (BRBM 2009). The fear of
being seen as less committed may lead to a reduction for requests to work flexibly at
present due to the recession causing uncertainty regarding job security, people will
not want to be seen as less committed and risk their job (Cooper 2009). It can be
hard to keep employees informed if their flexible working pattern involves them
working away from the office and they may feel ‘out of the loop’ (Peacock 2007) on
important information.


There are issues with employers treating flexible workers less favourably; this can be
seen in the case of Brett v Royal Mail Group plc (Equal Opportunities Review 2004)
where an employee was treated less favourably due to working part time. This may
create a situation where employees are less likely to elect to work flexibly. A result of
less favourable treatment is poor motivation of employees and less productivity as a
result of this poor motivation.


This review has shown that everyone has the right to apply for flexible working and
employers must have justifiable reasons to refuse requests. There has been an
increase of flexible workers in the past few years but it is still mainly women who




                                           44
take on flexible working patterns. There are advantages to working flexibly such as
employees getting a better work-life balance and this


can motivate them and increase productivity providing benefits to the employer.
Barriers do sometimes exist for flexible workers through less favourable treatment or
the perception that they are seen as not being committed.




                                         45
   3. METHODOLOGY


The methodology of this project involved the collection of both primary and
secondary data.


As the University of Maryland (2006) explains secondary research involves the use
of existing data which was collected for another purpose but is relevant to this
project. The secondary data collected while researching current literature was
analysed to carry out a literature review. This evaluated the advantages and
disadvantages of flexible working practices; the integration of flexible workers in
organisations and perceptions of flexible working. The secondary data collected
came from a variety of sources including textbooks, journals and reports. The
secondary data collected from within Xxx was readily accessible, current and of use.
It was particularly useful in evaluating the methods they use to integrate flexible staff.


The first method of collecting primary data was the use of semi structured interviews
carried out with an area manager and line managers. The reasoning behind semi-
structured interviews was so the interview had some structure to ensure it stayed on
track but allowed freedom for the interviewee to discuss things they felt relevant and
gather extra information. This reduced interviewer bias but ensured the interviewer
did not get lots of useless information that would have had to be discarded. These
interviews allowed qualitative information to be collected and were useful to find out
how well management felt staff are integrated into the organisation, what they do to
assist with this and how important they feel flexible staff are to helping Xxx operate.
These managers have been selected using a non-probability sampling method-
convenience sampling (Bryman & Bell 2007: 197). It had been chosen due to the fact
that the sample was easily available and willing to take part in interviews.




All the participants remained anonymous and were informed that only one person
would be involved in the collection and analysis of data (Management Help n.d.) to


                                           46
prevent anonymity being breached. They were fully aware of what they were
participating in and what would happen with the data supplied.


The second method was a questionnaire given to a sample of both permanent and
flexible staff. The potential participants were split into groups based on whether they
are permanent or flexible employees and then sex and age so that a proportional
sample, of about 30 employees, were taken to get a representative sample of the
population.


The questionnaire was piloted with volunteers. This allowed any uncertainty/ errors
to be rectified. The questionnaire was emailed out to the participants and returned by
email or post. The questionnaire used a mix of open and closed ended questions. A
questionnaire was used due to it being low cost and less time consuming than other
methods. By emailing it the researcher was able to see if the participants has
opened the email therefore ensuring they has received it as well as saving on
postage costs. All staff regularly use their email so it was the best ways to issue the
questionnaire.


The disadvantages of a questionnaire are that it relies on participants understanding
all the questions and to complete and return it. It does not allow for extra information
to be given by the respondent as they can not deviate from the questions posed. The
sponsor sent an email to staff encouraging those selected to fill out the questionnaire
and this helped increase the response rate but a couple of participants did not
respond (which was disappointing but expected). One was not completed fully and
was discarded; this may have been down to not understanding a question or just not
making the effort to complete it.


Problems with the methodology were that using questionnaires can lead to a low
response. In order to combat this; the sponsor allowed employees time off to
complete the questionnaire. This led to only a couple not being returned and one
being completed incorrectly which does lower the validity of the


results but is a great response rate. A second issue was that due to most of the
investigation being carried out in late Winter/ early Spring when there was less
                                          47
seasonal staff working so fewer flexible staff, from which to take a sample, were
working hence this affected the validity of the results. In order to combat this some
seasonal staff who were not working were contacted and agreed to take part. This
allowed for a more representative sample to be taken and help increase credibility of
the results.


The results were input in Excel to allow analysis and graphs to be created to
demonstrate results to the reader in an effective manner. Originally it was planned to
use SSPS but due to limited access and lack of knowledge of SSPS it was decided
to use excel.


It was agreed, with the sponsor, to make chances to the objectives in order to meet
the aim and satisfy the sponsor’s needs better.




                                         48
     4. (INITIAL) DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION


These are the initial findings obtained from the questionnaires (see Appendix B and
D). Initial results from the interviews (see Appendix F for questions) will be included.
The results from the questionnaires are displayed in Appendices C and E.


Figure 4.1 Involvement with integration




                         6%
                   11%

                                                         Yes
                                                         No
                                                         No Opinion
                                   83%




Permanent employees were asked if they felt they were involved in the integration of
new flexible employees, see above for the results.


Flexible employees were asked if they felt induction helped them to integrate into
their job and the organisation, see below for results.


Figure 4.2 Did induction help flexible staff integrate?



             Does Induction Help Integrate?
 6

 4

 2

 0
             Yes                   No                    Somewhat




                                           49
Suggestions made on how to improve the induction were:


Figure 4.3 Suggestions for improvement



                                   Improvements
                              5%
                                                             Increase presentation based
                        23%                                  learning
                                                             Increase practical learning
                                   72%
                                                             Increase familarisation trips




Figure 4.4 Explanation of improvements in figure 4.3


Improvement                              Explanation
Presentation based learning                    ‘Theory’ based learning
                                               Carried out in classroom
                                               Being spoken too rather than
                                                participating
Practical learning                             ‘Hands on’
                                               Trying things for yourself- ‘doing’
                                                rather than watching
                                               E.g. using booking system in
                                                training mode to simulate how
                                                system would be used when
                                                working in Information Centre
Familiarisation trips                          Visits to attractions
                                               Able to learn more about them to
                                                pass on to visitors
                                               Helps recommend places and
                                                looks more professional as have
                                                more knowledge




                                          50
Figure 4.5 Does the integration process need improvement?




   90
   80
   70
   60                                                                     Yes
   50
                                                                          No
   40
   30                                                                     Don't Know
   20
   10
    0
             Flexible            Permanent         Management



The above shows (in percentage) the opinions of each group. The majority thought
the integration process needed improvement.


In their interviews two managers said that a new national induction program had just
been introduced to integrate flexible staff. Figure 4.6 is therefore not surprising as it
shows the majority of flexible employees questioned felt new starts are given a
different induction from them.


Figure 4.6 Do employees think the induction has changed?


         Has Induction Changed?

              33%                            Yes

                        67%                  No

        0%                                   Don't Know




                                             51
Figure 4.7 Reasons for employing flexible staff (given by managers in
interviews)


                                  Reason                                            Number of managers
                                                                                    who said this (out of
                                                                                            five)
Need extra staff as open longer hours                                                        4
Busier (more customers) so need extra staff to take off pressure                             5
Ensure customer wait is minimised (more staff to serve on counter)                           3
Help with administration duties (increase due to extra customers)                            3
Help increase range of skills (at time when most customers use                               2
Information Centres)


Figure 4.8 Are flexible employees are essential to operate?


                                                                  60
   60         55.6
                                         50
   50
                                                                                            Strongly Agree
   40                                                                                       Agree
                                              27.8
   30     22.2                                                                              No Opinion
                                                             20            20
                                                 16.6
   20                                                                                       Disagree
                   11.111.1
   10                              5.6                                                      Strongly Disagree
                              0                         0              0        0
    0
                 Flexible            Permanent               Management




This displays employees’ and managers’ opinions on the necessity of flexible
employees for the business to operate. No one strongly disagrees and only 20% (or
below) disagree. The largest percentages in every group agree or strongly agree
(see figure 4.9) that flexible employees are essential. The numbers who agree/
strongly agree are:




                                                        52
Figure 4.9 The numbers who agree/ strongly agree


Group                                          Percentage
Flexible Employees                                 77.8%
Permanent Employees                                55.6%
Management                                         80%




                                    53
   5. CRITICAL INTERPRETATION OF DATA


In the interviews two managers said changes had been made to the induction. A
national induction training scheme to ensure every flexible employee received the
same induction has been introduced. This is backed up in Figure 4.6 where 67% of
flexible staff thought new starts were being given a different induction. The reason
given for this from the regional manager was:


“… previous research carried out by Xxx’s HR Department suggested that there
were differences in induction training and some flexible employees were being
disadvantaged”


Sometimes flexible employees are treated less favourably -as in case of Brett v
Royal Mail Group Plc (Equal Opportunities Review 2004)- compared with permanent
colleagues. This will lead to them feeling ‘out of the loop’ (Peacock 2007). This is
what happened previously in Xxx as some flexible employees did not receive the
same quality of induction as others.


A negative of employing flexible workers identified by managers were it is expensive
to recruit and integrate them and when this is invested in someone on a short term
contract it is a large investment for what sometimes is only a couple of months work.
Investment is especially wasted if it is on a seasonal employee who does not return
the following year.


The opportunity for permanent staff to get overtime is limited when flexible workers
are employed. This can mean permanent employees are not happy as they see
someone who is only with the organisation temporarily being given the hours causing
poor team relations. It is therefore essential to encourage teams to develop good
relations. One way to do this is involving permanent staff in the integration of flexible
workers to help build trust (Austin and Giles 2008) and hence good relations follow
helping avoid conflict and permanent employees expecting better treatment (e.g.
being offered overtime over flexible staff).


                                           54
Figure 4.8 displays opinions from Xxx staff on whether they think flexible employees
are essential to the operation of the business. The overall results show the majority
think it is essential to have flexible workers. It is interesting to note more permanent
employees disagree with the statement that flexible employees are essential;
whereas more flexible employees agree that they are essential.


The obvious reason for this is that each group will be bias with flexible workers
believing themselves to be important and the permanent employees being subjective
and believing they are more important (and some would say they feel flexible staff
are not essential). This creates an ‘us and them’ situation and teams may be divided
instead of working together. Some permanent employees may hold the perception
that working flexibly shows a lack of commitment (BRBM 2009) therefore leading to
less favourable treatment of flexible staff. Flexible employees will feel this unjust as
they are doing the same job when working so should not be treated differently and
the courts agree as was shown in Brett v Royal Mail (Equal Opportunities Review
2004) where the outcome showed that unfavourable treatment of a flexible worker is
wrong.


The solution to this is to get permanent and flexible employees working together and
this can start by involving permanent employees in the integration of flexible workers
to ensure trust is built (Austin and Giles 2008) leading to good working relationships.
By encouraging permanent workers to train new flexible employees they can share
ideas (CIPD 2010) which again helps get staff interacting and building positive
working relationships.


The overall results from staff and managers’ opinions were that flexible workers are
essential                to               the                operation                of
Xxx and without them the staff and customers would suffer. By offering flexible
contracts Xxx may attract and retain good employees by offers a better work-life
balance which is appeals to some (Actnow Flex n.d.) especially women who are
more likely to require work to fit around their domestic life (Lewis 2001).


                                           55
The only alternatives, suggested by the mangers, were to increase permanent
employee numbers but have them each working less hours or to cut the opening
hours.


These would result in unhappy staff and less applicants for permanent posts in the
Information Centres as well as poorer service to customers as opening hours at busy
times would be limited. As was said by one manager:


“[to not employ flexible staff would lead to]…the customer being dissatisfied… and
excellent employees leaving… skills and knowledge that we would lose”.




                                        56
   6. CONCLUSION


The results found that the induction process requires improvement. Around 80% of
all respondent said integration needed improving and nearly half of the flexible staff
said the induction, the main part of integration, required improvement. The majority
(72%) of flexible staff said that there needed to be more practical learning involved in
the induction training.


A positive action that Xxx take is involving permanent staff in the integration process.
Permanent employees help train the flexible employees and this helps improve the
integration process with some new ideas (CIPD 2010). Increased employee
involvement helps build trust (Austin and Giles 2008) therefore helping build better
working relationships between permanent and flexible employees.


Flexible workers are employed for a variety of reasons including improving
employees’ work-life balance (CIPD 2010) and motivating them by allowing them to
fit work around their lives (Real Business 2010). This can help reduce employee
turnover (Skyrme 1994). A couple of reasons identified by the managers were to
allow extending opening hours; help reduce workload at peak times and provide a
range of skills through having a variety of employees.


Positives to employing flexible workers are it allows Xxx to meet customer needs and
provide good service. It also helps ease the pressure on the permanent workforce by
giving them help at the busy times. The negative of this is the cost of recruiting and
integrating these staff. This can involve large investment for a small return if the
employee only works fixed-term for a short time.


The negatives are small in comparison to the benefits of employing flexible workers
and the conclusion is that the Xxx should continue to employee flexible staff. The
only alternatives, such as increasing permanent




                                          57
staff levels and reducing their hours during the winter, are impractical or would lead
to poor staff morale; resulting in a poorer service for customers and may lower local
tourism spends.




                                         58
   7. RECOMMENDATIONS


Drawing from the findings of this report the recommendations being made to Xxx
are:


      Continue with the implementation of the new induction training scheme as the
       results have shown that the previous induction training was not helping all
       staff integrate. With the new induction being a national scheme it will ensure
       all new starts get the same induction and costs can be cut by having
       employees in different Centres receive the induction at the same time by one
       manager instead of each manager training their own individual staff.
      Continue the involvement of permanent staff with integration as the secondary
       research demonstrates it can have a positive impact by helping build a
       stronger team. To increase their involvement, encourage permanent staff to
       talk to the new starts and ask how they feel integration is going and find out if
       the permanent staff can help to make their integration easier. This will ensure
       integration occurs smoothly and help build good team relations.
      Continue to employ flexible staff but be more proactive in encouraging the
       employees (especially seasonal employees) to see the job as one they can
       return to in the future e.g. seasonal worker returning every summer. This will
       mean increased benefits are gained from the high costs of recruiting and
       integrating and in the long term will reduce these costs as less recruitment
       (and therefore integration) will have to be carried out.




                                           59
REFERENCES


Acas (n.d.) Flexible Work [online]. Available from
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Actnow Flex (n.d.) How can your business benefit? [online]. Available from
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Austin, K. and Giles, H. (2008) Human Resource Management and Employee
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BRBM (2009) Flexible working: benefits and barriers Perceptions of working parents
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Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2007) Business Research Methods. (2nd edition) Oxford:
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resources/factsheets/employee-voice.aspx> [2 February 2011]




                                          60
CIPD (2010) Flexible Working [online]. Available from
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Cranfield School of Management (2008) Flexible working and performance [online]
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Equal Opportunities Review (2004) Part-time employee treated less favourably when
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Lewis, D. and Sargeant, M. (2009) Essentials of Employment Law. (10th edition)
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Management Help (n.d.) Basics of Developing Questionnaires [online]. Available
from <http://www.managementhelp.org/evaluatn/questnrs.htm> [28 October 2010]




                                           61
Peacock, L. (2007) Flexible Working Hidden Disadvantages Revealed by Research
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                                         63
APPENDICES

                                                Page
Appendix A   Questionnaire Flexible Staff        65
Appendix B   Frequency Tables Flexible Staff     67
Appendix C   Questionnaire Permanent Staff       69
Appendix D   Frequency Tables Permanent Staff    71
Appendix E   Interview Questions Managers        73




                                        64
Appendix A

QUESTIONNAIRE: Flexible Staff

The following questionnaire is part of the research for my third year project. You will
not be personally identified in any part of my project. The only person who will see
this questionnaire is myself therefore anonymity is assured. By filling out this
questionnaire you are consenting to the answers given being used as part of my
project.

Please circle your selected answer (where appropriate):

   1) SEX: Male            Female


   2) AGE: 16-20      21-30       31-40       41-50      51-60       61+

   3) Please rate your induction when you started as a seasonal:

1 = Very Poor to 5 = Excellent            1      2       3       4         5

   Please give brief details of what you induction covered:




   4) Do you think your induction helped you integrate into your job role and
      the organisation?
      Yes         No          Somewhat

   5) Do you think the induction given to new flexible employees is different
      from the induction you received?
      Yes         No           Don’t know


   6) It was easy for me to integrate and fit in alongside the permanent
      employees:

Strongly Agree           Agree      No Opinion        Disagree       Strongly Disagree

   7) Do you think the process to integrate seasonal staff into the business
      needs improved?    Yes        No          Don’t Know


   Please list any ideas you may have to improve the integration process:




                                          65
    8) Staff on flexible contracts (e.g. seasonal contracts) are essential for the
       business to operate?

Strongly Agree      Agree      No Opinion     Disagree        Strongly Disagree

        If you can think of any alternatives to employing seasonal staff please
list:




If you have any questions please contact me either in person or by email on
scott.innes@xxx.com

Thank you for completing this questionnaire




                                        66
Appendix B

FREQUENCY TABLES: Flexible Staff Responses

SEX:

                          Frequency    Percent
Male                              1        11.1
Female                            8        88.9
TOTAL                             9        100

AGE:

                          Frequency    Percent
16-20                             2        22.2
21-30                             5        55.6
31-40                             1        11.1
41-50                             0           0
51-60                             1        11.1
61+                               0           0
TOTAL                             9        100

Please rate your induction when you started as a seasonal:

                          Frequency    Percent
1 (Very poor)                     0           0
2                                 1        11.1
3                                 6        66.7
4                                 2        22.2
5 (Excellent)                     0           0
TOTAL                             9        100

Do you think your induction helped you integrate into your job role and the
organisation?

                          Frequency    Percent
Yes                               5        55.6
No                                1        11.1
Somewhat                          3        33.3
TOTAL                             9        100

Do you think the induction given to new flexible employees is different from
the induction you received?

                          Frequency    Percent
Yes                               6        66.7
No                                0           0
Don’t Know                        3        33.3
TOTAL                             9        100


It was easy for me to integrate and fit in alongside the permanent employees:

                                      67
                         Frequency   Percent
Strongly Agree                   3       33.3
Agree                            5       55.6
No Opinion                       0          0
Disagree                         1       11.1
Strongly Disagree                0          0
TOTAL                            9       100

Do you think the process to integrate seasonal staff into the business needs
improved?

                         Frequency   Percent
Yes                              7       77.8
No                               0          0
Don’t Know                       2       22.2
TOTAL                            9       100

Staff on flexible contracts (e.g. seasonal contracts) are essential for the
business to operate?

                         Frequency   Percent
Strongly Agree                   2       22.2
Agree                            5       55.6
No Opinion                       1       11.1
Disagree                         1       11.1
Strongly Disagree                0          0
TOTAL                            9       100




                                     68
Appendix C

QUESTIONNAIRE: Permanent Staff

The following questionnaire is part of the research for my third year project. You will
not be personally identified in any part of my project. The only person who will see
this questionnaire is myself therefore anonymity is assured. By filling out this
questionnaire you are consenting to the answers given being used as part of my
project.

Please circle your selected answer (where appropriate):

   1) SEX: Male            Female

   2) AGE: 16-20       21-30         31-40        41-50       51-60     61+


   3) Have you ever been employed on a flexible contract (e.g. seasonal)?
      Yes        No


   4) Do you think you have an active role in helping seasonal staff integrate
      into their job?

      Yes           No              No Opinion

   If you answered yes, please give details of what you do to help staff
   integrate:




   5) Please rate the current process for integrating seasonal staff:

   1 = Very poor to 5 = Excellent        1        2       3       4     5

   6) Do you think any improvements needs to be made to the process?
      Yes        No         Don’t Know


   Please list some ideas for improvements:




   7) Staff on flexible contracts (e.g. seasonal contracts) are essential for the
      business to operate?

   Strongly Agree        Agree       No Opinion       Disagree    Strongly Disagree


                                          69
      If you can think of any alternatives to employing seasonal staff please
      list:




If you have any questions please contact me either in person or by email on
scott.innes@xxx.com

Thank you for completing this questionnaire




                                        70
Appendix D

FREQUENCY TABLES: Permanent Staff Responses

SEX:

                           Frequency    Percent
Male                               3        16.7
Female                            15        83.3
TOTAL                             18        100

AGE:

                           Frequency    Percent
16-20                              0           0
21-30                              1         5.6
31-40                              2        11.1
41-50                              5        27.8
51-60                              8        44.4
61+                                2        11.1
TOTAL                             18        100

Have you ever been employed on a flexible contract (e.g. seasonal)?

                           Frequency    Percent
Yes                               13        72.2
No                                 5        27.8
TOTAL                             18        100

Do you think you have an active role in helping seasonal staff integrate into
their job?

                           Frequency    Percent
Yes                               15        83.3
No                                 2        11.1
No Opinion                         1         5.6
TOTAL                             18        100

Please rate the current process for integrating seasonal staff:

                           Frequency    Percent
1 (Very poor)                      0           0
2                                  1         5.6
3                                  5        27.8
4                                 10        55.5
5 (Excellent)                      2        11.1
TOTAL                             18        100




                                       71
Do you think any improvements need to be made to the process?

                         Frequency   Percent
Yes                             15       83.3
No                               1        5.6
Don’t Know                       2       11.1
TOTAL                           18       100

Staff on flexible contracts (e.g. seasonal contracts) are essential for the
business to operate?

                         Frequency   Percent
Strongly Agree                   1        5.6
Agree                            9        50
No Opinion                       5       27.8
Disagree                         3       16.6
Strongly Disagree                0          0
TOTAL                           18       100




                                     72
Appendix E

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS: Managers

     How long have you worked for Xxx?
     Can you work flexibly (e.g. home working)?
     Have you worked flexibly in the past?
     What methods do you currently use to integrate flexible staff into their new job
      role and the organisation?
     Does the integration of flexible staff need improved?
     If yes, give examples of what could be done to make improvements or
      alternative ways to integrate flexible staff?
     What are the main reasons for employing flexible staff?
     What are the positives of employing flexible staff?
     What are the negatives of employing flexible staff?
     ‘Flexible employees are essential for the business to operate’... do you
      strongly agree, agree, have no opinion, disagree or strongly disagree with this
      statement?
     Do you think there are alternatives to employing flexible staff?
     Do you have and other thoughts or opinions you would like to share?




                                          73

				
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